Description of Business, Basis of Presentation, Significant Accounting Policies and Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
(a) Description of Business
Heritage Financial Corporation ("Heritage" or the “Company”) is a bank holding company that was incorporated in the State of Washington in August 1997. The Company is primarily engaged in the business of planning, directing and coordinating the business activities of its wholly-owned subsidiary, Heritage Bank (the “Bank”). The Bank is a Washington-chartered commercial bank and its deposits are insured by the FDIC. The Bank is headquartered in Olympia, Washington and conducts business from its 64 branch offices located throughout Washington State and the greater Portland, Oregon area. The Bank’s business consists primarily of commercial lending and deposit relationships with small businesses and their owners in its market areas and attracting deposits from the general public. The Bank also makes real estate construction and land development loans, consumer loans and originates first mortgage loans on residential properties primarily located in its market areas.
Effective January 16, 2018, the Company completed the acquisition of Puget Sound Bancorp, Inc. (“Puget Sound”), the holding company for Puget Sound Bank, both of Bellevue, Washington (“Puget Sound Merger”) and on July 2, 2018, the Company completed the acquisition of Premier Commercial Bancorp ("Premier Commercial"), the holding company for Premier Community Bank, both of Hillsboro, Oregon ("Premier Merger"). See Note (2) Business Combinations for additional information on the Puget Sound Merger and the Premier Merger (collectively the "Premier and Puget Mergers").
(b) Basis of Presentation
The accounting and reporting policies of the Company and its subsidiaries conform to U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). In preparing the Consolidated Financial Statements, management makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary, the Bank. All significant intercompany balances and transactions among the Company and the Bank have been eliminated in consolidation.
Certain prior year amounts in the Consolidated Statements of Income have been reclassified to conform to the current year’s presentation. Reclassifications had no effect on the prior years' net income or stockholders’ equity.
(c) Significant Accounting Policies
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and due from banks and interest-bearing balances due from the Federal Reserve Bank. Cash equivalents have a maturity of 90 days or less at the time of purchase.
The Company identifies investments as held to maturity or available for sale at the time of acquisition. Securities are classified as held to maturity when the Company has the ability and positive intent to hold them to maturity. Securities classified as available for sale are available for future liquidity requirements and may be sold prior to maturity. As of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 the Bank does not hold any securities classified as held to maturity. See Note (3) Investment Securities for additional information.
Securities available for sale are carried at fair value. Interest income includes amortization of purchase premiums or accretion of purchase discounts using the interest method. Unrealized gains and losses on securities available for sale are generally excluded from earnings and are reported in other comprehensive income (loss), net of related income taxes. Realized gains and losses on sale of investment securities are computed on the specific identification method. Transfers of securities between the available for sale and held to maturity categories are accounted for at fair value.
Management evaluates securities for other-than-temporary impairment on at least a quarterly basis, and more frequently when economic or market conditions warrant such an evaluation. Although these evaluations involve significant judgment, an unrealized loss in the fair value of a debt security is generally deemed to be temporary when a) the fair value of the security is below the carrying value primarily due to changes in interest rates; b) there has not been significant deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer; and, c) it is not more likely than not that the Company will be required to, nor does it have the intent to, sell the security before the anticipated recovery of its remaining carrying value. If any of these criteria is not met, the impairment is split into two components as follows: 1) other-than-temporary impairment related to credit loss, which must be recognized in the income statement and 2) other-than-temporary impairment related to other factors, which is recognized in other comprehensive income (loss). The credit loss is defined as the difference between the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected and the amortized cost basis. For debt securities with other-than-temporary impairment, the previous amortized cost basis less the other-than-temporary impairment recognized in earnings shall be the new amortized cost basis of the security. In subsequent periods, the Company accretes into interest income the difference between the new amortized cost basis and cash flows expected to be collected prospectively over the life of the debt security. Continued deterioration of market conditions could result in additional impairment losses recognized within the investment portfolio.
Other factors that may be considered in determining whether a decline in the value of a debt security is “other-than-temporary” include ratings by recognized rating agencies; actions of commercial banks or other lenders relative to the continued extension of credit facilities to the issuer of the security; the financial condition, capital strength and near-term prospects of the issuer and recommendations of investment advisors or market analysts.
Loans Held for Sale
Mortgage loans held for sale are carried at the lower of amortized cost or fair value. Any loan that management does not have the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or payoff is classified as held for sale at the time of origination, purchase or securitization, or when such decision is made. Unrealized losses on such loans are recorded as a valuation allowance and included in income.
Loans Receivable and Loan Commitments
Loans receivable include loans originated by the Bank as well as loans acquired in business combinations. Loans acquired in a business combination are designated as “purchased” loans. These loans are recorded at their fair value at acquisition date, factoring in credit losses expected to be incurred over the life of the loan. Accordingly, an allowance for loan losses is not carried over or recorded as of the acquisition date.
Loans purchased with evidence of credit deterioration since origination for which it is probable that all contractually required payments will not be collected are accounted for under FASB ASC 310-30, Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality. These loans are identified as purchased credit impaired ("PCI") loans. In situations where such loans have similar risk characteristics, loans may be aggregated into pools to estimate cash flows. A pool is accounted for as a single asset with a single interest rate, cumulative loss rate and cash flow expectation. Expected cash flows at the acquisition date in excess of the fair value of loan or pool are considered to be accretable yield, which is recognized as interest income over the life of the loan or pool using a level yield method if the timing and amount of the future cash flows of the loan or pool is reasonably estimable.
The cash flows expected over the life of the PCI loan or pool are estimated quarterly using an external cash flow model that projects cash flows and calculates the carrying values of the loans or pools, book yields, effective interest income and impairment, if any, based on loan or pool level events. Assumptions as to default rates, loss severity and prepayment speeds are utilized to calculate the expected cash flows. To the extent actual or projected cash flows are less than previously estimated, additional provisions for loan losses on the purchased loan portfolios will be recognized immediately into earnings. To the extent actual or projected cash flows are more than previously estimated, the increase in cash flows is recognized immediately as a recapture of provision for loan losses up to the amount of any provision previously recognized for that loan or pool, if any, then prospectively recognized in interest income as a yield adjustment. Any disposals of a loan in a pool, including sale of a loan, payment in full or foreclosure results in the removal of the loan from the loan pool at the carrying amount.
Loans accounted for under FASB ASC 310-30 are generally considered accruing and performing loans as the loans accrete interest income over the estimated life of the loan when cash flows are reasonably estimable. Accordingly, PCI loans that are contractually past due are still considered to be accruing and performing loans. If the timing and amount of cash flows is not reasonably estimable, the loans may be classified as nonaccrual loans and interest income may be recognized on a cash basis or all cash payments may be accounted for a as a reduction of the principal amount outstanding.
Loans purchased that are not accounted for under FASB ASC 310-30 are accounted for under FASB ASC 310-20, Receivables—Nonrefundable fees and Other Costs. These loans are identified as non-PCI loans, and are initially recorded at their fair value, which is estimated using an external cash flow model and assumptions similar to the FASB ASC 310-30 loans. The difference between the estimated fair value and the unpaid principal balance at acquisition date is recognized as interest income over the life of the loan using an effective interest method for non-revolving credits or a straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method, for revolving credits. Any unrecognized discount for a loan that is subsequently repaid in full will be recognized immediately into income.
Loans are generally recorded at the unpaid principal balance, net of premiums, unearned discounts and net deferred loan origination fees and costs. The premiums and unearned discounts may include values determined in purchase accounting. Interest on loans is calculated using the simple interest method based on the daily balance of the principal amount outstanding and is credited to income as earned. Loans are considered past due or delinquent when principal or interest payments are past due 30 days or more.
The Company's policies for determining past due or delinquency status, placing loans on nonaccrual status, recording payments received on nonaccrual loans, resuming accrual of interest, and charging off uncollectible loans generally do not differ by loan segments or classes. Any differences are denoted in the applicable sections below.
Commercial loans are serviced by the relationship manger assigned to the account. System generated delinquency reports are provided to all relationship managers monthly, and relationship managers take follow up action as needed, including contacting the borrower and transferring seriously delinquent loans to the Bank’s Special Assets Department for collection. Consumer loans are monitored by the Bank’s Consumer Collections Department, with initial delinquency notices sent after 15 days, with follow up notices at 30 and 45 days. The Consumer Collections Department attempts to make direct contact with the borrower to establish a plan to bring the loan current. Consumer loans that become 90 days delinquent are charged off.
Nonaccrual and Charged-off Loans:
Loans on which the accrual of interest has been discontinued are designated as nonaccrual loans. Delinquent loans may remain on accrual status between 30 days and 89 days past due. The accrual of interest is generally discontinued at the time the loan is 90 days delinquent unless the credit is well secured and in the process of collection. Loans are placed on nonaccrual at an earlier date if collection of the contractual principal or interest is doubtful. All interest accrued but not collected on loans deemed nonaccrual during the period is reversed against interest income in that period. The interest payments received on nonaccrual loans are generally accounted for on the cost-recovery method whereby the interest payment is applied to the principal balances. Loans may be returned to accrual status when improvements in credit quality eliminate the doubt as to the full collectability of both interest and principal and a period of sustained performance has occurred. Substantially all loans that are nonaccrual are also considered impaired. Income recognition on impaired loans conforms to that used on nonaccrual loans.
Loans are generally charged-off if collection of the contractual principal or interest as scheduled in the loan agreement is doubtful. Credit card loans and other consumer loans are typically charged-off no later than 180 days past due.
The Bank routinely tests its classified loans for potential impairment. Classified loans that may be impaired are identified using the Bank's normal loan review procedures, which include post-approval reviews, quarterly reviews by credit administration of criticized loan reports, scheduled internal reviews, underwriting during extensions and renewals, and the analysis of information routinely received on a borrower’s financial performance. A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable the Bank will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the original contractual terms of the loan agreement. Factors considered by management in determining impairment include payment status, collateral value, and the probability of collecting scheduled principal and interest payments when due. Loans that experience insignificant payment delays and payment shortfalls generally are not classified as impaired. Management determines the significance of payment delays and payment shortfalls on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration all of the circumstances surrounding the loan and the borrowers, including length of the delay, the reasons for the delay, the borrower’s prior payment record, and the amounts of the shortfall in relation to the principal and interest owed.
Impairment is measured on a loan-by-loan basis by either the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, or as a practical expedient the loan’s observable market price or the fair value of the collateral (less cost to sell) if the loan is collateral dependent. Income recognition on impaired loans conforms to that used on nonaccrual loans.
Subsequent to an initial measure of impairment and based on new information received, if there is a significant change in the amount or timing of a loan’s expected future cash flows or a change in the value of collateral or market price of a loan, the impairment is recalculated. However, the net carrying value of a loan never exceeds the recorded investment in the loan.
Troubled Debt Restructures:
A troubled debt restructured loan (“TDR”) is a restructuring in which the Bank, for economic or legal reasons related to a borrower’s financial difficulties, grants a concession to a borrower that it would not otherwise consider. These concessions may include changes of the interest rate, forbearance of the outstanding principal or accrued interest, extension of the maturity date, delay in the timing of the regular payment, or any other actions intended to minimize potential losses. The Bank does not forgive principal for a majority of its TDRs, but in those situations where principal is forgiven, the entire amount of such principal forgiveness is immediately charged off to the extent not done so prior to the modification. The Bank also considers insignificant delays in payments when determining if a loan should be classified as a TDR.
The Company has implemented more stringent definitions of concessions and impairment measures for PCI loans which are not in pools as these loans have known credit deteriorations and are generally accreting income at a lower discounted rate as compared to the contractual note rate based on the guidance of FASB ASC 310-30. Modifications of PCI loans which are not in pools are considered TDRs if they result in a decrease in expected cash flows when compared to the pre-modification expected cash flows, without any other changes to the agreement to consider.
A loan that has been placed on nonaccrual status that is subsequently restructured will usually remain on nonaccrual status until the borrower is able to demonstrate repayment performance in compliance with the restructured terms for a sustained period, typically for six months. A restructured loan may return to accrual status sooner based on other significant events or mitigating circumstances. A loan that has not been placed on nonaccrual status may be restructured and such loan may remain on accrual status after such restructuring. In these circumstances, the borrower has made payments before the restructuring and is expected to continue to perform after the restructuring. Generally, this type of restructuring involves a reduction in the loan interest rate and/or a change to interest-only payments for a period of time. The restructured loan is considered impaired despite the accrual status and a specific valuation allowance, if any, is calculated in the manner previously described.
A TDR is considered defaulted if, during the 12-month period after the restructure, the loan has not performed in accordance to the restructured terms. Defaults include loans whose payments are 90 days or more past due and loans whose revised maturity date passed and no further modifications will be granted for that borrower.
A loan may subsequently be excluded from the TDR disclosures if: (i) the restructured interest rate was greater than or equal to the interest rate of a new loan with comparable risk at the time of the restructure, and (ii) the loan is no longer impaired based on the terms of the restructured agreement. The Bank's policy is that the borrower must demonstrate a sustained period, typically six consecutive months, of payments in accordance with the modified loan before it can be reviewed for removal from the TDR disclosure under the second criteria. However, the loan must be reported as a TDR in at least one annual report on Form 10-K. Once a loan has been classified as a TDR, it will continue to be disclosed as an impaired loan until paid off or charged-off, even if the loan subsequently is no longer disclosed as a TDR.
Unfunded Loan Commitments:
Unfunded loan commitments are generally related to the unused portion of the total commitment of a loan or providing credit facilities to clients of the Bank and are not actively traded financial instruments. These unfunded commitments are disclosed as financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk in Note (14) Commitments and Contingencies and Note (18) Fair Value Measurements in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Loan Fees and Costs
Loan origination fees and certain direct origination costs are deferred and amortized as an adjustment of the yields of the loans over their contractual lives, adjusted for prepayment of the loans, using the effective interest method or the straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method. In the event loans are sold, the unamortized net deferred loan origination fees or costs are recognized as a component of the gain or loss on the sale of loans.
Allowance for Loan Losses
Allowance for Loan Losses:
The allowance for loan losses is a reserve established through a provision for loan losses charged to expense, which represents management’s best estimate of probable losses that have been incurred within the existing portfolio of loans. Loan losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the uncollectibility of a loan balance is confirmed. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance. The allowance for loan losses on loans designated as non-PCI loans is similar to the methodology described below except that for non-PCI loans, the remaining unaccreted discounts resulting from the fair value adjustments recorded at the time the loans were purchased are additionally factored into the allowance methodology. The allowance for loan losses on PCI loans is described in the “Allowance for Loan Losses on Purchased Credit Impaired Loans” section below.
The allowance, in the judgment of management, is necessary to reserve for estimated loan losses from risks inherent in the loan portfolio. The Company’s allowance for loan losses methodology includes allowance allocations calculated in accordance with FASB ASC 310, Receivables and allowance allocations calculated in accordance with FASB ASC 450, Contingencies. Accordingly, the methodology is based on historical loss experience by type of credit, specific homogeneous risk pools and specific loss allocations, with adjustments for current events and conditions. The Company’s process for determining the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses is designed to account for credit deterioration as it occurs. The provision for loan losses reflects loan quality trends, including the levels of and trends related to nonaccrual loans, past due loans, classified loans and net charge-offs or recoveries, among other factors. The provision for loan losses also reflects all actions taken on all loans for a particular period. Therefore, the amount of the provision reflects not only the necessary increases in the allowance for loan losses related to newly identified criticized loans, but it also reflects actions taken related to other loans including, among other things, any necessary increases or decreases in specific valuation allowances for impaired loans or loan pools.
The level of the allowance reflects management’s continuing evaluation of known and inherent risks in the loan portfolio. Portions of the allowance may be allocated for specific credits; however, the entire allowance is available for any credit that, in management’s judgment, could be charged off.
Loans which management determines are impaired are individually evaluated for impairment, and specific valuation allowances are recorded, if any, on these loans based on the methodology previously described. Loans that are determined not to meet management's definition of impaired are collectively evaluated for impairment based on (i) historical loss factors determined in accordance with FASB ASC 450 based on historical loan loss experience for similar loans with similar characteristics and trends; and (ii) environmental loss factors that reflect the impact of current conditions, as determined in accordance with FASB ASC 450 based on general economic conditions and other qualitative risk factors both internal and external to the Company. The historical loss factors and environmental loss factors are combined and multiplied against the unguaranteed outstanding principal balances of loans in pools of similar loans with similar characteristics.
The Company evaluates specific loans for credit quality indicators and performs regular analysis and evaluation of problem loans. Loans are classified based on an internal credit risk grading process that evaluates, among other things: (i) the obligor’s ability to repay; (ii) the underlying collateral, if any; and (iii) the economic environment and industry in which the borrower operates. This analysis is performed at the loan officer level for all loans. When a loan is performing, but has an assigned risk grade other than pass, the loan officer analyzes the loan to determine an appropriate monitoring and collection strategy. When a loan is nonperforming or has been classified as a nonaccrual loan, a member from the special assets department will analyze the loan to determine if it is impaired. If the loan is considered impaired, the special assets department will evaluate the need for a specific valuation allowance on the loan. Specific valuation allowances are determined by analyzing the borrower’s ability to repay amounts owed, collateral deficiencies and economic conditions affecting the borrower’s industry, among other things.
Historical loss factors are calculated based on the historical loss experience and recovery experience of specific classes of loans. The Company calculates historical loss ratios for the classes of loans based on the proportion of actual charge-offs and recoveries experienced to the total loans in the pool for a rolling twelve-quarter average.
Environmental loss factors are based on general economic conditions and other qualitative risk factors both internal and external to the Company. In general, such valuation allowances are determined by evaluating, among other things: (i) levels of and trends in delinquencies, classified and impaired loans; (ii) levels of and trends in charge-offs and recoveries; (iii) trends in volume and terms of loans (iv) effects of changes in risk selection and underwriting standards, and other changes in lending policies, procedures, and practices; (v) experience, ability, and depth of lending management and other relevant staff; (vi) national and local economic trends and conditions; (vii) other external factors such as competition, legal, and regulatory; (viii) effects of changes in credit concentrations, and (ix) other factors. Management evaluates the degree of risk that each one of these components has on the quality of the loan portfolio on a quarterly basis. Each component is determined to be on a scale of risk. The results are then utilized in a matrix to determine an appropriate environmental loss factor for each class of loan.
The allowance for loan losses evaluation is inherently subjective, as it requires estimates that are susceptible to significant revision as more information becomes available. While management utilizes its best judgment and information available to recognize losses on loans, future additions to the allowance may be necessary based on declines in local and national economic conditions. In addition, various regulatory agencies, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review the Bank’s allowance for loan losses. Such agencies may require the Bank to make adjustments to the allowance based on their judgments about information available to them at the time of their examinations. The Company believes the allowance for loan losses is appropriate given all of the above considerations.
Allowance for Loan Losses on Purchased Credit Impaired Loans:
The PCI loans acquired in the Company's mergers and acquisitions are subject to the Company’s internal and external credit review. Under the accounting guidance of FASB ASC 310-30, the allowance for loan losses on PCI loans is measured at each financial reporting period, or measurement date, based on expected cash flows. If and when credit deterioration, or decreases in expected cash flows previously estimated, occurs subsequent to the acquisition date, a provision for loan losses will be charged to earnings as of the measurement date.
Allowance for Losses on Unfunded Commitments:
The Bank is also party to financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk in the normal course of business to meet the financing needs of its customers. These financial instruments include commitments to extend credit and standby letters of credit. Those instruments involve, to varying degrees, elements of credit risk in excess of the disbursed amounts recognized in the Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. The Company has a policy in which it evaluates the risk on a quarterly basis, and provides for an allowance for credit losses, as necessary. The methodology is similar to the allowance for loan losses, and includes an estimate of the probability of drawdown of the loan commitment. Based on its analysis, the Company has recorded an allowance for off-balance sheet financial instruments of $306,000 and $170,000 as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. This allowance is reported within accrued expenses and other liabilities on the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition.
Mortgage Banking Operations
The Bank sells one-to-four family residential loans on a servicing-released basis. The Bank recognizes a gain or loss to the extent that the sale proceeds of the loan sold differs from the net book value at the time of sale. Income from one-to-four family residential loans brokered to other lenders is recognized into income on date of loan closing.
Commitments to sell one-to-four family residential loans are made primarily during the period between the taking of the loan application and the closing of the loan. The timing of making these sale commitments is dependent upon the timing of the borrower’s election to lock-in the mortgage interest rate and fees prior to loan closing. Most of these sale commitments are made on a best-efforts basis whereby the Bank is only obligated to sell the loan if the loan is approved and closed by the Bank. Commitments to fund one-to-four family residential loans (interest rate locks) to be sold into the secondary market and forward commitments for the future delivery of these loans are accounted for as free standing derivatives. Fair values of these mortgage derivatives are estimated based on changes in mortgage interest rates between the date the interest on the loan was locked and the balance sheet date. The Company enters into forward commitments for the future delivery of one-to-four family residential loans when interest rate locks are entered into, in order to hedge the interest rate risk resulting from its commitments to fund the loans. Changes in the fair values of these derivatives are included in other income. The fair value of these derivative instruments was not significant at December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Other Real Estate Owned
Other real estate acquired by the Company in partial or full satisfaction of a loan obligation is classified as held for sale. When acquired, the property is recorded at the estimated fair value (less the costs to sell) at the date of acquisition, not to exceed net realizable value, and any resulting write-down is charged to the allowance for loan losses. Physical possession of residential real estate property collateralizing a consumer mortgage loan occurs when legal title is obtained upon completion of foreclosure or when the borrower conveys all interest in the properly to satisfy the loan through completion of a deed in lieu of foreclosure or through a similar legal agreement.
After acquisition, all costs incurred in maintaining the property are expensed except for costs relating to the development and improvement of the property which are capitalized to the extent of the property’s net realizable value. If the estimated realizable value of the other real estate owned property declines after the acquisition date, the valuation adjustment is charged to other real estate owned expense, net on the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment, including leasehold improvements, are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets or the lease period, whichever is shorter. The estimated useful lives used to compute depreciation and amortization for buildings and building improvements is 15 to 39 years; and for furniture, fixtures and equipment is three to seven years. The Company reviews buildings, leasehold improvements and equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in the circumstances indicate that the undiscounted cash flows for the property are less than its carrying value. If identified, an impairment loss is recognized through a charge to earnings based on the fair value of the property.
Bank Owned Life Insurance
The Company's bank owned life insurance (“BOLI”) policies insure the lives of certain current or former Bank officers, and name the Bank as beneficiary. Noninterest income is generated tax-free (subject to certain limitations) from the increase in the policies' underlying investments made by the insurance company. The Bank utilizes BOLI to partially offset costs associated with employee compensation and benefit programs with the earnings on the BOLI. The Company records BOLI at the amount that can be realized under the insurance contract at the statement of financial condition date, which is the cash surrender value adjusted for other charges or other amounts due that are probable at settlement.
Other Intangible Assets
The other intangible assets represents the Core Deposit Intangible (“CDI”) acquired in business combinations. The fair value of the CDI stemming from any given business combination is based on the present value of the expected cost savings attributable to the core deposit funding, relative to an alternative source of funding. The CDI is amortized over an estimated useful life which approximates the existing deposit relationships acquired on an accelerated method. The Company evaluates such identifiable intangibles for impairment annually, or more frequently if an indication of impairment exists.
The Company’s goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired in certain mergers and acquisitions. Goodwill is assigned to Heritage Bank and is evaluated for impairment at the Bank level (reporting unit) on an annual basis, or more frequently if an indication of impairment exists between the annual tests. Factors to consider may include, among others: a significant change in legal factors or in the general business climate; significant change in the Company’s stock price and market capitalization; unanticipated competition; and an action or assessment by a regulator.
For the goodwill impairment assessment, the Company has the option, prior to the two-step process, to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. The Company opted to bypass the qualitative assessment for its 2018 and 2017 annual goodwill impairment testing and proceed directly to the two-step goodwill impairment test.
The goodwill impairment two-step process requires the Company to make assumptions and judgments regarding fair value. The first step of the goodwill impairment test is performed by comparing the reporting unit’s aggregate fair value to its carrying value. Absent other indicators of impairment, if the aggregate fair value exceeds the carrying value, goodwill is not considered impaired and no additional analysis is necessary. If the carrying value of the reporting unit were to exceed the aggregate fair value, a second step would be performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. To measure any impairment loss the implied fair value would be determined in the same manner as if the reporting unit were being acquired in a business combination. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the recorded goodwill, an impairment charge would be recorded for the difference.
For additional information relating to goodwill, see Note (8) Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.
The Company and the Bank file a United States consolidated federal income tax return and an Oregon State income tax return. Income tax expense is the total of the current year income tax due or refundable and the change in deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the consolidated financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates applicable to taxable income in the periods in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rate is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance, if needed, reduces deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.
A tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded.
The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties on unrecognized tax benefits in “income taxes” in the Consolidated Statements of Income as the amounts are generally insignificant each year.
The Company maintains a number of stock-based incentive programs, which are discussed in more detail in Note (19) Stock-Based Compensation. Compensation cost is recognized for stock options, restricted stock awards and restricted stock units issued to employees and directors based on the fair value of these awards at the date of grant. Compensation cost is generally recognized over the requisite service period, generally defined as the vesting period, on a straight-line basis. Compensation cost for restricted stock units with market-based vesting is recognized over the service period to the extent the restricted stock units are expected to vest. Forfeitures are recognized as they occur.
The market price of the Company’s common stock at the date of grant is used to determine the fair value of the restricted stock awards and restricted stock units. The fair value of stock options granted is estimated based on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model. Certain restricted stock unit grants are subject to performance-based vesting as well as other approved vesting conditions and cliff-vest based on those conditions, and the fair value is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation pricing model. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model and the Monte Carlo simulation pricing model include the expected term based on the valuation date and the remaining contractual term of the award; the risk-free interest rate based on the U.S. Treasury curve at the valuation date of the award; the expected dividend yield based on expected dividends being payable to the holders; and the expected stock price volatility over the expected term based on the historical volatility over the equivalent historical term.
Deferred Compensation Plans
The Company has a Deferred Compensation Plan and has entered into arrangements with certain executive officers. Under the Deferred Compensation Plan, participants are permitted to elect to defer compensation and the Company has the discretion to make additional contributions to the Deferred Compensation Plan on behalf of any participant based on a number of factors. Such discretionary contributions are generally approved by the Compensation Committee of the Company's Board of Directors. The notional account balances of participants under the Deferred Compensation Plan earn interest on an annual basis. The applicable interest rate is the Moody’s Seasoned Aaa Corporate Bond Yield as of January 1 of each year. Generally, a participant’s account is payable upon the earliest of the participant’s separation from service with the Company, the participant’s death or disability, or a specified date that is elected by the participant in accordance with applicable rules of the Internal Revenue Code.
Additionally, in conjunction with the Premier Merger, the Company assumed the Salary Continuation Plan. The Salary Continuation Plan is an unfunded non-qualified deferred compensation plan for select former Premier Commercial executive officers, some of which are current Heritage officers. Under the Salary Continuation Plan, the Company will pay each participant, or their beneficiary, specified amounts over specified periods beginning with the individual's termination of service due to retirement subject to early termination provisions.
The Company’s obligation to make payments under the Deferred Compensation Plan and the Salary Continuation Plan is a general obligation of the Company and is to be paid from the Company’s general assets. As such, participants are general unsecured creditors of the Company with respect to their participation under both plans. The Company records a liability within accrued expenses and other liabilities on the Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition and records compensation expense in a systematic and rational manner. Since the amounts earned under the Deferred Compensation Plan are generally based on the Company’s annual performance, the Company records deferred compensation expense each year for an amount calculated based on that year’s financial performance.
Earnings per Share
The two-class method is used in the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per common share. Basic earnings per common share is net income allocated to common shareholders divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. All outstanding unvested share-based payment awards that contain rights to nonforfeitable dividends are considered participating securities for this calculation. Dividends and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities are excluded from net income allocated to common shareholders and participating securities are excluded from weighted average common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings per common share is calculated using the treasury stock method and includes the dilutive effect of additional potential common shares issuable under stock options. Earnings and dividends per share are restated for all stock splits and stock dividends through the date of issuance of the financial statements.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The commitments to originate mortgage loans held for sale and the related forward delivery contracts are considered derivatives. The Company also utilizes interest rate swap derivative contracts to facilitate the needs of its commercial customers whereby it enters into an interest rate swap with a customer while at the same time entering into an offsetting interest rate swap with another financial institution. In connection with each swap transaction, the Company agrees to pay interest to the customer on a notional amount at a variable interest rate and receive interest from the customer on a similar notional amount at a fixed interest rate. At the same time, the Company agrees to pay another financial institution the same fixed interest rate on the same notional amount and receive the same variable interest rate on the same notional amount. The transaction allows the Company’s customer to effectively convert a variable rate loan to a fixed rate. Because the Company acts as an intermediary for its customer, changes in the fair value of the underlying derivative contracts for the most part offset each other and do not significantly impact the Company’s results of operations. These interest rate swaps are not designated as hedging instruments.
The fair value of derivative positions outstanding is included in prepaid expenses and other assets and accrued expenses and other liabilities in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition and the net change in each of these financial statement line items is included in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. For non-hedging derivative instruments, gains and losses due to changes in fair value and all cash flows are included in other noninterest income in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Income, but net to zero for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 based on the identical back-to-back interest rate swaps.
While the Company’s chief decision-makers monitor the revenue streams of the various products and services, operations are managed and financial performance is evaluated on a Company-wide basis. Operating segments are aggregated into one as operating results for all segments are similar. Accordingly, all of the financial service operations are considered by management to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
The Company's revenues are primarily composed of interest income on financial instruments, such as loans and investment securities, which are excluded from the scope of ASC 606. Descriptions of the Company's revenue-generating activities that are within the scope ASC 606, which are presented in Service Charges and Other Fees and Other Income on the Company’s Consolidated Statement of Income, are as follows:
Service Charges on Deposit Accounts: The Company earns fees from its deposit customers from a variety of deposit products and services. Non-transaction based fees such as account maintenance fees and monthly statement fees are considered to be provided to the customer under a day-to-day contract with ongoing renewals. Revenues for these non-transaction fees are earned over the course of a month, representing the period over which the Company satisfies the performance obligation. Transaction-based fees such as non-sufficient fund charges, stop payment charges and wire fees are recognized at the time the transaction is executed as the contract duration does not extend beyond the service performed.
Wealth Management and Trust Services: The Company earns fees from contracts with customers for fiduciary and brokerage activities. Revenues are generally recognized on a monthly basis and are generally based on a percentage of the customer’s assets under management or based on investment or insurance solutions that are implemented for the customer.
Merchant Processing Services and Debit and Credit Card Fees: The Company earns fees from cardholder transactions conducted through third party payment network providers which consist of (i) interchange fees earned from the payment network as a debit card issuer, (ii) referral fee income, and (iii) ongoing merchant fees earned for referring customers to the payment processing provider. These fees are recognized when the transaction occurs, but may settle on a daily or monthly basis.
(d) Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
FASB ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, (as amended by FASB ASU 2015-14; FASB ASU 2016-08; FASB ASU 2016-10 and FASB ASU 2016-12), was issued in May 2014. Under this Accounting Standard Update ("ASU" or "Update"), the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") created a new Topic 606 which is in response to a joint initiative of FASB and the International Accounting Standards Board to clarify the principles for recognizing revenue and to develop a common revenue standard for U.S. GAAP and international financial reporting standards that would:
Remove inconsistencies and weaknesses in revenue requirements.
Provide a more robust framework for addressing revenue issues.
Improve comparability of revenue recognition practices across entities, industries, jurisdictions and capital markets.
Provide more useful information to users of financial statements through improved disclosure requirements.
Simplify the preparation of financial statements by reducing the number of requirements to which an entity must refer.
The Company adopted the revenue recognition guidance, as amended, on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective approach. A significant amount of the Company’s revenues are derived from interest income on financial assets, which are excluded from the scope of the amended guidance. With respect to noninterest income and related disclosures, the Company has identified and evaluated the revenue streams and underlying revenue contracts within the scope of the guidance. The Company did not identify any significant changes in the timing of revenue recognition when considering the amended accounting guidance. The adoption of the Update did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements, but the adoption did change certain disclosure requirements as described in Significant Accounting Policies above.
FASB ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (Subtopic 825-10), was issued in January 2016, to enhance the reporting model for financial instruments to provide users of financial statements with more decision-useful information. This Update contains several provisions, including but not limited to (1) requiring equity investments, with certain exceptions, to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income; (2) simplifying the impairment assessment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values by requiring a qualitative assessment to identify impairment; (3) eliminating the requirement to disclose the method(s) and significant assumptions used to estimate fair value; and (4) requiring separate presentation of financial assets and liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset on the balance sheet or the accompanying notes to the financial statements. The Update also changes certain financial statement disclosure requirements, including requiring disclosures of the fair value of financial instruments be made on the basis of exit price. The Company adopted this Update effective January 1, 2018 using the cumulative catch-up transition method. This change resulted in a cumulative adjustment of $93,000 from accumulated other comprehensive loss, net to retained earnings for the unrealized gain related to the Company's equity security. The Company's processes and procedures utilized to estimate the fair value of loans receivable and certificate of deposit accounts for disclosure requirements were additionally changed due to adoption of this Update. Previously, the Company valued these items using an entry price notion. This ASU emphasized that these instruments be measured using the exit price notion; accordingly, the Company refined its calculation as part of adopting this Update. Prior period information has not been updated to conform with the new guidance. See the Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity and Note (18) Fair Value Measurements.
FASB ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), as amended by ASU 2017-13, 2018-01, 2018-10, 2018-11 and ASU 2018-20, was originally issued in February 2016, to increase transparency and comparability of leases among organizations and to disclose key information about leasing arrangements. The Update sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both lessees and lessors. The Update requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either a finance or operating lease. This classification will determine whether the lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term greater than 12 months regardless of their classification. All cash payments will be classified within operating activities in the statement of cash flows. In transition, lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. The Update is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. During 2018, management developed its methodology to estimate the right-of use assets and lease liabilities and selected a vendor to assist with implementation and calculation of the impact under the modified retrospective approach. The Company adopted the Update on January 1, 2019 and elected an exclusion accounting policy for lease assets and lease liabilities for leases with a term of twelve months or less. The adoption of this ASU resulted in the recognition of operating lease assets and liabilities of approximately $29.3 million and $30.2 million, respectively.
FASB ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments: Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, as amended by ASU 2018-19, was issued in June 2016. Commonly referred to as the current expected credit loss model ("CECL"), this Update requires financial assets measured at amortized cost basis to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The allowance for credit losses is a valuation account that is deducted from the amortized cost basis of the financial asset to present the net carrying value at the amount expected to be collected on the financial asset. The measurement of expected credit losses is based on relevant information about past events including historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectibility of the reported amount. The amendment affects loans, debt securities, trade receivables, net investments in leases, off-balance-sheet credit exposures, reinsurance receivables and any other financial asset not excluded from the scope that have the contractual right to receive cash. The Update replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology, which generally only considered past events and current conditions, with a methodology that reflects the expected credit losses and required consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to estimate all expected credit losses. The Update additionally addresses purchased assets and introduces the purchased financial asset with a more-than-insignificant amount of credit deterioration since origination ("PCD"). The accounting for these PCD assets is similar to the existing accounting guidance of FASB ASC 310-30, Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality, for PCI assets, except the subsequent improvements in estimated cash flows will be immediately recognized into income, similar to the immediate recognition of subsequent deteriorations in cash flows. Current guidance only allows for the prospective recognition of these cash flow improvements. Because the terminology has been changed to a "more-than-insignificant" amount of credit deterioration, the presumption is that more assets might qualify for this accounting under the Update than those under current guidance. For public business entities, the Update is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted for fiscal years after December 15, 2018. An entity will apply the Update through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is adopted. A prospective transition approach is required for debt securities. An entity that has previously applied the guidance of FASB ASC 310-30 will prospectively apply the guidance in this Update for PCD assets. A prospective transition approach should be used for PCD assets where upon adoption, the amortized cost basis should be adjusted to reflect the addition of the allowance for credit losses. The Company is anticipating adopting the Update on January 1, 2020. Upon adoption, the Company expects a change in the processes, internal controls and procedures to calculate the allowance for loan losses, including changes in assumptions and estimates to consider expected credit losses over the life of the loan versus the current accounting practice that utilizes the incurred loss model. The new guidance may result in an increase in the allowance for loan losses which will also reflect the new requirement to include the nonaccretable principal differences on PCI loans; however, the Company is still in the process of determining the magnitude of the increase and its impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, the current accounting policy and procedures for other-than-temporary impairment on investment securities available for sale will be replaced with an allowance approach. During 2017, the Company's management created a CECL steering committee to ensure it is fully compliant with the amendments at the adoption date. During 2018, the CECL steering committee selected a vendor to assist the Company in the adoption, completed the implementation discovery sessions, and selected appropriate methodologies. The CECL steering committee is in the process of refining key data to process through its CECL models and developing formal CECL processes and procedures. The Company anticipates running parallel existing ALLL and CECL models by second quarter 2019.
FASB ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, was issued in August 2016. The Update addresses eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. For public business entities, the guidance was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and must be applied using a retrospective transitional method to each period presented. The Company adopted this Update on January 1, 2018. The adoption did not have a significant impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements as cash proceeds received from the settlement of bank-owned life insurance policies and cash payments for premiums on bank-owned life insurance policies were previously classified as cash inflows and outflows, respectively, from investing activities in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
FASB ASU 2017-04, Goodwill (Topic 350), was issued in January 2017 and eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Under the amendments, an entity should perform its goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The loss recognized, however, should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, an entity should consider income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. The Update is effective for annual periods or any interim goodwill impairment tests beginning after December 15, 2019 using a prospective transition method and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the Update will have a material impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
FASB ASU 2017-08, Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities was issued in March 2017 and changes the accounting for certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium to shorten the amortization period for the premium to the earliest call date rather than to the maturity date. Accounting for purchased callable debt securities held at a discount does not change. The discount would continue to amortize to the maturity date. The Update is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this Update in January 2018. The adoption did not have a material impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements as the Company had been accounting for premiums as prescribed under this guidance.
FASB ASU 2017-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting was issued in May 2017 to provide clarity as to when to apply modification accounting when there is a change in the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. According to this Update, an entity should account for the effects of a modification unless the fair value, vesting conditions and balance sheet classification of the award is the same after the modification as compared to the original award prior to the modification. The Update was effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company adopted the Update on January 1, 2018. The adoption did not have a material impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements because no share-based payment award was modified during the year ended December 31, 2018. The Company will apply this Update prospectively for any subsequent modifications of share-based payment awards.
FASB ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income was issued to address the income tax accounting treatment of the stranded tax effects within other comprehensive income due to the prohibition of backward tracing due to an income tax rate change that was initially recorded in other comprehensive income. This issue came about from the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on December 22, 2017 ("Tax Cuts and Jobs Act") that changed the Company’s income tax rate from 35% to 21%. The Update changed current accounting whereby an entity may elect to reclassify the stranded tax effect from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to retained earnings. The Update is effective for periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption was permitted. The Company early adopted ASU 2018-02 effective December 31, 2017 and elected a portfolio policy to reclassify the stranded tax effects of the change in the federal corporate tax rate of the net unrealized gains on its available-for-sale investment securities of $218,000 from accumulated other comprehensive loss, net to retained earnings. See the Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity.
FASB ASU 2018-05, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 was issued to provide guidance on the income tax accounting implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, and allows for entities to report provisional amounts for specific income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act for which the accounting under ASC Topic 740 was not yet complete but a reasonable estimate could be determined. A measurement period of one-year is allowed to complete the accounting effects under ASC Topic 740 and revise any previous estimates reported. Any provisional amounts or subsequent adjustments included in an entity’s financial statements during the measurement period should be included in income from continuing operations as an adjustment to tax expense in the reporting period the amounts are determined. The Company adopted this Update with the provisional adjustments as reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements on Form 10-K as of December 31, 2017. As of December 31, 2018, the Company did not incur any adjustments to the provisional recognition.
FASB ASU 2018-13, Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, was issued in August 2018 and modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820. The amendments in this Update are effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company does not expect the Update will have a material impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements.