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Section 1: S-3ASR (S-3ASR)

S-3ASR
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 6, 2020

Registration No. 333-                    

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Form S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, INC.

REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Maryland (Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.)   46-2024407 (Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.)
Maryland (Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.)   80-0894389 (Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.)

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

11620 Wilshire Blvd.,

Suite 1000, Los Angeles, California 90025

(310) 966-1680

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Howard Schwimmer

Michael S. Frankel

Co-Chief Executive Officers

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

Los Angeles, California 90025

(310) 485-1234

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Julian T.H. Kleindorfer, Esq.

Bradley A. Helms, Esq.

Brent T. Epstein, Esq.

Latham & Watkins LLP

355 South Grand Avenue

Los Angeles, CA 90071

(213) 485-1234

 

 

APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.   ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.   ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.   ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective on filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.   ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.   ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)2(B) of the Securities Act.

 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.  

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each class of

securities to be registered

 

Amount

to be
registered

  Proposed
maximum
offering price
per unit
 

Proposed
maximum
aggregate

offering price

 

Amount of

registration fee

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Common Stock

  (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (1)(2)(3)   (4) 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Preferred Stock

  (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (1)(2)(3)    (4) 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Debt Securities

  (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (4) 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Depositary Shares

  (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (4) 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Warrants(5)

  (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (4) 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Rights

  (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (4) 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Units(6)

  (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (4) 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Guarantees of Debt Securities(7)

  (8)    n/a   n/a   (7) 

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. Debt Securities(7)

  (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (1)(2)    (4) 

 

 

(1)

Omitted pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.E.

(2)

An unspecified number of securities or aggregate initial offering price, as applicable, is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities or that are issued in units or represented by depositary shares.

(3)

Includes rights to acquire common stock or preferred stock of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. under any shareholder rights plan then in effect, if applicable under the terms of any such plan.

(4)

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of the entire registration fee.

(5)

The warrants covered by this Registration Statement may be preferred share warrants, common share warrants or depositary share warrants.

(6)

In U.S. dollars or the equivalent thereof denominated in one or more foreign currencies or units of two or more foreign currencies or composite currencies (such as European Currency Units).

(7)

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. may fully and unconditionally guarantee the payment of principal of and premium (if any) and interest on debt securities offered by Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

(8)

No separate consideration will be received for the guarantees. Pursuant to Rule 457(n), no separate fee is payable with respect to the guarantees being registered hereby.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Warrants

Rights

Units

Guarantees of Debt Securities

 

 

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

Debt Securities

 

 

We may offer and sell the securities identified above, and the selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of common stock, in each case from time to time in one or more offerings. Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. may offer from time to time debt securities in one or more series. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling securityholders.

Each time we or any of the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or such selling securityholders will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and, if applicable, the selling securityholders, as well as the amounts, prices and terms of the securities to be offered, which may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve the status of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. as a real estate investment trust, or REIT. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, the selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “REXR.” On November 5, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $50.16 per share.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ AND CONSIDER THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is November 6, 2020


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE.

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

     24  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     25  

DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

     29  

MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     39  

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     45  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     73  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     74  

LEGAL MATTERS

     75  

EXPERTS

     75  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings and the selling securityholders to be named in a supplement to this prospectus may, from time to time, sell shares of common stock from time to time in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. Each time that we or the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or the selling securityholders will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

Neither we, nor the selling securityholders, have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the selling securityholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the selling securityholders will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Rexford,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company,” mean Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership, of which we are the sole general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus as our “operating partnership.” When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable class or series of securities.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

Our website address is www.rexfordindustrial.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC as provided above, or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

We incorporate by reference into this prospectus our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 13, 2020;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, June  30, 2020 and September 30, 2020;

 

   

our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 16, 2020, February  14, 2020, February  14, 2020, March  6, 2020, May  14, 2020, May  20, 2020, May  28, 2020, July  9, 2020, August  13, 2020 and October 9, 2020; and

 

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the description of our common stock included in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on July 17, 2013 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000

Los Angeles, California 90025

Attention: General Counsel

(310) 966-1680

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a self-administered and self-managed full-service REIT focused on owning, operating and acquiring industrial properties in Southern California infill markets. Our goal is to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns for our stockholders by providing superior access to industrial property investments in Southern California infill markets.

The Company was formed as a Maryland corporation on January 18, 2013 and the operating partnership was formed as a Maryland limited partnership on January 18, 2013. Through the Company’s controlling interest in the operating partnership and its subsidiaries, the Company owns, manages, leases, acquires and develops industrial real estate primarily located in Southern California infill markets, and from time to time, acquires or provides mortgage debt secured by industrial property. As of September 30, 2020, the Company’s consolidated portfolio consisted of 231 properties with approximately 27.7 million rentable square feet. In addition, the Company currently manages an additional 20 properties with approximately 1.0 million rentable square feet.

The Company elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, commencing with the Company’s taxable year ended December 31, 2013. The Company is generally not subject to federal taxes on its income to the extent the Company distributes its income to its stockholders and maintains its qualification as a REIT.

Our principal executive offices are located at 11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000, Los Angeles, California 90025. Our telephone number is 310-966-1680. Our website address is www.rexfordindustrial.com. The information on, or otherwise accessible through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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GUARANTOR DISCLOSURES

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. may guarantee debt securities of the operating partnership as described in “Description of Debt Securities and Related Guarantees.” Any such guarantees by Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. will be full, irrevocable, unconditional and absolute joint and several guarantees to the holders of each series of such outstanding guaranteed debt securities. The Company owns all of its assets and conducts all of its operations through the operating partnership and the operating partnership is consolidated into the Company’s financial statements.

In March 2020, the SEC adopted amendments to Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X and created Rule 13-01 to simplify disclosure requirements related to certain registered securities. The amendments become effective January 4, 2021 but earlier compliance is permitted. The Company and the operating partnership have filed this prospectus with the SEC registering, among other securities, debt securities of the operating partnership, which will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. As a result of the amendments to Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X, subsidiary issuers of obligations guaranteed by the parent are not required to provide separate financial statements, provided that the subsidiary obligor is consolidated into the parent company’s consolidated financial statements, the parent guarantee is “full and unconditional” and, subject to certain exceptions as set forth below, the alternative disclosure required by Rule 13-01 is provided, which includes narrative disclosure and summarized financial information. Accordingly, separate consolidated financial statements of the operating partnership have not been presented.

Furthermore, as permitted under Rule 13-01(a)(4)(vi) of Regulation S-X, we have excluded the summarized financial information for the operating partnership because the assets, liabilities and results of operations of the operating partnership are not materially different than the corresponding amounts in Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference herein, and management believes such summarized financial information would be repetitive and would not provide incremental value to investors.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of offered securities by us to our operating partnership. Our operating partnership will use the net proceeds from us or from any sale of offered securities by it as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Pending application of cash proceeds, we will invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts, money market accounts and interest bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our intention to qualify for taxation as a REIT. Such investments may include, for example, government and government agency certificates, government bonds, certificates of deposit, interest-bearing bank deposits, money market accounts and mortgage loan participations. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling securityholders, if any, pursuant to this prospectus.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

General

This prospectus describes the general terms of our common stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, and our charter and bylaws. When we or any selling securityholders offer to sell a particular class or series of common stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of common stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 489,950,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, or common stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board of directors and without any action by our common stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock. As of September 30, 2020, 123,788,591 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding.

Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

All of the shares of our common stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of holders of any other class or series of our stock, including our series A preferred stock, series B preferred stock and series C preferred stock (each as described below), and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends and other distributions on such shares if, as and when authorized by our board of directors out of assets legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, after payment or establishment of reserves for all known debts and liabilities of our company.

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of our stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of our stock, the holders of shares of common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors. Directors are elected by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes cast “for” and “against” the election of a nominee at any meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present; provided, however, that directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors if there is a contested election. Our corporate governance guidelines require a nominee for director in an uncontested election not elected by the vote required in the bylaws and who is an incumbent director to promptly tender his or her resignation to the board of directors for consideration.

Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company. Our charter provides that our stockholders generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines prospectively that appraisal rights will apply to one or more transactions in which our stockholders would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

 

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Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, consolidate, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless declared advisable by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides for approval of any of these matters by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such matters, except that the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors is required to remove a director (and such removal must be for cause) and the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter is required to amend the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors or the vote required to amend such provisions. Maryland law also permits a Maryland corporation to transfer all or substantially all of its assets without the approval of the stockholders of the corporation to an entity if all of the equity interests of the entity are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation. Because our operating assets may be held by our operating partnership or its subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, to establish the designation and number of shares of each class or series and to set, subject to the provisions of our charter relating to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each such class or series.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of common stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional authorized shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of our preferred stock we may issue in the future or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, our charter contains certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

General

This prospectus describes the general terms of our preferred stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the MGCL and our charter and bylaws. When we offer to sell a particular class or series of preferred stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 10,050,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, or preferred stock of which 3,600,000 shares are classified as 5.875% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or series A preferred stock, 3,000,000 shares are classified as 5.875% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or series B preferred stock, and 3,450,000 shares are classified as 5.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or series C preferred stock. The series A preferred stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “REXR Pr A,” the series B preferred stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “REXR Pr B” and the series C preferred stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “REXR Pr C.” Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board and without any action by our common stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of preferred stock into one or more classes or series of preferred stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each new class or series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of each such class or series. As a result, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock that have priority over shares of our common stock with respect to dividends or other distributions or rights upon liquidation or with other terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. As of the date hereof, there are 3,600,000 shares of series A preferred stock, 3,000,000 shares of series B preferred stock and 3,450,000 shares of series C preferred stock issued and outstanding.

The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series, including a prospectus supplement providing that preferred stock may be issuable upon the exercise of warrants or the exercise or conversion of other securities we issue. The description of preferred stock set forth below and the description of the terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the articles supplementary or other charter provisions relating to that class or series.

Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

The preferences and other terms of the preferred stock of each class or series will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such class or series. A prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series, will specify the terms of the class or series of preferred stock as follows:

 

   

the designation and par value of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

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the number of shares of such class or series of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s), and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

whether dividends on such class or series of preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on such class or series of preferred stock shall accumulate,

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

the provision for redemption, if applicable, of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

any listing of such class or series of preferred stock on any securities exchange,

 

   

the preemptive rights, if any, of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which shares such class or series of preferred stock will be convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof),

 

   

a discussion of any additional material federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

any limitations on actual, beneficial and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to assist us to preserve our status as a REIT,

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

 

   

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of stock ranking senior to or on parity with such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

 

   

any voting rights of such class or series of preferred stock, and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of such class or series of preferred stock.

Rank

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, rank: (1) senior to all classes or series of our common stock, and to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking junior to such class or series of preferred stock; (2) on parity with any class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking on parity with such class or series of preferred stock; and (3) junior to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking senior to such class or series of preferred stock.

Conversion Rights

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any shares of any class or series of preferred stock are convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of our common stock or the number of shares of such other class or series of our stock or other securities into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of such class or series of preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of such class or series of preferred stock.

 

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Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock

Dividends on outstanding shares of series A preferred stock and series B preferred stock are cumulative and are payable quarterly in arrears at the rate of 5.875% per annum of the $25.00 liquidation preference, or $1.46875 per annum per share. Dividends on outstanding shares of series C preferred stock are cumulative and are payable quarterly in arrears at the rate of 5.625% per annum of the $25.00 liquidation preference, or $1.40625 per annum per share. Unless full cumulative dividends on the series A preferred stock, series B preferred stock or series C preferred stock, which we refer to as the series A/B/C preferred stock for purposes of describing the three series together, for all past dividend periods have been or contemporaneously are declared and paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment thereof is set apart for payment, we generally may not:

 

   

declare and pay or declare and set apart for payment any dividends or other distributions of cash or other property, directly or indirectly, on or with respect to any shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our capital stock ranking, as to dividends, on parity with or junior to the series A/B/C preferred stock; or

 

   

redeem, purchase or otherwise acquire any common stock or shares of any other class or series of our capital stock ranking, as to dividends and upon liquidation, on parity with or junior to the series A/B/C preferred stock.

The series A preferred stock is not redeemable by us before August 16, 2021, the series B preferred stock is not redeemable by us before November 13, 2022 and the series C preferred stock is not redeemable by us before September 20, 2024, in each case, except under limited circumstances to preserve our status as a REIT or relating to our maintenance of our ability to qualify as a REIT. On and after August 16, 2021, November 13, 2022 or September 20, 2024, as applicable, we may, at our option, redeem the series A/B/C preferred stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) up to but excluding the date fixed for redemption.

In addition, upon the occurrence of certain change of control transactions after which our common stock (or the common stock of the successor) is not listed (as defined in our charter, a “Change of Control”), we may, subject to certain conditions and at our option, redeem the series A/B/C preferred stock, in whole or in part, within 120 days after the date of the change of control, for a cash redemption price per share of series A/B/C preferred stock equal to $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the date of redemption.

Unless we have elected to redeem the series A/B/C preferred stock prior to a Change of Control, upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of the series A/B/C preferred stock will have the right to convert some or all of the shares of series A/B/C preferred stock held by such holder into a number of shares of our common stock per share of series A/B/C preferred stock to be converted equal to the lesser of: (A) the quotient obtained by dividing the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to, but not including, the conversion date by the Common Stock Price (as defined below); and (B) 2.2738, with respect to the series A preferred stock, 1.6578, with respect to the series B preferred stock, or 1.1390, with respect to the series C preferred stock, subject to certain adjustments and subject, in each case, to provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration as described in the articles supplementary designating the terms of the series A/B/C preferred stock.

The “Common Stock Price” will be (i) if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is solely cash, the amount of cash consideration per share of our common stock or (ii) if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by holders of our common stock is other than solely cash (x) the average of the closing sale prices per share of our common stock (or, if no closing sale price is reported, the average of the closing bid and ask prices or, if more than one in either case, the average of the average closing bid and the average closing ask prices) for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control as reported on the principal U.S. securities exchange on which our common stock is then traded, or (y) the average of the last quoted bid prices for

 

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our common stock in the over-the-counter market as reported by OTC Markets Group Inc. or similar organization for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control, if our common stock is not then listed for trading on a U.S. securities exchange.

Each holder of the series A/B/C preferred stock is entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share of series A/B/C preferred stock, plus any accumulated and unpaid distributions thereon (whether or not authorized or declared), before the holders of our common stock or other junior securities receive any distributions in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company.

Holders of the series A/B/C preferred stock will generally have no voting rights. However, if we do not pay dividends on the series A/B/C preferred stock for six or more quarterly periods, whether or not consecutive, holders of shares of the series A/B/C preferred stock and holders of all other classes or series of parity preferred stock with which the holders of series A/B/C preferred stock are entitled to vote together as a single class (voting together as a single class), will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until all unpaid dividends for past dividend periods with respect to the series A/B/C preferred stock have been paid. In addition, we may not authorize or issue any class or series of equity securities ranking senior to the series A/B/C preferred stock or amend our charter (whether by merger, consolidation, transfer or conveyance of substantially all of the company’s assets or otherwise) so as to materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers of the series A/B/C preferred stock without the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of affected series A/B/C preferred stock and each other class or series of parity preferred stock with which the holders of the applicable series A/B/C preferred stock are entitled to vote together as a single class on such matter (voting together as a single class).

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Preferred Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of preferred stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our preferred stock in one or more classes or series and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series of preferred stock, as well as the additional authorized shares of preferred stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of preferred stock we may issue in the future or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we expect that each class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be subject to certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of such class or series of preferred stock set forth in our charter, including the articles supplementary for each such class or series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any ownership limitations relating to such class or series. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” for a description of the restrictions on ownership and transfer applicable to shares of our common stock and to shares of our capital stock in the aggregate (including any and all classes or series of our preferred stock).

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES AND RELATED GUARANTEES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of our operating partnership’s debt securities and related guarantees by the Company, if any, that we may offer under this prospectus. When our operating partnership offers to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus, including the terms of any related guarantees. We will also indicate in the prospectus supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Debt securities may be our operating partnership’s senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be the direct, unsecured obligations of our operating partnership and may be issued in one or more series.

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be issued under an indenture among our operating partnership, as issuer, Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. We have filed the indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and you should read the indenture and debt securities carefully for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined in this prospectus have the meanings specified in the indenture.

As used in this “Description of Debt Securities and Related Guarantees,” references to the “operating partnership,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer solely to Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. and not to any of its subsidiaries and references to the “Company” or “guarantor” refer solely to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by the Company, as the sole general partner of our operating partnership, by or pursuant to a resolution of the board of directors of the Company and set forth or determined in the manner provided in such resolutions, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series, including any pricing supplement or term sheet.

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the indenture will designate U.S. Bank National Association as the trustee for the indenture with respect to one or more series of our operating partnership’s debt securities and related guarantees by the Company, if any. U.S. Bank National Association, or any other specified trustee, may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of our debt securities, and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to that series.

Unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be the direct, unsecured obligations of our operating partnership and may be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. Our operating partnership can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement, including any pricing supplement or term sheet, relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions),

 

   

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities,

 

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any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities,

 

   

the date or dates on which the principal on the debt securities is payable,

 

   

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date,

 

   

the place or places where principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be payable, the method of such payment, where debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to us relating to the debt securities may be delivered,

 

   

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities,

 

   

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the debt securities shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation,

 

   

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations,

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof,

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities,

 

   

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount,

 

   

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency,

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be made,

 

   

if payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined,

 

   

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index,

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities or the guarantees,

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default (as defined below) described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,

 

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a discussion of any additional material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the debt securities,

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities,

 

   

whether the debt securities are exchangeable for, or convertible into, any other securities,

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities,

 

   

whether the debt securities are entitled to the benefits of the guarantee of any guarantor, and whether any such guarantee is made on a senior or subordinated basis and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms of any such guarantee,

 

   

whether a person other than U.S. Bank National Association is to act as trustee,

 

   

the securities exchange, if any, on which the debt securities may be listed, and

 

   

any change in the right of the trustee or the right of the requisite holders to declare the principal amount of debt securities due and payable.

Our operating partnership may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If our operating partnership denominates the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, and any premium and interest on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary or DTC, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, and any premium and interest on, certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary.

 

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No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) that could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale

Our operating partnership and the Company may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its respective properties and assets to, any person (such person, a “successor person”), unless:

(1) our operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be, is the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than our operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes in the case of the operating partnership, payment of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest and any redemption price due on all of the debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions of the operating partnership in the indenture and the debt securities, or in the case of the Company, the payment of all amounts due under its guarantees of the debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions of the Company in the indenture and the guarantees, as the case may be;

(2) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, has occurred and is continuing; and

(3) in the case of a consolidation by our operating partnership, if our operating partnership is not the successor person, then each guarantor of the debt securities, unless it has become the successor person, confirms that its guarantee will continue to apply to the obligations under the debt securities and the indenture to the same extent as prior to such merger, conveyance, transfer or lease, as applicable.

Our operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be, must deliver to the trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an officer’s certificate to the foregoing effect and an opinion of counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with the indenture.

In the event of any transaction described in and complying with the conditions listed in the immediately preceding paragraphs in which our operating partnership and/or the Company are not the continuing entity, the successor person formed or remaining shall succeed, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of ours, and our operating partnership and/or the Company shall be discharged from our obligations under the debt securities and the indenture.

Events of Default

The following events constitute Events of Default, unless otherwise provided by resolution of the board of directors, supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate:

(a)    default in the payment of any interest on any debt security when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by our operating partnership with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period);

 

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(b)    default in the payment of principal of any debt security at maturity;

(c)    default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of our operating partnership under the debt security of that series or the indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to our operating partnership by the trustee or to our operating partnership and the trustee by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a notice of default;

(d)    failure to pay any indebtedness (other than non-recourse indebtedness) for monies borrowed by the operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their respective significant subsidiaries in an outstanding principal amount in excess of $50,000,000 at final maturity or upon acceleration after the expiration of any applicable grace period, which indebtedness (other than non-recourse indebtedness) is, or has become, the primary obligation of the operating partnership or any guarantor and is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within 60 days after written notice to the operating partnership from the trustee (or to the operating partnership and the trustee from holders of at least twenty five percent (25%) in principal amount of the outstanding securities) (for purposes of this, the amount of indebtedness (other than non-recourse indebtedness) shall be measured not by the underlying debt amount, but only by that portion of the underlying debt amount which is recourse to the operating partnership or such guarantor);

(e)    our operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their significant subsidiaries pursuant to or within the meaning of any bankruptcy law, (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property, (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or (v) generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

(f)    a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any bankruptcy law that: (i) is for relief against our operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their significant subsidiaries in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a custodian of our operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their significant subsidiaries or for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of our operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their significant subsidiaries, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

(g)    any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series, which is specified in a resolution of the board of directors, a supplemental indenture to the indenture or an officer’s certificate, in accordance with the applicable provisions of the indenture.

“Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our or our subsidiaries’ indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in provisions (d) or (e) above), then in every such case the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the principal amount (or, if any securities of that series are discount securities, such portion of the

 

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principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such debt securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to our operating partnership (and to the trustee if given by holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, will become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in provisions (d) or (e) above will occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by a notice in writing to our operating partnership and the trustee, may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

The indenture provides that the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense that might be incurred by it in exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

No holder of any debt security shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

(a)    such holder has previously given written notice to the trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the debt securities;

(b)    the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee;

(c)    such holder or holders have offered to the trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by the trustee in compliance with such request;

(d)    the trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(e)    no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such 60-day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities.

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the debt securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee

 

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shall mail to each holder of the debt securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, money and/or Foreign Government Obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest on, if any, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

   

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Merger, Consolidation or Sale” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and

 

   

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series, or covenant defeasance.

The conditions include:

 

   

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, money and/or Foreign Government Obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities, and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.

 

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Covenant Defeasance and Events of Default. In the event we exercise our option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to any series of debt securities and the debt securities of that series are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of money and/or U.S. government obligations or money and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee will be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of the acceleration resulting from the Event of Default. In such a case, we would remain liable for those payments.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

Satisfaction and Discharge

The indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect (except as to surviving rights or registration of transfer or exchange of the debt securities, as expressly provided for in the indenture) as to all outstanding debt securities when:

 

   

either:

 

   

all the debt securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (except lost, stolen or destroyed debt securities which have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation; or

 

   

all debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable or will become due and payable at their maturity within one year, have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year, or are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to the legal defeasance provisions of the indenture, and our operating partnership has irrevocably deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited with the trustee as trust funds in trust cash or noncallable U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of debt securities which have become due and payable) or to the maturity date or redemption date, as the case may be;

 

   

our operating partnership has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable under the indenture by our operating partnership; and

 

   

our operating partnership has delivered to the trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.

Modification and Waiver

Our operating partnership and the trustee may modify and amend the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency,

 

   

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Merger, Consolidation or Sale,”

 

   

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities; provided that the uncertificated debt securities are issued in registered form for purposes of Section 163(f) of the Code,

 

   

to surrender any of our operating partnership’s rights or powers under the indenture,

 

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to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series,

 

   

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary,

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities,

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture,

 

   

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee,

 

   

to comply with requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act,

 

   

to reflect the release of a guarantor of the debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture, or

 

   

to add guarantors with respect to any or all of the debt securities or to secure any or all of the debt securities or the guarantees.

Our operating partnership may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. Our operating partnership may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

   

reduce the principal amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver,

 

   

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security,

 

   

reduce the principal or change the fixed maturity of, any debt security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities,

 

   

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity,

 

   

waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration),

 

   

make the principal of or interest, if any, on any debt security payable in any currency other than that stated in the debt security,

 

   

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments,

 

   

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security, provided that such redemption is made at our operating partnership’s option, or

 

   

if the debt securities of that series are entitled to the benefit of a guarantee, release any guarantor of such series other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders.

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive

 

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our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all of the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

Regarding the Trustee

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, U.S. Bank National Association will initially act as the trustee, registrar and paying agent for the debt securities, subject to replacement at our operating partnership’s option as provided in the indenture.

If an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be required to use the same degree of care and skill a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee will become obligated to exercise any of its powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the required percentage under the indenture only after those holders have offered, and, if requested, provided the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it.

If the trustee becomes one of our creditors, it will be subject to limitations on its rights to obtain payment of claims or to realize on some property received for any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with our operating partnership. If, however, it acquires any conflicting interest, it must eliminate that conflict or resign.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders

No director, officer, employee, or stockholder will have any liability for any of our obligations or those of our operating partnership under the debt securities, the indenture, any guarantees or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder of debt securities by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the debt securities. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.

Governing Law

The indenture, the debt securities and the guarantees will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement a description of any depositary shares, warrants, rights or units issued by us that may be offered and sold pursuant to this prospectus.

 

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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

The following summary with respect to restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock sets forth certain general terms and provisions of our charter documents to which any prospectus supplement may relate. This summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter, as amended and supplemented from time to time, including any articles supplementary relating to any class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus. A copy of our existing charter is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Any amendment or supplement to our charter relating to a class or series of securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the applicable prospectus supplement. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock (after taking into account options to acquire shares of stock) may be owned, directly, indirectly or through application of certain attribution rules by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) at any time during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and continuing to qualify as a REIT. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock, our series A preferred stock, our series B preferred stock or our series C preferred stock, excluding, in each case, any shares of such class of stock that are not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes, or more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock, excluding any shares of any class and series of our stock that are not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes. We refer to each of these restrictions as an “ownership limit” and collectively as the “ownership limits.” A person or entity that would have acquired actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock but for the application of the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below is referred to as a “prohibited owner.”

The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our common stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 9.8% of our outstanding common stock and thereby violate the applicable ownership limit.

Our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, may exempt (prospectively or retroactively) a person from any or all of the ownership limits if doing so would not result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT and our board of directors determines that:

 

   

such exemption will not cause or permit any individual to actually or beneficially own more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock; and

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, the person does not and will not own, actually or constructively, an interest in a tenant of ours (or a tenant of any entity owned in whole or in part by us) that would cause us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.9% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in such tenant.

 

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As a condition of the exception, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, ruling, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT and representations and undertakings from the person seeking the exemption or excepted holder limit in order to make the determinations above. Our board of directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with such an exception.

Our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion, increase or decrease any or all of the ownership limits for one or more persons, except that a decreased ownership limit will not be effective for any person whose actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock exceeds the decreased ownership limit at the time of the decrease until the person’s actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, although any further acquisition of shares of our stock or beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock will violate the decreased ownership limit. Our board of directors may not increase or decrease any ownership limit if, among other limitations, the new ownership limit would allow five or fewer persons to actually or beneficially own more than 49% in value of our outstanding stock, could cause us to be “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or could otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Our charter further prohibits:

 

   

any person from actually, beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that could result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including, but not limited to, actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that could result in us owning (actually or constructively) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income we derive from such tenant, taking into account our other income that would not qualify under the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code, would cause us to fail to satisfy any such gross income requirements imposed on REITs); and

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code).

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above must immediately give written notice to us or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, provide us at least 15 days’ prior written notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT.

The ownership limits and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

Pursuant to our charter, if any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit established by our board of directors, or could result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us. The prohibited owner will have no rights in shares of our stock held by the trustee. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid

 

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by the prohibited owner to the trustee upon demand. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable restriction on ownership and transfer of our stock, then that transfer of the number of shares that otherwise would cause any person to violate the above restrictions will be void. If any transfer of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code), then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares.

Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer of the shares to the trust (or, in the event of a gift, devise or other such transaction, the last reported sale price on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (ii) the last reported sale price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We must reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee and pay the amount of such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such shares must be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or persons designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. Upon such sale, the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the prohibited owner did not give value in connection with the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer to the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the last reported sale price on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee must reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if prior to our discovery that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trustee, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount must be paid to the trustee upon demand.

The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the charitable beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to such shares, and may exercise all voting rights with respect to such shares for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee may, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

   

rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

 

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If our board of directors or a committee thereof determines that a proposed transfer or other event has taken place that violates the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors or such committee may take such action as it deems advisable in its sole and absolute discretion to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give written notice to us stating the name and address of such owner, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the owner beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner also must provide us with any additional information that we request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the person’s actual or beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, any person that is an actual owner, beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for an actual owner, beneficial owner or constructive owner must, on request, disclose to us such information as we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT and comply with requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits.

Any certificates representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock that our stockholders believe to be in their best interest.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

A summary of the material terms and provisions of the Seventh Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., which we refer to as the “partnership agreement,” is set forth below. This summary is not complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of Maryland law and the partnership agreement. For more detail, please refer to the partnership agreement itself, a copy of which is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. For purposes of this section, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “our company” and the “general partner” refer to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

General

Substantially all of our assets are held by, and substantially all of our operations are conducted through, our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiaries. We are the sole general partner of our operating partnership, and, as of September 30, 2020, 127,455,361 common units of partnership interests in our operating partnership, or common units, were outstanding and we owned 96.9% of the outstanding common units, in each case, including common units issuable upon conversion of vested performance units and vested LTIP units of our operating partnership. In connection with the formation transactions completed in connection with our initial public offering, we became the general partner of our operating partnership and the prior investors in our portfolio prior to the formation transactions who elected to receive common units in our formation transactions and concurrent private placement were admitted as limited partners of our operating partnership. Our operating partnership is also authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as LTIP Units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as Performance Units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as 4.43937% Cumulative Redeemable Convertible Preferred Units, which we refer to as series 1 CPOP units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as 4.00% Cumulative Redeemable Convertible Preferred Units, which we refer to as series 2 CPOP units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as 5.875% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Units, which we refer to as series A preferred units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as 5.875% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Units, which we refer to as series B preferred units, and a class of units of partnership interest designated as 5.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Units, which we refer to as series C preferred units, each having the terms described below. We refer to the series 1 CPOP units and the series 2 CPOP units as the CPOP units for purposes of the describing the two series together. We refer to the series A preferred units, the series B preferred units and the series C preferred units as the series A/B/C preferred units for purposes of describing the three series together. The common units are not listed on any exchange nor are they quoted on any national market system.

Provisions in the partnership agreement may delay or make more difficult unsolicited acquisitions of us or changes in our control. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an unsolicited acquisition of us or change of our control, although some stockholders might consider such proposals, if made, desirable. These provisions also make it more difficult for third parties to alter the management structure of our operating partnership without the concurrence of our board of directors. These provisions include, among others:

 

   

redemption rights of limited partners and certain assignees of common units;

 

   

transfer restrictions on common units and other partnership interests;

 

   

a requirement that we may not be removed as the general partner of our operating partnership without our consent;

 

   

our ability in some cases to amend the partnership agreement and to cause our operating partnership to issue preferred partnership interests in our operating partnership with terms that we may determine, in either case, without the approval or consent of any limited partner; and

 

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the right of the limited partners to consent to certain transfers of our general partnership interest (whether by sale, disposition, statutory merger or consolidation, liquidation or otherwise).

Purpose, Business and Management

Our operating partnership was formed for the purpose of conducting any business, enterprise or activity permitted by or under the Maryland Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (the “Act”). Our operating partnership may enter into any partnership, joint venture, business trust arrangement, limited liability company or other similar arrangement and may own interests in any other entity engaged in any business permitted by or under the Act, subject to any consent rights set forth in our partnership agreement.

In general, our board of directors manages the business and affairs of our operating partnership by directing our business and affairs, in our capacity as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. Except as otherwise expressly provided in the partnership agreement and subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest, all management powers over the business and affairs of our operating partnership are exclusively vested in us, in our capacity as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. We may not be removed as the general partner of our operating partnership, with or without cause, without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion.

Restrictions on General Partner’s Authority

The partnership agreement prohibits us, in our capacity as general partner, from taking any action that would make it impossible to carry out the ordinary business of our operating partnership or performing any act that would subject a limited partner to liability as a general partner in any jurisdiction or any other liability except as provided under the partnership agreement or under the Act. We generally may not, without the prior consent of the partners of our operating partnership (including us), amend, modify or terminate the partnership agreement, except for certain amendments described below that require the approval of each affected partner. We may not, in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership, without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us):

 

   

take any action in contravention of an express provision or limitation of the partnership agreement;

 

   

transfer all or any portion of our general partnership interest in our operating partnership or admit any person as a successor general partner, subject to the exceptions described in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner”; or

 

   

voluntarily withdraw as the general partner.

Without the consent of each affected limited partner or in connection with a transfer of all of our interests in our partnership in connection with a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a reclassification, recapitalization or change in our outstanding stock permitted without the consent of the limited partners as described in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner,” or a permitted termination transaction, we may not enter into any contract, mortgage, loan or other agreement that expressly prohibits or restricts us or our operating partnership from performing our or its specific obligations in connection with a redemption of units or expressly prohibits or restricts a limited partner from exercising its redemption rights in full. In addition to any approval or consent required by any other provision of the partnership agreement, we may not, without the consent of each affected partner, amend the partnership agreement or take any other action that would:

 

   

convert a limited partner interest into a general partner interest (other than as a result of our acquisition of that interest);

 

   

adversely modify in any material respect the limited liability of a limited partner;

 

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alter the rights of any partner to receive the distributions to which such partner is entitled, or alter the allocations specified in the partnership agreement, except to the extent permitted by the partnership agreement including in connection with the creation or issuance of any new class or series of partnership interest or to effect or facilitate a permitted termination transaction;

 

   

alter or modify the redemption rights of holders of common units (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a permitted termination transaction);

 

   

alter or modify the provisions governing the transfer of our general partnership interest in our operating partnership (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a permitted termination transaction);

 

   

remove certain provisions of the partnership agreement relating to the requirements for us to qualify as a REIT or permitting us to avoid paying tax under Sections 857 or 4981 of the Code; or

 

   

amend the provisions of the partnership agreement requiring the consent of each affected partner before taking any of the actions described above or the related definitions specified in the partnership agreement (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a permitted termination transaction).

Additional Limited Partners

We may cause our operating partnership to issue additional units in one or more classes or series or other partnership interests and to admit additional limited partners to our operating partnership from time to time, on such terms and conditions and for such capital contributions as we may establish in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval or consent of any limited partner.

The partnership agreement authorizes our operating partnership to issue common units, LTIP Units, Performance Units, CPOP units and series A/B/C preferred units and our operating partnership may issue additional partnership interests in one or more additional classes, or one or more series of any of such classes, with such designations, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption (including, without limitation, terms that may be senior or otherwise entitled to preference over existing units) as we may determine, in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval of any limited partner or any other person. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, we may specify, as to any such class or series of partnership interest, the allocations of items of partnership income, gain, loss, deduction and credit to each such class or series of partnership interest.

Ability to Engage in Other Businesses; Conflicts of Interest

The partnership agreement provides that we may not conduct any business other than in connection with the ownership, acquisition and disposition of partnership interests, the management of the business and affairs of our operating partnership, our operation as a reporting company with a class (or classes) of securities registered under the Exchange Act, our operations as a REIT, the offering, sale, syndication, private placement or public offering of stock, bonds, securities or other interests, financing or refinancing of any type related to our operating partnership or its assets or activities and such activities as are incidental to those activities discussed above. In general, we must contribute any assets or funds that we acquire to our operating partnership whether as capital contributions, loans or otherwise, as appropriate, in exchange for additional partnership interests. We may, however, in our sole and absolute discretion, from time to time hold or acquire assets in our own name or otherwise other than through our operating partnership so long as we take commercially reasonable measures to ensure that the economic benefits and burdens of such property are otherwise vested in our operating partnership.

 

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Distributions

Our operating partnership will distribute such amounts, at such times, as we may in our sole and absolute discretion determine:

 

   

first, with respect to any partnership interests that are entitled to any preference in distribution, including the series A/B/C preferred units and the CPOP units, in accordance with the rights of the holders of such class(es) of partnership interest, and, within each such class, among the holders of such class pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests of such class; and

 

   

second, with respect to any partnership interests that are not entitled to any preference in distribution, including the common units and, except as described below with respect to liquidating distributions and as may be provided in any incentive award plan or any applicable award agreement, the LTIP Units and Performance Units, in accordance with the rights of the holders of such class(es) of partnership interest, and, within each such class, among the holders of each such class, pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests of such class.

Exculpation and Indemnification of General Partner

The partnership agreement provides that we are not liable to our operating partnership or any partner for any action or omission taken in our capacity as general partner, for the debts or liabilities of our operating partnership or for the obligations of our operating partnership under the partnership agreement, except for liability for our fraud, willful misconduct or gross negligence, pursuant to any express indemnity we may give to our operating partnership or in connection with a redemption as described in “—Redemption Rights of Qualifying Parties.” The partnership agreement also provides that any obligation or liability in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership that may arise at any time under the partnership agreement or any other instrument, transaction or undertaking contemplated by the partnership agreement will be satisfied, if at all, out of our assets or the assets of our operating partnership only, and no such obligation or liability will be personally binding upon any of our directors, stockholders, officers, employees or agents.

In addition, the partnership agreement requires our operating partnership to indemnify us, our directors and officers, officers of our operating partnership and any other person designated by us against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities (whether joint or several), expenses (including, without limitation, attorneys’ fees and other legal fees and expenses), judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts arising from any and all claims, demands, actions, suits or proceedings, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, that relate to the operations of our operating partnership, unless (i) an act or omission of the person was material to the matter giving rise to the action and either was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (ii) in the case of a criminal proceeding, the person had reasonable cause to believe the act or omission was unlawful or (iii) such person actually received an improper personal benefit in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement. Our operating partnership must also pay or reimburse the reasonable expenses of any such person in advance of a final disposition of the proceeding upon its receipt of a written affirmation of the person’s good faith belief that the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification has been met and a written undertaking by or on behalf of the person to repay any amounts paid or advanced if it is ultimately determined that the person did not meet the standard of conduct for indemnification. Our operating partnership is not required to indemnify or advance funds to any person with respect to any action initiated by the person seeking indemnification without our approval (except for any proceeding brought to enforce such person’s right to indemnification under the partnership agreement) or if the person is found to be liable to our operating partnership on any portion of any claim in the action.

Business Combinations and Dissolution of our Operating Partnership

Subject to the limitations on the transfer of our interest in our operating partnership described in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner,” we generally have the

 

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exclusive power to cause our operating partnership to merge, reorganize, consolidate, sell all or substantially all of its assets or otherwise combine its assets with another entity. We may also elect to dissolve our operating partnership without the consent of any limited partner. However, in connection with the acquisition of properties from persons to whom our operating partnership issues common units or other partnership interests as part of the purchase price, in order to preserve such persons’ tax deferral, our operating partnership may contractually agree, in general, not to sell or otherwise transfer the properties for a specified period of time, or in some instances, not to sell or otherwise transfer the properties without compensating the sellers of the properties for their loss of the tax deferral.

Redemption Rights of Qualifying Parties

Beginning 14 months after first acquiring such common units, each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners will have the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of the common units held by such limited partner or assignee in exchange for a cash amount per common unit equal to the value of one share of our common stock, determined in accordance with and subject to adjustment under the partnership agreement. Our operating partnership’s obligation to redeem common units does not arise and is not binding against our operating partnership until the sixth business day after we receive the holder’s notice of redemption or, if earlier, the day we notify the holder seeking redemption that we have declined to acquire some or all of the common units tendered for redemption. If we do not elect to acquire the common units tendered for redemption in exchange for shares of our common stock (as described below), our operating partnership must deliver the cash redemption amount, subject to certain exceptions, on or before the seventh calendar day after we receive the holder’s notice of redemption. Among other limitations, a limited partner or qualifying assignee may not require our operating partnership to redeem its common units if the exchange of such units for shares of our common stock would cause any person to violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock or violate certain limitations intended to prevent our operating partnership from being treated as a “publicly traded partnership” under the Code.

On or before the close of business on the fifth business day after a holder of common units gives notice of redemption to us, we may, in our sole and absolute discretion but subject to the restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter and described in “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” elect to acquire some or all of the common units tendered for redemption from the tendering party in exchange for shares of our common stock, based on an exchange ratio of one share of common stock for each common unit, subject to adjustment as provided in the partnership agreement. The partnership agreement does not require us to register, qualify or list any shares of common stock issued in exchange for common units with the Securities and Exchange Commission, with any state securities commissioner, department or agency, under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or with any stock exchange.

Transfers of Partnership Interests

Restrictions on Transfers by Limited Partners

Until the expiration of 14 months (or six months for holders of CPOP units) after the date on which a limited partner acquires a partnership interest, the limited partner generally may not directly or indirectly transfer all or any portion of such partnership interest without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, except for certain permitted transfers to certain affiliates, family members and charities, and certain pledges of partnership interests to lending institutions in connection with bona fide loans. After the expiration of such initial holding period, the limited partner will have the right to transfer all or any portion of its partnership interest without our consent to any person that is an “accredited investor,” within meaning set forth in Rule 501 promulgated under the Securities Act, upon ten business days prior notice to us, subject to the satisfaction of conditions specified in the partnership agreement, including minimum transfer requirements and our right of first refusal.

 

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Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner

Except as described below, any transfer of all or any portion of our interest in our operating partnership, whether by sale, disposition, statutory merger or consolidation, liquidation or otherwise, must be approved by the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us). Subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest, we may transfer all (but not less than all) of our general partnership interest without the consent of the limited partners in connection with a permitted termination transaction, which is a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a reclassification, recapitalization or change in any outstanding shares of our stock or other outstanding equity interests, if:

 

   

in connection with such event, all of the limited partners will receive or have the right to elect to receive, for each common unit, the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property paid to a holder of one share of our common stock (subject to adjustment in accordance with the partnership agreement) in the transaction and, if a purchase, tender or exchange offer is made and accepted by holders of our common stock in connection with the event, each holder of common units receives, or has the right to elect to receive, the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property that the holder would have received if it had exercised its redemption right and received shares of our common stock in exchange for its common units immediately before the expiration of the purchase, tender or exchange offer and had accepted the purchase, tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

substantially all of the assets of our operating partnership will be owned by a surviving entity (which may be our operating partnership, another limited partnership or a limited liability company) in which the limited partners of our operating partnership holding common units immediately before the event will hold a percentage interest based on the relative fair market value of the net assets of our operating partnership and the other net assets of the surviving entity immediately before the event, which interest will be on terms that are at least as favorable as the terms of the common units in effect immediately before the event and as those applicable to any other limited partners or non-managing members of the surviving entity and will include a right to redeem interests in the surviving entity for the consideration described in the preceding bullet or cash on similar terms as those in effect with respect to the common units immediately before the event, or, if common equity securities of the person controlling the surviving entity are publicly traded, such common equity securities.

We may also transfer all (but not less than all) of our interest in our operating partnership to an affiliate of us without the consent of any limited partner, subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest.

In addition, any transferee of our interest in our operating partnership must be admitted as a general partner of our operating partnership, assume, by operation of law or express agreement, all of our obligations as general partner under the partnership agreement, accept all of the terms and conditions of the partnership agreement and execute such instruments as may be necessary to effectuate the transferee’s admission as a general partner.

We may not voluntarily withdraw as the general partner of our operating partnership without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us) other than upon the transfer of our entire interest in our operating partnership and the admission of our successor as a general partner of our operating partnership.

LTIP Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as “LTIP Units.” We may cause our operating partnership to issue LTIP Units to persons who provide services to or for the benefit of our operating partnership, for such consideration or for no consideration as we may determine to be

 

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appropriate, and we may admit such persons as limited partners of our operating partnership, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. Further, we may cause our operating partnership to issue LTIP Units in one or more classes or series, with such terms as we may determine, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. LTIP Units may be subject to vesting, forfeiture and restrictions on transfer and receipt of distributions pursuant to the terms of any applicable equity-based plan and the terms of any award agreement relating to the issuance of the LTIP Units.

Conversion Rights

Vested LTIP Units are convertible at the option of each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners (in each case, that hold vested LTIP Units) into common units, upon notice to us and our operating partnership, to the extent that the capital account balance of the LTIP unitholder with respect to all of his or her LTIP Units is at least equal to our capital account balance with respect to an equal number of common units. We may cause our operating partnership to convert vested LTIP Units eligible for conversion into an equal number of common units at any time, upon at least 10 and not more than 60 days’ notice to the holder of the LTIP Units.

If we or our operating partnership is party to a transaction, including a merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other business combination, as a result of which common units are exchanged for or converted into the right, or holders of common units are otherwise entitled, to receive cash, securities or other property (or any combination thereof), we must cause our operating partnership to convert any vested LTIP Units then eligible for conversion into common units immediately before the transaction, taking into account any special allocations of income that would be made as a result of the transaction. Our operating partnership must use commercially reasonable efforts to cause each limited partner (other than a party to such a transaction or an affiliate of such a party) holding LTIP Units that will be converted into common units in such a transaction to be afforded the right to receive the same kind and amount of cash, securities and other property (or any combination thereof) for such common units that each holder of common units receives in the transaction.

Transfer

Unless an applicable equity-based plan or the terms of an award agreement specify additional restrictions on transfer of LTIP Units, LTIP Units are transferable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests.”

Voting Rights

Limited partners holding LTIP Units are entitled to vote together as a class with limited partners holding common units and Performance Units on all matters on which limited partners holding common units are entitled to vote or consent, and may cast one vote for each LTIP Unit so held.

Adjustment of LTIP Units

If our operating partnership takes certain actions, including making a distribution of units on all outstanding common units, combining or subdividing the outstanding common units into a different number of common units or reclassifying the outstanding common units, we must adjust the number of outstanding LTIP Units or subdivide or combine outstanding LTIP Units to maintain a one-for-one conversion ratio and economic equivalence between common units and LTIP Units.

Performance Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as “Performance Units.” We may cause our operating partnership to issue Performance Units to persons who provide services to or for the benefit of our operating partnership, for such consideration or for no consideration

 

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as we may determine to be appropriate, and we may admit such persons as limited partners of our operating partnership, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. Further, we may cause our operating partnership to issue Performance Units in one or more classes or series, with such terms as we may determine, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. Performance Units may be subject to vesting, forfeiture and restrictions on transfer and receipt of distributions pursuant to the terms of any applicable equity-based plan and the terms of any award agreement relating to the issuance of the Performance Units.

Conversion Rights

Vested Performance Units are convertible at the option of each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners (in each case, that hold vested Performance Units) into common units, upon notice to us and our operating partnership, to the extent that the capital account balance of the Performance Unit unitholder with respect to all of his or her Performance Units is at least equal to our capital account balance with respect to an equal number of common units. We may cause our operating partnership to convert vested Performance Units eligible for conversion into an equal number of common units at any time, upon at least 10 and not more than 60 days’ notice to the holder of the Performance Units.

If we or our operating partnership is party to a transaction, including a merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other business combination, as a result of which common units are exchanged for or converted into the right, or holders of common units are otherwise entitled, to receive cash, securities or other property (or any combination thereof), we must cause our operating partnership to convert any vested Performance Units then eligible for conversion into common units immediately before the transaction, taking into account any special allocations of income that would be made as a result of the transaction. Our operating partnership must use commercially reasonable efforts to cause each limited partner (other than a party to such a transaction or an affiliate of such a party) holding Performance Units that will be converted into common units in such a transaction to be afforded the right to receive the same kind and amount of cash, securities and other property (or any combination thereof) for such common units that each holder of common units receives in the transaction.

Transfer

Unless an applicable equity-based plan or the terms of an award agreement specify additional restrictions on transfer of Performance Units, Performance Units are transferable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests.”

Voting Rights

Limited partners holding Performance Units are entitled to vote together as a class with limited partners holding common units and LTIP Units on all matters on which limited partners holding common units are entitled to vote or consent, and may cast one vote for each Performance Unit so held.

Adjustment of Performance Units

If our operating partnership takes certain actions, including making a distribution of units on all outstanding common units, combining or subdividing the outstanding common units into a different number of common units or reclassifying the outstanding common units, we must adjust the number of outstanding Performance Units or subdivide or combine outstanding Performance Units to maintain a one-for-one conversion ratio and economic equivalence between common units and Performance Units.

CPOP Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue 593,960 series 1 CPOP units and 906,374 series 2 CPOP units. As of September 30, 2020, there are 593,960 series 1 CPOP units and 906,374 series 2 CPOP units issued

 

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and outstanding. CPOP units rank senior to the common units, LTIP Units and Performance Units and on parity with the series A/B/C preferred units. When and as authorized by us in our capacity as general partner, holders of series 1 CPOP units are entitled to receive cumulative cash distributions at the rate of 4.43937% per annum of the $45.50952 per series 1 CPOP unit liquidation preference, and holders of series 2 CPOP units are entitled to cumulative cash distributions at the rate of 4.00% per annum of the $45.00 liquidation preference per series 2 CPOP unit, in each case, payable quarterly in arrears on or about the last day of March, June, September and December of each year. Holders of CPOP units are also entitled to receive a liquidation preference equal to $45.50952 per series 1 CPOP unit or $45.00 per series 2 CPOP unit, in each case plus any accumulated and unpaid distributions thereon (whether or not authorized or declared), before the holders of the operating partnership’s common units, LTIP Units, Performance Units or other junior securities receive any distributions in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our operating partnership (but, in the case of distributions upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our operating partnership, only to the extent consistent with a liquidation in accordance with positive capital account balances). The CPOP units are not listed on any exchange nor are they quoted on any national market system.

Conversion Rights

The series 1 CPOP units are convertible (i) at the option of the holder anytime from time to time, or (ii) at the option of the operating partnership, at any time on or after April 10, 2024, in each case, into common units on a one-for-one basis, subject to adjustment to eliminate fractional units or to the extent that there are any accrued and unpaid distributions on the series 1 CPOP units. The series 2 CPOP units are convertible (i) at the option of the holder anytime from time to time, or (ii) at the option of the operating partnership, at any time on or after March 5, 2025, in each case, into 0.7722 common units per series 2 CPOP unit, subject to adjustment to eliminate fractional units or to the extent that there are any accrued and unpaid distributions on the series 2 CPOP units.

Transfer

CPOP units are transferrable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner.”

Voting Rights

Generally, the CPOP units are entitled to limited voting rights and in most cases vote on an as-converted basis with the holders of common units on matters on which all limited partners are entitled to vote. So long as any series 1 CPOP units remain outstanding, the consent of the limited partners holding a majority in interest of the series 1 CPOP units, other than any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company will be required to amend, alter or repeal the terms of the series 1 CPOP units so as to materially and adversely affect any right, preference or privilege of the series 1 CPOP units. So long as any series 2 CPOP units remain outstanding, the consent of the limited partners holding a majority in interest of the series 2 CPOP units, other than any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company will be required to (i) amend, alter or repeal the terms of the series 2 CPOP units so as to materially and adversely affect any right, preference or privilege of the series 2 CPOP units and (ii) subject to certain exceptions, complete certain of the following termination transactions (a) a merger, consolidation or other combination of the Company or the operating partnership’s assets with another entity, (b) a sale of all or substantially all of the Company or the operating partnership’s assets not in the ordinary course of the operating partnership’s business or (c) a reclassification, recapitalization or change of any outstanding shares of the Company’s stock or other outstanding equity interests.

Series A/B/C Preferred Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue 3,600,000 series A preferred units, 3,000,000 series B preferred units and 3,450,000 series C preferred units. As of September 30, 2020, there are 3,600,000 series A

 

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preferred units, 3,000,000 series B preferred units and 3,450,000 series C preferred units issued and outstanding and we owned 100% of the outstanding series A/B/C preferred units. Series A/B/C preferred units rank senior to the common units, LTIP Units and Performance Units and on parity with the CPOP units. Holders of series A preferred units and series B preferred units are entitled to receive preferential cash distributions in an amount equal to 5.875% per annum on the stated value of $25.00 per series A preferred unit or series B preferred unit, of $1.46875 per annum per series A preferred unit or series B preferred unit, and holders of series C preferred units are entitled to receive preferential cash distributions in an amount equal to 5.625% per annum on the stated value of $25.00 per series C preferred unit, of $1.40625 per annum per series C preferred unit. Holders of series A/B/C preferred units are also entitled to receive a liquidation preference in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our operating partnership that are substantially similar to those of the series A/B/C preferred stock (but, in the case of distributions upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our operating partnership, only to the extent consistent with a liquidation in accordance with positive capital account balances). Series A/B/C preferred units are also subject to redemption by our operating partnership in connection with our reacquisition of shares of series A/B/C preferred stock. See “Description of Preferred Stock—Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock.” The Series A/B/C preferred units are not listed on any exchange nor are they quoted on any national market system.

Conversion Rights

Series A/B/C preferred units will be converted into common units in the event of a conversion of series A/B/C preferred stock, as applicable, at the option of holders of shares of series A/B/C preferred stock pursuant to the articles supplementary designating the terms of the series A/B/C preferred stock, as described above in “Description of Preferred Stock—Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock.”

Transfer

Series A/B/C preferred units are transferrable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner.”

Voting Rights

The general partner will not have any voting or consent rights in respect of its partnership interest represented by the series A/B/C preferred units.

 

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MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Our Board of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of our entire board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required by the MGCL nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 15.

We have elected by a provision of our charter to be subject to a provision of Maryland law requiring that, except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of stock, any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum. Any director so elected will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies.

Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Holders of shares of our common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Directors are elected by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes cast “for” and “against” the election of a nominee at any meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present; provided, however, that directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors if there is a contested election. Our corporate governance guidelines provide that a nominee for director in an uncontested election not elected by the vote required in the bylaws and who is an incumbent director shall promptly tender his or her resignation to the board of directors for consideration.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and then only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, may preclude stockholders from removing incumbent directors except for cause and by a substantial affirmative vote and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in certain circumstances specified under the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and any interested stockholder, or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:

 

   

any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

   

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. In approving a transaction, however, a board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of the approval, with any terms and conditions determined by it.

 

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After such five-year period, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

   

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

   

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

These supermajority approval requirements do not apply if, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a corporation’s board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has, by resolution, elected to opt out of the business combination provisions of the MGCL. We cannot provide you any assurance, however, that our board of directors will not opt to be subject to such business combination provision at any time in the future. Notwithstanding the foregoing, an alteration or repeal of this resolution will not have any effect on any business combinations that have been consummated or upon any agreements existing at the time of such modification or repeal.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to their control shares except to the extent approved by the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors, generally, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power in the election of directors: (1) the person who made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) an officer of the corporation or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock that, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would cause the acquirer to be entitled to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

   

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

 

   

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

 

   

a majority or more of all voting power.

Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the control shares. If no request for a special meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights of control shares are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the

 

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corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control acquisition by the acquirer. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to: (1) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. We cannot provide you any assurance, however, that either our board of directors or stockholders will not amend or eliminate this provision at any time in the future.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of the following five provisions:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by the board of directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

We have elected by a provision in our charter to be subject to the provisions of Subtitle 8 relating to the filling of vacancies on our board of directors. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director from the board, which removal will be allowed only for cause, (2) vest in the board the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships, subject to limitations set forth in our charter and bylaws, and (3) require, unless called by the chairman of our board of directors, either of our presidents, either of our chief executive officers or our board of directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast on a matter at such meeting to call a special meeting to consider and vote on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders. We have not elected to create a classified board. In the future, our board of directors may elect, without stockholder approval, to create a classified board or elect to be subject to one or more of the other provisions of Subtitle 8.

Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws

Other than amendments to certain provisions of our charter described below and amendments permitted to be made without stockholder approval under Maryland law or by a specific provision in the charter, our charter may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. The provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors or the vote required to amend such provisions may

 

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be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our board of directors has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws or to make new bylaws. Our bylaws permit our common stockholders to amend the bylaws by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock pursuant to a proposal submitted by a stockholder that satisfies the ownership and other eligibility requirements of Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act for the periods and as of the dates specified therein. A stockholder proposal submitted under our bylaws may not (i) alter, amend or repeal provisions relating to indemnification of directors and officers of the Company, (ii) alter, amend, or repeal the amendment section of our bylaws or (iii) adopt, alter, amend or repeal any provision of the bylaws in a manner that would be inconsistent with (i) or (ii), in each case, without the approval of our board of directors.

Exclusive Forum

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any Internal Corporate Claim, as such term is defined in Section 1-101(q) of the MGCL, (b) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (c) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by us or by any director or officer or other employee to us or to our stockholders, other than actions arising under federal securities laws, (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (e) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that Court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Northern Division.

Meetings of Stockholders

Under our bylaws, annual meetings of stockholders must be held each year at a date, time and place determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by the chairman of our board of directors, either of our chief executive officers, either of our presidents and our board of directors. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures specified in our bylaws and provided the information and certifications required by our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of a special meeting of stockholders may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that:

 

   

with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:

 

   

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

 

   

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

   

by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has provided the information and certifications required by the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.

 

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with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders, and nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only:

 

   

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

   

provided that the meeting has been called for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has provided the information and certifications required by the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.

The purpose of requiring stockholders to give advance notice of nominations and other proposals is to afford our board of directors the opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees or the advisability of the other proposals and, to the extent considered necessary by our board of directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations regarding the nominations or other proposals. The advance notice procedures also permit a more orderly procedure for conducting our stockholder meetings.

Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the provisions of our charter regarding the removal of directors, the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on the board and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our common stockholders. Likewise, if our board of directors were to opt in to the business combination provisions of the MGCL or the provisions of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL providing for a classified board of directors, or if the provision in our bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were amended or rescinded, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:

 

   

was committed in bad faith; or

 

   

was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

 

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However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer for an adverse judgment in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate our company and our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, to:

 

   

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while serving as our director or officer and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

The partnership agreement also provides that we, as general partner, and our directors, officers, employees, agents and designees are indemnified to the extent provided therein. See “Description of the Partnership Agreement of Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.—Exculpation and Indemnification of General Partner.”

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

Subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate outstanding shares of our stock. For a fuller description of this and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to be qualified as a REIT. Our charter also provides that our board of directors may determine that compliance with one or more of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

 

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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our election to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) and the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the ownership of certain securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

   

the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”);

 

   

current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”);

 

   

the legislative history of the Code;

 

   

administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”); and

 

   

court decisions;

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and holders of its capital stock and holders of our operating partnership’s debt securities. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested and do not intend to request any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

   

the acquisition, ownership and sale or other disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

   

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

   

potential changes in applicable tax laws.

 

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Taxation of Our Company

General

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with our filing this prospectus and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

   

First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

 

   

Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.

 

   

Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

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Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

   

Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

   

Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax. See “—Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited in Connection with Acquisitions.”

 

   

Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

   

Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “—Income Tests-Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

   

Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

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Twelfth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined by Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

  (4)

that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

  (7)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

 

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Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries

In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership, including our operating partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”

We have control of our operating partnership and its subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Asset Tests.”

Ownership of Interests in Subsidiary REITs

From April 2016 through the end of December 2017, we owned an indirect interest in REXR REIT, Inc. (“REXR REIT”), which had elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code. Provided that REXR REIT qualified as a REIT during the time we owned REXR REIT, our interest in REXR REIT during such time would be treated as a qualifying real estate asset for purposes of the asset tests and any dividend income or gains derived by us from REXR REIT during such time would generally be treated as income that qualifies for purposes of the gross income tests. To qualify as a REIT during such time, REXR REIT must have independently satisfied the various REIT qualification requirements described in this summary. If REXR REIT failed to qualify as a REIT, and certain relief provisions did not apply, it would have been treated as a regular taxable corporation and its income would have been subject to United States federal corporate income tax. In addition, a failure of REXR REIT to have qualified as a REIT would have had an adverse effect on our ability to

 

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comply with the gross income and asset tests, and thus our ability to qualify as a REIT. We believe that REXR REIT qualified as a REIT under the Code at all times during which we owned its stock.

Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries

We currently own an interest in one taxable REIT subsidiary and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than certain activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary or as receiving any income that the taxable REIT subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the taxable REIT subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the taxable REIT subsidiary. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “—Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. For any taxable year beginning in 2019 or 2020, the 30% limitation was increased to a 50% limitation, provided that for partnerships the 50% limitation applies for any taxable year beginning in 2020 only. Taxpayers may elect to use their 2019 adjusted taxable income for purposes of computing their 2020 limitation. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

Income Tests

We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

   

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;

 

   

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive

 

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from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;

 

   

Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

 

   

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

We generally do not intend, and as the general partner of our operating partnership, we do not intend to permit our operating partnership, to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Income we receive that is attributable to the rental of parking spaces at the properties generally will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests if certain services provided with respect to the parking spaces are performed by independent contractors from whom we derive no revenue, either directly or indirectly, or by a taxable REIT subsidiary, and certain other conditions are met. We believe that the income we receive that is attributable to parking spaces will meet these tests and, accordingly, will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests.

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to

 

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borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends or interest, we generally will derive our allocable share of such dividend or interest income through our interest in our operating partnership. Such dividend or interest income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test (except that our allocable share of such interest would also qualify under the 75% gross income test to the extent the interest is paid on a loan that is adequately secured by real property).

We will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

   

following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

   

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

Prohibited Transaction Income

Any gain that we realize on the sale of property (other than any foreclosure property) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. As the general partner of our operating partnership, we intend to cause our operating partnership to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objectives. We do not intend, and do not intend to

 

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permit our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a taxable REIT subsidiary, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

Penalty Tax

Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.

Currently, our taxable REIT subsidiary does not provide any services to our tenants or conduct other material activities. However, a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours may in the future provide services to certain of our tenants and pay rent to us. We intend to set any fees paid to our taxable REIT subsidiaries for such services, and any rent payable to us by our taxable REIT subsidiaries, at arm’s length rates, although the amounts paid may not satisfy the safe harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Asset Tests

At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a

 

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partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

Fourth, not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. Our operating partnership owns 100% of the securities of a corporation that has elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiary. So long as this corporation qualifies as our taxable REIT subsidiary, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of its securities. We may acquire securities in other taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any partnership or qualified REIT subsidiary) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer will increase as a result of our capital contributions to our operating partnership or as limited partners exercise any redemption/exchange rights. Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

 

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Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our operating partnership’s overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

   

90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

   

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

   

the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “—General.”

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. For any taxable year beginning in 2019 or 2020, the 30% limitation was increased to a 50% limitation, provided that for partnerships the 50% limitation applies for any taxable year beginning in 2020 only. Taxpayers may elect to use their 2019 adjusted taxable income for purposes of computing their 2020 limitation. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years, subject to special rules applicable to partnerships. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships (including our operating partnership) are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships that are subject to this interest expense limitation will be eligible to make this election. If such election is made, although we or such subsidiary partnership, as applicable, would not be subject to the interest expense limitation described above, depreciation deductions may be reduced and, as a result, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased.

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential—i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential dividend limitation will not apply to distributions made by us,

 

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provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. However, Subsidiary REITs we may own from time to time may not be publicly offered REITs. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount. We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes us, as the general partner of our operating partnership, to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.

We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which U.S. federal corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

Like-Kind Exchanges

We may dispose of real property that is not held primarily for sale in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, or deficiency dividends, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited in Connection with Acquisitions

From time to time, we or our operating partnership may acquire other corporations or entities and, in connection with such acquisitions, we may succeed to the historical tax attributes and liabilities of such entities.

 

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For example, if we acquire a C corporation and subsequently dispose of its assets within five years of the acquisition, we could be required to pay the built-in gain tax described above under “—General.” In addition, in order to qualify as a REIT, at the end of any taxable year, we must not have any earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year. As a result, if we acquire a C corporation, we must distribute the corporation’s earnings and profits accumulated prior to the acquisition before the end of the taxable year in which we acquire the corporation. We also could be required to pay the acquired entity’s unpaid taxes even though such liabilities arose prior to the time we acquired the entity.

Moreover, we may from time to time acquire other REITs through a merger or acquisition. If any such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, such REIT would be liable for (and we, as the surviving corporation in the merger or acquisition, would be obligated to pay) regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on its taxable income for such taxable years. In addition, if such REIT was a C corporation at the time of the merger or acquisition, the tax consequences described in the preceding paragraph generally would apply. If such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, but qualified as a REIT at the time of such merger or acquisition, and we acquired such REIT’s assets in a transaction in which our tax basis in the assets of such REIT is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to such REIT’s tax basis in such assets, we generally would be subject to tax on the built-in gain on each asset of such REIT as described above if we were to dispose of the asset in a taxable transaction during the five-year period following such REIT’s requalification as a REIT, subject to certain exceptions. Moreover, even if such REIT qualified as a REIT at all relevant times, we would similarly be liable for other unpaid taxes (if any) of such REIT (such as the 100% tax on gains from any sales treated as “prohibited transactions” as described above under “—Prohibited Transaction Income”).

Furthermore, after our acquisition of another corporation or entity, the asset and income tests will apply to all of our assets, including the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity, and to all of our income, including the income derived from the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity. As a result, the nature of the assets that we acquire from such corporation or entity and the income we derive from those assets may have an effect on our tax status as a REIT.

Failure to Qualify

If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

 

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Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies

General

All of our investments are held indirectly through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership holds certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that we believe are and will continue to be treated as disregarded entities or partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners of such partnerships are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership. We will include in our income our share of these partnership items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of the assets of its subsidiary partnerships, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries.” A disregarded entity is not treated as a separate entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a disregarded entity are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of its parent that is not a disregarded entity (e.g., our operating partnership) for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests.”

Entity Classification

Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as disregarded entities or partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. Interests in a partnership are not treated as readily tradable on a secondary market, or the substantial equivalent thereof, if the partnership satisfies one or more safe harbors set forth in Treasury Regulations under the Code. One such safe harbor relates to the amount of trading of interests in the partnership. Interests in a partnership would not be viewed as readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if the sum of the percentage interests in capital or profits of the partnership transferred during any taxable year of the partnership does not exceed 2% of the total interests in the partnership’s capital or profits, subject to certain exceptions. For purpose of this 2% trading safe harbor, our interests in our operating partnership are excluded from the determination of the percentage interests in capital or profits of our operating partnership. In addition, this 2% trading safe harbor does not apply to transfers by a limited partner in one or more transactions during any 30-day period representing in the aggregate more than 2% of the total interests in our operating partnership’s capital or profits. We, as the general partner of our operating partnership, have the authority to take any steps we determine to prevent any trading of interests in our operating partnership that would cause our operating partnership to become a publicly traded partnership, including any steps necessary to ensure compliance with this 2% trading safe harbor. While we expect to satisfy this 2% trading safe harbor for certain of our taxable years, we have not satisfied this safe harbor (or any other safe harbor) for all of our prior years, and may fail to satisfy it (and the other safe harbors) in the future.

If our operating partnership or any of our other partnerships were to be treated as a publicly traded partnership, it would be taxable as a corporation unless it qualified for the statutory “90% qualifying income exception.” Under that exception, a publicly traded partnership is not subject to corporate-level tax if 90% or more of its gross income consists of dividends, interest, “rents from real property” (as that term is defined for purposes of the rules applicable to REITs, with certain modifications), gain from the sale or other disposition of

 

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real property, and certain other types of qualifying income. We believe our operating partnership has satisfied the 90% qualifying income exception in every taxable year, and expect it to continue to satisfy that exception in the future. However, if our operating partnership (or to the extent applicable any of our other partnerships) did not qualify for this exception or was otherwise taxable as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary treated as a partnership or disregarded entity to a corporation might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment.

We believe our operating partnership and each of the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies will be classified as partnerships or disregarded entities for federal income tax purposes, and we do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation.

Allocations of Items of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction

A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) generally will determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss of our operating partnership and any subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.

Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties

Under Section 704(c) of the Code, items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

Our operating partnership may, from time to time, acquire interests in property in exchange for interests in our operating partnership. In that case, the tax basis of these property interests generally will carry over to our operating partnership, notwithstanding their different book (i.e., fair market) value. The partnership agreement requires that, if our operating partnership is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, income and loss allocations with respect to these properties be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method we choose in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands

 

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of our operating partnership (1) could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in our operating partnership. An allocation described in clause (2) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of Our Company—General—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.

Partnership Audit Rules

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it remains uncertain how certain aspects of these new rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest, including our operating partnership, being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock and Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances, including the alternative minimum tax. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

   

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

   

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

   

persons holding our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

   

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

   

REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

   

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

   

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

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S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

   

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

   

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock being taken into account in an applicable financial statement;

 

   

persons deemed to sell our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

   

persons who hold or receive our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACQUISITION, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR OUR OPERATING PARTNERSHIP’S DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

Distributions Generally

Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the

 

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extent described in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

To the extent that we make distributions on a class of our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder to the extent of the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. holder that receives capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such common stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

Capital Gain Dividends

Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year, and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

 

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Retention of Net Capital Gains

We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:

 

   

include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

   

be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

   

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

   

increase the adjusted tax basis of its capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

   

in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations

Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, described in “—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock

Except as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

   

is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder;

 

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results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us; or

 

   

is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

Tax Rates

The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” is generally 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of our shares generally should not be unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or

 

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(c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the acquisition, ownership and disposition of shares of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions Generally

Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests (“USRPIs”), nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

   

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

 

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Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the stockholder’s capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such capital stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests

Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

   

the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business (within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to non-U.S. holders to the extent attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

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Retention of Net Capital Gains

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

Sale of Our Capital Stock

Except as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain recognized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a United States real property holding corporation (“USRPHC”), will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our capital stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such class of stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

(1)    such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the NYSE; and

(2)    such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.

In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (1) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a

 

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corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (2) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of the stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

Taxation of Holders of Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of debt securities issued by our operating partnership. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).

 

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U.S. Holders

Payments of Interest. Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. holder’s method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition. A U.S. holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will be equal to the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

Non-U.S. Holders

Payments of Interest. Interest paid on a debt security to a non-U.S. holder that is not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding, provided that:

 

   

the non-U.S. holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of our operating partnership’s capital or profits;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to our operating partnership through actual or constructive stock ownership; and

 

   

either (1) the non-U.S. holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the non-U.S. holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the non-U.S. holder, has received from the non-U.S. holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and provides the applicable withholding agent with a copy of such statement; or (3) the non-U.S. holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” (within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.

If a non-U.S. holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such non-U.S. holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the non-U.S. holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

If interest paid to a non-U.S. holder is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the non-U.S. holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the non-U.S. holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that

 

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interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States.

Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular graduated rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.

The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition. A non-U.S. holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “—Taxation of Holders of Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities—Non-U.S. Holders—Payments of Interest”) unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.

Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

Gain described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

U.S. Holders

A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

   

the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

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the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

   

the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

   

the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

Non-U.S. Holders

Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any distributions on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether such distributions constitute a dividend or whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations, subject to certain limitations. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) on certain types of payments made to “non-U.S. financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities, or (subject

 

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to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or to a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

Other Tax Consequences

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

 

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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

Information about selling securityholders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We or any of the selling securityholders may sell the offered securities from time to time:

 

   

through underwriters or dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

We will identify the specific plan of distribution and terms, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers, the amount underwritten and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California. Certain legal matters with respect to the validity of shares of our capital stock and certain other legal matters relating to Maryland law will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us, the selling securityholders or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. appearing in Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2019, including the schedule appearing therein, and the effectiveness of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.    Other

Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following is an estimate of the expenses (all of which are to be paid by the registrant) that we may incur in connection with the securities being registered hereby.

 

SEC registration fee

     $            (1)  

FINRA filing fee

     $            (2)  

The New York Stock Exchange supplemental listing fee

     $            (2)  

Printing expenses

     $            (2)  

Legal fees and expenses

     $            (2)  

Accounting fees and expenses

     $            (2)  

Blue Sky qualification fees and expenses

     $            (2)  

Transfer agent fees and expenses

     $            (2)  

Trustee fees and expenses

     $            (2)  

Miscellaneous

     $            (2)  
  

 

 

 

Total

     $            (2)  
  

 

 

 

 

(1)

Pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the SEC registration fee will be paid at the time of any particular offering of securities under the registration statement, and is therefore not currently determinable.

(2)

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15.    Indemnification

of Directors and Officers

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates our directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Maryland law requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that: (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty; (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or (c) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. However, under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer for an adverse judgment in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, upon the corporation’s receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation and (b) a written undertaking by him or her

 

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or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate ourselves and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, in effect from time to time, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, to any present or former director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, and who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in any of the foregoing capacities and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served a predecessor of our company in any of the capacities described above and any employees or agents of our company or a predecessor of our company.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors whereby we have agreed to indemnify such executive officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law against all expenses and liabilities, subject to limited exceptions. These indemnification agreements also provide that, upon an application for indemnity by an executive officer or director to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, such court may order us to indemnify such executive officer or director.

In addition, our directors and officers are indemnified for specified liabilities and expenses pursuant to the partnership agreement of Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., the partnership of which we serve as sole general partner.

 

Item 16.    Exhibits

 

Exhibit
Number

  

Description

  1.1    Form of Underwriting Agreement(1)
  3.1    Articles of Amendment Restatement of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.(2)
  3.2    Articles Supplementary designating Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s 5.875% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock.(3)
  3.3    Articles Supplementary designating Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s 5.875% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock.(4)
  3.4    Articles Supplementary designating Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s 5.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock.(5)
  3.5    Fourth Amended and Restated Bylaws of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.(6)
  3.6    Seventh Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.(7)
  3.7*    Certificate of Limited Partnership of Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.
  4.1    Form of Certificate for Common Stock of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.(8)
  4.2    Form of Certificate for Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s 5.875% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock(9)
  4.2    Form of Certificate for Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s 5.875% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock(10)

 

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Exhibit
Number

  

Description

  4.2    Form of Certificate for Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s 5.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock(11)
  4.3*    Form of Indenture, among Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., as issuer, Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., as guarantor, and U.S. Bank, National Association, as trustee
  4.9    Form of Deposit Agreement(1)
  4.9    Form of Depositary Receipt(1)
  4.10    Form of Warrant(1)
  4.11    Form of Warrant Agreement(1)
  4.12    Form of Rights Agreement(1)
  4.13    Form of Unit Agreement(1)
  5.1*    Opinion of Venable LLP
  5.2*    Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP
  8.1*    Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP with respect to tax matters
22.1*    Subsidiary Guarantors and Issuers of Guaranteed Securities
23.1*    Consent of Venable LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
23.2*    Consent of Latham & Watkins LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2)
23.3*    Consent of Latham & Watkins LLP (included in Exhibit 8.1)
23.4*    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP
24.1*    Power of Attorney (included on Signature Page)
25.1*    Statement of Eligibility under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 of U.S. Bank, National Association (Form T-1)

 

*

Filed herewith.

(1)

To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of a particular class or series of securities.

(2)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s Registration Statement on Form S-11, as amended (File No. 333-188806), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 15, 2013.

(3)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.3 of Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 15, 2016.

(4)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.3 of Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 9, 2017.

(5)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.3 of Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 19, 2019.

(6)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 13, 2020.

(7)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 10.1 of Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 6, 2020.

(8)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s Registration Statement on Form S-11, as amended (File No. 333-188806), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 15, 2013.

 

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(9)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 15, 2016.

(10)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 9, 2017.

(11)

Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 19, 2019.

 

Item 17.    Undertakings

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii), and (a)(1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is a part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is

 

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part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(6) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communications that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(h) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that the registrant meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Los Angeles, State of California, on this 6th day of November, 2020.

 

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

By:

 

/s/ Howard Schwimmer

 

        Howard Schwimmer

        Co-Chief Executive Officer

 

By:

 

/s/ Michael S. Frankel

 

        Michael S. Frankel

        Co-Chief Executive Officer

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

 

By: Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

       Its general partner

By:

 

/s/ Howard Schwimmer

 

        Howard Schwimmer

        Co-Chief Executive Officer

 

By:

 

/s/ Michael S. Frankel

 

        Michael S. Frankel

        Co-Chief Executive Officer


Table of Contents

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below does hereby constitute and appoint Howard Schwimmer and Michael S. Frankel, and each of them, with full power of substitution and full power to act without the other, such person’s true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent to act for such person in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement and any related registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, and to file this registration statement, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in order to effectuate the same as fully, to all intents and purposes, as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature    Title   Date

/s/ Howard Schwimmer

Howard Schwimmer

  

Co-Chief Executive Officer

and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  November 6, 2020

/s/ Michael S. Frankel

Michael S. Frankel

  

Co-Chief Executive Officer

and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  November 6, 2020

/s/ Laura Clark

Laura Clark

  

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  November 6, 2020

/s/ Richard Ziman

Richard Ziman

   Chairman of the Board   November 6, 2020

/s/ Robert L. Antin

Robert L. Antin

   Director   November 6, 2020

/s/ Diana J. Ingram

Diana J. Ingram

   Director   November 6, 2020

/s/ Tyler H. Rose

Tyler H. Rose

   Director   November 6, 2020

/s/ Peter Schwab

Peter Schwab

   Director   November 6, 2020

/s/ Steven C. Good

Steven C. Good

   Director   November 6, 2020
(Back To Top)

Section 2: EX-3.7 (EX-3.7)

EX-3.7

Acknowledgment Number: 1000362004321172

Exhibit 3.7

CERTIFICATE OF LIMITED PARTNERSHIP

REXFORD INDUSTRIAL, L.P.

This is to certify that the undersigned does hereby form a limited partnership (the “Partnership”) pursuant to the Maryland Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (the “Act”) as of the 18th day of January, 2013, as follows:

FIRST: The name of the Partnership is:

Rexford industrial, L.P.

SECOND: The address of the principal office of the Partnership in the State of Maryland is c/o The Corporation Trust Incorporated, 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202.

THIRD: The name and address of the resident agent of the Partnership in the State of Maryland are The Corporation Trust Incorporated, 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202.

FOURTH: The name and business address of the sole general partner of the Partnership are:

Rexford Industrial. Inc.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 300

Los Angeles, California 90025

FIFTH: The Partnership shall have a perpetual existence, unless dissolved in accordance with the partnership agreement of the Partnership, as amended and in effect from time to time, and subject to the provisions of the Act.

SIXTH: No limited partner and no other holder of an interest in the Partnership shall be entitled to exercise any of the rights of an objecting stockholder provided for under Title 3, Subtitle 2 of the Maryland General Corporation Law or any successor statute in connection with a merger of the Partnership.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has executed this Certificate as of the day and year first written above.

 

GENERAL PARTNER:
Rexford Industrial, Inc.
By:   /s/ Michael S. Frankel
  Michael S. Frankel, Co-Chief Executive Officer

 

    Authentication Number: 7HPK3U3_20GNUmttvyPtqw    Page 2 of 3


Acknowledgment Number: 1000362004875979

REXFORD INDUSTRIAL, L.P.

CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT TO

CERTIFICATE OF LIMITED PARTNERSHIP

This is to certify that the Certificate of Limited Partnership of Rexford Industrial, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership (the “Partnership”), is hereby amended by deleting existing Article FIRST in its entirety and substituting in lieu thereof a new article to read as follows:

FIRST: The name of the Partnership is:

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned general partner has executed this Certificate as of the day and year first written above.

 

GENERAL PARTNER:

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.,

a Maryland corporation

By:   /s/ Michael Frankel
  Michael Frankel
  Co-Chief Executive Officer, Co-President
  Secretary and Treasurer

CUST ID: 0002924397

WORK ORDER: 0004140977

DATE: 05-16-2013 02:43 PM

AMT. PAID: $192.00

 

    Authentication Number: FekzgKyfuk2rVDy2Sb4MOw    Page 2 of 2


Acknowledgment Number: 1000362008925069

CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT

TO

CERTIFICATE OF LIMITED PARTNERSHIP

OF

REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership (the “Partnership”), hereby certifies as follows:

RECITALS

A Certificate of Limited Partnership of the Partnership was filed with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (“SDAT”) on January 18, 2013, and was subsequently amended by a Certificate of Amendment filed with the SDAT on May 16, 2013 (as amended, the “Certificate of Limited Partnership”). The Certificate of Limited Partnership is hereby amended as set forth below:

AMENDMENTS

ARTICLES SECOND, THIRD and FORTH of the Certificate of Limited Partnership are hereby deleted in their entirety and the following is inserted in lieu thereof:

SECOND: The address of the principal office of the Partnership in the State of Maryland is c/o The Corporation Trust Incorporated, 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.

THIRD: The name and address of the resident agent of the Partnership in the State of Maryland are The Corporation Trust Incorporated, 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.

FOURTH: The name and business address of the sole general partner of the Partnership are:

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000

Los Angeles, California 90025

[signature on next page]

 

    Authentication Number: rshcZPUNLEuNTpmz79vTwQ    Page 2 of 3


Acknowledgment Number: 1000362008925069

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned general partner of the Partnership has executed this Certificate of Amendment to the Certificate of Limited Partnership as of the 8th day of January, 2016.

 

GENERAL PARTNER:

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

By:   /s/ Adeel Khan
  Adeel Khan
  Chief Financial Officer and Secretary

 

CUST ID: 0003363303
WORK ORDER: 0004579881
DATE: 01-08-2016 03:50 PM
AMT. PAID:$193.00

2

 

    Authentication Number: rshcZPUNLEuNTpmz79vTwQ    Page 3 of 3

 

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Section 3: EX-4.3 (EX-4.3)

EX-4.3

Exhibit 4.3

 

 

REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of _______________, 20__

 

 

U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

Trustee

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          Page  

ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

Section 1.1

   Definitions      1  

Section 1.2

   Other Definitions      5  

Section 1.3

   Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act      5  

Section 1.4

   Rules of Construction      5  

ARTICLE II. THE SECURITIES

     6  

Section 2.1

   Issuable in Series      6  

Section 2.2

   Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities      6  

Section 2.3

   Execution and Authentication      8  

Section 2.4

   Registrar and Paying Agent      9  

Section 2.5

   Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust      9  

Section 2.6

   Securityholder Lists      10  

Section 2.7

   Transfer and Exchange      10  

Section 2.8

   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities      10  

Section 2.9

   Outstanding Securities      11  

Section 2.10

   Treasury Securities      11  

Section 2.11

   Temporary Securities      11  

Section 2.12

   Cancellation      11  

Section 2.13

   Defaulted Interest      12  

Section 2.14

   Global Securities      12  

Section 2.15

   CUSIP Numbers      13  

ARTICLE III. REDEMPTION

     13  

Section 3.1

   Notice to Trustee      13  

Section 3.2

   Selection of Securities to be Redeemed      13  

Section 3.3

   Notice of Redemption      14  

Section 3.4

   Effect of Notice of Redemption      14  

Section 3.5

   Deposit of Redemption Price      14  

Section 3.6

   Securities Redeemed in Part      15  

ARTICLE IV. COVENANTS

     15  

Section 4.1

   Payment of Principal and Interest      15  

Section 4.2

   SEC Reports      15  

Section 4.3

   Compliance Certificate      15  

Section 4.4

   Stay, Extension and Usury Laws      16  

ARTICLE V. SUCCESSORS

     16  

Section 5.1

   When Company May Merge, Etc.      16  

Section 5.2

   Successor Corporation Substituted      16  

Section 5.3

   General Partner May Consolidate on Certain Terms      17  

Section 5.4

   General Partner Successor to Be Substituted      17  


ARTICLE VI. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     23  

Section 6.1

   Events of Default      23  

Section 6.2

   Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment      24  

Section 6.3

   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee      25  

Section 6.4

   Trustee May File Proofs of Claim      25  

Section 6.5

   Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities      26  

Section 6.6

   Application of Money Collected      26  

Section 6.7

   Limitation on Suits      26  

Section 6.8

   Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest      27  

Section 6.9

   Restoration of Rights and Remedies      27  

Section 6.10

   Rights and Remedies Cumulative      27  

Section 6.11

   Delay or Omission Not Waiver      27  

Section 6.12

   Control by Holders      28  

Section 6.13

   Waiver of Past Defaults      28  

Section 6.14

   Undertaking for Costs      28  

ARTICLE VII. TRUSTEE

     29  

Section 7.1

   Duties of Trustee      29  

Section 7.2

   Rights of Trustee      30  

Section 7.3

   Individual Rights of Trustee      31  

Section 7.4

   Trustee’s Disclaimer      31  

Section 7.5

   Notice of Defaults      31  

Section 7.6

   Reports by Trustee to Holders      31  

Section 7.7

   Compensation and Indemnity      31  

Section 7.8

   Replacement of Trustee      32  

Section 7.9

   Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.      32  

Section 7.10

   Eligibility; Disqualification      33  

Section 7.11

   Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company      33  

ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

     33  

Section 8.1

   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      33  

Section 8.2

   Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification      34  

Section 8.3

   Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series      34  

Section 8.4

   Covenant Defeasance      35  

Section 8.5

   Repayment to Company      36  

Section 8.6

   Reinstatement      36  

ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

     37  

Section 9.1

   Without Consent of Holders      37  

Section 9.2

   With Consent of Holders      37  

Section 9.3

   Limitations      38  

Section 9.4

   Compliance with Trust Indenture Act      38  

Section 9.5

   Revocation and Effect of Consents      38  

Section 9.6

   Notation on or Exchange of Securities      39  

Section 9.7

   Trustee Protected      39  


ARTICLE X. MISCELLANEOUS

     39  

Section 10.1

   Trust Indenture Act Controls      39  

Section 10.2

   Notices      39  

Section 10.3

   Communication by Holders with Other Holders      40  

Section 10.4

   Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent      40  

Section 10.5

   Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion      40  

Section 10.6

   Rules by Trustee and Agents      41  

Section 10.7

   Legal Holidays      41  

Section 10.8

   No Recourse Against Others      41  

Section 10.9

   Counterparts      41  

Section 10.10

   Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction      42  

Section 10.11

   No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements      42  

Section 10.12

   Successors      42  

Section 10.13

   Severability      42  

Section 10.14

   Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.      42  

Section 10.15

   Securities in a Foreign Currency      42  

Section 10.16

   Judgment Currency      43  

Section 10.17

   USA Patriot Act      43  

Section 10.18

   Force Majeure      43  

ARTICLE XI. SINKING FUNDS

     44  

Section 11.1

   Applicability of Article      44  

Section 11.2

   Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      44  

Section 11.3

   Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      44  

ARTICLE XII. GUARANTEE

     45  

Section 12.1

   Unconditional Guarantee      45  

Section 12.2

   Execution and Delivery of Notation of Guarantee      45  

Section 12.3

   Limitation on Guarantors’ Liability      46  

Section 12.4

   Release of Guarantors from Guarantee      46  

EXHIBITS

 

Exhibit A

Form of Notation of Guarantee


REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of _______________, 20__

 

§ 310(a)(1)

      7.10

(a)(2)

      7.10

(a)(3)

      Not Applicable

(a)(4)

      Not Applicable

(a)(5)

      7.10

(b)

      7.10

§ 311(a)

      7.11

(b)

      7.11

(c)

      Not Applicable

§ 312(a)

      2.6

(b)

      10.3

(c)

      10.3

§ 313(a)

      7.6

(b)(1)

      7.6

(b)(2)

      7.6

(c)(1)

      7.6

(c)(2)

      7.6

(c)(3)

      7.6

(d)

      7.6

§ 314(a)

      4.2, 10.5

(b)

      Not Applicable

(c)(1)

      10.4

(c)(2)

      10.4

(c)(3)

      Not Applicable

(d)

      Not Applicable

(e)

      10.5

(f)

      Not Applicable

§ 315(a)

      7.1

(b)

      7.5

(c)

      7.1

(d)

      7.1

(e)

      6.14

§ 316(a)

      2.10

(a)(1)(A)

      6.12

(a)(1)(B)

      6.13

(b)

      6.8

(c)

      9.5

§ 317(a)(1)

      6.3

(a)(2)

      6.4

(b)

      2.5

§ 318(a)

      10.1

 

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 


Indenture, dated as of _______________, 20__, among Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership (the “Company”), the Guarantors (as defined herein) party hereto and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee (the “Trustee”).

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.1 Definitions.

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.

“Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.

“Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the General Partner or any duly authorized committee thereof.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the General Partner to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

“Business Day” means, unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment) on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

“Capital Stock” means (a) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock; (b) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated and whether or not voting) of corporate stock, including each class of common stock and preferred stock of such person; and (c) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership or membership interests (whether general or limited).

“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

“Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by the General Partner by an Officer.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered, which office at the date of the Indenture is located at the address set forth in Section 10.2, or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company.

 

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“CUSIP” means the Committee on Uniform Security Identification Procedures and will be used pursuant to Section 2.15.

“Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

“Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

“Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America, including the Euro.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

“General Partner” means Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., in its capacity as general partner of the Company, and, subject to the provision in Article V, its successor and assigns.

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

“Guarantor” means each person that executes this Indenture as a guarantor and its respective successors and assigns, in each case until the Guarantee of such person has been released in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture; provided, however, that such person shall be a Guarantor only with respect to a Series of Securities for which such person has executed a Notation of Guarantee with respect to such Series.

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

“Indebtedness” of a person means, without duplication, any indebtedness of such person, whether or not contingent, in respect of: (a) borrowed money evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments whether or not such indebtedness is secured by any lien existing on property owned by such person; (b) indebtedness for borrowed money of a person other than such person which is secured by any lien on property owned by such person, to the extent of the lesser of (i) the amount of indebtedness so secured, and (ii) the fair market value of the property subject to such lien; (c) the reimbursement obligations, contingent or otherwise, in connection with any letters of credit actually issued or amounts representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property or services, except any such balance that constitutes an accrued expense or trade payable; or (d) any lease of

 

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property by such person as lessee which is reflected on such person’s balance sheet as a financing lease in accordance with GAAP; provided, however, that in the case of this clause (d), Indebtedness excludes operating lease liabilities on a person’s balance sheet in accordance with GAAP. Indebtedness also includes, to the extent not otherwise included and without duplication, any obligation by such person to be liable for, or to pay, as obligor, guarantor or otherwise (other than for purposes of collection in the ordinary course of business), indebtedness of another person of the type described in clauses (a)-(d) of this definition. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to the Company, the General Partner or any Subsidiary, the term “Indebtedness” shall not include Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantees of the General Partner, the Company or any Subsidiary until such time as they become primary obligations of, and payments are due and required to be made thereunder by, the General Partner, the Company or any Subsidiary.

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented, from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

“interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

“Non-Recourse Indebtedness” means Indebtedness of a Subsidiary of the Company (or an entity in which the Company is the general partner or managing member) that is directly or indirectly secured by real estate assets or other real estate-related assets (including equity interests) of a Subsidiary of the Company (or entity in which the Company is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower and is non-recourse to the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company (other than pursuant to a Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantee and other than with respect to the Subsidiary of the Company (or entity in which the Company is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower); provided, further, that, if any such Indebtedness is partially recourse to the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company (other than pursuant to a Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantee and other than with respect to the Subsidiary of the Company (or entity in which the Company is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower) and therefore does not meet the criteria set forth above, only the portion of such Indebtedness that does meet the criteria set forth above shall constitute “Non-Recourse Indebtedness.”

“Notation of Guarantee” means a notation, substantially in the form of Exhibit A, executed by a Guarantor and affixed to each Security of any Series to which the Guarantee of such Guarantor under Article XII of this Indenture applies.

“Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and any Vice President of the General Partner.

“Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer, which complies with Section 10.4.

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. The opinion may contain customary limitations, conditions and exceptions.

“Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantees” means customary completion or budget guarantees or indemnities (including by means of separate indemnification agreements and carve-out guarantees) provided under Non-Recourse Indebtedness in the ordinary course of business by the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company in financing transactions that are directly or indirectly secured by real estate assets or other real estate-related assets (including equity interests) of a Subsidiary of the Company (or entity in which the Company is the general partner or managing member), in each case that is the borrower in such financing, but is non-recourse to the Company or any of the Company’s other Subsidiaries, except for customary completion or budget guarantees or indemnities (including by means of separate indemnification agreements or carve-out guarantees) as are consistent with customary industry practice (such as environmental indemnities and recourse triggers based on violation of transfer restrictions and other customary exceptions to nonrecourse liability).

 

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“person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof. “principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

“Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter relating to this Indenture is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

“SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, provided, however that, if at any time there is more than one person acting as Trustee under this Indenture, “Securities,” with respect to any such person, shall mean Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, exclusive, however, of Securities of any Series as to which such person is not Trustee .

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

“Significant Subsidiary” of any specified person means any Subsidiary in which such person has invested at least $50,000,000 in capital.

“Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.

“Subsidiary” of any specified person means any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that person or a combination thereof.

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

“Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

“U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depositary receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

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Section 1.2 Other Definitions.

 

TERM

   DEFINED
IN
SECTION
 

“Bankruptcy Law”

     6.1  

“Custodian”

     6.1  

“Guarantee”

     12.1 (b) 

“Event of Default”

     6.1  

“Judgment Currency”

     10.16  

“Legal Holiday”

     10.7  

“mandatory sinking fund payment”

     11.1  

“New York Banking Day”

     10.16  

“Notice Agent”

     2.4  

“optional sinking fund payment”

     11.1  

“Paying Agent”

     2.4  

“Registrar”

     2.4  

“Required Currency”

     10.16  

“successor person”

     5.1  

“USA Patriot Act”

     10.17  

Section 1.3 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

“Commission” means the SEC.

“indenture securities” means the Securities.

“indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

“obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

Section 1.4 Rules of Construction.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(c) “or” is not exclusive;

(d) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

(e) provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

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ARTICLE II.

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.1 Issuable in Series.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

Section 2.2 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.30) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

2.2.1 the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;

2.2.2 the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

2.2.3 any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6) and whether additional Securities of that Series may be issued without the consent of Holders of outstanding Securities of that Series or any other Series; provided, that in the event that additional Securities of such Series may be so issued, the terms thereof shall indicate whether any such additional Securities shall have the same terms as the prior Securities of such Series or whether the Issuer may establish additional or different terms with respect to such additional Securities;

2.2.4 the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

2.2.5 the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable, any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

2.2.6 the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

2.2.7 if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

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2.2.8 the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

2.2.9 the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

2.2.10 if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

2.2.11 the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

2.2.12 if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.13 the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

2.2.14 the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

2.2.15 if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

2.2.16 the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

2.2.17 the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series or the Guarantees;

2.2.18 any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.19 any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants and terms set forth in Articles IV, V or IX which applies to Securities of the Series;

2.2.20 any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

2.2.21 the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

2.2.22 any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series;

 

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2.2.23 whether the Securities of such Series are entitled to the benefits of the Guarantee of any Guarantor pursuant to this Indenture, whether any such Guarantee shall be made on a senior or subordinated basis and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms of any such Guarantee;

2.2.24 if a person other than U.S. Bank National Association is to act as Trustee for the Securities of that Series, the name and location of the Corporate Trust Office of such Trustee;

2.2.25 the securities exchanges, if any, on which the Securities of the Series may be listed;

2.2.26 if the Securities of that Series do not bear interest, the applicable dates for purposes of Section 2.6;

2.2.27 if Securities of the Series are to be issuable initially in the form of a temporary Global Security, the circumstances under which the temporary Global Security can be exchanged for definitive Securities;

2.2.28 whether Securities of that Series are to be issuable in bearer form and any additions or changes to any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in bearer form, registrable or not registrable as to principal, and with or without interest coupons;

2.2.29 the applicability, if any, of Sections 8.3 and/or 8.4 to the Securities of the Series and any provisions in modification of, in addition to or in lieu of any of the provisions of Article VIII; and

2.2.30 any change in the right of the Trustee or the right of the requisite Holders of Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable.

All Securities of any particular Series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and the date from which interest, if any, shall accrue, and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to such Board Resolutions and set forth in such Officer’s Certificate relating thereto or provided in or pursuant to any supplemental indenture hereto. All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

Section 2.3 Execution and Authentication.

Any Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual, facsimile or other electronic signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.2) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

 

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The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

Section 2.4 Registrar and Paying Agent.

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.2, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“Notice Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands; provided, that the Corporate Trust Officer of the Trustee shall not be a place of service of legal process on the Company.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Notice Agent” includes any additional notice agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

Section 2.5 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

 

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Section 2.6 Securityholder Lists.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

Section 2.7 Transfer and Exchange.

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6).

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business 15 days immediately preceding the sending of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day such notice is sent, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

Section 2.8 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (a) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (b) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security following delivery of the documents and security or indemnity required in the preceding paragraph .

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

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The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

Section 2.9 Outstanding Securities.

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date as provided in this Indenture, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security (but see Section 2.10 below).

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

Section 2.10 Treasury Securities.

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

Section 2.11 Temporary Securities.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

Any temporary Global Security and any permanent Global Security shall, unless otherwise provided therein, be delivered to the Depositary designated pursuant to Section 2.2 or shall be held by the Custodian on behalf of such Depositary.

Section 2.12 Cancellation.

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation and shall destroy such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

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Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest.

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least ten days before the special record date, the Company shall send to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

Section 2.14 Global Securities.

2.14.1 Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

2.14.2 Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.7 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (a) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (b) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

Except as provided in this Section 2.14.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

2.14.3 Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

In addition, so long as the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) is the Depositary, each Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“UNLESS THIS GLOBAL NOTE IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE COMPANY OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY GLOBAL NOTE

 

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ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.”

2.14.4 Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

2.14.5 Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

2.14.6 Consents, Declaration and Directions. The Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of the Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

Section 2.15 CUSIP Numbers.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

ARTICLE III.

REDEMPTION

Section 3.1 Notice to Trustee.

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of the Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice at least 15 days before the redemption date (or such shorter period as may be acceptable to the Trustee).

Section 3.2 Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements (as certified by the Company to the Trustee), subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of the Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 thereof or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2.10, the minimum principal denomination for each Series and the authorized integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

 

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Section 3.3 Notice of Redemption.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 15 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall send or cause to be sent by first class mail or electronically, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary, a notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed, with a copy to the Trustee.

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

(a) the redemption date;

(b) the redemption price;

(c) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(d) if any Securities are being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date and upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original Security shall be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Security;

(e) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

(f) that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date;

(g) the CUSIP number, if any; and

(h) any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least five days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice in the form of such notice.

Section 3.4 Effect of Notice of Redemption.

Once notice of redemption is sent as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate for a Series, a notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest, if any, to the redemption date.

Section 3.5 Deposit of Redemption Price.

On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

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Section 3.6 Securities Redeemed in Part.

Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same Maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE IV.

COVENANTS

Section 4.1 Payment of Principal and Interest.

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it shall duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid when due the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

Section 4.2 SEC Reports.

The General Partner shall, so long as any Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after it files them with the SEC copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the SEC may by rules and regulations prescribe) which the General Partner is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company and the General Partner also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a). If the General Partner is not subject to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the General Partner shall nevertheless continue to (1) file such reports and other documents with the SEC (unless the SEC will not accept such filings) on or prior to the respective dates by which the General Partner would have been required to so file such documents if it were so subject and (2) file with the Trustee for each Series copies of such reports and other documents; provided if the SEC will not accept such filings for any reason, the General Partner will make the reports referred to in this paragraph available on its website within the required timeframe that would apply if the General Partner were required to file those reports with the SEC. Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the Trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this Section 4.2, provided, however, that the Trustee shall have no obligation whatsoever to determine whether or not such information, documents or reports have been filed via EDGAR.

Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.2 are for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive or actual notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

Section 4.3 Compliance Certificate.

The Company and each Guarantor (to the extent that such Guarantor is so required under the TIA) shall, so long as any Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Guarantor, Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officer with a view to determining whether the Company and any Guarantor has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of such Officer’s knowledge the Company and any Guarantor has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which such Officer may have knowledge and the nature and status thereof).

 

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The Company will, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, promptly upon becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, an Officer’s Certificate specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

Section 4.4 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

The Company and the Guarantors covenant (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) that they will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities and the Company and the Guarantors (to the extent they may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waive all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that they will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

ARTICLE V.

SUCCESSORS

Section 5.1 When Company May Merge, Etc.

The Company shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

(a) the Company is the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than the Company) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture;

(b) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

(c) if the Company is not the successor person, then each Guarantor, unless it has become the successor person, shall confirm that its Guarantee shall continue to apply to the obligations under the Securities and this Indenture to the same extent as prior to such merger, conveyance, transfer or lease, as applicable.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to the Company. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

Section 5.2 Successor Corporation Substituted.

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Company in the case of a sale, conveyance or other disposition (other than a lease) shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

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Section 5.3 General Partner May Consolidate on Certain Terms

Nothing contained in this Indenture or in the Securities shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the General Partner with or into any other person or persons (whether or not affiliated with the General Partner), or successive consolidations or mergers in which either the General Partner will be the continuing entity or the General Partner or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or lease of all or substantially all of the property of the General Partner, to any other person (whether or not affiliated with the General Partner); provided, however, that the following conditions are met:

(a) the General Partner shall be the continuing entity, or the successor entity (if other than the General Partner) formed by or resulting from any consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of assets shall expressly assume the obligations of the General Partner under the Guarantee and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions in this Indenture;

(b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

(c) either the General Partner or the successor person, in either case, shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate of the General Partner and Opinion of Counsel, stating that such consolidation, sale, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and such supplemental indenture comply with this Section 5.3 and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

Section 5.4 General Partner Successor to Be Substituted

Upon any consolidation or merger or any sale, conveyance, transfer or lease of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the General Partner to any person in accordance with Section 5.3, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into which the General Partner is merged or to which such sale, conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the General Partner under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person had been named as the General Partner herein, and thereafter, the predecessor person shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture; provided, however, that the predecessor General Partner shall not be relieved from the obligation, if any, to guarantee the payment of the principal of and interest on the Securities except in the case of a sale of all or substantially all of the General Partner’s assets in a transaction that is subject to, and that complies with the provisions of, Section 5.3 hereof.

ARTICLE VI.

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

Section 6.1 Events of Default.

“Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(a) default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period); or

(b) default in the payment of principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

(c) default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of the Company in the Securities of that Series or this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of a Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

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(d) failure to pay any Indebtedness (other than Non-Recourse Indebtedness) for monies borrowed by the Company, any Guarantor or any of their respective Significant Subsidiaries in an outstanding principal amount in excess of $50,000,000 at final maturity or upon acceleration after the expiration of any applicable grace period, which Indebtedness (other than Non-Recourse Indebtedness) is, or has become, the primary obligation of the Company or any Guarantor and is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within 60 days after written notice to the Company from the Trustee (or to the Company and the Trustee from Holders of at least twenty five percent (25%) in principal amount of the outstanding Securities) (for purposes of this section, the amount of Indebtedness (other than Non-Recourse Indebtedness) shall be measured not by the underlying debt amount, but only by that portion of the underlying debt amount which is recourse to the Company or such Guarantor);

(e) the Company, any Guarantor or any of their Significant Subsidiaries pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(i) commences a voluntary case,

(ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

(iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

(v) generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

(f) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(i) is for relief against the Company, any Guarantor or any of their Significant Subsidiaries in an involuntary case,

(ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company, any Guarantor or any of their Significant Subsidiaries or for all or substantially all of its property, or

(iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, any Guarantor or any of their Significant Subsidiaries, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

(g) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2.18.

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Section 6.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.1(d) or (e)), then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

 

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At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration, if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

The Company covenants that if:

(a) default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

(b) default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

(c) default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment when and as due by the terms of a Security,

then, the Company and the Guarantors shall, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

If the Company or the Guarantors fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company, any Guarantor or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company, any Guarantor or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

Section 6.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

(a) to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal or, if the Securities of such Series are Discount Securities, such amounts as may be due and payable with respect to such Securities pursuant to an acceleration in accordance with Section 6.2, and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

 

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(b) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same,

and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

Section 6.6 Application of Money Collected.

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7; and

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

Third: To the Company or the Guarantors, as applicable.

Section 6.7 Limitation on Suits.

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless

(a) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(b) the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

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(c) such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

(d) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(e) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series.

Section 6.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

Section 6.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Guarantors, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

Section 6.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.8, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 6.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

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Section 6.12 Control by Holders.

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that

(a) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

(b) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction,

(c) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability, the direction is in conflict with any law or this Indenture, or the direction would be unduly prejudicial to the Holders of such Series not joining therein provided, however, that the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee that is not inconsistent with such direction, and

(d) prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnity or security satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

Section 6.13 Waiver of Past Defaults.

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series, by written notice to the Trustee and the Company, waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.14 Undertaking for Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

 

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ARTICLE VII.

TRUSTEE

Section 7.1 Duties of Trustee.

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(i) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

(ii) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the form requirements of this Indenture.

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section.

(ii) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(iii) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

(d) Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

(e) The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

(f) The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

(g) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee to its satisfaction.

(h) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in paragraphs (e), (f) and (g) of this Section, each with respect to the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.2 Rights of Trustee.

(a) The Trustee may rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(b) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officer’s Certificate and Opinion of Counsel.

(c) The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

(d) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute willful misconduct or negligence.

(e) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder without willful misconduct or negligence, and in reliance thereon.

(f) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered, and, if requested, provided to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

(g) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of Indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit.

(h) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture.

(i) Any permissive right or authority granted to the Trustee shall not be construed as a mandatory duty.

(j) The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture, which Officer’s Certificate may be signed by any person authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate, including any person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded.

(k) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action arising in connection with the Indenture.

(l) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the execution of the trusts and powers or otherwise in respect of the Indenture.

(m) Under no circumstances shall the Trustee be liable in its individual capacity for the obligations evidenced by the Securities.

 

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Section 7.3 Individual Rights of Trustee.

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

Section 7.4 Trustee’s Disclaimer.

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

Section 7.5 Notice of Defaults.

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series, in the manner set forth in Section 10.2, notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as the Trustee in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

Section 7.6 Reports by Trustee to Holders.

Within 60 days after May 15 of each year, the Trustee shall transmit to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such anniversary date, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA Section 313.

A copy of each report at the time of its delivery to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each national securities exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when Securities of any Series are listed on any national securities exchange.

Section 7.7 Compensation and Indemnity.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee (including the cost of defending itself) against any cost, expense or liability, including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it except as set forth in the next paragraph in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its obligations under this Section 7.7 except to the extent that the Company suffers actual prejudice as a result of such failure. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through willful misconduct or negligence.

 

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To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

The provisions of this Section shall survive the termination of this Indenture or the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee.

Section 7.8 Replacement of Trustee.

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company at least 30 days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

(a) the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

(b) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

(c) a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(d) the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee. A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.7, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall deliver a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.8, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.7 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it for actions taken or omitted to be taken in accordance with its rights, powers and duties under this Indenture prior to such replacement.

Section 7.9 Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee, subject to Section 7.10.

 

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Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification.

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b). In determining whether the Trustee has a conflicting interest as defined in Section 310(b) of the TIA with respect to the Securities of any Series, there shall be excluded Securities of any particular Series of Securities other than that Series.

Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.

ARTICLE VIII.

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

Section 8.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

This Indenture shall upon Company Order be discharged with respect to the Securities of any Series and cease to be of further effect as to all Securities of such Series (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.1), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments reasonably requested by the Company acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

(a) either

(i) all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(ii) all such Securities of such Series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation:

(1) have become due and payable by reason of sending a notice of redemption or otherwise, or

(2) will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

(3) have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or

(4) are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to Section 8.3, as applicable;

and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount of money or U.S. Government Obligations sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire Indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

(b) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

(c) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

 

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Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.7, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 8.2 and 8.5 shall survive.

If the Company exercises the satisfaction and discharge provisions in compliance with this Indenture with respect to Securities of a particular Series that are entitled to the benefit of the Guarantee of any Guarantor, the Guarantee will terminate with respect to that Series of Securities.

Section 8.2 Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

(a) Subject to the provisions of Section 8.5, all money or U.S. Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 8.3 or 8.4 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 8.3 or 8.4, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.3 or 8.4.

(b) The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.3 or 8.4 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

(c) The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Order any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Sections 8.3 or 8.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

Section 8.3 Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

Unless this Section 8.3 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.2, to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire Indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect and any Guarantee will terminate with respect to that Series of Securities (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, upon receipt of a Company Order, execute instruments reasonably requested by the Company acknowledging the same), except as to:

(a) the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

(b) the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 8.2, 8.3 and 8.5; and

(c) the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith;

 

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provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

i. the Company shall have deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

ii. such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound (other than a Default or Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit (and any similar concurrent deposit related to other Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary) and the granting of liens to secure such borrowings);

iii. no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

iv. the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

v. the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

vi. the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.4 Covenant Defeasance.

Unless this Section 8.4 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 5.1 as well as any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.1) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2.18 and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(a) With reference to this Section 8.4, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following

 

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payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

(b) Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound (other than a Default or Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit (and any similar concurrent deposit related to other Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary) and the granting of liens to secure such borrowings);

(c) No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

(d) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance had not occurred;

(e) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

(f) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.5 Repayment to Company.

Subject to applicable abandoned property law, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

Section 8.6 Reinstatement.

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 8.1 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series and under the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.1 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.1; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent after payment in full to the Holders.

 

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ARTICLE IX.

AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

Section 9.1 Without Consent of Holders.

The Company, any Guarantors and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

(a) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

(b) to comply with Article V;

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities; provided that the uncertificated Securities are issued in registered form for purposes of Section 163(f) of the Code;

(d) to surrender any of the Company’s rights or powers under this Indenture;

(e) to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of Securities of any Series;

(f) to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable Depositary;

(g) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(h) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

(i) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;

(j) to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA;

(k) to reflect the release of any Guarantor in accordance with Article XII; or

(l) to add Guarantors with respect to any or all of the Securities or to secure any or all of the Securities or the Guarantees.

Section 9.2 With Consent of Holders.

The Company, any Guarantors and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.2 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby (with a copy to the Trustee), a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

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Any failure by the Company to send such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

Section 9.3 Limitations.

Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

(a) reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

(b) reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security;

(c) reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(d) reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

(e) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(f) make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

(g) make any change in Section 6.8, 6.13 or 9.3 (this sentence);

(h) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, provided that such redemption is made at the Company’s option; or

(i) if the Securities of that Series are entitled to the benefit of the Guarantee, release any Guarantor of such Series other than as provided in this Indenture or modify the Guarantee in any manner adverse to the Holders.

Section 9.4 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

Section 9.5 Revocation and Effect of Consents.

Until an amendment is set forth in a supplemental indenture or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date of the supplemental indenture or the date the waiver becomes effective.

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (h) of Section 9.3 or requires the consent of each Security Holder affected, as set forth in a supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate in respect to a particular Series of Securities. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

 

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The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to give their consent or take any other action described above or required or permitted to be taken pursuant to this Indenture. If a record date is fixed, then notwithstanding the immediately preceding paragraph, those persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to give such consent or to revoke any consent previously given or take any such action, whether or not such persons continue to be Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 120 days after such record date.

Section 9.6 Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

The Company or the Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Company in exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

Section 9.7 Trustee Protected.

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures upon delivery of such an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights.

ARTICLE X.

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 10.1 Trust Indenture Act Controls.

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

Section 10.2 Notices.

Any notice or communication by the Company, any Guarantor or the Trustee to the other, or by a Holder to the Company, any Guarantor or the Trustee, is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail:

if to the Company or any Guarantor:

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000

Los Angeles, CA 90025

Attention: Laura Clark

Telephone: [ 🌑 ]

with a copy to:

Latham & Watkins LLP

355 S. Grand Ave., Suite 100

Los Angeles, CA 90071

Attention:

Brad Helms

    

Brent Epstein

Telephone:

213.891.8640

    

213.891.8185

 

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if to the Trustee:

U.S. Bank National Association

633 West 5th Street, 24th Floor

Los Angeles, CA 90071

Attention: Brad Scarbrough (Rexford Industrial Realty)

Telephone: 213.615.6047

The Company, any Guarantor or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be sent electronically or by first-class mail to his, her or its address shown on the register kept by the Registrar, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary. Failure to send a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

If a notice or communication is sent or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.

If the Company or any Guarantor mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of such Depositary.

Section 10.3 Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).

Section 10.4 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(a) an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all covenants and conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

(b) an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such covenants and conditions precedent have been complied with.

Section 10.5 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA Section 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA Section 314(e) and shall include:

(a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

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(c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, such person has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable such person to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 10.6 Rules by Trustee and Agents.

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

Section 10.7 Legal Holidays.

Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

Section 10.8 No Recourse Against Others.

A director, officer, employee or stockholder (past or present), as such, of the Company or any Guarantor shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities, the Guarantee or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

Section 10.9 Counterparts.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. The words “execution,” “signed,” “signature,” and words of like import in this Indenture shall include images of manually executed signatures transmitted by facsimile, email or other electronic format (including, without limitation, “pdf,” “tif” or “jpg”) and other electronic signatures (including without limitation, DocuSign and AdobeSign). The use of electronic signatures and electronic records (including, without limitation, any contract or other record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored by electronic means) shall be of the same legal effect, validity and enforceability as a manually executed signature or use of a paper-based record-keeping system to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, including the Federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, the New York State Electronic Signatures and Records Act and any other applicable law, including, without limitation, any state law based on the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act or the Uniform Commercial Code. Without limitation to the foregoing, and anything in this Indenture to the contrary notwithstanding, (a) any Officer’s Certificate, Company Order, Opinion of Counsel, Security, Guarantee endorsed on any Security, opinion of counsel, instrument, agreement or other document delivered pursuant to this Indenture may be executed, attested and transmitted by any of the foregoing electronic means and formats, (b) all references in Section 2.3 or elsewhere in this Indenture to the execution, attestation or authentication of any Security, any Guarantee endorsed on any Security, or any certificate of authentication appearing on or attached to any Security by means of a manual or facsimile signature shall be deemed to include signatures that are made or transmitted by any of the foregoing electronic means or formats, and (c) any requirement in this Indenture that any signature be made under a corporate seal (or facsimile thereof) shall not be applicable to the Securities or any Guarantees endorsed on any Securities. The Company agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of using digital signatures, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions.

 

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Section 10.10 Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES, INCLUDING ANY CLAIM OR CONTROVERSY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THE INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES, SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK (WITHOUT REGARD TO THE CONFLICTS OF LAWS PROVISIONS THEREOF OTHER THAN SECTION 5-1401 OF THE GENERAL OBLIGATIONS LAW).

THE COMPANY, THE GUARANTORS, THE TRUSTEE AND THE HOLDERS (BY THEIR ACCEPTANCE OF THE SECURITIES) EACH HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE NOTES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY OR THEREBY.

Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Indenture or the transactions contemplated hereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York (collectively, the “Specified Courts”), and each party irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The Company, the Guarantors, the Trustee and the Holders (by their acceptance of the Securities) each hereby irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

Section 10.11 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

Section 10.12 Successors.

All agreements of the Company and the Guarantors in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind their respective successors. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

Section 10.13 Severability.

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 10.14 Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

Section 10.15 Securities in a Foreign Currency.

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in more than one currency, then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be determined by converting any such other currency into a currency that is

 

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designated upon issuance of any particular Series of Securities. Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, such conversion shall be made by the Company at the spot rate for the purchase of the designated currency as published in The Financial Times in the “Currency Rates” section (or, if The Financial Times is no longer published, or if such information is no longer available in The Financial Times, such source as may be selected in good faith by the Company) on any date of determination. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

All decisions and determinations provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, in the absence of manifest error, to the extent permitted by law, be conclusive for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Trustee and all Holders.

Section 10.16 Judgment Currency.

The Company and each Guarantor agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a New York Banking Day, then the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the New York Banking Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture. For purposes of the foregoing, “New York Banking Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

Section 10.17 USA Patriot Act.

The parties hereto acknowledge that, in accordance with Section 326 of the USA Patriot Act (Title III of Pub. L. 107-56 (signed into law October 26, 2001)) (as amended, modified or supplemented from time to time, the “USA Patriot Act”), the Trustee, like all financial institutions, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that opens an account. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as the Trustee may reasonably request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the USA Patriot Act.

Section 10.18 Force Majeure.

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances..

 

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ARTICLE XI.

SINKING FUNDS

Section 11.1 Applicability of Article.

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series if so provided by the terms of such Securities pursuant to Section 2.2, except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.2. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the Securities of such Series.

Section 11.2 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (1) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (2) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been repurchased by the Company or redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Series of Securities (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received by the Trustee, together with an Officer’s Certificate with respect thereto, not later than 15 days prior to the date on which the Trustee begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly. If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.2, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $100,000, the Trustee need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Trustee or a Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Trustee or such Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Trustee of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.

Section 11.3 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 45 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.2, and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified. Not less than 30 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.2 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.3. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6.

 

38


ARTICLE XII.

GUARANTEE

Section 12.1 Unconditional Guarantee.

(a) Notwithstanding any provision of this Article XII to the contrary, the provisions of this Article XII shall be applicable only to, and inure solely to the benefit of, the Securities of any Series designated, pursuant to Section 2.2.23, as entitled to the benefits of the Guarantee of each Guarantor identified in such designation and that has executed a Notation of Guarantee with respect to such Series.

(b) For value received, each Guarantor hereby jointly and severally, fully, unconditionally and absolutely guarantees (the “Guarantee”) to the Holders and to the Trustee the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on each Series of Securities for which such Guarantor has executed a Notation of Guarantee with respect to such Series and all other amounts due and payable under this Indenture and the Securities of such Series by the Company, when and as such principal, premium, if any, and interest shall become due and payable, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise, according to the terms of such Securities and this Indenture, subject to the limitations set forth in Section 12.3.

(c) Failing payment when due of any amount guaranteed pursuant to the Guarantee, for whatever reason, each of the Guarantors will be jointly and severally obligated to pay the same immediately. Each of the Guarantors hereby agrees that its obligations hereunder shall be full, unconditional and absolute, irrespective of the validity, regularity or enforceability of the Securities, the Guarantee (including the Guarantee of any other Guarantor) or this Indenture, the absence of any action to enforce the same, any waiver or consent by any Holder of the Securities with respect to any provisions hereof or thereof, the recovery of any judgment against the Company or any other Guarantor, or any action to enforce the same or any other circumstances which might otherwise constitute a legal or equitable discharge or defense of any of the Guarantors. Each Guarantor hereby agrees that in the event of a default in payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities entitled to the Guarantee of such Guarantor, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise, legal proceedings may be instituted by the Trustee on behalf of the Holders or, subject to Section 6.7, by the Holders, on the terms and conditions set forth in this Indenture, directly against such Guarantor to enforce the Guarantee without first proceeding against the Company or any other Guarantor.

(d) Each Guarantor hereby (i) waives diligence, presentment, demand of payment, filing of claims with a court in the event of the merger, insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company or any of the Guarantors, and all demands whatsoever and (ii) acknowledges that any agreement, instrument or document evidencing the Guarantee may be transferred and that the benefit of its obligations hereunder shall extend to each holder of any agreement, instrument or document evidencing the Guarantee without notice to it. Each Guarantor further agrees that if at any time all or any part of any payment theretofore applied by any person to the Guarantee is, or must be, rescinded or returned for any reason whatsoever, including without limitation, the insolvency, bankruptcy or reorganization of the Company or any of the Guarantors, the Guarantee shall, to the extent that such payment is or must be rescinded or returned, be deemed to have continued in existence notwithstanding such application, and the Guarantee shall continue to be effective or be reinstated, as the case may be, as though such application had not been made.

(e) Each Guarantor shall be subrogated to all rights of the Holders and the Trustee against the Company in respect of any amounts paid by such Guarantor pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture; provided, however, that such Guarantor shall not be entitled to enforce or to receive any payments arising out of, or based upon, such right of subrogation until all of the Securities entitled to the Guarantee of such Guarantor and the Guarantee shall have been paid in full or discharged.

Section 12.2 Execution and Delivery of Notation of Guarantee.

To evidence the Guarantee of a Guarantor of a Series of Securities, a Notation of Guarantee, executed by either manual or facsimile signature of an Officer of such Guarantor, shall be affixed on each Security entitled to the benefits of the Guarantee of such Guarantor. If any Officer of any Guarantor whose signature is on a Notation of Guarantee no longer holds that office at the time the Trustee authenticates a Security to which such Notation of Guarantee is affixed or at any time thereafter, the Guarantee of such Security shall be valid nevertheless. The

 

39


delivery of any Security by the Trustee, after the authentication thereof hereunder, shall constitute due delivery of any Guarantee relating to such Security set forth in the Indenture on behalf of the Guarantor. Notwithstanding the foregoing, each Guarantor hereby agrees that its Guarantee shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding the absence of a Notation of Guarantee being affixed to such Security.

Section 12.3 Limitation on Guarantors’ Liability.

Each Guarantor by its acceptance hereof and each Holder of Security and the Trustee entitled to the benefits of the Guarantee hereby confirms that it is the intention of all such parties that the guarantee by such Guarantor pursuant to the Guarantee not constitute a fraudulent transfer or conveyance for purposes of any federal or state law. To effectuate the foregoing intention, each Holder of a Security and the Trustee entitled to the benefits of the Guarantee and each Guarantor hereby irrevocably agrees that the obligations of each Guarantor under the Guarantee shall be limited to the maximum amount as will, after giving effect to all other contingent and fixed liabilities of such Guarantor and to any collections from or payments made by or on behalf of any other Guarantor in respect of the obligations of such other Guarantor under the Guarantee, not result in the obligations of such Guarantor under the Guarantee constituting a fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer under federal or state law.

Section 12.4 Release of Guarantors from Guarantee.

(a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Indenture, the Guarantee of any Guarantor may be released upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in Section 8.1, Section 8.3 and this Section 12.4. Provided that no Default shall have occurred and shall be continuing under this Indenture, the Guarantee incurred by a Guarantor pursuant to this Article XII shall be unconditionally released and discharged (i) automatically upon (A) any sale, exchange or transfer, whether by way of merger or otherwise, to any person that is not an Affiliate of the Company, of all of the Company’s direct or indirect equity interests in such Guarantor (provided such sale, exchange or transfer is not prohibited by this Indenture) or (B) the merger of such Guarantor into the Company or any other Guarantor or the liquidation and dissolution of such Guarantor (in each case to the extent not prohibited by this Indenture) or (ii) with respect to any Series of Securities, upon the occurrence of any other condition set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate establishing the terms of such Series.

(b) Upon receipt of a written request of the Company accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel to the effect that any Guarantor is entitled to be released from the Guarantee in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture, the Trustee shall deliver instruments reasonably requested by the Company or such Guarantor evidencing the release of such Guarantor from the Guarantee. Any Guarantor not so released shall remain liable for the full amount of principal of and interest on the Securities entitled to the benefits of the Guarantee as provided in this Indenture, subject to the limitations of Section 12.3.

[SIGNATURE PAGE FOLLOWS]

 

40


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., as the Company
By:   Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., its sole general partner
By:    
  Name:
  Its:
Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., as Guarantor
By:    
  Name:
  Its:
U.S. Bank National Association, as the Trustee
By:    
  Name:
  Its:

[Signature Page to Indenture]


EXHIBIT A

[FORM OF]

NOTATION OF GUARANTEE

Each Guarantor signing below has fully, unconditionally and absolutely guaranteed, to the extent set forth in the Indenture and subject to the provisions in the Indenture, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Securities to which this notation is affixed and all other amounts due and payable under the Indenture and the Securities to which this notation is affixed by the Company.

The obligations of such Guarantor to the Holders of Securities to which this notation is affixed and to the Trustee pursuant to the Guarantee and the Indenture are expressly set forth in Article XII of the Indenture and reference is hereby made to the Indenture for the precise terms of the Guarantee.

 

[NAME OF GUARANTOR(S)]

By:

   
 

Name:

 

Title:

(Back To Top)

Section 4: EX-5.1 (EX-5.1)

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

 

LOGO

November 6, 2020

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000

Los Angeles, CA 90025

Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have served as Maryland counsel to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), in connection with certain matters of Maryland law arising out of the registration of the offering and sale from time to time of the following securities having an indeterminate aggregate initial offering price (collectively, the “Securities”): (a) shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “Common Stock”); (b) shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”); (c) depositary shares representing interests in shares of Preferred Stock (the “Depositary Shares”); (d) warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock, shares of Preferred Stock or Depositary Shares (“Warrants”); (e) rights to purchase shares of Common Stock or other Securities (“Rights”); (f) units consisting of two or more other Securities, in any combination (“Units”); (g) debt securities (“Debt Securities”) offered by the Operating Partnership and (h) guarantees by the Company (“Guarantees”) of Debt Securities, covered by the above-referenced Registration Statement, and all amendments thereto (collectively, the “Registration Statement”), filed by the Company with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

In connection with our representation of the Company and the Operating Partnership, and as a basis for the opinion hereinafter set forth, we have examined originals, or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of the following documents (hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Documents”):

1. The Registration Statement and the Prospectus included therein, substantially in the form in which they were transmitted to the Commission for filing under the Securities Act;

2. The charter of the Company (the “Charter”), certified by the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (the “SDAT”);

3. The Fourth Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company (the “Bylaws”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;


Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

November 6, 2020

Page 2

 

4. The Certificate of Limited Partnership of the Operating Partnership, as amended, certified by the SDAT;

5. The Seventh Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of the Operating Partnership, dated March 5, 2020, among the Company, as general partner, and the persons from time to time party thereto as limited partners, certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

6. Certificates of the SDAT as to the good standing of the Company and the Operating Partnership, each dated as of a recent date;

7. Resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company (the “Board”) relating to, among other matters, the registration and issuance of the Securities (the “Resolutions”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

8. A certificate executed by an officer of the Company, dated as of the date hereof; and

9. Such other documents and matters as we have deemed necessary or appropriate to express the opinion set forth below, subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein.

In expressing the opinion set forth below, we have assumed the following:

1. Each individual executing any of the Documents, whether on behalf of such individual or another person, is legally competent to do so.

2. Each individual executing any of the Documents on behalf of a party (other than the Company and the Operating Partnership) is duly authorized to do so.

3. Each of the parties (other than the Company and the Operating Partnership) executing any of the Documents has duly and validly executed and delivered each of the Documents to which such party is a signatory, and each such party’s obligations set forth therein are legal, valid and binding and are enforceable in accordance with all stated terms.

4. All Documents submitted to us as originals are authentic. The form and content of all Documents submitted to us as unexecuted drafts do not differ in any respect relevant to this opinion from the form and content of such Documents as executed and delivered. All Documents submitted to us as certified or photostatic copies conform to the original documents. All signatures on all Documents are genuine. All public records reviewed or relied upon by us or on our behalf are true and complete. All representations, warranties, statements and information contained in the Documents are true and complete. There has been no oral or written modification of or amendment to any of the Documents, and there has been no waiver of any provision of any of the Documents, by action or omission of the parties or otherwise.


Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

November 6, 2020

Page 3

 

5. The issuance of, and certain terms of, the Securities to be issued by the Company and the Operating Partnership from time to time, as applicable, will be authorized and approved by the Board, or a duly authorized committee thereof, in accordance with and not in violation of the Maryland General Corporation Law, the Charter, the Bylaws and the Resolutions and, in the case of any Securities that are shares of Preferred Stock (the “Preferred Securities”), including any Preferred Securities that may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exercisable for Preferred Securities and any Preferred Securities represented by Depositary Shares, Articles Supplementary designating the class or series of Preferred Stock to be issued by the Company, and setting forth the authorized number of shares and the terms thereof, will be filed with and accepted for record by the SDAT (such approval and, if applicable, filing and acceptance for record, referred to herein as the “Corporate Proceedings”).

6. Upon the issuance of any Securities that are shares of Common Stock (“Common Securities”), including any Common Securities that may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into, exercisable or exchangeable for Common Securities, the total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

7. Upon the issuance of any Preferred Securities, including any Preferred Securities that may be issued upon exercise of any other Securities convertible into, exercisable or exchangeable for Preferred Securities and any Preferred Securities represented by Depositary Shares, the total number of shares of Preferred Stock issued and outstanding, and the total number of shares of the applicable class or series of shares of Preferred Stock issued and outstanding, will not exceed the total number of shares of Preferred Stock or the number of shares of such class or series of Preferred Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

8. None of the Securities issued by the Company will be issued, sold or transferred in violation of any restriction or limitation contained in Article VI of the Charter or any comparable provision of any Articles Supplementary designating any class or series of Preferred Stock.

Based upon the foregoing and subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein, it is our opinion that:

1. The Company is a corporation duly incorporated and existing under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Maryland and is in good standing with the SDAT.


Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

November 6, 2020

Page 4

 

2. The Operating Partnership has been duly formed and is validly existing as a limited partnership under the laws of the State of Maryland and is in good standing with the SDAT.

3. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to any Common Securities, the issuance of such Common Securities will be duly authorized and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Registration Statement, the Resolutions and the Corporate Proceedings, such Common Securities will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

4. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to any Preferred Securities, the issuance of such Preferred Securities will be duly authorized and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Registration Statement, the Resolutions and the Corporate Proceedings, such Preferred Securities will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

5. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Depositary Shares, the issuance of such Depositary Shares will be duly authorized.

6. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Warrants, the issuance of such Warrants will be duly authorized.

7. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Rights, the issuance of such Rights will be duly authorized.

8. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Units, the issuance of such Units will be duly authorized.

9. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Guarantees, the issuance of such Guarantees will be duly authorized.

10. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to Securities that are Debt Securities, the issuance of such Debt Securities will be duly authorized.

The foregoing opinion is limited to the laws of the State of Maryland and we do not express any opinion herein concerning federal law or the laws of any other state. We express no opinion as to compliance with any federal or state securities laws, including the securities laws of the State of Maryland, or as to federal or state laws regarding fraudulent transfers or the laws, codes or regulations of any municipality or other local jurisdiction. To the extent that any matter as to which our opinion is expressed herein would be governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of Maryland, we do not express any opinion on such matter. The opinion expressed herein is subject to the effect of any judicial decision which may permit the introduction of parol evidence to modify the terms or the interpretation of agreements.


Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

November 6, 2020

Page 5

 

The opinion expressed herein is limited to the matters specifically set forth herein and no other opinion shall be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated. We assume no obligation to supplement this opinion if any applicable law changes after the date hereof or if we become aware of any fact that might change the opinion expressed herein after the date hereof.

This opinion is being furnished to you for submission to the Commission as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of the name of our firm therein. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the Securities Act.

 

Very truly yours,
/s/ Venable LLP
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Section 5: EX-5.2 (EX-5.2)

EX-5.2

Exhibit 5.2

 

 

355 South Grand Avenue, Suite 100

Los Angeles, California 90071-1560

Tel: +1.213.485.1234     Fax: +1.213.891.8763

www.lw.com

LOGO   FIRM / AFFILIATE OFFICES
  Beijing    Moscow
  Boston    Munich
  Brussels    New York
  Century City    Orange County
  Chicago    Paris
  Dubai    Riyadh
  Düsseldorf    San Diego
November 6, 2020   Frankfurt    San Francisco
  Hamburg    Seoul
  Hong Kong    Shanghai
  Houston    Silicon Valley
  London    Singapore
  Los Angeles    Tokyo
  Madrid    Washington, D.C.
  Milan   

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000

Los Angeles, California 90025

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000

Los Angeles, California 90025

Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as special counsel to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), in connection with the filing on the date hereof with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) of a registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”), including a base prospectus (the “Base Prospectus”), which provides that it will be supplemented by one or more prospectus supplements (each such prospectus supplement, together with the Base Prospectus, a “Prospectus”), under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), relating to the registration for issue and sale (i) by the Company of shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”), (ii) by the Company of shares of one or more series of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”), (iii) by the Company of shares of Preferred Stock represented by depositary shares (“Depositary Shares”), (iv) by the Company of warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock, shares of Preferred Stock or Depositary Shares (“Warrants”), (v) by the Company of rights to purchase shares of Common Stock or other securities of the Company (“Rights”), (vi) by the Company of units consisting of two or more constituent securities of the Company (“Units”), (vii) by the Operating Partnership of one or more series of debt securities of the Operating Partnership (the “Debt Securities”) to be issued pursuant to an indenture included as an exhibit to the Registration Statement by and among the Operating Partnership, the Company and U.S. Bank National Association, and one or more board resolutions, supplements thereto or officer’s certificates thereunder (such indenture, together with the applicable board resolution, supplement or officer’s certificate pertaining to the applicable series of Debt Securities, the “Applicable Indenture”), and (viii) by the Company of guarantees of the Debt Securities (the “Guarantees”) pursuant to the Applicable Indenture. The Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Rights, Units, Debt Securities and Guarantees are referred to herein collectively as the “Securities.”


November 6, 2020

Page 2

 

LOGO

 

This opinion is being furnished in connection with the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Act, and no opinion is expressed herein as to any matter pertaining to the contents of the Registration Statement or related applicable Prospectus, other than as expressly stated herein with respect to the enforceability of the Securities.

As such counsel, we have examined such matters of fact and questions of law as we have considered appropriate for purposes of this letter. With your consent, we have relied upon certificates and other assurances of officers of the Operating Partnership, the Company and others as to factual matters without having independently verified such factual matters. We are opining herein as to the internal laws of the State of New York, and we express no opinion with respect to the applicability thereto, or the effect thereon, of the laws of any other jurisdiction or as to any matters of municipal law or the laws of any local agencies within any state. Various issues pertaining to Maryland law, including the validity of the Common Stock and Preferred Stock and the due authorization of the Securities by the Company, are addressed in the opinion of Venable LLP, which has been separately provided to you. We express no opinion with respect to those matters herein, and to the extent elements of those opinions are necessary to the conclusions expressed herein, we have, with your consent, assumed such matters.

Subject to the foregoing and the other matters set forth herein, it is our opinion that, as of the date hereof:

1. When the applicable deposit agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and when the specific terms of a particular issuance of Depositary Shares have been duly established in accordance with the terms of the applicable deposit agreement and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and such Depositary Shares have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the terms of the applicable deposit agreement and in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action (assuming the underlying securities have been validly issued and deposited with the depositary), such Depositary Shares will be the legally valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

2. When the applicable warrant agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and when the specific terms of a particular issuance of Warrants have been duly established in accordance with the terms of the applicable warrant agreement and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and such Warrants have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the terms of the applicable warrant agreement and in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action (assuming the securities issuable upon exercise of such Warrants have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance by all necessary corporate action), such Warrants will be the legally valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

3. When the applicable rights agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and when the specific terms of a particular issuance of Rights have been duly authorized in accordance with the terms of the applicable rights agreement and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and such Rights have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the terms of the applicable rights agreement and in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action (assuming the securities issuable upon exercise of such Rights have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance by all necessary corporate action), such Rights will be the legally valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.


November 6, 2020

Page 3

 

LOGO

 

4. When the applicable unit agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and when the specific terms of a particular issuance of Units have been duly authorized in accordance with the terms of the applicable unit agreement and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and such Units have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the terms of the applicable unit agreement and in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action (assuming the securities issuable upon exercise of such Units have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance by all necessary corporate action), such Units will be the legally valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

5. When the Applicable Indenture has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by all necessary limited partnership action of the Operating Partnership and corporate action of the Company, and when the specific terms of a particular series of Debt Securities have been duly established in accordance with the terms of the Applicable Indenture and authorized by all necessary limited partnership action of the Operating Partnership, and such Debt Securities have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor, and when the Guarantees of such Debt Securities have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company and duly executed and delivered by the Company in accordance with the terms of the Applicable Indenture and, in each case, in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such limited partnership and corporate action, as applicable, such Debt Securities and Guarantees will be the legally valid and binding obligations of the Operating Partnership and the Company, respectively, enforceable against the Operating Partnership and the Company in accordance with their respective terms.

Our opinions are subject to: (i) the effect of bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, preference, fraudulent transfer, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors; (ii) the effect of general principles of equity, whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law (including the possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief), concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, and the discretion of the court before which a proceeding is brought; (iii) the invalidity under certain circumstances under law or court decisions of provisions providing for the indemnification of or contribution to a party with respect to a liability where such indemnification or contribution is contrary to public policy; and (iv) we express no opinion as to (a) any provision for liquidated damages, default interest, late charges, monetary penalties, make-whole premiums or other economic remedies to the extent such provisions are deemed to constitute a penalty, (b) consents to, or restrictions upon, governing law, jurisdiction, venue, arbitration, remedies, or judicial relief, (c) waivers of rights or defenses, (d) any provision requiring the payment of attorneys’ fees, where such payment is contrary to law or public policy, (e) any provision permitting, upon acceleration of any Debt Securities, collection of that portion of the stated principal amount thereof which might be determined to constitute unearned interest thereon, (f) the creation, validity, attachment, perfection, or priority of any lien or security interest, (g) advance waivers of claims, defenses, rights granted by law, or notice, opportunity for hearing, evidentiary requirements, statutes of limitation, trial by jury or at law, or other procedural rights, (h) waivers of broadly or vaguely stated rights, (i) provisions for exclusivity, election or cumulation of rights or remedies, (j) provisions authorizing or validating conclusive or discretionary determinations, (k) grants of setoff rights, (l) proxies, powers and trusts, (m) provisions prohibiting, restricting, or requiring consent to assignment or transfer of any right or property, (n) provisions purporting to make a guarantor primarily liable rather than as a surety, (o) provisions


November 6, 2020

Page 4

 

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purporting to waive modifications of any guaranteed obligation to the extent such modification constitutes a novation, (p) any provision to the extent it requires that a claim with respect to a security denominated in other than U.S. dollars (or a judgment in respect of such a claim) be converted into U.S. dollars at a rate of exchange at a particular date, to the extent applicable law otherwise provides, and (q) the severability, if invalid, of provisions to the foregoing effect.

With your consent, we have assumed (a) that each of the Depositary Shares, Warrants, Rights, Units, Debt Securities and Guarantees and the deposit agreements, warrant agreements, rights agreements, unit agreements, the Applicable Indenture governing such Securities, and any related board resolution, supplemental indenture or officers’ certificate establishing the terms thereof (collectively, the “Documents”) will be governed by the internal laws of the State of New York, (b) that each of the Documents has been or will be duly authorized, executed and delivered by the parties thereto, (c) that each of the Documents constitutes or will constitute legally valid and binding obligations of the parties thereto other than the Operating Partnership and the Company, as applicable, enforceable against each of them in accordance with their respective terms, and (d) that the status of each of the Documents as legally valid and binding obligations of the parties will not be affected by any (i) breaches of, or defaults under, agreements or instruments, (ii) violations of statutes, rules, regulations or court or governmental orders, or (iii) failures to obtain required consents, approvals or authorizations from, or to make required registrations, declarations or filings with, governmental authorities.

This opinion is for your benefit in connection with the Registration Statement and may be relied upon by you and by persons entitled to rely upon it pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Act. We consent to your filing this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our firm contained in the Prospectus under the heading “Legal Matters.” In giving such consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

Very truly yours,

/s/ LATHAM & WATKINS LLP

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Section 6: EX-8.1 (EX-8.1)

EX-8.1

Exhibit 8.1

 

LOGO

   

355 South Grand Avenue, Suite 100

 

Los Angeles, California 90071-1560

 

Tel: +1.213.485.1234 Fax: +1.213.891.8763

www.lw.com

 

FIRM / AFFILIATE OFFICES

   

Beijing

  

Moscow

   

Boston

  

Munich

   

Brussels

  

New York

   

Century City

  

Orange County

   

Chicago

  

Paris

   

Dubai

  

Riyadh

November 6, 2020    

Düsseldorf

  

San Diego

   

Frankfurt

  

San Francisco

   

Hamburg

  

Seoul

   

Hong Kong

  

Shanghai

   

Houston

  

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London

  

Singapore

   

Los Angeles

  

Tokyo

   

Madrid

  

Washington, D.C.

   

Milan

  
   

File No. 047182-0001

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000

Los Angeles, CA 90025

Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as tax counsel to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with its filing on the date hereof of a registration statement on Form S-3 (such registration statement, as amended through the date hereof together with the prospectus included therein, the “Registration Statement”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), relating to the registration of the securities set forth in the prospectus contained in the Registration Statement.

You have requested our opinion concerning certain of the federal income tax considerations relating to the Company. This opinion is based on various facts and assumptions, including the facts set forth in the Registration Statement concerning the business, assets and governing documents of the Company and its subsidiaries. We have also been furnished with, and with your consent have relied upon, certain representations made by the Company and its subsidiaries with respect to certain factual matters through a certificate of an officer of the Company, dated as of the date hereof (the “Officer’s Certificate”).

In our capacity as tax counsel to the Company, we have made such legal and factual examinations and inquiries, including an examination of originals or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction of such documents, corporate records and other instruments as we have deemed necessary or appropriate for purposes of this opinion. For the purposes of our opinion, we have not made an independent investigation or audit of all of the facts set forth in the above referenced documents or in the Officer’s Certificate. In addition, in rendering this opinion we have assumed the truth and accuracy of all representations and statements made to us that are


November 6, 2020

Page 2

 

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qualified as to knowledge or belief, without regard to such qualification. No facts have come to our attention that would cause us to question the truth and accuracy of such representations and statements. In our examination, we have assumed the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the genuineness of all signatures thereon, the legal capacity of natural persons executing such documents and the conformity to authentic original documents of all documents submitted to us as copies.

We are opining herein only as to the federal income tax laws of the United States, and we express no opinion with respect to the applicability thereto, or the effect thereon, of other federal laws or the laws of any state or other jurisdiction, or as to any matters of municipal law or the laws of any other local agencies within any state.

Based on such facts, and subject to the qualifications, assumptions, representations and limitations set forth herein, it is our opinion that:

 

  1.

Commencing with its taxable year ended December 31, 2013, the Company has been organized and has operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a real estate investment trust (a “REIT”) under Sections 856-860 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and its current and proposed method of operation will enable it to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under Sections 856-860 of the Code; and

 

  2.

The statements set forth in the Registration Statement under the caption “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” insofar as they purport to describe or summarize certain provisions of the statutes or regulations referred to therein, are accurate descriptions or summaries in all material respects.

No opinion is expressed as to any matter not discussed herein.

This opinion is rendered to you as of the date of this letter, and we undertake no obligation to update this opinion subsequent to the date hereof. This opinion is based on various statutory provisions, regulations promulgated thereunder and interpretations thereof by the Internal Revenue Service and the courts having jurisdiction over such matters, all of which are subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. Any such change may affect the conclusions stated herein. Also, any variation or difference in the facts from those set forth in the Registration Statement or the Officer’s Certificate may affect the conclusions stated herein. As described in the Registration Statement, the Company’s qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon the Company’s ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual annual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of the Company’s operation for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. In addition, the opinion set forth above does not foreclose the possibility that the Company may have to pay a deficiency dividend, or an excise or penalty tax, which could be significant in amount, in order to maintain its REIT qualification.


November 6, 2020

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This opinion is rendered solely for your benefit in connection with the transaction described above. This opinion may not be relied upon by you for any other purpose, or furnished to, assigned to, quoted to or relied upon by any other person, firm or other entity for any purpose, without our prior written consent, which may be granted or withheld in our sole discretion, provided that this opinion may be relied upon by persons entitled to rely on it pursuant to applicable provisions of federal securities law.

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our firm name in the Registration Statement under the captions “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” and “Legal Matters.” In giving this consent, we do not hereby admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act or the rules or regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

 

Very truly yours,
/s/ LATHAM & WATKINS LLP
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Section 7: EX-22.1 (EX-22.1)

EX-22.1

Exhibit 22.1

The following subsidiary of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. (“Rexford”) will be the issuer of debt securities under the indenture to be entered into among Rexford, as parent guarantor, and the subsidiary listed below.

 

Subsidiary Registrant    Issuer
Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.    Issuer
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Section 8: EX-23.4 (EX-23.4)

EX-23.4

Exhibit 23.4

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the reference to our firm under the caption “Experts” in this Registration Statement (Form S-3) and related Prospectus of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. for the registration of its common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, rights, units, and guarantees of debt securities and the related Prospectus of Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. for the registration of its debt securities, and to the incorporation by reference therein of our reports dated February 19, 2020, with respect to the consolidated financial statements and schedule of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. included in its Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

Los Angeles, California

November 6, 2020

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Section 9: EX-25.1 (EX-25.1)

EX-25.1

Exhibit 25.1

 

 

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM T-1

 

 

STATEMENT OF ELIGIBILITY UNDER

THE TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 OF A

CORPORATION DESIGNATED TO ACT AS TRUSTEE

 

Check if an Application to Determine Eligibility of a Trustee Pursuant to Section 305(b)(2)

 

 

U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION