NOTE 1 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation: The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Farmers National Banc Corp. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, The Farmers National Bank of Canfield (“Bank” or “Farmers Bank”), Farmers Trust Company (“Farmers Trust”) and Farmers National Captive, Inc. (“Captive”). The consolidated financial statements also include the accounts of the Bank’s subsidiaries; Farmers National Insurance, LLC (“Farmers Insurance”) and Farmers of Canfield Investment Co. (“Farmers Investments”). The Company acquired Monitor Bancorp, Inc. (“Monitor”), the holding company of Monitor Bank in 2017 and consolidated the activity within the Bank. Together all entities are referred to as “the Company.” All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Corporate Reorganization: During 2019, Trust acquired all shares of National Associates, Inc. (“NAI”) from the Company through a corporate reorganization. The Company was the sole shareholder of Trust and NAI before the reorganization. The entities were combined into one reporting unit and one operating segment and began reporting as one unit, for both internal and external reports, during the third quarter of 2019. The combination is in concert with the Company’s plan to increase efficiencies within the different business lines.
Nature of Operations: The Company provides full banking services, including wealth management services and mortgage banking activity, through the Bank. As a national bank, the Bank is subject to regulation of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The primary area served by the Bank is the northeastern region of Ohio through thirty nine (39) locations and two-branch locations in southwestern Pennsylvania. The Company provides trust services and retirement consulting services through its Farmers Trust subsidiary and insurance services through the Bank’s Insurance subsidiary. Farmers Trust has a state-chartered bank license to conduct trust business from the Ohio Department of Commerce – Division of Financial Institutions. The primary purpose of Farmers Investments is to invest in municipal securities. Captive provides property and casualty insurance coverage to the Company and its subsidiaries. Captive pools resources with eleven similar insurance subsidiaries of financial institutions to spread a limited amount of risk among the pool members and to provide insurance where not currently available or economically feasible in today’s insurance market place.
Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash Flows: Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, deposits with other financial institutions and federal funds sold. Generally, federal funds are purchased and sold for one-day periods. Net cash flows are reported for loan and deposit transactions, short-term borrowings and other assets and liabilities.
Securities: Debt securities are classified as available for sale when they might be sold before maturity. Securities available for sale are carried at fair value, with unrealized holding gains and losses reported in other comprehensive income, net of tax. Equity securities with readily determinable fair values are carried at fair value, with changes in fair value reported in net income. Prior to 2018, equity securities with readily determinable fair values were classified as available for sale, carried at fair value with unrealized holding gains and losses reported in other comprehensive income, net of tax.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the new accounting standard for Financial Instruments, which requires equity investments to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. The adoption of this guidance resulted in a $169 thousand increase to beginning retained earnings and a $169 thousand decrease to accumulated other comprehensive income.
Interest income includes amortization of purchase premium or discount. Premiums and discounts on securities are amortized on the level-yield method without anticipating prepayments, except for mortgage backed securities where prepayments are anticipated. Gains and losses on sales are recorded on the trade date and determined using the specific identification method. Purchases are recorded on the trade date.
Management evaluates securities for other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI) on at least a quarterly basis, and more frequently when economic or market conditions warrant. For securities in an unrealized loss position, management considers the extent and duration of the unrealized loss, and the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer. Management also assesses whether it intends to sell, or it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell, a security in an unrealized loss position before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met, the entire difference between amortized cost and fair value is recognized as impairment through earnings. For debt securities that do not meet the aforementioned criteria, the amount of impairment is split into two components as follows: 1) OTTI related to credit loss, which must be recognized in the income statement and 2) OTTI related to other factors, which is recognized in other comprehensive income. The credit loss is defined as the difference between the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected and the amortized cost basis.
Loans Held for Sale: Mortgage loans originated and intended for sale in the secondary market are carried at the lower of aggregate cost or fair value, as determined by outstanding commitments from investors. Net unrealized losses, if any, are charged to earnings.
Mortgage loans held for sale are sold with or without servicing rights released. Gains and losses on sales of mortgage loans are based on the difference between the selling price and the carrying value of the related loan sold.
Loans: Loans that management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or payoff are reported at the principal balance outstanding, net of deferred loan fees and costs, and an allowance for loan losses. Substantially all loans are secured by specific items of collateral including business assets, consumer assets, and commercial and residential real estate.
Interest income is accrued on the unpaid principal balance. Loan origination fees, net of certain direct origination costs, are deferred and recognized in interest income using the level yield method without anticipating prepayments. Interest income on mortgage and commercial loans is discontinued at the time the loan is 90 days delinquent unless the loan is well secured and in process of collection. Consumer loans are typically charged off no later than 120 days past due. Past due status is based on the contractual terms of the loan. In all cases, loans are placed on nonaccrual or charged-off at an earlier date if collection of principal or interest is considered doubtful. Nonaccrual loans and loans past due 90 days still on accrual include both smaller balance homogeneous loans that are collectively evaluated for impairment and individually classified impaired loans.
For all classes of loans, when interest accruals are discontinued, interest accrued but not received for loans placed on non-accrual is reversed against interest income. Interest on such loans is thereafter recorded on a cash-basis or cost-recovery method, until qualifying for return to accrual. Loans are returned to accrual status when all the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured.
Purchased Credit Impaired Loans: The Company purchased loans that have shown evidence of credit deterioration since origination. These loans were recorded at the amount paid, such that there is no carryover of the seller’s allowance for loan losses. The Company estimates the amount and timing of expected cash flows for each loan, and the expected cash flows in excess of amount paid is recorded as interest income over the remaining life of the loan. The excess of the loan’s contractual principal and interest over expected cash flows is not recorded.
Over the life of the loan, expected cash flows continue to be estimated. If the present value of expected cash flows is less than the carrying amount, a loss is recorded as a provision for loan losses. If the present value of expected cash flows is greater than the carrying amount, it is recognized as part of future interest income.
Derivatives: Derivative financial instruments are recognized as assets or liabilities at fair value. The Company’s derivatives are interest-rate swap agreements, which are used as part of its asset and liability management strategy to help manage its interest rate risk position. The Company does not use derivatives for trading or balance sheet hedging purposes. The derivative transactions are considered instruments with no hedging designation, otherwise known as stand-alone derivatives. Changes in the fair value of the derivatives are reported currently in earnings, as other noninterest income.
Concentration of Credit Risk: There are no significant concentrations of loans to any one industry or customer. However, most of the Company’s business activity is with customers located within Northeastern Ohio. Therefore, the Company’s exposure to credit risk is significantly affected by changes in the economy of a nine county area. Loans secured by real estate represent 61.6% of the total portfolio and changes related to the real estate markets are monitored by management.
Allowance for Loan Losses: The allowance for loan losses is a valuation allowance for probable incurred loan losses, increased by the provision for loan losses and decreased by charge-offs less recoveries. The allowance is based on management’s judgment taking into consideration past loss experience, reviews of individual loans, current economic conditions and other factors considered relevant by management at the financial statement date. While management uses the best information available to establish the allowance, future adjustments to the allowance may be necessary, which may be material, if economic conditions differ substantially from the assumptions used in estimating the allowance. If additions to the original estimate of the allowance for loan losses are deemed necessary, they will be reported in earnings in the period in which they become reasonably estimable and probable. Allocations of the allowance may be made for specific loans, but the entire allowance is available for any loan that, in management’s judgment, should be charged-off.
Acquired loans are individually evaluated and for those purchased loans without evidence of credit deterioration, management evaluates each reviewed loan using an internal grading system with a grade assigned to each loan at the date of acquisition. To the extent that any purchased loan is not specifically reviewed, such loan is assumed to have characteristics similar to the characteristics of the acquired portfolio of purchased loans. The grade for each purchased loan without evidence of credit deterioration is reviewed subsequent to the date of acquisition any time a loan is renewed or extended or at any time information becomes available to the Company that provides material insight regarding the loan’s performance, the status of the borrower or the quality or value of the underlying collateral. To the extent that current information indicates it is probable that the Company will collect all amounts according to the contractual terms thereof, such loan is not considered impaired and is not individually considered in the determination of the required allowance for loan losses. To the extent that current information indicates it is probable that the Company will not be able to collect all amounts according to the contractual terms thereof, such loan is considered impaired and is considered in the determination of the required level of allowance.
In determining the day one fair values of purchased loans without evidence of credit deterioration at the date of acquisition, management includes (i) no carry-over of any previously recorded allowance for loan losses and (ii) an adjustment of the unpaid principal balance to reflect an appropriate market rate of interest, given the risk profile and grade assigned to each loan. This adjustment is accreted into earnings as a yield adjustment, using the effective yield method, over the remaining life of each loan.
The allowance consists of specific and general components. The specific component relates to loans that are individually classified as impaired. A loan is considered impaired when, based on the current information and events, it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Loans, for which the terms have been modified, and for which the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties, are considered troubled debt restructurings and classified as impaired.
Factors considered by management in determining impairment include payment status, collateral value, and the probability of collecting scheduled principal and interest payments when due. Loans that experience insignificant payment delays and payment shortfalls generally are not classified as impaired. Management determines the significance of payment delays and payment shortfalls on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration all of the circumstances surrounding the loan and the borrower, including the length of the delay, the reasons for the delay, the borrower’s prior payment record and the amount of the shortfall in relation to the principal and interest owed.
Impairment is measured on a loan by loan basis for commercial and commercial real estate loans over $750 thousand, individually or in the aggregate, by either the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, the loan’s obtainable market price or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. Large groups of smaller balance homogeneous loans, such as consumer and residential real estate loans are collectively evaluated for impairment and accordingly, they are not separately identified for impairment disclosures. Non-real estate secured consumer loans in bankruptcy where debt has not been reaffirmed are considered troubled debt restructurings and are evaluated individually to ensure that accurate accounting treatment is in place.
The Company considers the guidance on troubled debt restructuring for individual consumer and residential loans when evaluating for impairment disclosure. Troubled debt restructurings are measured at the present value of estimated future cash flow using the loan’s effective rate at inception. If a troubled debt restructuring is considered to be a collateral dependent loan, the loan is reported, net, at the fair value of the collateral. For troubled debt restructurings that subsequently default, the Company determines the amount of reserve in accordance with the accounting policy for the allowance for loan losses.
The general component covers non-impaired loans and is based on historical loss experience adjusted for current factors. The historical loss experience is determined by portfolio segment and is based on the actual loss history experienced for the most recent twelve quarters. The formula for calculating the allowance for loan losses requires that the historical loss percentage be applied to homogeneous and all risk rated loans. This actual loss experience is supplemented with other economic factors based on the risks present for each portfolio segment. These economic factors include consideration of the following: levels of and trends in delinquencies and impaired loans; trends in volume and terms of loans; effects of any changes in risk selection and underwriting standards; other changes in lending policies, procedures and practices; experience, ability and depth of lending management and other relevant staff; national and local economic trends and conditions; industry conditions; and effects of changes in credit concentrations. The following portfolio segments have been identified:
Commercial Loans. Commercial credit is extended to commercial customers for use in normal business operations to finance working capital needs, equipment purchases or other projects. The majority of these borrowers are customers doing business within our geographic regions. These loans are generally underwritten individually and secured with the assets of the company and the personal guarantee of the business owners. Commercial loans are made based primarily on the historical and projected cash flow of the borrower and the underlying collateral provided by the borrower.
Commercial Real Estate Loans. Commercial real estate loans are subject to underwriting standards and processes similar to commercial loans. These loans are viewed primarily as cash flow loans and the repayment of these loans is largely dependent on the successful operation of the property. Loan performance may be adversely affected by factors impacting the general economy or conditions specific to the real estate market such as geographic location and property type.
Consumer Loans. Consumer loans are primarily comprised of loans made directly to consumers and indirectly through automobile dealerships. These loans have a specific matrix which consists of several factors including debt to income, type of collateral and loan to collateral value, credit history and relationship with the borrower. Consumer lending uses risk-based pricing in the underwriting process.
Residential Real Estate Loans. Residential mortgage loans represent loans to consumers for the purchase or refinance of a residence. These loans are generally financed up to 15 years and in most cases, are extended to borrowers to finance their primary residence. Real estate market values at the time of origination directly affect the amount of credit extended and, in the event of default, subsequent changes in these values may impact the severity of losses.
Servicing Rights: When mortgage loans are sold and servicing rights are retained, the servicing rights are initially recorded at fair value with the income statement effect recorded in gains on sales of loans. Fair value is based on market prices for comparable mortgage servicing contracts, when available, or alternatively, is based on a valuation model that calculates the present value of estimated future net servicing income. The valuation model incorporates assumptions that market participants would use in estimating future net servicing income, such as the cost to service, the discount rate, the custodial earnings rate, an inflation rate, ancillary income, prepayment speeds and default rates and losses. The Company compares the valuation model inputs and results to published industry data to validate the model results and assumptions.
All classes of servicing assets are subsequently measured using the amortization method which requires servicing rights to be amortized into non‑interest income in proportion to, and over the period of, the estimated future net servicing income of the underlying loans. Servicing assets are evaluated for impairment based upon the fair value of the assets compared to carrying amount. Any impairment is reported as a valuation allowance, to the extent that fair value is less than the capitalized amount for a grouping. There was no valuation allowance impairment against servicing assets as of December 31, 2019 or 2018.
Servicing fee income is recorded when earned for servicing loans based on a contractual percentage of the outstanding principal or a fixed amount per loan. The amortization of mortgage servicing rights is netted against loan servicing fee income. Servicing fees, late fees and ancillary fees related to loan servicing are not considered significant for financial reporting.
Foreclosed Assets: Assets acquired through or instead of loan foreclosure are initially recorded at fair value less costs to sell when acquired, establishing a new cost basis. These assets are subsequently accounted for at lower of cost or fair value less estimated costs to sell. If fair value declines subsequent to foreclosure, a valuation allowance is recorded through expense. These assets are recorded in other assets on the balance sheets as other real estate owned (“OREO”). OREO totaled $19 thousand at December 31, 2019 and $0 at December 31, 2018. Operating costs after acquisition are expensed.
Premises and Equipment: Land is carried at cost. Premises and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Buildings and related components are depreciated using the straight-line method with useful lives ranging from 5 to 40 years. Furniture, fixtures and equipment are depreciated using the straight-line method with useful lives ranging from 3 to 10 years.
Restricted Stock: The Bank is a member of the FHLB system. Members are required to own a certain amount of stock based on the level of borrowings and other factors, and may invest in additional amounts. The Bank is also a member of and owns stock in the Federal Reserve Bank. These stocks are carried at cost, classified as restricted securities included in other assets, and periodically evaluated for impairment based on ultimate recovery of par value. Restricted stock totaled $11.7 million at December 31, 2019 and 2018. Both cash and stock dividends are reported as income.
Bank Owned Life Insurance: The Company has purchased life insurance policies on certain key officers. Bank owned life insurance is recorded at the amount that can be realized under the insurance contract at the balance sheet date, which is the cash surrender value adjusted for other charges or other amounts due that are probable at settlement.
Long-term Assets: Premises and equipment and other long-term assets are reviewed for impairment when events indicate their carrying amount may not be recoverable from future undiscounted cash flows. If impaired, the assets are recorded at fair value.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets: Goodwill resulting from a business combination is generally determined as the excess of the fair value of the consideration transferred over the fair value of the net assets acquired as of the acquisition date. Goodwill acquired in a purchase business combination and determined to have an indefinite useful life is not amortized, but tested for impairment at least annually. The Company has selected September 30 as the date to perform the annual goodwill impairment tests associated with the acquisition of the Farmers Trust, NAI, First National Bank of Orrville, 1st National Community Bank, Bowers and Monitor. Intangible assets with definite useful lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives. Goodwill is the only intangible asset with an indefinite life on the balance sheet. Core deposit intangible assets arising from bank acquisitions are amortized over their estimated useful lives of 7 to 8 years. Non-compete contracts are amortized on a straight line basis, over the term of the agreements. Customer relationship and trade name intangibles are amortized over a range of 13 to 15 years on an accelerated method.
Loan Commitments and Related Financial Instruments: Financial instruments include off-balance sheet credit instruments, such as commitments to make loans and commercial letters of credit, issued to meet customer financing needs. The face amount for these items represents the exposure to loss, before considering customer collateral or ability to repay. Such financial instruments are recorded when they are funded.
Stock-Based Compensation: Compensation cost is recognized for restricted stock awards issued to employees, based on the fair value of these awards at the date of grant. The market price of the Company’s common stock at the grant date is used for restricted stock awards. Compensation cost is recognized over the required service period, generally defined as the vesting period. For awards with graded vesting, compensation cost is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award.
Income Taxes: Income tax expense is the total of the current year income tax due or refundable and the change in deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are the expected future tax amounts for the temporary differences between carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities, computed using enacted tax rates. A valuation allowance, if needed, reduces deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
A tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded.
The Company recognizes interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense.
Retirement Plans: Employee 401(k) and profit sharing plan expense is the amount of matching and discretionary contributions. Deferred compensation and supplemental retirement plan expense allocates the benefits over years of service.
Earnings per Common Share: Basic earnings per common share is net income divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per common share include the dilutive effect of additional potential common shares issuable under stock equity awards. Earnings and dividends per share are restated for all stock splits and stock dividends through the date of issuance of the financial statements.
Comprehensive Income: Comprehensive income consists of net income and other comprehensive income (loss). Other comprehensive income (loss) consists of unrealized gains and losses on securities available for sale and changes in the funded status of the post-retirement health plan, which are recognized as separate components of equity, net of tax effects.
Loss Contingencies: Loss contingencies, including claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business, are recorded as liabilities when the likelihood of loss is probable and an amount or range of loss can be reasonably estimated. During 2019 the Company accrued a charge of $505 thousand relating to a pending settlement of a legal contingency. Management does not believe there are any other matters currently that would have a material effect on the financial statements. The pending settlement contingency is discussed further in Note 24.
Restrictions on Cash: Cash on hand or on deposit with the Federal Reserve Bank (“FRB”) was required to meet regulatory reserve and clearing requirements. The Company had deposits with the FRB of $36.1 million at December 31, 2019 and $34.2 million at December 31, 2018.
Equity: Treasury stock is carried at cost.
Dividend Restriction: Banking regulations require maintaining certain capital levels and may limit the dividends paid by the Bank and Farmers Trust to the holding company or by the holding company to shareholders.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments: Fair values of financial instruments are estimated using relevant market information and other assumptions as more fully disclosed in Note 7. Fair value estimates involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment regarding interest rates, credit risk, prepayments and other factors, especially in the absence of broad markets for particular items. Changes in assumptions or in market conditions could significantly affect these estimates.
Operating Segments: Operations are managed and financial performance is primarily aggregated and reported in two lines of business, the Bank segment and Farmers Trust segment. During 2019 the Company merged the Retirement Consulting segment into the Trust segment. In prior periods segment reporting was reported in three segments and has been reclassified to two segments to be consistent with current year presentation. The Company discloses segment information in Note 23.
Reclassification: Some items in the prior year financial statements were reclassified to conform to the current presentation. Reclassifications had no effect on prior year net income or stockholders’ equity.
Adoption of New Accounting Standards and Newly Issued, Not Yet Effective Accounting Standards: In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This ASU expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. The amendments in this ASU were effective for the reporting periods after December 15, 2018. The Company adopted ASU No. 2018-07 effective January 1, 2019. There was no impact to the consolidated financial statements as a result of the adoption of ASU 2018-07.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. This ASU better aligns an entity’s risk management activities and financial reporting for hedging relationships through changes to both the designation and measurement guidance for qualifying hedging relationships and the presentation of hedge results. The amendments in this ASU were effective for the reporting periods after December 15, 2018. The Company adopted ASU No. 2017-12 effective January 1, 2019. There was no significant impact to the consolidated financial statements as a result of the adoption of ASU 2017-12.
During April of 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08, Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities. Under current U.S. GAAP, a premium is typically amortized to the maturity date when a callable debt security is purchased at a premium, even if the holder is certain the call will be exercised. As a result, upon the exercise of a call on a callable debt security held at a premium, the unamortized premium is recorded as a loss in earnings. The new standard shortens the amortization period for the premium to the earliest call date to more closely align interest income recorded on bonds held at a premium or a discount with the economics of the underlying instrument. The standard takes effect for public business entities for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company early adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2018 and there was no material impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This ASU eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, under the new guidance, an entity is to perform its annual goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An impairment charge would be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value. The new guidance is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim reporting periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company does not plan on early adoption of this ASU. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have an impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-13: Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The ASU requires an organization to measure all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Financial institutions and other organizations will now use forward-looking information to better estimate their credit loss forecasts. Many of the loss estimation techniques applied today will still be permitted, although the inputs to those techniques will change to reflect the full amount of expected credit losses. Organizations will continue to use judgment to determine which loss estimation method is appropriate for their circumstances. Additionally, the ASU amends the accounting for credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities and purchased financial assets with credit deterioration. ASU 2016-13 is effective for public companies for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Entities will apply the standard's provisions as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is adopted. The Company completed the process of implementation and the process of testing the system. Adoption of ASU 2016-13 happened on January 1, 2020. The Company has recorded the onetime adjustment to equity, to comply with the ASU adoption, which increased the allowance for loan losses between 15% and 20% as expected. Management does not expect this amount to change during the first quarter of 2020 but retains the option to make adjustments if new information becomes available.
In February 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-02 (Topic 842): Leases. The main objective of ASU 2016-02 is to provide users with useful, transparent and complete information about leasing transactions. ASU 2016-02 requires the rights and obligations associated with leasing arrangements be reflected on the balance sheet to increase transparency and comparability among organizations. Under the updated guidance, lessees will be required to recognize a right-to-use asset and a liability to make a lease payment and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. ASU 2016-02 is effective for public companies for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2019. As disclosed in footnote 9, certain leases that the Company has in place required the capitalization of $3.6 million on the balance sheet as an asset and a related liability in the same amount with no income statement effect at January 1, 2019. The balance of the right-to-use asset and liability is $3.1 million at December 31, 2019.
In January 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-01: Financial Instruments – Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The main objective of ASU 2016-01 is to enhance the reporting model for financial instruments to provide users of financial statements with more decision-useful information. ASU 2016-01 addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. Some of the amendments in ASU 2016-01 include the following: 1) require equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income; 2) simplify the impairment assessment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values by requiring a qualitative assessment to identify impairment; 3) require public business entities to use the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes; and 4) require an entity to present separately in other comprehensive income the portion of the total change in the fair value of a liability resulting from a change in the instrument-specific credit risk when the entity has elected to measure the liability at fair value; among others. The amendments of ASU 2016-01 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this ASU 2016-01 on January 1, 2018 which resulted in a $169 thousand increase to beginning retained earnings and a $169 thousand decrease to accumulated other comprehensive income on the December 31, 2018 Consolidated Financial Statements.
In May 2014, FASB issued ASU 2014-09: Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). The ASU creates a new topic, Topic 606, to provide guidance on revenue recognition for entities that enter into contracts with customers to transfer goods or services or enter into contracts for the transfer of nonfinancial assets. The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Additional disclosures are required to provide quantitative and qualitative information regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The new guidance was effective for annual reporting periods, and interim reporting periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. The new guidance was adopted as of January 1, 2018. Refer to the Revenue from Contracts with Customers – Note 5 for further discussion on the Company’s accounting for revenue sources within the scope of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606.