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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number: 001-38863

JUMIA TECHNOLOGIES AG

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

N/A

(Translation of registrant’s name into English)

Charlottenstraße 4

10969 Berlin, Germany

+49 (30) 398 20 34 51

(Address of registrant’s registered office)

Sacha Poignonnec

Skalitzer Straße 104

10997 Berlin, Germany

+49 (30) 398 20 34 51

[email protected]

(Name, Telephone, E-Mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered

American Depositary Shares

JMIA

New York Stock Exchange

Ordinary Shares, no par value

N/A

New York Stock Exchange1

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

156,816,494 ordinary shares, no par value.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes No

Note—checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one):

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated Filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

1 Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The New York Stock Exchange of American Depository Shares.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Introduction

i

Presentation of Certain Financial and Other Information

i

Market and Industry Data

i

Trademarks, Service Marks and Tradenames

ii

Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

iii

Part I

1

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

1

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

1

Item 3.

Key Information

1

Item 4.

Information on the Company

55

Item 4A.

Unresolved Staff Comments

80

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

81

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

100

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

115

Item 8.

Financial Information

118

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

119

Item 10.

Additional Information

119

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

132

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities

134

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

136

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

136

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

137

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

138

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

138

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

138

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

139

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

139

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

139

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

139

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

139

PART II

139

Item 17.

Financial Statements

139

Item 18.

Financial Statements

140

Item 19.

Exhibits

141

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INTRODUCTION

Prior to January 31, 2019, we conducted our business through Africa Internet Holding GmbH and its subsidiaries. On December 17 and 18, 2018, our shareholders resolved upon the change of our legal form into a German stock corporation (Aktiengesellschaft) and the change of our company name to Jumia Technologies AG. The change of our legal form and company name became effective upon registration with the commercial register of the local court (Amtsgericht) in Berlin, Germany, on January 31, 2019. The legal effect of the conversion on Africa Internet Holding GmbH under German law is limited to the change in the legal form. Africa Internet Holding GmbH was neither dissolved nor wound up, but continues in existence as the same legal entity with a new legal form and name. Except where the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated, the terms “Jumia,” the “Company,” the “Group,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company” and “our business” refer to Jumia Technologies AG together with its consolidated subsidiaries as a consolidated entity.

PRESENTATION OF CERTAIN FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION

We report under International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (the “IASB”), which differ in certain significant respects from U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”).

Our consolidated financial statements are reported in euros, which are denoted “euros,” “EUR” or “€” throughout this Annual Report on Form 20-F (“Annual Report”) and refer to the currency introduced at the start of the third stage of European economic and monetary union pursuant to the treaty establishing the European Community, as amended. Also, throughout this Annual Report, the terms “dollar,” “USD” or “$” refer to U.S. dollars. Unless otherwise noted, all translations of euro amounts into dollar amounts were calculated at a rate of €1.00 = $1.1227, which equals the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on December 31, 2019. You should not assume that, on that or any other date, one could have converted these amounts of euros into dollars at this exchange rate.

Financial information in thousands or millions, and percentage figures have been rounded. Rounded total and sub-total figures in tables may differ marginally from unrounded figures indicated elsewhere in this Annual Report or in the consolidated financial statements. Moreover, rounded individual figures and percentages may not produce the exact arithmetic totals and sub-totals indicated elsewhere in this Annual Report.

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

We obtained the industry, market and competitive position data from our own internal estimates, surveys, and research as well as from publicly available information, industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, including, but not limited to, the International Monetary Fund (“IMF”), the African Development Bank, the World Bank, the Central Intelligence Agency (“CIA”), GSMA, Ovum, the Alliance for Affordable Internet, IDC, the United Nations, and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. None of the independent industry publications used in this Annual Report were prepared on our behalf.

Industry publications, research, surveys, studies and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this Annual Report. These forecasts and forward-looking information are subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described under Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in our forecasts or estimates or those of independent third parties.

Industry publications, research, surveys, studies and forecasts included in this Annual Report were prepared before the pandemic spread of COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and have not been updated for the potential effects of this pandemic. We are not able to determine whether the third parties who have prepared such sources will revise their estimates and projections due to the impact of COVID-19.

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TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADENAMES

We have proprietary rights to trademarks used in this Annual Report that are important to our business, many of which are registered under applicable intellectual property laws. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, logos and trade names referred to are without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names.

This Annual Report contains additional trademarks, service marks and trade names of others, which are the property of their respective owners. All trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this Annual Report are, to our knowledge, the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks, copyrights or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies

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INFORMATION REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements that relate to our current expectations and views of future events. These statements relate to events that involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “believe,” “may,” “will,” “expect,” “estimate,” “could,” “should,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “potential,” “continue,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our future business and financial performance, including our revenue, operating expenses and our ability to maintain profitability and our future business and operating results;
our strategies, plan, objectives and goals; and
our expectations regarding the development of our industry, internet penetration, market size and the competitive environment in which we operate.

These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, these forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are not a guarantee of future performance. Actual outcomes may differ materially from the information contained in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including, without limitation, the risk factors set forth in Item 3. “Key Information—D. Risk Factors,” including the following:

we have incurred significant losses since inception and there is no guarantee that we will achieve or sustain profitability in the future;
we rely on external financing and may not be able to raise necessary additional capital on economically acceptable terms or at all;
our markets pose significant operational challenges that require us to expend substantial financial resources;
we face risks related to health epidemics and other outbreaks such as COVID-19;
many of our countries of operation are, or have been, characterized by political instability or changes in regulatory or other government policies;
our business may be materially and adversely affected by an economic slowdown in any region of Africa;
currency volatility and inflation may materially adversely affect our business;
uncertainties with respect to the legal system in certain African markets could adversely affect us;
our business may be materially and adversely affected by violent crime or terrorism in any region of Africa;
growth of our business depends on an increase in internet penetration in Africa.
growth of internet penetration in the markets in which we currently operate;
we face competition, which may intensify;

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we may not be able to adapt to changes in our industry or successfully launch and monetize new and innovative technologies;
we may not be able to maintain our existing partnerships, strategic alliances or other business relationships or enter into new ones. We may have limited control over such relationships, and these relationships may not provide the anticipated benefits;
we may be unable to maintain and expand our relationships with sellers or to find additional sellers for our marketplace;
we may fail to maintain or grow the size of our consumer base or the level of engagement of our consumers;
we face challenges with failed deliveries, excessive returns, late collections, unrecoverable receivables and voucher abuse, which may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects;
we depend on third-party carriers as part of our fulfillment process;
we may be subject to allegations and lawsuits concerning the content of our platform or claiming that items listed on our marketplace are counterfeit, pirated or illegal;
we may fail to deal effectively with any fraud perpetrated and fictitious transactions conducted on our platform;
we and certain of our board members and officers have been named as defendants in several shareholder class action lawsuits
our payment service, JumiaPay, could fail to function properly, and we may not be able to expand or integrate JumiaPay into other online portals;
we could be subject to liability and forced to change our JumiaPay business practices if we were found to be subject to or in violation of any laws or regulations governing banking, money transmission, tax regulation, anti-money laundering regulations or electronic funds transfers in any country where we operate; or if new legislation regarding these issues were enacted in the countries where JumiaPay operate;
any failure to maintain, protect and enhance our reputation and brand may adversely affect our business;
we may fail to operate, maintain, integrate and upgrade our technology infrastructure, or to adopt and apply technological advances;
we may experience malfunctions or disruptions of our technology systems;
we may experience security breaches and disruptions due to hacking, viruses, fraud, malicious attacks and other circumstances;
we conduct a substantial amount of our business in foreign currencies, which heightens our exposure to the risk of exchange rate fluctuations; and
required licenses, permits or approvals may be difficult to obtain in the countries in which we currently operate, and once obtained may be amended or revoked arbitrarily or may not be renewed.

The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this Annual Report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or

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otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this Annual Report and the documents that we have filed as exhibits to this Annual Report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results or performance may be materially different from what we expect.

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PART I

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3. Key Information

A. Selected Financial Information

The following tables present the selected consolidated financial information for our company. The financial data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017, December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report and which have been prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB.

The financial data presented below are not necessarily indicative of the financial results to be expected for any future periods. The financial data below do not contain all the information included in our financial statements. You should read this information in conjunction with Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, each included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

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Consolidated Statement of Operations

For the year ended December 31, 

    

2017(1)

2018(1)

    

2019

EUR

EUR

EUR

USD

(in millions, except for per share data)

    

(unaudited)

Revenue

93.1

    

129.1

    

160.4

180.1

Cost of revenue

(65.8)

(84.8)

(84.5)

(94.9)

Gross profit

27.2

44.2

75.9

85.2

Fulfillment expense

(34.4)

(50.5)

(77.4)

(86.9)

Sales and advertising expense

(36.9)

(46.0)

(56.0)

(62.9)

Technology and content expense

(20.6)

(22.4)

(27.3)

(30.6)

General and administrative expense(2)

(89.1)

(94.9)

(144.5)

(162.3)

Other operating income

1.3

0.2

1.9

2.2

Other operating expense

(2.2)

(0.3)

(0.5)

(0.6)

Operating loss

(154.7)

(169.7)

(227.9)

(255.8)

Finance income

2.3

1.6

4.0

4.4

Finance costs

(1.5)

(1.3)

(2.6)

(2.9)

Loss before income tax

(153.9)

(169.5)

(226.5)

(254.3)

Income tax expense

(11.5)

(0.9)

(0.6)

(0.6)

Net Loss

(165.4)

(170.4)

(227.1)

(254.9)

Net Loss attributable to equity holders of the Company

(161.6)

(170.1)

(226.7)

(254.5)

Net Loss per share

Basic

(1.70)

(1.79)

(1.61)

(1.81)

Diluted

(1.65)

(1.68)

(1.52)

(1.71)

Shares used in loss per share computation

Basic

95.0

95.0

140.7

140.7

Diluted

98.1

101.5

149.1

149.1

Loss per American Depositary Share ("ADS", each ADS representing two ordinary shares)

Basic

(3.40)

(3.58)

(3.22)

(3.61)

Diluted

(3.29)

(3.35)

(3.04)

(3.41)

ADSs used in loss per ADS computation

Basic

47.5

47.5

70.3

70.3

Diluted

49.0

50.7

74.5

74.5

(1)Revenue and sales and advertising expense for 2017 and 2018 have been restated to reflect the impact of the reclassification of certain types of vouchers, consumer and partner incentives from sales and advertising expense to revenue.
(2)Includes share-based compensation of €26.3 million in 2017, €17.4 million in 2018 and of €37.3 million in 2019.

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Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Data

As of December 31,

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

EUR

EUR

EUR

    

USD

(in millions)

    

    

    

(unaudited)

Non-current assets

 

5.0

 

6.6

 

19.1

 

21.4

Current assets

 

66.5

 

135.4

 

278.1

 

312.2

Total assets

 

71.5

 

142.0

 

297.2

 

333.6

Share capital

 

0.1

 

0.1

 

156.8

 

176.1

Share premium

 

629.8

 

845.8

 

1,018.3

 

1,143.2

Other reserves

 

50.9

 

66.1

 

104.1

 

116.9

Accumulated losses

 

(677.7)

 

(862.0)

 

(1,096.1)

 

(1,230.6)

Equity attributable to the equity holders of the Company

 

3.2

 

50.0

 

183.1

 

205.5

Total equity

 

(12.6)

 

49.8

 

182.6

 

205.0

Non-current liabilities

 

 

0.4

 

7.6

 

8.5

Current liabilities

 

84.1

 

91.8

 

107.1

 

120.2

Total liabilities

 

84.1

 

92.2

 

114.6

 

128.7

Total equity and liabilities

 

71.5

 

142.0

 

297.2

 

333.6

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows

For the year ended December 31, 

    

2017

2018

    

2019

EUR

EUR

EUR

USD

(in millions)

    

(unaudited)

Net cash flows used in operating activities

(117.0)

(139.0)

(182.6)

(205.0)

Net cash flows used in investing activities

(2.6)

(3.6)

(67.7)

(76.0)

Net cash flows from financing activities

121.6

213.2

316.8

355.7

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

2.0

70.6

66.5

74.7

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the year

29.8

29.7

100.6

113.0

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year

29.7

100.6

170.0

190.9

Selected Other Data(1)

For the year ended December 31, 

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

(in millions)

(unaudited)

Annual Active Consumers

2.7

4.0

6.1

n/a

Orders

n/a

14.4

26.5

n/a

GMV(2)

507.1

828.2

1,097.6

$

1,232.3

TPV

n/a

54.8

124.3

$

139.6

JumiaPay Transactions

n/a

2.0

7.6

n/a

Adjusted EBITDA

(126.8)

(150.2)

(182.7)

$

(205.1)

(1)See “Non-IFRS and Other Financial and Operating Metrics” below.
(2)For information on our GMV as adjusted for perimeter changes as a result of the portfolio optimization undertaken during the fourth quarter of 2019 as further described under Item 4. “Information on the Company—A. History and Development of the Company—Corporate History and Recent Transactions” as well as improper sales practices as further described under Item 4. “Information on the Company—A. History and Development of the Company—Sales Practices Review”, see Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results—Comparison of Fiscal Years Ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019—Consolidated Statement of Operations—Quarterly Data.”

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Non-IFRS and Other Financial and Operating Metrics

We have included in this Annual Report certain financial measures and metrics not based on IFRS, including Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin as well as operating metrics, including GMV, Annual Active Consumers, Orders, TPV and JumiaPay Transactions.

Adjusted EBITDA

We define Adjusted EBITDA as loss for the year adjusted for income tax expense (benefit), finance income, finance costs, depreciation and amortization and further adjusted by share-based payment expense.

Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental non-IFRS measure of our operating performance that is not required by, or presented in accordance with, IFRS. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measurement of our financial performance under IFRS and should not be considered as an alternative to loss for the year, loss before income tax or any other performance measure derived in accordance with IFRS. We caution investors that amounts presented in accordance with our definition of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similar measures disclosed by other companies, because not all companies and analysts calculate Adjusted EBITDA in the same manner. We present Adjusted EBITDA because we consider it to be an important supplemental measure of our operating performance. Management believes that investors’ understanding of our performance is enhanced by including non-IFRS financial measures as a reasonable basis for understanding our ongoing results of operations. By providing this non-IFRS financial measure, together with a reconciliation to the nearest IFRS financial measure, we believe we are enhancing investors’ understanding of our business and our results of operations, as well as assisting investors in evaluating how well we are executing our strategic initiatives.

Management uses Adjusted EBITDA:

as a measurement of operating performance because it assists us in comparing our operating performance on a consistent basis, as it removes the impact of items not directly resulting from our core operations;
for planning purposes, including the preparation of our internal annual operating budget and financial projections;
to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of our strategic initiatives; and
to evaluate our capacity to expand our business.

Items excluded from this non-IFRS measure are significant components in understanding and assessing financial performance. Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation, or as an alternative to, or a substitute for analysis of our results reported in accordance with IFRS, including loss for the year. Some of the limitations are:

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our share-based payments, income tax expense (benefit) or the amounts necessary to pay our taxes;
although depreciation and amortization are eliminated in the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future and such measures do not reflect any costs for such replacements; and
other companies may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently than we do, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.

Due to these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as a measure of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business. We compensate for these and other limitations by providing a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to the most directly comparable IFRS financial measure, loss for the year.

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The following tables provide a reconciliation of loss for the year to Adjusted EBITDA for the periods indicated:

For the year ended December 31,

2017

2018

2019

EUR

EUR

EUR

USD

(in millions)

(unaudited)

Loss for the year

(165.4)

(170.4)

(227.1)

(254.9)

Income tax expense

11.5

0.9

0.6

0.6

Finance income

(2.3)

(1.6)

(4.0)

(4.4)

Finance costs

1.5

1.3

2.6

2.9

Depreciation and amortization

1.6

2.2

7.9

8.9

Share-based compensation

26.3

17.4

37.3

41.8

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

(126.8)

(150.2)

(182.7)

(205.1)

(1)Unaudited.

2017(1)

First Quarter

Second Quarter

Third Quarter

Fourth Quarter

EUR

EUR

EUR

EUR

(unaudited, in millions)

Loss for the period

(24.8)

(30.1)

(49.9)

(60.6)

Income tax expense

0.0

0.3

0.2

10.9

Finance income

(0.4)

0.1

(0.1)

(1.9)

Finance costs

0.2

0.6

0.0

0.7

Depreciation and amortization

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.3

Share-based compensation

0.4

(0.1)

20.7

5.2

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

(24.1)

(28.7)

(28.6)

(45.4)

(1)Due to rounding, the sum of quarterly amounts may not equal the amounts reported for the relevant full-year period.

2018(1)

First Quarter

Second Quarter

Third Quarter

Fourth Quarter

EUR

EUR

EUR

EUR

(unaudited, in millions)

Loss for the period

(34.1)

(42.3)

(40.9)

(53.1)

Income tax expense

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.4

Finance income

(0.6)

(0.6)

(0.5)

Finance costs

0.3

0.1

0.7

0.2

Depreciation and amortization

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

Share-based compensation

3.6

5.8

4.3

3.7

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

(30.2)

(35.6)

(35.8)

(48.6)

(1)Due to rounding, the sum of quarterly amounts may not equal the amounts reported for the relevant full-year period.

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2019(1)

First Quarter

Second Quarter

Third Quarter

Fourth Quarter

EUR

EUR

EUR

EUR

(unaudited, in millions)

Loss for the period

(45.8)

(67.8)

(49.9)

(63.6)

Income tax expense (benefit)

0.1

0.2

(0.2)

0.5

Finance income

(0.6)

0.1

(4.4)

1.0

Finance costs

0.8

0.8

0.1

1.0

Depreciation and amortization

1.7

1.8

2.1

2.3

Share-based compensation

4.3

20.5

7.1

5.3

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

(39.5)

(44.4)

(45.4)

(53.4)

(1)Due to rounding, the sum of quarterly amounts may not equal the amounts reported for the relevant full-year period.

Annual Active Consumers

“Annual Active Consumers” means unique consumers who placed an order for a product or a service on our platform, within the 12-month period preceding the relevant date, irrespective of cancellations or returns.

We believe that Annual Active Consumers is a useful indicator for adoption of our offering by consumers in our markets.

Orders

“Orders” corresponds to the total number of orders for products and services on our platform, irrespective of cancellations or returns, for the relevant period.

We believe that the number of orders is a useful indicator to measure the total usage of our platform, irrespective of the monetary value of the individual transactions.

GMV

“Gross Merchandise Value” (“GMV”) corresponds to the total value of orders for products and services, including shipping fees, value added tax, and before deductions of any discounts or vouchers, irrespective of cancellations or returns for the relevant period.

We believe that GMV is a useful indicator for the usage of our platform that is not influenced by shifts in our sales between first-party and third-party sales or the method of payment.

We use Annual Active Consumers, Orders and GMV as some of many indicators to monitor usage of our platform.

Total Payment Volume

“Total Payment Volume” (“TPV”) corresponds to the total value of orders for products and services processed using JumiaPay including shipping fees, value-added tax, and before deductions of any discounts or vouchers, irrespective of cancellations or returns, for the relevant period.

We believe that TPV, which corresponds to the share of GMV for which JumiaPay was used as the relevant payment method, provides a useful indicator of the development, and adoption by consumers, of our payment services offerings.

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JumiaPay Transactions

“JumiaPay Transactions” corresponds to the total number of orders for products and services on our marketplace processed using JumiaPay, irrespective of cancellations or returns, for the relevant period.

We believe that JumiaPay Transactions provides a useful indicator of the development, and adoption by consumers, of our payment services offerings for orders on our platform irrespective of the monetary value of the individual transactions.

We use TPV and the number of JumiaPay Transactions to measure the development of our payment services.

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D. Risk Factors

The following risks may have material adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties of which we are not presently aware or that we currently deem immaterial could also materially affect our business operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Business, Operations and Financial Position

We have incurred significant losses since inception and there is no guarantee that we will achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

Jumia operates a pan-African e-commerce platform. Our platform primarily consists of our marketplace, which connects businesses with consumers, our logistics service, which enables the shipping and delivery of packages, and our payment service, JumiaPay, which facilitates transactions among participants active on our platform. We primarily generate revenue from commissions, where third-party sellers pay us fees based on the goods and services they sell, and from the sale of goods where we act directly as seller. Our revenue is, however, not sufficient to cover our operating expenses. Accordingly, since we were founded in 2012, we have not been profitable on a consolidated basis. We incurred a loss for the year of €165.4 million in 2017, a loss for the year of €170.4 million in 2018 and a loss for the year of €227.1 million in 2019. As of December 31, 2019, we had accumulated losses of €1.1 billion.

There is no guarantee that we will generate sufficient revenue in the future to offset the cost of maintaining our platform and maintaining and growing our business. Furthermore, even if we achieve profitability in certain of our more mature markets, where e-commerce is growing rapidly, there is no guarantee that we will be able to break even and achieve profitability in other markets, where e-commerce adoption is slower. We expect that our operating expenses will continue to increase as we intend to expend substantial financial and other resources on acquiring and retaining sellers and consumers, growing and maintaining our technology infrastructure and sales and marketing efforts and conducting general administrative tasks associated with our business, including expenses related to being a public company. These investments may not result in increased revenue growth. If we cannot successfully generate revenue at a rate that exceeds the costs associated with our business, we will not be able to achieve or sustain profitability or generate positive cash flow on a sustained basis and our revenue growth rate may decline.

If we fail to become and remain profitable, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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We rely on external financing and may not be able to raise necessary additional capital on economically acceptable terms or at all.

Since our inception, we have had negative operating cash flows and have relied on external financing. While we received net proceeds of $280.2 million from our April 2019 initial public offering, a concurrent private placement with Mastercard Europe SA (“Mastercard”) and the issuance of shares to existing shareholders to protect them from dilution, we will require additional capital to finance our operations and/or growth of our platform in the future. If we are not able to raise the required capital on economically acceptable terms, or at all, or if we fail to project and anticipate our capital needs, we may be forced to limit or scale back our operations, which may adversely affect our growth, business and market share and could ultimately lead to insolvency.

If we choose to raise capital by issuing new shares, our ability to place such shares at attractive prices, or at all, depends on the condition of equity capital markets in general, the performance of our business and the price of our ADSs in particular, and the price of our ADSs may be subject to considerable fluctuation.

Currently, debt financing from independent third parties is unlikely to be available to us due to our loss making history, negative operating cash flows and lack of significant physical assets and collateral. If debt financing were available, such financing may require us to post collateral in favor of the relevant lenders or impose other restrictions on our business and financial position. Such restrictions may adversely affect our operations and ability to grow our business as intended. A breach of the relevant covenants or other contractual obligations contained in any of our current or future external financing agreements may trigger immediate prepayment obligations or may allow the relevant lenders to seize collateral posted by us, all of which may adversely affect our business. In addition, if we raise capital through debt financing on unfavorable terms, this could adversely affect our operational flexibility and profitability.

An inability to obtain capital on economically acceptable terms, or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our markets pose significant operational challenges that require us to expend substantial financial resources.

We operate in emerging markets in Africa. While we believe that our markets offer opportunities for an e-commerce company, they are also characterized by fragmented and largely underdeveloped logistics, delivery, and digital payment landscapes, which can differ significantly in the consumer markets in which we operate. This underdeveloped infrastructure restricts and complicates the movement of people and goods, which may make our delivery service too expensive or our delivery times too long to effectively compete with offline stores, in particular outside of main urban centers. Underdeveloped infrastructure may also limit our growth prospects by obstructing access to potential consumers. Lack of an established, secure and convenient cashless payment system in many markets also poses significant challenges for sellers. From our experience, we believe that a large percentage of our consumers either do not have a bank account or do not trust online payments, which is why cash on delivery is still a payment method used by many of our consumers.

In order to overcome the challenges posed by our markets, we have had to develop significant logistics, delivery and payment infrastructures, which include, for example, the operation of warehouses and drop-off centers, the integration of third-party logistics providers, the establishment of our own delivery and last-mile delivery fleet in certain cities, the design of our independent technology platform and the provision of unconventional payment options. These factors make our operations more complex than those of similar businesses in more developed markets and may place a higher risk on us, for example, due to a higher number of failed orders, the risk of fraud or otherwise. The costs incurred by us to meet these challenges have, and may continue to, put a strain on our financial resources, may be unjustified in light of the benefits they bring us and may make it challenging for us to reach profitability. In particular, there is no guarantee that the markets in which we currently operate will prove to be as attractive as we currently believe them to be, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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We face risks related to health epidemics and other outbreaks such as COVID-19, which could significantly disrupt our supply chain, disrupt our operations and negatively affect our development.

Our business could be adversely impacted by the outbreak of epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19. The COVID-19 outbreak has significantly negatively impacted our business in many ways:

As part of our cross-border business, we facilitate orders into Africa from international sellers. The COVID-19 outbreak has disrupted, and may continue to disrupt, the operations of these international sellers. For example, some of these sellers have been forced to temporarily halt production, close their offices or suspend their services.
Many of our local sellers depend on imported products. The reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic have posed challenges for our sellers to source products and raw materials.
Certain of our sellers and restaurant venders on our platform may be forced to shut down and may go out of business which may negatively impact our results.
The COVID-19 pandemic has already negatively impacted consumer sentiment in many of our countries of operation, which has led to a reduction in discretionary spending. While we may benefit from a shift from offline to online trade, there can be no assurance that the effects of this shift will outweigh the negative impact caused by a change in consumer sentiment.
Any fears among consumers that COVID-19 could be transmitted through goods shipped by us, reduced consumer spending on discretionary items or the economic consequences of administrative measures to limit the spreading of COVID-19 may significantly negatively affect our sales.
We may incur increased operating costs as we adapt to new demands of operating during the term of the pandemic and we may experience disruptions to our operations including to implement enhanced employee safety procedures.
We have been required to temporarily shut down our fulfilment center in South Africa. Any further forced or voluntary shut downs of business operations, or other intervention in our business by police and government authorities, in any of the geographies in which we have operations may negatively affect our ability to do business, operate our fulfilment centers, serve our customers and fulfill our administrative tasks.

As a result, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We may be required, or may decide, to reduce our expenses, including through a review of our size of operations and of the remuneration of our work force. Any decision to reduce expenses may negatively impact our operations and reputation. Further, COVID-19 may lead to unrest, instability and crisis in our countries of operation, which may further impact negatively our business. COVID-19 may also negatively affect our ability to raise additional capital, as our business results may be negatively affected and as markets and investors may not be willing to invest in companies such as us. Protracted negative effects on investor confidence may require us to significantly cut our spending, which may lead to a decline in our usage indicators and revenue.

Many of our countries of operation are, or have been, characterized by political instability or changes in regulatory or other government policies.

Frequent and intense periods of political instability make it difficult to predict future trends in governmental policies. For example, the Arab Spring of 2010 and 2011 caused substantial political turmoil across the Middle East and North Africa, particularly in Egypt. During this period of instability in Egypt, the government temporarily dissolved the parliament, suspended the constitution and shut down the internet. As we were founded only in 2012, this temporary shut-down of the internet did not affect us. Any similar shut-down in the future will, however, negatively affect our

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business and results of operations. In addition, if government or regulatory policies in a market in which we operate were to change or become less business-friendly, our business could be adversely affected.

Governments in Africa frequently intervene in the economies of their respective countries and occasionally make significant changes in policy and regulations. Governmental actions have often involved, among other measures, nationalizations and expropriations, price controls, currency devaluations, mandatory increases on wages and employee benefits, capital controls and limits on imports. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in government policies or regulations, including such factors as exchange rates and exchange control policies, inflation control policies, price control policies, consumer protection policies, import duties and restrictions, liquidity of domestic capital and lending markets, electricity rationing, tax policies, including tax increases and retroactive tax claims, and other political, diplomatic, social and economic developments in or affecting the countries where we operate. For example, the Central Bank of Nigeria requires foreign investors to obtain a certificate of capital importation (“CCI”) to be able to repatriate imported funds and related proceeds via the Nigerian foreign exchange market. Jumia has transferred about €121 million into Nigeria as of December 31, 2019. While Jumia has obtained valid CCIs for approximately €90.5 million, Jumia currently does not hold CCIs for the remaining amount. Jumia currently does not anticipate any need to repatriate funds from Nigeria in the medium term. In the meantime, Jumia intends to work with the Nigerian authorities to obtain the additional CCIs that would allow Jumia to repatriate these funds and related proceeds. However, there can be no assurance that Jumia will be successful in obtaining these certificates. Any failure to obtain the required certificates could impact Jumia’s ability to repatriate these funds and related proceeds or the exchange rate at which a repatriation could be effected.

In the future, the level of intervention by African governments may continue to increase. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may serve as a catalyst for increasing government intervention. These or other measures could have a material adverse effect on the economy of the countries in which we operate and, consequently, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business may be materially and adversely affected by an economic slowdown in any region of Africa.

The success of our business depends on consumer spending. While we believe that economic conditions in Africa will improve, poverty in Africa will decline and the purchasing power of African consumers will increase in the long term, there can be no assurance that these expected developments will actually materialize. The development of African economies, markets and levels of consumer spending are influenced by many factors beyond our control, including consumer perception of current and future economic conditions, political uncertainty, employment levels, inflation or deflation, real disposable income, poverty rates, wealth distribution, interest rates, taxation, currency exchange rates and weather conditions. For example, a collapse in oil prices in early 2016 placed pressure on Nigeria’s currency, causing a currency shortage and threatening substantial inflation. The decrease in oil prices in early 2020 may have even more severe consequences on Nigeria’s currency and economy. Many of our sellers in Nigeria had to scale back imports and were unable to meet consumer demand for their products. Consumer spending also declined in the face of significant price increases. As our operations in Nigeria and Egypt generate a larger portion of our orders and revenue than any other country in which we currently operate, adverse economic developments in Nigeria or Egypt could have a greater impact on our results than a similar downturn in other countries.

In addition, the outbreak of diseases or epidemics, such as COVID-19, in any of the markets in which we operate could negatively impact levels of economic activity and depress consumer demand. Furthermore, in some of the countries in which we operate, local banks have faced liquidity and funding issues and may face such issues in the future, which could lead to bank failures or systemic collapse potentially resulting in an economic slowdown in the particular region.

An economic downturn, whether actual or perceived, currency volatility, a decrease in economic growth rates or an otherwise uncertain economic outlook in Nigeria, Egypt or any region of Africa could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Currency volatility and inflation may materially adversely affect our business.

Third-party sellers and consumers transact on our marketplace in local currency. The economies of a number of the African countries in which we operate are affected by high currency exchange rate volatility due to, among other things, inflation, selective tariff barriers, raw material prices, current account balances and widespread corruption and political uncertainty. For example, the annual inflation rate in Egypt was highly volatile during 2019, decreasing to 3.6% in November 2019 from 12.7% in January 2019, with a February 2019 high of 14.4%. By contrast, the inflation rate in Nigeria increased steadily during 2019, from 11.37% in January 2019 to 11.85% in November 2019. The highest ever inflation rate in Nigeria was 47.6%. Currency volatility and high inflation in any of the countries in which we operate could increase the cost of goods to our third-party sellers while decreasing the purchasing power of our consumers. If sellers are unable to pass along price increases to consumers, we could lose sellers from our marketplace. Similarly, if consumers are unwilling to pay higher prices, we could lose consumers.

The occurrence of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Uncertainties with respect to the legal system in certain African markets could adversely affect us.

Legal systems in Africa vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Many countries in Africa have not yet developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently-enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in such markets. In particular, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. Since local administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to predict the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and our level of legal protection in many of our markets. Moreover, local courts may have broad discretion to reject enforcement of foreign awards. These uncertainties may affect our ability to enforce our contractual rights or other claims. Uncertainty regarding inconsistent regulatory and legal systems may also embolden plaintiffs to exploit such uncertainties through unmerited or frivolous legal actions or threats in attempts to extract payments or benefits from us.

Many African legal systems are based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis, or at all, and may have retroactive effect. There are other circumstances where key regulatory definitions are unclear, imprecise or missing, or where interpretations that are adopted by regulators are inconsistent with interpretations adopted by a court in analogous cases. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of certain policies and rules until after the violation. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in Africa may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and the diversion of resources and management attention.

It is possible that a number of laws and regulations may be adopted or construed to apply to us in Africa and elsewhere that could restrict our business. Scrutiny and regulation of the industries in which we operate may further increase, and we may be required to devote additional legal and other resources to addressing such regulation. Changes in current laws or regulations or the imposition of new laws and regulations in our markets or elsewhere regarding e-commerce may slow our growth and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and prospects.

Our business may be materially and adversely affected by violent crime or terrorism in any region of Africa.

Many of the markets in which we operate suffer from a high incidence in violent crime and terrorism, which may harm our business. Violent crime has the potential to interfere with our delivery and fulfillment operations, in particular, given the fact that a high proportion of transactions on our marketplace are settled in cash. Our warehouses may also be targets of criminal acts. For example, in late 2018, we experienced an isolated incident in which our warehouse in Kenya was robbed, and merchandise with a value of approximately €500,000 was stolen. Violent crimes may increase as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Further, the terrorist attacks of Boko Haram have created considerable economic instability in northeastern Nigeria for nearly a decade. Although it is difficult to quantify the economic effect of Boko Haram’s terrorist activities, countless markets, shops, and schools have been temporarily or permanently closed over the years out of fear of coordinated attacks. In some of the areas most devastated by terrorism, commercial banks have chosen to remain open for only three hours per day. Many Nigerians have also chosen to migrate from the north to the south, or out of the country altogether. If Boko Haram’s terrorist activities were to spread throughout Nigeria, the increasing violence could have material adverse effects on the Nigerian economy. A terrorist attack in Nairobi in January 2019 by Somalia-based militant group al-Shabab drew increased attention to the risks of destabilization in Kenya. An increase in violent crime or terrorism in any region of Africa may interfere with deliveries, discourage economic activity, weaken consumer confidence, diminish consumer purchasing power or cause harm to our sellers and consumers in other ways, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and prospects.

Growth of our business depends on an increase in internet penetration in Africa.

Our business model relies on an increase in internet penetration and digital literacy in Africa. Even though the main urban centers of Africa typically offer reliable wired internet service, a substantial portion of the population are inhabitants of rural areas, which largely depend on mobile networks. Internet penetration in the markets in which we operate may not reach the levels seen in more developed countries for reasons that are beyond our control, including the lack of necessary network infrastructure or delayed implementation of performance improvements or security measures. The internet infrastructure in the markets in which we operate may not be able to support continued growth in the number of users, their frequency of use or their bandwidth requirements. Delays in telecommunication and infrastructure development or other technology shortfalls may also impede improvements in internet reliability. If telecommunications services are not sufficiently available to support the growth of the internet, response times could be slower, which would reduce internet usage and harm our platform. Internet penetration may decline if providers become insolvent or decide to exit a specific country. The price of personal computers, mobile devices and internet access, particularly with respect to mobile data rates, may also limit the growth of internet penetration in the markets in which we operate. Accordingly, there is no guarantee that internet penetration rates, and in particular, mobile internet penetration rates, will continue to grow as we anticipate. Internet penetration in our target markets may even stagnate or decline. In addition, digital illiteracy among many consumers and vendors in Africa presents obstacles to e-commerce growth.

If internet penetration and digital literacy do not increase in our markets of operation, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business model relies upon the continued growth of internet penetration and other external factors, some of which are beyond our control.

Our business model relies on the continued growth of internet penetration in our markets and use of the internet as a platform for online consumer transactions. Rapid growth in the use of and interest in the internet, particularly as a way to conduct commerce, is a recent phenomenon, and there can be no assurance that this acceptance and use will continue to exist or develop. To grow our user base successfully, consumers who have historically used traditional means of commerce to purchase goods and services must accept and use new ways of conducting business and exchanging information and funds online.

The continued growth of our business and e-commerce will depend on a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including, the establishment and extension of broadband access, the popularity of smartphones and other mobile devices, the cost of internet access and mobile data, the trust and confidence level of e-commerce sellers and consumers, and changes in demographics and consumer tastes and preferences. Even if internet penetration rates increase, physical retail or face-to-face transactions may remain the predominant form of commerce in our markets due to, among other factors, a lack of trust and confidence in e-commerce offerings. There is no guarantee that consumers will adapt to the use of the internet for consumer transactions on the scale we anticipate. Several companies that operate e-commerce websites have been successful and profitable in the past in other parts of the world; however, we operate in a business environment that is different from other e-commerce companies operating outside of Africa. Therefore, you should not interpret the success of any of these companies as indicative of our financial prospects.

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A failure of e-commerce to continue to grow as we anticipate in the markets in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We face competition, which may intensify.

As the e-commerce business model is relatively new in the markets in which we operate, competition for market share may intensify significantly. Current competitors, such as Souq.com (a company affiliated with Amazon) and noon in Egypt, Konga in Nigeria or Takealot and Superbalist, which are both part of the Naspers group, in South Africa, may seek to intensify their investments in those markets and also expand their businesses in new markets. We also face competition for on-demand services from companies such as Glovo, UberEast and OFood while in digital services we face competition from companies such as OPay and PalmPay. Some of our competitors currently copy our marketing campaigns, and such competitors may undertake more far reaching marketing events or adopt more aggressive pricing policies, all of which could adversely impact our competitive position. We also compete with a large and fragmented group of offline retailers, such as traditional brick-and-mortar retailers and market traders, in each of the markets in which we operate. In addition, new competitors may emerge, or global e-commerce companies, such as Amazon, Asos or Alibaba, which already offer shipping services to certain African countries for a selection of products, may expand across our markets, and such competitors may have greater access to financial, technological and marketing resources than we do. We also face competition from transactions taking place through other platforms, including via social media sites such as Instagram or Facebook.

Competitive pressure from current or future competitors or our failure to quickly and effectively adapt to a changing competitive landscape could adversely affect demand for the goods available on our marketplace and could thereby adversely affect our growth. Given the early stage of the e-commerce industry in the markets in which we operate, the share of goods sold and purchased via e-commerce may be small and loyalty of sellers and consumers may therefore be low. Current or future competitors may offer lower commissions to sellers than we do, and we may be forced to lower commissions in order to maintain our market share.

With respect to JumiaPay, we face competition from financial institutions with payment processing offerings, credit, debit and prepaid card service providers, other offline payment options and other electronic payment system operators, in each of the markets in which we operate. We expect competition to intensify in the future as existing and new competitors may introduce new services or enhance existing services. New entrants tied to established brands may engender greater user confidence in the safety and efficacy of their services.

If we fail to compete effectively, we may lose existing sellers or consumers and fail to attract new sellers or consumers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we are unable to adapt to changes in our industry or successfully launch and monetize new and innovative technologies, our growth and profitability could be adversely affected.

The internet and e-commerce industry is characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, new product and service introductions and changing consumer demand. Despite our investment of significant resources in developing our infrastructure, such as our logistics service, changes and developments in our industry may require us to re-evaluate our business model and significantly modify our long-term strategies and business plan.

We constantly seek to develop new and innovative technologies, such as our payment service, JumiaPay. Our ability to monetize these technologies and other new business lines in a timely manner and operate them profitably depends on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

our ability to manage the financial and operational aspects of developing and launching new technologies, including making appropriate investments in our software systems, information technologies and operational infrastructure;

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our ability to secure required governmental permits and approvals and implement appropriate compliance procedures;
the level of commitment and interest from our current and potential third-party innovators;
our competitors developing and implementing similar or better technology;
our ability to effectively manage any third-party challenges to the intellectual property behind our technology;
our ability to collect, combine and leverage data about our consumers collected online and through our new technology in compliance with data protection laws; and
general economic and business conditions affecting consumer confidence and spending and the overall strength of our business.

We may not be able to grow our new technologies or operate them profitably, and these new and innovative technology initiatives may never generate material revenue. In addition, our technology development requires substantial management time and resources, which may result in disruptions to our existing business operations and adversely affect our financial condition, which may decrease our profitability and growth.

We may not be able to maintain our existing partnerships, strategic alliances or other business relationships or enter into new ones. We may have limited control over such relationships, and these relationships may not provide the anticipated benefits.

We partner with numerous third parties. For example, more than 100 logistics providers are integrated into our logistics service and help us and our sellers deliver goods to consumers. Additionally, we may enter into new strategic relationships in the future. Such relationships involve risks, including but not limited to: maintaining good working relationships with the other party, any economic or business interests of the other party that are inconsistent with ours, the other party’s failure to fund its share of capital for operations or to fulfill its other commitments, including providing accurate and timely accounting and financial information to us, which could negatively impact our operating results, loss of key personnel, actions taken by our strategic partners that may not be compliant with applicable rules, regulations and laws, reputational concerns regarding our partners or our leadership that may be imputed to us, bankruptcy, requiring us to assume all risks and capital requirements related to the relationship, and the related bankruptcy proceedings could have an adverse impact on the relationship, and any actions arising out of the relationship that may result in reputational harm or legal exposure to us. Further, these relationships may not deliver the benefits that were originally anticipated.

Any of these factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The continued growth of our business depends on several external factors, some of which are beyond our control, and there is no guarantee that we can maintain our historical growth rates.

Since our founding in 2012, we have experienced significant growth in our usage indicators, such as Annual Active Consumers or GMV and revenue. There can be no assurance that our growth will be sustainable and that we will continue to experience growth in the future. To support our path to profitability, we may reduce promotional intensity and consumer incentives, which may negatively affect GMV and revenue growth. External effects, such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak, which caused challenges for our cross-border business and created procurement issues for our sellers, may also negatively affect our growth trajectory. Even without these effects, we anticipate that our relative growth rate will decline over time as we achieve higher market penetration rates. Slowing growth rates mean that our business performance will become increasingly dependent on our ability to, among other things, use our operating leverage, increase our fulfillment efficiencies and decrease marketing costs in relation to our revenue. In addition, a shift in the relative proportion of first-party sales to third-party sales may significantly and negatively affect any reported revenue growth and could even lead to a decline in reported revenue.

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The growth of our business and revenue is dependent on our ability to both retain existing and add new sellers, which we may not be able to continue to do at historic rates and acquisition costs, or at all. As we scale our business, we face the risk that our current sellers may not successfully increase their offers to keep up with increasing consumer demand, which may require us to increase our first-party sales. While any such increase would lead to a significant increase in revenue, our profit margins could be negatively affected, as we have historically recorded lower profit margins on first-party sales than on third-party sales. Alternatively, we could select and onboard new local or international sellers to keep up with the increasing consumer demand; however, doing so might prove more difficult than expected or we may not be able to onboard new sellers at all. Furthermore, if we onboard too many international sellers, we risk alienating local sellers which would compound supply issues. Similarly, we risk alienating small, local sellers as our company grows and we provide increasing exposure to larger sellers who can more easily adapt pricing strategies and product offerings to meet the needs of consumers.

We also face the risk of losing sellers due to seller insolvency. If any of our current sellers were to become insolvent, they would no longer be able to offer products on our marketplace. Additionally, they may not be able to fulfill open orders and deliver products as promised. Furthermore, if we pay a seller before such seller fulfills its obligations to our consumers, we may be unable to recover from such a seller any funds paid for undelivered items, for example if the seller becomes insolvent.

Our business growth and revenue may also be affected if we are unsuccessful in retaining our current consumer base or adding new consumers. Any decrease in the number of sellers and product offerings could lead to a corresponding decrease in Annual Active Consumers. Additionally, the costs of consumer retention may increase for various reasons, which could negatively affect our revenue. Our expansion into new markets may place us in unfamiliar competitive environments or may require us to invest significant resources, and there is no assurance that returns on such investments will be achieved.

The occurrence of any of the risks described above could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not be able to manage future growth efficiently, which may adversely affect our business.

We aim to continue to grow our business and our leadership in the markets in which we operate. If we succeed in significantly increasing the number of our Annual Active Consumers, we will be required to further expand and improve our marketplace, technology systems, fulfillment infrastructure and consumer support, which we may not achieve in a timely and cost-effective manner. If we are unable to successfully manage future growth, consumer satisfaction and our reputation may be negatively affected.

Growth of our business may also place significant demands on our management and key employees, as expansion will increase the complexity of our business and place a significant strain on our management, operations, technical systems, financial resources and internal control over financial reporting functions. Our current and planned personnel, systems, procedures and controls may not be adequate to support and effectively manage our future operations, especially as we employ personnel in numerous geographic locations. Our ability to hire a sufficient number of new employees for our expanding operations depends on the overall availability of qualified employees, and our ability to offer them sufficiently attractive employment terms compared to other employers. Functional experts such as technology experts and compliance specialists are particularly hard to recruit and retain in the markets in which we operate.

If we experience significant future growth, we may be required not only to make additional investments in our platform and workforce, but also to expand our relationships with various partners and other third parties with whom we do business, such as third-party carriers, and to expend time and effort to integrate such parties into our operations. The expansion of our business could exceed the capacities of our partners and other third parties willing to do business with us, and if they are unable to keep up with our growth, our operations could be adversely affected.

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Any failure to meet such challenges may lead to an increase in the risk of disruptions and compliance violations, could adversely affect our profitability, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not be able to maintain or improve the network effects of our platform, which could negatively affect our business and prospects.

Our ability to maintain or improve our platform around our marketplace, logistics and payment services is critical to our success. The extent to which we are able to maintain or strengthen these network effects depends on our ability to execute a number of challenging tasks, including:

offer a secure, fast and user-friendly platform, especially a mobile platform, for all participants;
provide tools and services that meet the evolving needs of sellers, consumers and other participants;
provide a wide range of high-quality product and service offerings;
provide sellers with a high level of relevant traffic flow and effective online services;
provide an efficient logistics service and coordinate a large number of fragmented third-party logistics and delivery companies;
attract and retain third-party service providers who are able to provide quality services on commercially reasonable terms to our sellers;
provide secure, trusted and convenient payment solution services;
maintain the quality of our consumer service and consumer protection; and
continue adapting to the changing demands of the markets in which we operate.

In addition, changes we may make to enhance and improve our platform may be viewed positively from one participant group’s perspective and negatively from another group’s perspective.

If we fail to maintain or improve our platform by balancing the interests of all participants, sellers, consumers or other participants may stop visiting our marketplace, conduct fewer transactions on our marketplace or use alternative platforms, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may fail to effectively monetize our services, which could negatively affect our business and prospects.

We may fail to effectively monetize our services, particularly as a number of our monetization avenues are nascent or untested. For example, as the competitive landscape in Africa increases, we may need to decrease the rate of our seller commissions in order to retain our seller base. Additionally, effective monetization of our nascent marketing and advertising service depends on our ability to generate sufficient usage on our platform and an attractive return on investment to advertisers. Furthermore, we cannot guarantee the successful monetization of our Jumia Logistics service to third parties or the successful off-platform expansion of JumiaPay. Any failure to successfully monetize these or other of our services could negatively affect our business and prospects.

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We may be unable to maintain and expand our relationships with sellers or to find additional sellers for our marketplace.

Our sellers range from small merchants and artisans to larger corporations. If we fail to maintain and expand our existing relationships or to build new relationships with sellers on acceptable commercial terms, we will not be able to maintain and expand our broad product and service offering, which could adversely affect our business.

In order to maintain and expand our relationships with our current sellers and to attract additional quality sellers, we need, among other factors, to:

provide a simple and easy to use platform, on which sellers can attractively present their goods and services;
demonstrate our ability to help our sellers sell significant volumes of their goods;
provide sellers with effective marketing and advertising products;
offer an innovative platform;
offer sellers a high-quality, cost-effective fulfillment process, including returns; and
continue to provide sellers with a dynamic and real time view of demand and inventory via data and analytics capabilities.

If we fail to maintain an attractive mix of sellers or fail to find quality sellers of attractive goods, if such sellers refuse to use our platform or if we do not manage these relationships efficiently, we may not be able to grow as anticipated, which could adversely affect our business. Our competitors may seek to enter into exclusivity agreements with certain sellers and thereby prevent us from partnering with such sellers. Competitors or retailers may encourage manufacturers to limit distribution to sellers who sell through us.

Our policy is to delist any goods or sellers who repeatedly fail to meet our performance standards (e.g., product quality, environmental compliance and labor relations standards), which may lead to a significant reduction of sellers on our marketplace. Furthermore, sellers may decide to cease cooperating with us, discontinue their operations, or may face financial distress or other business disruptions. As a result, we may not be able to maintain and expand our product offering and may consequently lose consumers to competitors with a larger seller base.

An inability to find, engage and retain the right sellers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may fail to maintain or grow the size of our consumer base or the level of engagement of our consumers.

The size and engagement level of our consumer base are critical to our success. Our business and financial performance have been and will continue to be significantly determined by our success in adding, retaining, and engaging Annual Active Consumers. We continue to invest significant resources to grow our consumer base and increase participant engagement, whether through innovation, providing new or improved goods or services, marketing efforts or other means. While our consumer base has expanded significantly, we cannot assure you that our consumer base and engagement levels will continue growing at satisfactory rates, or at all. Our consumer growth and engagement could be adversely affected if, among other things:

we are unable to maintain the quality of our existing goods and services;
we are unsuccessful in innovating or introducing new goods and services;

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we fail to adapt to changes in participant preferences, market trends or advancements in technology;
technical or other problems prevent us from delivering our goods or services in a timely and reliable manner or otherwise affect the participant experience;
there are participant concerns related to privacy, safety, security or reputational factors;
there are adverse changes to our platform that are mandated by, or that we elect to make in response to, legislation, regulation, or litigation, including settlements or consent decrees;
we fail to maintain the brand image of our platform or our reputation is damaged; or
there are unexpected changes to the demographic trends or economic development of the markets in which we operate.

Our efforts to avoid or address any of these events could require us to make substantial expenditures to modify or adapt our services or platform. If we fail to retain or grow our participant base, or if our users reduce their engagement with our platform, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

Sellers set their own prices and decide which goods they make available on our marketplace, which could affect our ability to respond to consumer preferences and trends.

We do not control the portfolio or pricing strategies of our sellers, which could affect our ability to effectively compete on the breadth of our product assortment or on price with the other distribution channels. Our sellers may be unaware of consumer preferences and trends and fail to offer the products our consumers prefer. Additionally, our sellers may employ different pricing strategies based on the geographical location of consumers, which could lead consumers to seek for more competitively priced products on other distribution channels. Our sellers may also engage in fictitious pricing, an advertising tactic wherein sellers exaggerate the level of discounts provided on certain products by comparing the discount price to a prior-reference price at which the product was never really offered for sale. Such tactics, if perpetrated by our sellers, may alienate consumers from our marketplace and harm our reputation. Moreover, sellers that are prevented from engaging in fictitious pricing on our marketplace may choose to list their goods on other channels instead of our marketplace, which could also result in a loss of consumers.

If consumers are unable to purchase their preferred products at competitive prices on our marketplace, they may choose to purchase products elsewhere, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In order to offer our consumers an attractive product mix, we may be required to find sellers abroad or to engage in selling goods ourselves.

The more attractive the product mix on our marketplace, the more consumers visit our marketplace and order from our sellers. However, there can be no assurance that our sellers will offer a product mix that is attractive to our consumers. If we identify gaps in the product offering on our marketplace, we either seek to have sellers from abroad, such as China, offer their goods on our marketplace or, in some cases, decide to sell goods ourselves. Sellers from abroad may, however, only be interested in listing goods with a high value, as low value goods may not allow them to recover the costs incurred for sales over our marketplace. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that sellers from abroad will not face issues with import restrictions or delays in obtaining required customs clearances. As a growing percentage of our revenue stems from cross-border sales, future import restrictions, delays in obtaining required customs clearances, in particular with respect to goods imported from China, or events negatively affecting international trade, such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak, may have a material adverse effect on our revenue.

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Where we engage directly in selling goods, we take on inventory risk. Although many of our inventory-related systems are automated, some internal processes at our warehouses are handled manually, which may result in errors. Consumer preferences regarding price, quality and design of certain goods may change rapidly, making it difficult to accurately forecast future demand. If we fail to correctly anticipate the demand, we may not be able to avoid overstocking or understocking certain goods. If we underestimate demand, this may result in a loss of consumers who are unsatisfied with our delivery times. If we overestimate demand, we may experience excess inventories and may ultimately be forced to record losses for write-offs on inventory. In order to sell such excess inventories, we may choose to sell goods at significant discounts, which may adversely affect our profit margins and the level of prices we can demand for other goods, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We face challenges with failed deliveries, excessive returns and voucher abuse, which may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

Most of our orders are home delivery. For home deliveries, consumers need to be present at the point of delivery or need to have made arrangements for drop-off or delivery to a third person. In addition, for orders to be paid in cash on delivery, the relevant consumer must provide payment at the time of delivery. However, there is no guarantee that our consumers will actually be present at scheduled delivery locations at the scheduled delivery times. If a consumer is not present and has not made other arrangements, we schedule a new delivery time. We typically make three delivery attempts, and if all of these attempts fail, we return the product to the seller. If there is a failed delivery, we are required to notify the seller within 21 days of when the package was shipped. If we do not notify the seller within this timeframe, we must take possession of the item and accept the loss as a result of the failed delivery.

Even if the product is successfully delivered to the consumer and delivery is verified, most of our sellers are required, either by local regulations or by our operating standards, to allow consumers to return goods within a certain period of time after delivery. For example, in Egypt, which is one of our largest markets, consumers have a legal right to return any product within fourteen days after delivery so long as the product is in the same condition as when delivered. Furthermore, if our sellers offer more consumer friendly return policies, the number of returns may increase, which could adversely affect our business. We also utilize an algorithm that determines, based upon a number of factors, whether a consumer will receive a refund for a returned item. In some instances, the algorithm might make a refund determination before our after-sales team is able to review and process the refund. Any mistakes or errors in the algorithm could result in mistaken refunds, which in turn could result in loss of sales.

In certain markets, we also offer guarantees in the event that a damaged or defective product is delivered. Although we have instituted these guarantees in an effort to increase consumer satisfaction, consumers may abuse our guarantee policies which could harm our business. Additionally, we seek to increase consumer satisfaction across all markets by offering apology vouchers to our consumers on a case-by-case basis in the event of a failed or incorrect delivery. However, we have experienced an increase in the incidence of fraud and voucher abuse wherein account owners have managed to receive duplicate apology vouchers for the same transaction.

A significant increase in failed deliveries, excessive or mistaken returns, or voucher abuse – due to changing consumer behavior, consumer dissatisfaction with our goods or consumer service, or otherwise – may force us to allocate additional resources to mitigating these issues, may force us to waive our commission fees and may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We face risks associated with our use of third-party delivery agents and our acceptance of cash on delivery as a payment method, which may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

We face risks associated with our use of third-party delivery agents, including the risk that such agents might misappropriate inventory. Additionally, we struggle to verify delivery when our third-party delivery partners deliver packages without obtaining consumer signatures. When goods are delivered without verification, we may be required to deliver a duplicate product.

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We also face risks associated with our acceptance of cash on delivery as a payment method. When a third-party delivery agent successfully delivers a product and accepts cash payment from the consumer, we face the risks of late collections (in the event that the third-party delivery agent does not remit the funds to us on time) or unrecoverable receivables (in the event that the third-party delivery agent commits fraud or becomes insolvent). These risks are particularly acute in countries where the percentage of outsourced deliveries remains high.

For example, in Kenya, where approximately 95% of our consumers paid in cash or with cash equivalents on delivery in 2016, we discovered in early 2018 that €720 thousand of cash payments remained uncollected in 2016, the large majority of which was never subsequently collected. The extent of the effect on our cash flows in 2016 was due to our previous use of an insufficient cash reconciliation system, which has now been replaced with an automated system that allows us to monitor transactions in each of our markets on a daily basis. Even though we have taken measures to reduce the risks of fraud and uncollected receivables, these risks – whether facilitated by our employees, sellers, partners or consumers – remain, due largely to the prevalence of cash on delivery in many of our markets.

Any significant increase in misappropriated inventory, late collections or unrecoverable receivables, whether due to fraud or otherwise, may force us to allocate additional resources to mitigating these issues, may force us to waive our commission fees and may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be subject to allegations and lawsuits concerning the content of our platform or claiming that items listed on our marketplace are counterfeit, pirated or illegal.

We operate a marketplace where sellers can offer their goods and directly contact our consumers. Consumers or regulatory authorities may allege that items offered or sold through our marketplace infringe third-party copyrights, trademarks and patents or other intellectual property rights, are pirated or illegal or violate consumer protection laws or regulations. While we have adopted certain measures to verify the authenticity of goods sold on our marketplaces (for example, content verification for new sellers or for sellers who sell goods at prices that seem too low for genuine goods) to minimize potential violations and/or infringement of third-party intellectual property rights, these measures may not always be successful.

When we receive complaints or allegations regarding infringement or counterfeit, pirated or illegal goods, we follow certain procedures to verify the nature of the complaint and the relevant facts in order to be able to determine the appropriate action, which may include removal of the item from our marketplace and, in certain cases, discontinuing our relationship with a seller who repeatedly violates our policies. For example, we do not allow the listing and sale of prescription medication on our marketplace. We delist any seller who does not comply with this policy. We believe these procedures are important to ensure confidence in our marketplace among sellers and consumers. However, these procedures could result in the delay of de-listing of allegedly infringing goods and may not effectively reduce or eliminate our liability. In particular, we may be subject to civil or criminal liability for unlawful activities carried out, including goods listed, by third parties on our platform.

In the event that alleged counterfeit, pirated, illegal or infringing goods are listed or sold on our marketplace, we could face claims for such listings, sales or alleged infringement or for our failure to act in a timely or effective manner to restrict or limit such sales or infringement. For example, in January 2017, the Consumer Protection Agency in Egypt investigated the sale of unlisted drugs on our platform. As a result of this investigation, we were fined €5,000. Regardless of the validity of any claims made against us, we may incur significant costs and efforts to defend against or settle such claims. If a governmental authority determines that we have aided and abetted the infringement or sale of counterfeit, pirated or illegal goods, we could face regulatory, civil or criminal penalties. Successful claims by third-party rights owners could require us to pay substantial damages or refrain from permitting any further listing of the relevant items. These types of claims could force us to modify our business practices and implement further measures in an effort to protect against these potential liabilities, which could lower our revenue, increase our costs or make our platform less attractive and user-friendly. Sellers whose content is removed or services are suspended or terminated by us, regardless of our compliance with the applicable laws, rules and regulations, may dispute our actions and commence action against us for damages based on breach of contract or other causes of action or make public complaints or

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allegations. Any costs incurred as a result of liability or asserted liability relating to the sale of unlawful goods or other infringement could harm our business.

In addition, the public perception that counterfeit, pirated or illegal items are commonplace on our marketplace or perceived delays in our removal of these items, even if factually incorrect, could damage our reputation, result in lower list prices for goods sold through our marketplaces, deter sellers, consumers and brands from doing business via our platform, harm our business, result in regulatory pressure or action against us and diminish the value of our brand.

The materialization of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Harmful goods, product defects and product recalls could adversely affect our business and reputation.

As the goods offered through our marketplace are manufactured by third parties, we have only limited control over the quality of these goods. We cannot always effectively prevent our sellers from selling harmful or defective goods, which could cause death, disease or injury to our consumers or damage their property. We may be seen as having facilitated the sale of such goods and may be forced to recall such goods. Where we act directly as seller, we may also have to recall harmful goods. In all of these cases, we may not be able to avoid product liability claims and/or administrative fines or criminal charges against us. There is no guarantee that we will be adequately insured against such risks or that we will be able to take recourse against the sellers or suppliers from whom we sourced these goods, in particular if the seller or supplier is located in a foreign country where enforcement of our rights may be difficult, such as China, or does not have sufficient capital to indemnify us. In addition, any negative publicity resulting from product recalls or the assertion that we sold defective goods could damage our brand and reputation.

The sale of harmful or defective goods and product recalls could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Failure to deal effectively with any fraud perpetrated and fictitious transactions conducted on our platform could harm our business.

We face risks with respect to fraudulent activities on our platform. Given the countries in which we operate, the number of participants on our platform and the fragmentation of our business, it is a challenge to anticipate, detect and address fraudulent activities. Although we have implemented various measures to detect and reduce the occurrence of fraudulent activities on our platform, there can be no assurance that such measures will be effective in combating fraudulent transactions or improving overall satisfaction among sellers, consumers and other participants. Additional measures that we take to address fraud could also negatively affect the attractiveness of our platform to sellers or consumers.

For example, we may receive complaints from consumers who may not have received goods that they had purchased, or complaints from sellers who have not received payment for the goods ordered. In addition to fraudulent transactions with legitimate consumers, sellers may also engage in fictitious or “phantom” transactions with themselves or collaborators in order to artificially inflate their own ratings on our marketplace, reputation and search results rankings. This activity may harm other sellers by enabling the perpetrating seller to be favored over legitimate sellers and may harm consumers by deceiving them into believing that a seller is more reliable or trusted than the seller actually is. In early 2019, we also received information alleging that a seller in Morocco paid one of our employees in order to receive favorable marketing treatment and, after an internal review, delisted the seller.

In addition, we received information in early 2019 alleging that some of our independent sales consultants, members of our JForce program (“JForce”) in Nigeria, may have engaged in improper sales practices. Through an internal review of our sales practices covering all of our countries of operation and data from January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2019, we identified several JForce agents and sellers who collaborated with employees in order to benefit from differences between commissions charged to sellers and higher commissions paid to JForce agents. In mid-2019 and late 2019, we identified instances where improper orders were placed, including through the JForce program, and subsequently cancelled. These transactions had virtually no impact on our financial statements. In aggregate, the

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improper orders identified generated less than 3% of our GMV in 2018, concentrated in the fourth quarter, and less than 2% of our GMV in 2019.

Illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities by our employees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and could subject us to liability or negative publicity. We have identified allegations of employee misconduct, which led us to improve our internal controls and our cash reconciliation system. We routinely monitor our internal controls, processes and procedures at a country and group level, but we can provide no assurances that such controls, processes and procedures will prove effective. Any illegal, fraudulent or collusive activity conducted by our employees could adversely affect our profitability and could severely damage our brand and reputation as an operator of a trusted marketplace, which could drive sellers, consumers and other participants away from our marketplace.

Negative publicity and consumer sentiment generated as a result of actual or alleged fraudulent or deceptive conduct on our platform or by our employees could severely diminish consumer confidence in us and in our services, reduce our ability to attract new or retain current consumers, sellers and other participants, discourage banks and card issuers from allowing their payment instruments to be used to conduct transactions on our platform, harm investor confidence, negatively affect our ability to raise additional capital, damage our reputation and diminish the value of our brand; any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition to seller fraud and fraud committed by our employees, partners or other third parties, we face the risk of fraud perpetrated directly by our consumers. For example, a group of consumers in Kenya fraudulently used electronic payment suppliers to acquire approximately €550,000 in goods on our marketplace in December 2017. Consumer fraud may harm seller confidence in the integrity of our marketplace and the certainty of payment.

We and certain of our board members and officers have been named as defendants in several shareholder class action lawsuits, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operation, prospects and reputation.

In 2019, several putative class action lawsuits were filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York and the New York County Supreme Court against us, certain of our officers, the members of our Supervisory Board, the underwriters of our initial public offering and, in New York State court, our auditor and our authorized representative. We are currently unable to estimate the potential loss, if any, associated with the resolution of such lawsuits, if they proceed. We anticipate that we will continue to be a target for lawsuits in the future, including putative class action lawsuits brought by shareholders. There can be no assurance that we will be able to prevail in our defense or reverse any unfavorable judgment on appeal, and we may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Any adverse outcome of these cases, including any plaintiffs’ appeal of the judgment in these cases, could result in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, or changes to our business practices, and thus have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, prospects and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial results.

We may be subject to chargeback and refund liability if our sellers do not reimburse chargebacks or refunds resolved in favor of their consumers.

We face risks associated with chargebacks and refunds in connection with payment card fraud or relating to the goods or services provided by sellers on our marketplace. When a billing dispute with respect to a transaction on our platform is resolved in favor of the cardholder, including in instances of fraudulent seller activity, the transaction is typically “charged back” to us and the purchase price is credited or otherwise refunded to the cardholder. If we do not collect chargebacks or refunds from the seller’s account, or if the seller refuses to or is unable to reimburse us for chargebacks or refund due to closure, insolvency, or other reasons, we may lose the amount refunded to the cardholder.

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Our financial results would be adversely affected to the extent that sellers do not fully reimburse us for the related chargebacks. Additionally, chargebacks occur more frequently with online transactions than with in-person transactions. Any increase in chargebacks or refunds not paid by our sellers may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We depend on third-party carriers as part of our fulfillment process.

We depend on the services of third-party carriers for the delivery of a large number of goods to our warehouses and subsequently to the distribution centers of third-party carriers and from there to our consumers. Even where goods do not enter our warehouses, these goods are handled by third-party carriers who directly receive them from sellers.

Consequently, we have only limited control over the timing of deliveries and the security and quality of the goods while they are being transported. Consumers may experience shipping delays due to inclement weather, natural disasters, employment strikes or terrorism, and/or goods may be damaged or lost in transit. If goods are of a poor quality or damaged or lost in transit, not delivered in a timely manner, or if we are not able to provide adequate consumer support, our consumers may become dissatisfied and cease buying their goods through our marketplace.

It may be difficult to replace any of our current third-party carriers due to a lack of alternative offerings at comparable prices and/or service quality in the relevant geographic area. Given the infrastructure deficiencies in the markets in which we currently operate, experienced and highly qualified third-party carriers are in increasing demand and accordingly, have only limited capacities. As a result, competition for delivery capacities may intensify even further. In addition, our carriers may increase their prices, which would adversely affect our results. Furthermore, as we continue to grow, our existing carriers may be unable to keep up with such growth, and we may have to contract additional carriers. There is no guarantee that their services and prices will be satisfactory to us or our consumers. An inability to maintain and expand a network of high-quality third-party carriers at attractive costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may fail to maintain or expand our logistics capabilities.

The successful operation and expansion of our logistics service is crucial to maintain and enhance consumer satisfaction and to our business and continued growth.

Our warehouses handle a number of functions, including inbound freight, storage, packaging, outbound freight, and handling of returns. These processes are complex and depend on sophisticated know-how and technological infrastructure. Any failure or disruption of our logistics, including due to software malfunctions, inability to renew leases for existing offices or warehouses, theft from or disruptions to the processes within our warehouses, labor strikes, fires, natural disasters, pandemics such as COVID-19, acts of terrorism, vandalism or sabotage could adversely affect our ability deliver goods ordered via our marketplace in a timely manner, increase our logistics costs and harm our reputation.

Furthermore, delivery times for our goods vary due to a variety of factors such as relevant goods, stock levels, location of warehouses from which goods are shipped, speed of our sellers, number of goods included in the relevant order, country in which sellers and consumers are located and the speed of third-party carriers. Consumers may expect faster delivery times and more convenient deliveries than we can provide. If we are unable to meet consumer expectations, or if our competitors are able to deliver goods faster or more conveniently, our reputation and competitiveness may suffer and we could lose consumers, which could adversely affect our revenue.

Additionally, we face the risk that any of our third-party carriers, who often collect cash-on-delivery payments from our consumers, may become insolvent, in which case our delivery capability would be adversely affected, and we would be unable to collect the cash payments such a carrier still held on our behalf. Even though we would not be able to collect from an insolvent third-party carrier, we would still be obligated to pay our sellers whose goods were already delivered to consumers. The insolvency of any of our third-party carriers could harm our business and financial condition.

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Our current logistics capacity may prove insufficient if we continue to grow. There is no guarantee that we will be able to open additional warehouses, find delivery partners with sufficient capacity in an efficient and timely manner, lease additional suitable warehouses on acceptable terms, expand other areas of our fulfillment process to the extent necessary or recruit qualified personnel required to operate our warehouses and manage such expansion. Any failure to expand our logistics capacity to meet the demands of our continued growth could prevent us from growing our business.

If we decide to expand geographically, or add new businesses or product categories with different logistics requirements or change the composition of our product offering, our logistics infrastructure may require greater processing capacity, requiring us to adapt our logistics service and to find new partners. Any expansion or difficulties we encounter in our operations may force us to change the current set-up and organization of our logistics network, including by relocating or outsourcing certain capabilities. However, there is no guarantee that the associated transition will be smooth and we may be unable to react to such challenges in a cost-effective and timely manner.

An inability to efficiently operate and expand our warehouses and logistics capabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If any of our logistics services were to malfunction, suffer an outage or otherwise fail, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

We cooperate with a number of third-party logistics and delivery companies to help our sellers fulfill orders and deliver their goods to consumers, in particular with respect to last-mile delivery. We have established a logistics information platform that links our information system to those of our logistics partners. Interruptions to or failures in our third-parties’ logistics and delivery services, or in our logistics information platform, could prevent the timely or proper delivery of goods to consumers, which could harm our reputation, in particular if such interruptions or failures occur during one of our key sales events, like Black Friday. These interruptions may be caused by events that are beyond our control or the control of these third parties, such as inclement weather, natural disasters, transportation disruptions or labor unrest. Our logistics and delivery services could also be affected or interrupted by industry consolidation, service provider failure, insolvency, change in regulations or government shut-downs.

If the logistics information platform we use were to fail for any reason, our logistics providers may find it more difficult or even impossible to connect with our sellers, and their services and the functionality of our platform could be severely affected. Our existing disaster recovery plans may not be sufficient to ensure a timely remediation of such failures or disruptions.

In addition, in the event of any interruptions to or failures in our third-parties’ logistics and delivery services, or in our logistics service, we could be held liable by our sellers and/or consumers for any resulting damage.

If goods sold on our marketplace are not delivered in proper condition, on a timely basis or at shipping rates that marketplace participants are willing to bear, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The costs of our logistics service are subject to fluctuation in the prices of raw materials and fuel, and we may not be able to pass on price increases to our sellers and consumers.

Our logistics service provides solutions for the delivery of goods ordered through our marketplace. Our logistics service includes a number of logistics partners, with whom we agree on certain economical terms and settle the incurred costs. While we seek to pass on to our sellers and consumers most of the costs of these logistic services, we typically bear the risk of cost fluctuation. The costs of our logistics service are typically influenced by a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including raw material and fuel prices, labor costs, rent levels, import tariffs and fluctuation in foreign exchange rates, the capacity and utilization rates of our sellers and carriers, which in turn depend on general demand, as well as the quantities of goods we demand and our specifications. As a result, our costs may vary considerably in the short-term and increase significantly if certain partners experience shortages. There is no guarantee that we will be able to pass on such costs to our sellers or consumers through price increases, and such price increases could adversely affect demand for the goods or services sold on our marketplace. If competitors are able

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to offer lower prices as they benefit from decreasing raw materials or fuel prices, sellers and consumers may demand that we also lower our prices, irrespective of the actual development of our costs.

Increases in logistics costs and an inability to pass on such increases to our sellers and consumers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Changes in how consumers fund their transactions using our payment service could harm our business.

We may pay significant transaction fees when consumers fund payment transactions using credit, debit or prepaid cards, mobile money or via bank transfers, and no fees when consumers fund payment transactions from an existing Jumia account balance or when consumers pay cash on delivery.

The financial success of our payment services is sensitive to changes in the rate at which our consumers fund payments, which can significantly increase our costs. Some of our consumers may prefer to use credit, debit or prepaid cards due to their functionality and/or benefits. An increase in the proportion of more expensive payment forms as compared to less expensive payment forms could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our payment service, JumiaPay, could fail to function properly, and we may not be able to expand or integrate JumiaPay into other online portals.

JumiaPay facilitates transactions between sellers and consumers and provides certain participants with access to financial services. Due to the variety and complexity of the payment methods we offer, we may experience failures in our checkout process, such as banks rejecting payment or consumers having insufficient funds, which could adversely affect our conversion rate, defined as the share of potential consumers visiting our marketplace who actually place an order, and our business.

We rely on third parties to provide payment processing services. We also rely on third-party payment processors, and encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties, to securely transmit consumers’ personal information. If these companies become unwilling or unable to provide these services or increase their fees, such as bank and intermediary fees for card payments, our operations may be disrupted and our operating costs could increase. Our invoice and billing systems may malfunction due to the implementation of new payment methods and technology, errors in existing codes or other technology issues. Any such issues may impair our ability to create correct invoices, avoid the recording of duplicate invoices or payments and collect payments in a timely manner, or at all. Even though we aim to contract with multiple providers with overlapping competencies, we cannot guarantee that our third-party vendors will not experience a disruption in their services, increase their costs, or discontinue their services.

In addition, our current payment infrastructure may prove insufficient if we continue to grow or if decide to expand JumiaPay geographically. For instance, there is no guarantee that we will be able to maintain or enter into strategic partnerships with financial institutions or other payment solution providers in the markets in which we currently operate our marketplace or will operate. Further, we may not be able to process high volumes. Any failure of the technology behind our payment solutions could be disruptive.

Malfunctions of our payment systems or our failure to effectively manage the growth of JumiaPay could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We could be subject to liability and forced to change our JumiaPay business practices if we were found to be subject to or in violation of any laws or regulations governing banking, money transmission, tax regulation, anti-money laundering regulations or electronic funds transfers in any country where we operate; or if new legislation regarding these issues were enacted in the countries where JumiaPay operates.

A number of jurisdictions where we operate have enacted legislation regulating money transmitters and/or electronic payments or funds transfers. If our operation of JumiaPay were found to be in violation of money services laws or regulations or any tax or anti-money laundering regulations, or engaged in an unauthorized banking or financial

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business, we could be subject to liability, forced to cease doing business with residents of certain countries, or forced to change our business practices. Any change to our JumiaPay business practices due to current or new legislation that makes the service less attractive to customers or prohibits its use by residents of a particular jurisdiction could harm our business. Even if we are not forced to change our JumiaPay business practices, we could be required to obtain licenses or regulatory approvals that could be very expensive and time consuming, and we cannot assure that we would be able to obtain these licenses in a timely manner or at all.

Deterioration in the performance of, or our relationship with, third-party payment aggregators may adversely affect JumiaPay and harm our business.

JumiaPay often relies on payment aggregators to facilitate consumer payments. Payment aggregators collect payment from consumers via credit, debit or prepaid cards, mobile money accounts or bank transfers and then forward payment to the seller, usually within one to three business days. Thus, aggregators allow sellers to collect card or bank transfer payments without establishing a direct relationship with banks and/or card networks used by our consumers. In 2019, in connection with an investment of Mastercard into us, we entered into a commercial agreement with Mastercard Asia/Pacific with a term of ten years, which provides Mastercard Asia/Pacific with priority in delivering payment network-based solutions and technologies related to our business. This agreement could lead to a deterioration of our relationship with other service providers. If our relationship with such other service providers or third-party aggregators weakens, our ability to provide payment services to our consumers may be adversely effected. Additionally, if these third-party aggregators fail to meet certain quality standards, our business and reputation may suffer. If we fail to extend or renew agreements with these aggregators on acceptable terms, this may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Changes to payment card networks or bank fees, rules, or practices, or our inability to allow consumers to use payment cards on our platform could harm our business.

From time to time, payment card networks or relevant banking regulators have increased the interchange fees and assessments that they charge for each transaction that accesses their networks, and they may further increase such fees and assessments in the future. Although our agreement with Mastercard enables us to use Mastercard Payment Gateway Services to process payment transactions, we face the risk that banks and payment processors might pass on to us any increases in interchange fees and assessments. Any changes in interchange fees and assessments could increase our operating costs and reduce our operating income.

We are required by our processors to comply with payment card network operating rules, including special operating rules for payment service providers to sellers, and we have agreed to reimburse our processors for any fines they are assessed by payment card networks as a result of any rule violations by us or our sellers. The payment card networks set and interpret the card operating rules and could interpret or re-interpret existing rules or adopt new operating rules that we or our processors might find difficult or even impossible to follow, or costly to implement. As a result, we could lose our ability to give consumers the option of using payment cards to fund their payments or the choice of currency in which they would like their card to be charged. Any inability to accept payment cards or any meaningful limitation in our ability to do so, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be subject to card fraud or other fraudulent behavior, including as a result of identity theft.

Under current card practices, we may be liable for fraudulent card transactions. We do not currently carry insurance against this risk. The risk of significant losses associated with card fraud increases as our net sales increase and as we continue to expand geographically.

Furthermore, there is no guarantee that our established fraud scoring and risk handling systems will function properly at all times or that there are no gaps or errors in our algorithms that may result in unauthorized purchases. In addition, increasingly strict legislation on data protection may limit our ability to obtain the data required for our algorithms to function properly. Consequently, we may fail to identify fraudulent transactions before they occur or prevent fraudulent transactions from occurring.

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If purchases or payments are not properly authorized or payment confirmations are transmitted in error, the relevant consumer may have insufficient funds or be able to defraud us, which could adversely affect our operations and result in increased legal expenses and fees. Consumers who are victims of fraudulent transactions where outside individuals use valid consumer account data to purchase goods, including as a result of identity theft, generally, have the right to require that we return those funds. In such instances of fraud, we may not be able to, or may not seek to, recover these chargebacks. We operate a delayed settlement regime in an effort to prevent this type of fraud and avoid distributing funds to insolvent sellers that fail to deliver their products. However, we cannot guarantee that such a regime will always prove effective.

Because our payment service, JumiaPay, is highly automated and allows for instant payment, we experience heightened susceptibility to fraud. We cannot completely guard against internal or external intruders into our data platform who may seek to use or manipulate our systems to create, transfer, or otherwise misappropriate funds belonging to legitimate consumers or to create new accounts or modify or delete existing accounts. We aim to balance convenience and security for sellers and consumers, and we cannot guarantee that we will be completely successful in preventing fraud. Furthermore, permitting new and innovative online payment options may increase the risk of fraud. High levels of fraud could result in an obligation to comply with additional requirements, pay higher payment processing fees or fines, or prevent us from retaining our consumers.

Fraudulent behavior could subject us to liability, damage our reputation and brand and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Dissatisfaction with our consumer support could prevent us from retaining our consumers.

As most interactions with consumers and sellers are conducted online, consumers and sellers may become frustrated when they cannot communicate with a representative over the phone. We pursue a multi-channel approach to consumer support, responding to requests by email, through our hotlines and via social media. The satisfaction of our consumers depends on the effectiveness of our consumer service, particularly our ability to deal with complaints in a timely and satisfying manner. As we continue to grow, we may need to add consumer support capabilities and may not be able to do so in a timely manner, or at all. Any unsatisfactory response or lack of responsiveness by our consumer support team, whether due to interruptions of our hotlines or other factors, could adversely affect consumer satisfaction and loyalty.

Dissatisfaction with our consumer support could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Any failure to maintain, protect and enhance our reputation and brand may adversely affect our business.

The recognition and reputation of our brand among our platform participants are critical for the growth and continued success of our business and for our competitiveness in the markets in which we operate. Any loss of trust in our platform could harm the value of our brand and result in consumers and sellers ceasing to transact business on our marketplace or participants reducing the level of their commercial activity in our ecosystem, which could materially reduce our revenue and profitability. As competition intensifies, we anticipate that maintaining and enhancing our reputation and brand may become increasingly difficult and expensive, and investments to improve our reputation and increase the value of our brand may not be successful. Many factors, some of which are beyond our control, are important for maintaining and enhancing the reputation of our platform and brand, including our ability to:

maintain and improve the reliability and security of our platform;
maintain and improve the popularity, attractiveness, diversity, quality and value of the goods and services offered on our platform;
increase brand awareness through marketing and brand promotion activities;
preserve our reputation;

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maintain and improve our relationships with sellers;
maintain and improve consumer satisfaction and loyalty;
maintain and improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of our payment and logistics services; and
manage new and existing technologies and sales channels, including our mobile applications.

Any failure to offer high quality goods and excellent consumer service could subject us to legal action or damage our reputation and brand and lead to a loss of consumers. For example, administrative agencies in several countries in which we operate require certification for various consumer goods before they can be offered for sale on our marketplace. Our third-party sellers are responsible for obtaining these certifications. If we allow third-party sellers to place their goods on our marketplace without proper certification, we might project to our consumers that they cannot always rely on goods available on our marketplace, we might be subject to fines or sanctions and we might face complaints from other compliant sellers. For example, one of our sellers complained that other sellers on our marketplace have listed goods without possessing the necessary licenses or certificates, while also asserting that we are responsible for aiding and abetting these improper listings. We also have procedures in place to ensure pre-shipping quality control checks, but, there can be no assurance that we will be able to catch all products that do not meet our quality standards, which could result in a loss of consumer confidence and harm our reputation. Our policy of delisting the sellers of noncompliant and/or low-quality goods until they produce the proper certificates and licenses or until their products meet our high quality standards allows us to respond to complaints from administrative agencies and sellers. However, any delisting of sellers limits the total number of sales on our marketplace.

A large percentage of our products are offered by third-party sellers and delivered by third-party companies and are not completely within our control. Consequently, we may receive negative publicity in cases of inappropriate actions of such sellers and delivery companies such as violations of product safety regulations, environmental standards, tax compliance, import rules, labor laws or incidents involving drivers and/or consumers that may make it more difficult for us to recruit new employees or may require us to change our business model. We also rely on third parties for information, including product characteristics and availability of goods we offer, which may be inaccurate. While our policy is to delist goods or sellers that fail to meet certain standards, there is no guarantee that we are capable of delisting these goods and sellers in a timely manner, or at all. Any negative publicity relating to an accident or other incident resulting in serious injury or death of consumers, employees or other individuals could have a material adverse effect on our reputation in our industry and in the countries in which we currently operate.

As we rely on a number of marketing channels, in particular social media sites, including Facebook, for the promotion of our brand and marketing efforts, any negative publicity may be accelerated through social media due to its immediacy and accessibility. Such negative publicity, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents, could damage our reputation, diminish the value of our brand, undermine the trust and credibility we have established and have a negative impact on our ability to attract new or retain existing consumers. Given the rapid nature of social media, we may be unable to react to such negative publicity in a timely manner. Negative publicity may also stem from our association with any of our shareholders or business partners.

We may be the target of anti-competitive behavior, harassment, or other detrimental conduct by third parties, including from our competitors. Such conduct may include complaints, anonymous or otherwise, to regulatory agencies, which may arise from actions taken by third parties or our own commercial actions. As a result of such conduct, we may be subject to government or regulatory investigation and may be required to expend significant time and incur substantial costs to address such conduct. There is no guarantee that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time, or at all.

Any failure to maintain, protect and enhance our reputation and brands, whether as a result of our own actions or those of third parties, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Our significant investments in marketing may fail to yield the desired results.

In order to reach a diverse consumer base in the e-commerce industry and to further build awareness of our brand, we have incurred, and may continue to incur, substantial marketing expenses.

For purposes of planning our future marketing efforts, including deciding on the mix of marketing channels and setting our marketing budget, we rely on data regarding the effectiveness of marketing measures and channels collected in the past. Any inability to accurately measure the effectiveness of our marketing measures and channels, for example due to the time lag between the first consumer contact and the placement of an order as well as the time of the order and revenue realization, may lead to our marketing efforts not having the desired effect, which may negatively affect our growth and business. Additionally, we may be unable to accurately measure the number of consumers we are reaching with our marketing efforts, as in many instances a single consumer may be associated with multiple phone numbers whereas in other instances multiple consumers determine to jointly use a single account with us. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that our assumptions regarding required consumer acquisition costs and resulting revenue, including those relating to the effectiveness of our marketing investments, will prove to be correct.

We cannot guarantee that our current marketing channels will continue to be effective or generally available to us in the future. Our online partners may not be able to deliver the anticipated number of consumer visits, or visitors attracted to our marketplace by such events may not make the anticipated purchases. For example, in our primary markets, we conduct marketing through targeted TV and radio ads, in addition to our traditional online channels. Any disruption of these channels could affect the number of visitors attracted to our marketplace. New regulation may adversely affect certain marketing channels, in particular regulation aimed at controlling and censoring social media and increasing data protection of natural persons. If we are not able to use our existing marketing channels due to increasing regulatory scrutiny, it could limit our ability to acquire and retain consumers.

An inability to attract sufficient traffic to our platform, have potential consumers download our app to their mobile devices, translate a sufficient number of website visits or app downloads into purchasers with sufficiently large order values, build and maintain a loyal consumer base, increase the purchase frequency of these consumers, or do any of the foregoing on a cost-effective basis, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be unable to effectively communicate with our consumers through email, other messages or social media.

We rely on newsletters in the form of emails and other messaging services in order to promote our marketplace and inform consumers of our product offerings and/or the status of their transactions. Changes in how webmail services organize and prioritize emails could reduce the number of consumers opening our emails. For example, Google’s Gmail service provides a feature that organizes incoming emails into categories. Such tools and features could result in our emails and other messages being shown as “spam” or as lower priority to our consumers, which could reduce the likelihood of consumers opening or responding positively to them. Actions by third parties to block, impose restrictions on, or charge for the delivery of emails and other messages, as well as legal or regulatory changes with respect to “permission-based marketing” or generally limiting our right to send such messages or imposing additional requirements on our ability to conduct email marketing or send other messages, could impair our ability to communicate with our consumers. If we are unable to send emails or other messages to our consumers, if such messages are delayed or if consumers do not receive or decline to open them, we would no longer be able to use this free marketing channel. This could impair our marketing efforts or make them more expensive if we have to increase spending on paid marketing channels to compensate and as a result, our business could be adversely affected.

Additionally, malfunctions of our email and messaging services could result in erroneous messages being sent and consumers no longer wanting to receive any messages from us. Furthermore, our process of obtaining consent from visitors to our marketplace to receive newsletters and other messages from us and to allow us to use their data may be insufficient or invalid. As a result, such individuals or third parties may accuse us of sending unsolicited advertisements and other messages, and our use of email and other messaging services could result in claims against us.

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Since we also rely on social media to communicate with our consumers, changes to the terms and conditions of relevant providers could limit our ability to communicate through social media. These services may change their algorithms or interfaces without notifying us, which may reduce our visibility. In addition, there could be a decline in the use of such social media by our consumers, in which case we may be required to find other, potentially more expensive, communication channels.

An inability to communicate through emails, other messages or social media could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We rely on service providers to drive traffic to our website, and these providers may change their search engine algorithms or pricing in ways that could negatively affect our business.

Our success depends on our ability to attract consumers in a cost-effective manner. With respect to our marketing channels, we rely heavily on relationships with providers of online services, search engines, social media, directories and other websites to provide content, advertising banners and other links that direct consumers to our websites. We rely on these relationships as significant sources of traffic to our marketplace. We also depend on app store providers to allow potential consumers to download our app to their mobile devices.

Search engine companies change their natural search engine algorithms periodically, and our ranking in organic search results may be adversely affected by those changes. Search engine companies may also determine that we are not in compliance with their guidelines and consequently penalize us in their algorithms. If search engines change or penalize us with their algorithms, terms of service, display and featuring of search results, or if competition increases for advertisements, we may be unable to cost-effectively drive consumers to our website and apps. Any removal of our app from app stores could materially and adversely affect our business operations.

We generally do not enter into written agreements with our marketing providers, which is why they are typically not contractually bound by any specific performance commitments. In addition, many of the parties with whom we have online advertising arrangements provide advertising services to other companies, including retailers with whom we compete. As competition for online advertising has increased, the cost for some of these services has also increased. A significant increase in the cost of the marketing services upon which we rely could adversely impact our ability to attract consumers in a cost effective manner and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Investments in our technology platform and technology infrastructure may not yield the desired results.

We have developed a scalable technology platform to facilitate and integrate our business operations, data gathering analysis and online marketing capabilities and have invested significant capital and time into building and updating our technology platform and infrastructure. In order to remain competitive, we expect to continue to make significant investments in our technology. However, there is no guarantee that the resources we have invested or will invest in the future will allow us to develop suitable technology solutions and maintain and expand our technology platform and technology infrastructure as intended, which may adversely affect our ability to compete or require us to purchase expensive software solutions from third-party developers.

If our investments in our technology platform and technology infrastructure do not yield the desired results, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may fail to operate, maintain, integrate and upgrade our technology infrastructure, or to adopt and apply technological advances.

Our growth and success depend on our websites and apps being accessible to consumers at all times and to be fault tolerant. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve the availability of our websites and apps, especially during peak usage times and as our product offering becomes more complex and the number of visitors to our marketplace increases. We have experienced disruptions in the past, including temporary downtimes of our websites due to third-party outages, and we may experience disruptions, outages, or other issues in the future, due to changes in our

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technology infrastructure, software malfunctions, third-party outages, fires, natural disasters, acts of terrorism, vandalism or sabotage. If we fail to effectively address capacity constraints, respond adequately to disruptions or upgrade our technology infrastructure, our mobile apps or websites could become unavailable or fail to load quickly, and consumers may decide to shop elsewhere, and may not return, which could adversely affect our business.

Given that the internet and mobile devices are characterized by rapid technological advances, including advances in the field of machine learning, artificial intelligence, micro-services and server-less architecture, our future success will depend on our ability to adapt our websites, apps and other parts of our technology platform to such advances and to sustain their interoperability with relevant operating systems. As traditional internet penetration is low in Africa, our consumers largely rely on mobile devices to access our offerings. In particular, purchases from mobile devices have increased rapidly since we introduced our apps. However, the variety of technical and other configurations across mobile devices and platforms makes it more difficult to develop websites and apps that are suitable for multiple channels. In addition, any changes in popular operating systems may reduce the functionality of our websites and apps or give preferential treatment to competitors. Any failure to adapt to technological advances in a timely manner and to integrate our offerings through our websites and apps could decrease the attractiveness of our websites and apps and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may experience malfunctions or disruptions of our technology systems.

We rely on a complex technology platform and technology systems to operate our websites and apps. While we analyze our technology systems regularly, we may not be able to correctly assess their susceptibility to errors, hacking or viruses. For example, certain software we use for our business is based on open source software, which may expose our business to systemic problems if errors in the open source code are not detected in a timely manner.

Our systems may experience service interruptions or degradation because of hardware and software defects or malfunctions, computer denial-of-service and other cyberattacks, human error, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks, computer viruses, or other events. Our systems are also subject to break-ins, sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for all eventualities. In particular, as we have not yet completed a full disaster recovery check, we may not be aware of any material weaknesses in our disaster recovery systems. Any failure of or disruptions to our technology systems may lead to significant malfunctions and downtimes of our websites and apps. If our algorithms suffer from programing failures or our technology systems experience disruptions, we may be unable to deliver goods on time or misallocate goods, either of which could adversely affect our business. Furthermore, we do not have an adequate business continuity infrastructure, and any failure of a key piece of infrastructure may lead to extended outages and generally affect our business continuity. In addition, we may not adequately manage malfunctions. If we cannot fix any malfunction ourselves, we may have to pay third parties to fix the malfunction or to license functioning software, which may be costly.

We have experienced and will likely continue to experience system failures, denial-of-service attacks and other events or conditions from time to time that interrupt the availability or reduce the speed or functionality of our websites and mobile applications. Reliability is particularly critical for us because the full-time availability of our payment services is critical to our goal of gaining widespread acceptance among consumers and sellers, in particular with respect to digital and mobile payments. Frequent or persistent interruptions in our services could cause current or potential consumers to believe that our systems are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our sites, which could irreparably harm our reputation and brands. To the extent that any system failure or similar event results in damages to our consumers or their businesses, these consumers could seek significant compensation from us for their losses and such claims, even if unsuccessful, would likely be time consuming and costly to address.

In addition, we depend on certain third-party service providers to operate and maintain certain of our technology systems, such as cloud services. If such service providers experience malfunctions or disruptions of their technology or increase their prices, it could adversely affect our business. Furthermore, if we need to switch service providers, for example if certain software is no longer fully compatible with our technology platform or no longer

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available in any country in which we currently operate (e.g., due to sanctions), there is no guarantee that alternative service providers will be available to us or that we would manage the transition successfully.

As we continue to grow our business, we may be required to further scale our technology platform and technology systems, including by adding and migrating to new systems and proprietary software, replacing outdated hardware and increasing the integration of our technology systems. Such changes may, however, be delayed or fail due to malfunctions or an inability to integrate new software and functions with our existing technology platform, resulting in disruptions to our operations and insufficient scale to support our future growth. In addition, as a provider of payments solutions, we are subject to increased scrutiny by regulators that may require specific business continuity and disaster recovery plans and more rigorous testing of such plans. This increased scrutiny may be costly and time consuming and may divert our resources from other business priorities.

Any malfunctions and disruptions of our technology systems could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our use of open source software may pose particular risks to our proprietary software and systems.

We use open source software in our proprietary software and systems and intend to continue using open source software in the future. From time to time, we may face claims from third parties claiming infringement of their intellectual property rights, or demanding the release or license of the open source software or derivative works that we developed using such software (which could include our proprietary source code) or otherwise seeking to enforce the terms of the applicable open source license. These claims could result in litigation and could require us to purchase a costly license, publicly release the affected portions of our source code, be limited in or cease using the implicated software unless and until we can re-engineer such software to avoid infringement or change the use of, or remove, the implicated open source software.

In addition to risks related to license requirements, use of certain open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties, indemnities or other contractual protections with respect to the software (for example, non-infringement or functionality). Our use of open source software may also present additional security risks because the source code for open source software is publicly available, which may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to breach our website and systems that rely on open source software.

Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage, and, if not addressed, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may experience security breaches and disruptions due to hacking, viruses, fraud, malicious attacks and other circumstances.

We operate websites, apps and other technology systems through which we collect, maintain, transmit and store sensitive information, such as credit or debit card information, about our consumers, sellers, suppliers and other third parties. We also store proprietary information and business secrets. Additionally, we employ third-party service providers that store, process and transmit such information on our behalf, in particular payment details. Furthermore, we rely on encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties to securely transmit sensitive and confidential information. While we take steps such as the use of password policies and firewalls to protect the security, integrity and confidentiality of sensitive and confidential information, our security practices may be insufficient and third parties may access our technology systems without authorization – such as through trojans, spyware, ransomware or other malware attacks – which may result in unauthorized use or disclosure of such information. Such attacks might lead to blackmailing attempts, forcing us to pay substantial amounts to release our captured data or resulting in the unauthorized release of such data. Given that techniques used in these attacks change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, it may be impossible to properly secure our technology systems. In addition, technical advances or a continued expansion and increased complexity of our technology platform could increase the likelihood of security breaches.

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Security breaches may also occur as a result of non-technical issues, including intentional or inadvertent breaches by our employees or third-party service providers. Insufficient security practices, such as inadequate policies to enforce password complexity, the saving of username and password combinations on local browsers, any failure to update permissions granted to current or former employees, any weakness in access controls, the use of default credentials or their reuse coupled with the use of third-party cloud services, the use of unauthorized and unprotected software as well as inadequate physical protection against unauthorized access may make our technology systems vulnerable and lead to unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information.

Any leakage of sensitive information could lead to a misuse of data, including unsolicited emails or other messages based on spam lists fed with such data. Inefficient management of administrator and user accounts may increase the risk of fraud and malfunctions. In addition, any such breach could violate applicable privacy, data security and other laws, and cause significant legal and financial risks or negative publicity, and could adversely affect our business and reputation. We may need to devote significant resources to protect ourselves against security breaches or to address such breaches, and there is no guarantee that our resources will be sufficient to do so. Furthermore, we provide certain information to third-party service providers, such as Google, who help us assess the performance of our business. Consequently, we have only limited control over the protection of such information by the relevant third-party service providers and may be adversely affected by breaches and disruptions of their respective technology systems.

Security breaches and disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We depend on our personnel to grow and operate our business and may not be able to retain and replace existing personnel or to attract new personnel.

We are a founder-led business and depend heavily on the continued input of our founders Sacha Poignonnec and Jeremy Hodara. We also depend upon the continued services and performance of our other officers and other key personnel, many of whom have a level of experience and local knowledge that would be difficult to replicate. Our ability to retain our founders, board members, other executive officers and other key personnel may be complicated by our low share price, which may decrease the attractiveness of the incentive plans we offer. The unexpected departure or loss of any of them could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to attract or retain suitable replacements for such personnel in a timely manner or at all. We may also incur significant additional costs in recruiting and retaining suitable replacements. In addition, from time to time, there may be changes in our management team that may be disruptive to our business.

Our success and growth strategy also depend on our ability to expand our business by identifying, attracting, recruiting, training, integrating, managing and motivating new and talented personnel, which may require significant time, investments, and management attention. Competition for talent is intense, particularly for technology experts and other qualified personnel in our fields of operations. For example, other leading technology platforms also operate technology centers in Porto, Portugal, and compete directly with us for the same talent pool. In addition, certain governments started to promote access of indigenous peoples to better workplaces by limiting the number of expatriates or foreign workers. While our local workforces are mostly comprised of local employees, our group-level management and certain key personnel on a local level are expatriates from countries outside Africa, and any employment and immigration regulations may adversely affect our ability to retain or replace the required personnel. In addition, our employees and/or the third-party service providers with whom we collaborate may experience accidents or become victims of criminal actions in carrying out their duties, which may make it more difficult for us to recruit new employees or may even require us to change our business model.

An inability to retain and replace existing personnel or to attract new personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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We manage our operations on a decentralized basis, which presents certain risks, including the risk that we may be slower or less able to identify or react to problems affecting our business than we would in a more centralized environment.

While we have a number of administrative functions teams located in Dubai, UAE, and a central technology, research and development and data team located in Porto, Portugal, we manage our operations on a decentralized basis. Our decentralized operations require significant travel by executives. Events restricting international travel, such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak, may negatively affect our ability to effectively manage and grow our business. In addition, our local managers are given significant freedom concerning day-to-day operations. This structure presents various risks, including the risk that we may be slower or less able to identify or react to problems affecting our business than we would in a more centralized environment. In addition, we may be slower to detect compliance related problems, and “company-wide” business initiatives, such as the integration of disparate information technology systems, may be more challenging and costly to implement, and their risk of failure higher, than they would be in a more centralized environment. Depending on the nature of the problem or initiative in question, such failure could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture, we could lose the innovation, creativity and teamwork fostered by our culture, which could harm our business.

We believe that our entrepreneurial and collaborative corporate culture has been an important contributor to our success, which we believe fosters innovation, teamwork and passion among our employees. As we continue to grow, we may have difficulties in maintaining or adapting our culture to sufficiently meet the needs of our future and evolving operations, and we must be able to effectively integrate, develop and motivate a growing number of employees. In addition, our ability to maintain our culture as a public company, with the attendant changes in policies, practices, corporate governance and management requirements may be challenging. Any failure to preserve our culture could also negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel, maintain our performance or execute on our business strategy, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are subject to various risks for which we may not be adequately insured.

While we have purchased what we consider to be market standard insurance coverage customary in our industry, such insurance does not cover all risks associated with our business. Accidents and other events, including interruptions or security breaches of our technology platform, could potentially lead to interruptions of our operations or cause us to incur significant costs, all of which may not be covered or fully covered by our insurance policies. In addition, our insurance coverage is subject to various limitations and exclusions, retentions amounts and limits. Furthermore, if any of our insurance providers becomes insolvent, we may not be able to successfully claim payment from such insurance provider. In the future, we may not be able to obtain coverage at current levels, or at all, and premiums for our insurance may increase significantly.

A lack of adequate insurance coverage could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be subject to allegations and lawsuits concerning anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing.

As cash payments continue to be the most trusted and most widely used payment method in the countries in which we currently operate, our operations mainly depend on our “cash on delivery” payment option, where consumers pay for their order in cash upon delivery. We have implemented and aim to improve our various group-wide policies and procedures, including internal controls and “know-your-customer” procedures, and to comply with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing laws and regulations for preventing money laundering and terrorist financing. However, our policies and procedures may not be completely effective in preventing other parties from using our platform, or any financial institutions we collaborate with, as a conduit for money laundering (including illegal cash operations) or terrorist financing without our knowledge. Although we take steps to diligence our sellers, we cannot

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guarantee that our ecosystem is void of individuals and entities (collectively, “persons”) who are the target of U.S. sanctions, including persons designated on the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control’s (“OFAC”) Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List or other international sanctions. In addition to our own internal procedures, we rely on certain payment and lending service providers, including banks and other financial institutions, to have their own appropriate anti-money laundering compliance policies and procedures. Any strengthening of our know-your-customer efforts as well as penalties for non-compliance with our policies, may deter certain sellers from doing business with us, which may negatively affect the development of our business.

We have not been subject to fines or other penalties or suffered business or other reputational harm as a result of actual or alleged money laundering or terrorist financing activities. However, if we were to be associated with money laundering or terrorist financing, our reputation could suffer and we could become subject to regulatory fines, sanctions, potential criminal charges for failure to report such activity, or other forms of legal enforcement, including being added to any “blacklists” that would prohibit certain parties (for example, U.S. banks and financial institutions) from engaging in transactions with us, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations. Even if we and any financial institutions with whom we collaborate comply with applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing laws and regulations, we and such financial institutions may not be able to ensure full compliance with anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing laws and regulations in light of their complexity and the secrecy of these activities.

Any negative perception of us or our industry, such as that arising from any failure of us or others in our industry to detect or prevent money laundering or terrorist financing activities, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents, could compromise our reputation, undermine the trust and credibility we have established, and negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our activities or the activities of our shareholders in countries targeted by economic sanctions may negatively affect our reputation.

Various members of the international community have targeted certain countries, including Iran, with economic sanctions and other restrictive measures. Within the applicable framework, our travel business historically allowed consumers to book hotels in and flights serving Iran. While the revenue from these offers is immaterial, we cannot rule out that negative publicity around these offers may harm our reputation. Further, any violation by us of applicable economic sanctions laws or regulations or other restrictive measures could result in criminal, civil and/or material financial penalties. In addition, our indirect shareholder, MTN Group Limited, holds a 49% indirect, non-controlling interest in Irancell, which operates Iran’s second largest mobile network and offers international voice, interconnect and roaming services. MTN Group Limited also has a beneficial interest of about 44% in Iranian e-commerce business Snapp (also known as Iran Internet Group), which includes retail marketplace, ride hailing, travel, delivery and food delivery businesses. These and other activities of our current or future shareholders in countries targeted by economic sanctions may harm our reputation or may lead to us being targeted by divestment and similar initiatives.

We conduct a substantial amount of our business in foreign currencies, which heightens our exposure to the risk of exchange rate fluctuations.

We are subject to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates between the Euro, our reporting currency, and currencies of other countries where we market or source our goods, for example the Nigerian Naira, the Egyptian Pound, the Kenyan Shilling and the West African CFA Franc. Such fluctuations may result in significant increases or decreases in our reported revenue and other results as expressed in Euro, and in the reported value of our assets, liabilities and cash flows. In addition, currency fluctuation may adversely affect receivables, payables, debt, firm commitments and forecast transactions denominated in foreign currencies. In particular, transition risks arise where parts of the cost of sales are not denominated in the same currency of such sales. Fluctuation in exchange rates, depreciation of local currencies, changes in monetary and/or fiscal policy or inflation in the countries in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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Exchange controls may restrict the ability of our subsidiaries to convert or transfer sums in foreign currencies.

Our ability to generate operating cash flows at the level of the Company depends on the ability of its subsidiaries to upstream funds. Several of the countries in which we currently operate have exchange controls that can, from time to time place, restrictions on the exchange of local currency for foreign currency and the transfer of funds abroad. These controls generally have not created major operational problems in the past because of our negative profitability, but may become more onerous in the future. These controls and other controls that may be implemented in the future could limit the ability of our subsidiaries to transfer cash to us.

Moreover, in some of the countries in which we currently operate, our sellers have experienced, and may experience in the future, difficulties in converting large amounts of local currency into foreign currency due in particular to illiquid foreign exchange markets, preventing them from importing certain goods and impeding their ability to sell successfully on our marketplace. In addition, as the cash flows of certain countries are highly dependent on the export of certain raw materials, the ability to convert such currencies can be limited by the timing of payments for such exports, requiring us to organize our currency conversions around such constraints.

We can offer no assurance that additional restrictions on currency exchange will not be implemented in the future or that these restrictions will not limit the ability of our subsidiaries to transfer cash to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If we are unable to accurately assess our performance through certain key performance indicators, this may adversely affect our ability to determine and implement appropriate strategies.

We assess the success of our business through a set of key performance indicators such as the number of Annual Active Consumers, orders, GMV, TPV and JumiaPay Transaction, as well as Adjusted EBITDA. Our key performance indicators may not be comparable to similarly named indicators used by our competitors and are not verified by an independent third party.

Capturing accurate data to calculate our key performance indicators may be difficult, in particular due to our limited operating history, and there is no guarantee that the information we have collected thus far is accurate or reliable. For example, we use consumer accounts to determine the number of Annual Active Consumers. The number of consumer accounts may, however, be higher than the number of actual individual Annual Active Consumers. GMV could be inflated due to weak or error-prone data collection processes, fraudulent behavior by employees or independent sales consultants, or malicious seller or consumer behavior. For example, we engaged in a sales practices review in 2019 and 2020, where we identified certain improper orders, which generated less than 3% of our GMV in 2018, concentrated in the fourth quarter, and less than 2% of our GMV in 2019. Furthermore, we obtain certain information from third-party service providers who help us assess the performance of our business, including Google Analytics. Such relevant third-party service providers may not fully disclose the methods of how they compile such information and we cannot guarantee that such information is accurate.

As a result, our key performance indicators may not reflect our actual operating or financial performance and are not reliable indicators of our current or future revenue or profitability. Potential investors should therefore not place undue reliance on these key performance indicators in connection with an investment in our ADSs. The management of our business depends on our key performance indicators and other indicators derived from them, and if any of these indicators are inaccurate, we may make poor decisions. Furthermore, if we report key performance indicators that are significantly wrong, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and reliability of information we report, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not accurately forecast revenue and appropriately plan our expenses.

We base our current and future expense levels on our operating forecasts and estimates of future revenue. Revenue and operating results are difficult to forecast because they generally depend on the volume and timing of orders placed on our marketplace and their fulfillment, all of which are uncertain. Additionally, our business is affected by

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general economic and business conditions around the world. A softening in revenue, whether caused by changes in consumer preferences or a weakening in local or global economies, may result in decreased revenue levels, and we may be unable to adjust our spending in a timely manner to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in revenue. This inability could cause our loss after tax in a given quarter to be higher than expected. If actual results differ from our estimates, our financial results for the relevant period may be lower than expected.

We make provisions based on management’s risk assessment at the time of finalization of the relevant financial statements. Where risks are estimated as probable, we make provisions in our financial statements. The risk assessment may change from one period to another, and additional risks may emerge. Changes in the risk assessment may lead to the recognition of additional provisions or the reversal of existing provisions, which can have a material impact on our financial results. Further, while the impact of risks that have already been provided for on our financial results is limited, the materialization of such risks may lead to substantial cash outflows, which may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity. As of December 31, 2019, we had current and non-current provisions for liabilities and other charges of €27.3 million, including tax provisions of €25.8 million.

If we do not accurately forecast revenue or appropriately plan our expenses, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our business is subject to seasonal fluctuation which may have a material impact on our results.

Our business is seasonal and, consequently, our revenue tends to fluctuate from quarter to quarter. For example, we consider the fourth quarter as especially important for generating revenue. In addition, certain special events, in particular Black Friday, elections or Jumia Anniversary, result in increased demand for goods on our marketplace. In the future, such seasonality may become even more pronounced if consumers focus more strongly on certain special events.

As a result of this seasonality, any factor that adversely affects demand for goods on our marketplace during periods where we generally experience particularly high demand, including unfavorable economic conditions or the outbreak of an epidemic at the relevant time, logistics and other fulfillment constraints resulting in higher delivery times, malfunctions of our websites, and special offers from our competitors, may have a disproportionate effect on our performance, and we may incur lower revenue and losses due to write-offs on excess inventory. For example, Ramadan has positive effects, such as a higher orders for certain products prior to Ramadan, and negative effects, such as logistics and fulfillment constraints due to a limited workforce during Ramadan.

In addition, any negative effects of weak overall demand during those periods are likely to be exacerbated by industry-wide price reductions designed to clear out excess merchandise. Seasonality also makes it difficult for us to accurately forecast demand for our goods and source sufficient volumes of these goods. If we fail to anticipate high demand for our goods and do not meet such demand, we may lose consumers and revenue and may be unable to grow our business. Our results of operations have fluctuated and are likely to continue to fluctuate due to these and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. In addition, our rapid growth has masked the seasonality that might otherwise be apparent in our results of operations. If our growth slows, we expect that the seasonality in our business may become more pronounced.

Given that our results may vary from quarter to quarter and year to year, our results of operations for one quarter or year cannot necessarily be compared to another quarter or year and may not be indicative of our future financial performance in subsequent quarters or years. Period to period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful, and you should not rely upon them as an indication of future performance.

Required licenses, permits or approvals may be difficult to obtain in the countries in which we currently operate, and once obtained may be amended or revoked arbitrarily or may not be renewed.

Given our diversified offering of goods and services, we require numerous approvals and licenses from national, regional, and local governmental or regulatory authorities in the countries in which we currently operate. For example, we may be required to obtain licenses to be able to continue offering or expand certain of our payment solutions or lending services, and there can be no assurance that we will obtain any such licenses in a timely manner or

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at all. Even if obtained, licenses are subject to review, interpretation, modification or termination by the relevant authorities.

Additionally, in certain jurisdictions in which we currently operate, we do not have the necessary licenses to operate as a direct payment service provider. Instead, we offer our JumiaPay services in certain markets (for example, Nigeria, Egypt, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Morocco and Kenya) through agreements we have with existing licensed banks or payment service providers. If any of these partners were to lose their license, it might prohibit them from continuing to offer services and could inhibit our operations as well. Any unfavorable interpretation or modification or any termination of a required license may significantly harm our operations in the relevant country or may require us to close down parts or all of our operations in the relevant country. We may seek to acquire payment service provider or other licenses related to our JumiaPay services, including by acquiring licensed entities, and any license we may acquire will be subject to review, interpretation, modification or termination by the relevant authorities and will subject our business to oversight and compliance obligations that we may not be able address in a timely manner.

We can offer no assurance that the relevant authorities will not take any action that could materially and adversely affect these licenses, permits or approvals or our ability to sell goods and provide our services, such as actions to increase license, permit or approval fees or reduce the scope of permitted services. We may experience difficulties in obtaining or maintaining some of these licenses, approvals and permits, which may require us to undertake significant efforts and incur additional expenses. If we operate without a license, which we have done in the past, we could be subject to fines, criminal prosecution or other legal action. Any difficulties in obtaining or maintaining licenses, approvals or permits or the amendment or revocation thereof could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Legal, Regulatory and Tax Risks

Our global operations involve additional risks, and we are subject to or may otherwise face exposure under numerous, complex and sometimes conflicting legal and regulatory regimes.

Our business is subject to numerous laws in different countries, including laws applicable to the e-commerce sector such as laws with respect to privacy, data protection and data security, online content and telecommunications and laws applicable to public companies in general, in particular laws with respect to intellectual property protection, local employment, tax, finance, money laundering, online payment, consumer protection, product liability and the labeling of our goods, competition, anti-corruption and international sanctions. Operating in foreign countries entails an inherent risk of misinterpreting and incorrectly implementing local laws and regulations. In addition, numerous laws and regulations apply to goods on our marketplace. Since we do not manufacture these goods ourselves, our ability to ensure that such goods comply with all applicable regulations is limited. A change in laws and regulations relating to consumer products, products liability or consumer protection in any of the markets in which we operate could require additional investments in order to develop better quality control measures for our platform, increase product safety, or defend against potential products liability litigation.

We cannot guarantee that we have always been in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations in the past, nor that we will be able to fully comply with them in the future. Additionally, we strive to obtain and retain all necessary business licenses, permissions and clearances in each of the countries in which we operate. However, we cannot guarantee that relevant regulators will agree with our position regarding the adequacy of our existing regulatory licenses and permissions or our legal analyses concerning the requirement to obtain clearances, including anti-trust clearances. We take a dynamic approach with respect to compliance with applicable laws and regulations, relying on senior management in each jurisdiction where we operate to identify and interpret on an ongoing basis the laws and regulations that apply to our business activities. Uncertainties in the legal and regulatory framework may, from time to time, affect our judgment or the legal assessment and opinion of outside legal counsel and lead to incorrect risk-based judgments regarding the relevance of certain legal requirements. For example, past uncertainty regarding proper building licenses in Egypt resulted in us incorrectly obtaining warehouse licenses that permitted manufacturing activities but not storage activities. Additionally, at times we have failed to delist in a timely manner noncompliant products and sellers due to uncertainty regarding the legality or regulatory compliance of certain products. The violation of any of the laws or regulations applicable to us — including laws and regulations relating to consumer products, product liability or

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consumer protection — may result in litigation, criminal prosecution, damage claims from consumers, business partners and/or competitors or extensive investigations by governmental authorities and substantial fines being imposed on us. Even unfounded allegations of non-compliance may adversely affect our reputation and business.

Any changes in the legal framework applicable to our business could adversely affect our operations and profitability. If we continue to expand our business, we will become subject to new legal frameworks that are even more complex. In the future, we may further expand our geographic footprint, including by entering into adjacent geographic markets. The laws and regulations of various countries in which we currently operate or may operate in the future are evolving. Consequently, such laws and regulations may change and sometimes may conflict with each other, making it more difficult to observe them.

At any time, authorities in the countries where we currently operate may require us to obtain additional, or extend existing, licenses, permits or approvals. However, there is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain these in a timely and cost effective manner. Authorities may revoke existing licenses, and we may not be able to appeal any such revocations in a timely and/or effective manner, or at all.

The materialization of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are subject to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to privacy, data protection and information security. If we are unable to comply with these, we may be subject to governmental enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity.

We collect personally identifiable information and other data from our consumers and prospective consumers. We use this information to provide services and relevant products to our consumers, to support, expand and improve our business, and to tailor our marketing and advertising efforts. We may also share consumers’ personal data with certain third parties as authorized by the consumer or as described in our privacy policy. As a result, we are subject to governmental regulation and other legal obligations related to the protection of personal data, privacy and information security in certain countries where we do business, and there has been, and we expect there will continue to be, a significant increase globally in laws that restrict or control the use of personal data.

For example, in Europe, the data privacy and information security regime recently underwent a significant change, continues to evolve, and is subject to increasing regulatory scrutiny. The new General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which came into force on May 25, 2018, implemented more stringent operational requirements for the use of personal data. These more stringent requirements include expanded disclosures to inform consumers about the use of personal data, increased controls on profiling consumers and increased rights for consumers to access, control and delete their personal data. In addition, there are mandatory data breach notification requirements and significantly increased penalties of the greater of €20 million or 4% of global turnover for the preceding financial year.