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Section 1: 10-K (FORM 10-K)

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

☑ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017

☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number 0-24751

SALISBURY BANCORP, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Connecticut  06-1514263
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
   
5 Bissell Street, Lakeville, CT  06039
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)
   
Registrant's telephone number, including area code:      (860) 435-9801
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:  
Common Stock, par value $.10 per share  NASDAQ Capital Market
(Title of each class) (Name of each exchange on which registered)
   
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:     None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.☐ Yes ☑ No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ☐ Yes ☑ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☑ Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). ☑ Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendments to this Form 10-K. ☑ Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ☐    Accelerated filer ☑    Non-accelerated filer ☐    Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging Growth Company ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 12b-2). Yes ☐ No ☑

The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2017 was $98.4 million based on the closing sales price of $41.05 of such stock. The number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of March 1, 2018, was 2,786,566.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for the 2018 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 16, 2018, which will be filed within 120 days of fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, are incorporated by reference into Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14) of this Form 10-K.

 
 

FORM 10-K

SALISBURY BANCORP, INC.

For the Year Ended December 31, 2017

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Description Page
PART I    
Item 1. BUSINESS 3
Item 1A.. RISK FACTORS 15
Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS 19
Item 2. PROPERTIES 19
Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS 20
Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES 20
     
PART II    
Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER  PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES 20
Item 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA 21
Item 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 22
Item 7A.. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK 39
Item 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA 41
Item 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE 84
Item 9A.. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 84
Item 9B. OTHER INFORMATION 84
     
PART III    
Item 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 84
Item 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION 85
Item 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS 85
Item 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE 85
Item 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES  85
     
PART IV    
Item 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES 85
Item 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY 86
 
 

PART I

Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K may contain and incorporates by reference statements relating to future results of Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. (the “Company”) and its Subsidiary, Salisbury Bank and Trust Company (the “Bank”) (collectively, "Salisbury"), that are considered “forward-looking” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as “believes,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “intends,” “targeted,” “continue,” “remain,” “will,” “should,” “may,” “plans,” “estimates,” and similar references to future periods; however, such words are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. These statements relate to, among other things, expectations concerning loan demand, growth and performance, simulated changes in interest rates and the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses.  Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied as a result of certain risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, changes in political and economic conditions, interest rate fluctuations, competitive product and pricing pressures within Salisbury’s markets, equity and fixed income market fluctuations, personal and corporate customers’ bankruptcies, inflation, acquisitions and integrations of acquired businesses, technological changes and cybersecurity matters, changes in law and regulations, changes in fiscal, monetary, regulatory and tax policies, monetary fluctuations, success in gaining  regulatory approvals when required as well as other risks and uncertainties reported from time to time in Salisbury’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. See also, the “Risk Factors” set forth below.

Forward-looking statements made by Salisbury in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak only as of the date they are made. Events or other facts that could cause Salisbury’s actual results to differ may arise from time to time, and Salisbury cannot predict all such events and factors. Salisbury undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, except as may be required by law.

Item 1.BUSINESS

Salisbury Bancorp, Inc.

Salisbury Bancorp, Inc., a Connecticut corporation, formed in 1998, is the bank holding company for Salisbury Bank and Trust Company (the "Bank"), a Connecticut-chartered and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC") insured commercial bank headquartered in Lakeville, Connecticut. Salisbury’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “SAL.” Salisbury's principal business consists of its operation and control of the business of the Bank.

The Bank, formed in 1848, currently provides commercial banking, consumer financing, retail banking and trust and wealth advisory services through a network of fourteen banking offices and ten ATMs located in: Litchfield County, Connecticut; Dutchess, Orange and Ulster Counties, New York; and Berkshire County, Massachusetts and through its internet website (salisburybank.com).

Abbreviations Used Herein

Bank Salisbury Bank and Trust Company  FRA Federal Reserve Act
BHC Bank Holding Company  FRB Federal Reserve Board
BHCA Bank Holding Company Act  GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America
BOLI Bank Owned Life Insurance  GLBA Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
CFPB Consumer Financial Protection Bureau  LIBOR London Interbank Offered Rate
CPP Capital Purchase Program  OREO Other Real Estate Owned
CRA Community Reinvestment Act of 1977  OTTI Other Than Temporarily Impaired
CTDOB State of Connecticut Department of Banking  PIC Passive Investment Company

Dodd-

Frank Act

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act  Salisbury Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary
ESOP Employee Stock Ownership Plan  SBLF Small Business Lending Fund
FACT Act Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act  SEC Securities and Exchange Commission
FASB Financial Accounting Standards Board  SOX Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation  TARP Troubled Asset Relief Program
FHLBB Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston  Treasury United States Department of the Treasury

Lending Activities

The Bank originates commercial loans, commercial real estate loans, residential and commercial construction loans, residential real estate loans collateralized by one-to-four family residences, home equity lines of credit and fixed rate loans and other consumer loans predominately in Connecticut’s Litchfield County, New York’s Dutchess, Orange and Ulster Counties and Massachusetts’ Berkshire County in towns proximate to the Bank’s fourteen full service offices.

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The majority of the Bank’s loans as of December 31, 2017, including some loans classified as commercial loans, were secured by real estate. Interest rates charged on loans are affected principally by the Bank’s current asset/liability strategy, the demand for such loans, the cost and supply of money available for lending purposes and the rates offered by competitors. These factors are, in turn, affected by general economic and credit conditions, monetary policies of the federal government, including the FRB, federal and state tax policies and budgetary matters. Loan portfolios acquired in business combinations include commercial loans acquired from Riverside Bank, Empire Bank and Orange Bank & Trust Company. 

Residential Real Estate Loans

A principal lending activity of the Bank is to originate loans secured by first mortgages on one-to-four family residences. The Bank typically originates residential real estate loans through employees who are commissioned licensed mortgage originators (in accordance with the mortgage lending compensation guidelines issued by the CFPB). The Bank originates both fixed rate and adjustable rate mortgages.

The Bank currently sells the majority of the fixed rate 30 year residential mortgage loans it originates to the FHLBB under the Mortgage Partnership Finance Program. The Bank typically retains loan servicing. The Bank retains some fixed rate residential mortgage loans and those loans originated under its first time home owner program.

The retention of adjustable rate residential mortgage loans in the portfolio and the sale of longer term, fixed rate residential mortgage loans helps reduce the Bank’s exposure to interest rate risk. However, adjustable rate mortgages generally pose credit risks different from the credit risks inherent in fixed rate loans primarily because as interest rates rise, the underlying debt service payments of the borrowers rise, thereby increasing the potential for default. Management believes that these risks, which have not had a material adverse effect on the Bank to date, generally are less onerous than the interest rate risks associated with holding long-term fixed rate loans in the loan portfolio.

Commercial Real Estate Loans

The Bank makes commercial real estate loans for the purpose of allowing borrowers to acquire, develop, construct, improve or refinance commercial real estate where the property is the primary collateral securing the loan, and the income generated from the property is the primary repayment source. Office buildings, light industrial, retail facilities or multi-family income properties, normally collateralize commercial real estate loans. Among the reasons for management’s continued emphasis on commercial real estate lending is the desire to invest in assets with yields which are generally higher than yields on one-to-four family residential mortgage loans, and are more sensitive to changes in interest rates. These loans typically have terms/amortizations of up to ten and twenty five years, respectively, and interest rates, which adjust over periods of three to ten years, based on one of various rate indices.

Commercial real estate lending generally poses a greater credit risk than residential mortgage lending to owner-occupants. The repayment of commercial real estate loans depends on the business and financial condition of the borrower. Economic events and changes in government regulations, which the Bank and its borrowers do not control, could have an adverse impact on the cash flows generated by properties securing commercial real estate loans and on the market value of such properties.

Construction Loans

The Bank originates both residential and commercial construction loans. Typically, loans are made to owner-borrowers who will occupy the properties as either their primary or secondary residence and to licensed and experienced developers for the construction of single-family homes or commercial properties.

The proceeds of commercial construction loans are disbursed in stages. Bank officers, appraisers and/or independent engineers inspect each project’s progress before additional funds are disbursed to verify that borrowers have completed project phases.

Residential construction loans to owner-borrowers generally convert to a fully amortizing long-term mortgage loan upon completion of construction. The typical construction phase is generally twelve months.

Construction lending, particularly commercial construction lending, poses greater credit risk than mortgage lending to owner-occupants. The repayment of commercial construction loans depends on the business, the financial condition of the borrower, and on the economic viability of the project financed. Economic events and changes in government regulations, which the Bank and its borrowers do not control, could have an adverse impact on the value of properties securing construction loans and on the borrower’s ability to complete projects financed and sell them for amounts anticipated at the time the projects commenced.

Commercial Loans

Commercial loans are generally made on a secured basis and are primarily collateralized by equipment, inventory, accounts receivable and/or leases. Commercial loans primarily provide working capital, equipment financing, financing for leasehold improvements and financing for expansion. The Bank offers both term and revolving commercial loans. Term loans have either fixed or adjustable rates of interest and, generally, terms of between two and seven years. Term loans generally amortize during their life, although some loans require a balloon payment at maturity if the amortization exceeds seven years. Revolving commercial lines of credit typically are renewable annually and have a floating rate of interest normally indexed to the prime rate as published in the Wall Street Journal.

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Commercial lending generally poses a higher degree of credit risk than real estate lending. Repayment of both secured and unsecured commercial loans depends substantially on the success of the borrower’s underlying business, financial condition and cash flows. Unsecured loans generally involve a higher degree of risk of loss than do secured loans because, without collateral, repayment is primarily dependent upon the success of the borrower’s business.

Secured commercial loans are generally collateralized by equipment, inventory, accounts receivable and leases. Compared to real estate, such collateral is more difficult to monitor, its value is more difficult to validate, it may depreciate more rapidly and it may not be as readily saleable if repossessed.

Consumer Loans

The Bank originates various types of consumer loans, including home equity loans and lines of credit, auto and personal installment loans. Home equity loans and lines of credit are generally secured by second mortgages placed on one-to-four family owner-occupied properties. Home equity loans have fixed interest rates, while home equity lines of credit adjust based on the prime rate as published in the Wall Street Journal. Consumer loans are originated through the branch network with the exception of Home Equity Lines of Credit, which are originated by licensed Mortgage Lending Originator staff.

Credit Risk Management and Asset Quality

One of the Bank’s key objectives is to maintain a high level of asset quality. The Bank utilizes the following general practices to manage credit risk: ensuring compliance with prudent written policies; limiting the amount of credit that individual lenders may extend; establishing a process for credit approval accountability; careful initial underwriting and analysis of borrower, transaction, market and collateral risks; ongoing servicing of individual loans and lending relationships; continuous monitoring and risk rating of the portfolio, market dynamics and the economy; and periodically reevaluating the Bank’s strategy and overall exposure as economic, market and other relevant conditions change.

Credit Administration is responsible for determining loan loss reserve adequacy and preparing monthly and quarterly reports regarding the credit quality of the loan portfolio, which are submitted to the Loan Committee to ensure compliance with the credit policy, and managing non-performing and classified assets as well as oversight of all collection activity.

The Bank’s loan review activities are performed by an independent third party loan review firm that evaluates the creditworthiness of borrowers and the appropriateness of the Bank’s risk rating classifications. The firm’s findings are reported to Credit Administration, Senior Management, and the Board level Loan and Audit Committees.

Trust and Wealth Advisory Services

The Bank provides a range of fiduciary services including trust and estate administration, wealth advisory, and investment management to individuals, families, businesses and institutions.

Securities

Salisbury’s securities portfolio is structured to diversify the earnings, assets and risk structure of Salisbury, provide liquidity consistent with both projected and potential needs, collateralize certain types of deposits, assist with maintaining a satisfactory net interest margin and comply with regulatory capital and liquidity requirements. Types of securities in the portfolio generally include U.S. Government and Agency securities, mortgage-backed securities, collateralized mortgage obligations and tax exempt municipal bonds, among others.

Sources of Funds

The Bank uses deposits, proceeds from loan and security maturities, repayments and sales, and borrowings to fund lending, investing and general operations. Deposits represent the Bank’s primary source of funds.

Deposits

The Bank offers a variety of deposit accounts with a range of interest rates and other terms, which are designed to meet customer financial needs. Retail and commercial deposits are primarily received through the Bank’s banking offices. Additional depositor related services provided to customers include Landlord/Tenant Lease Security Accounts and Services, Merchant Services, Payroll Services, Cash Management (Remote Deposit Capture, ACH Origination, Wire Transfers and Positive Pay), ATM, Bank-by-Phone, Internet Banking, Internet Bill Pay, Person to Person Payments, Bank to Bank Transfers, Mobile Banking with remote deposit, and Online Financial Management with Account Aggregation Services.

The FDIC provides separate insurance coverage of $250,000 per depositor for each account ownership category. Deposit flows are significantly influenced by economic conditions, the general level of interest rates and the relative attractiveness of competing deposit and investment alternatives. When determining deposit pricing, the Bank considers strategic objectives, competitive market rates, deposit flows, funding commitments and investment alternatives, FHLBB advance rates and rates on other sources of funds.

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National, regional and local economic and credit conditions, changes in competitor money market, savings and time deposit rates, prevailing market interest rates and competing investment alternatives all have a significant impact on the level of the Bank’s deposits. Deposit generation is a key focus for the Bank as a source of liquidity and to fund continuing asset growth. Competition for deposits has been, and is expected to, remain strong.

Borrowings

The Bank is a member of the FHLBB, which provides credit facilities for regulated, federally insured depository institutions and certain other home financing institutions. Members of the FHLBB are required to own capital stock in the FHLBB and are authorized to apply for advances on the security of their FHLBB stock and certain home mortgages and other assets (principally securities, which are obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States Government or its agencies) provided certain creditworthiness standards have been met. Under its current credit policies, the FHLBB limits advances based on a member’s assets, total borrowings and net worth. Long-term and short-term FHLBB advances may be utilized as a source of funding to meet liquidity and planning needs when the cost of these funds is favorable as compared to deposits or alternate funding sources. During 2015, Salisbury issued $10 million of subordinated debentures; See “Deposits and Borrowings” in Item 7.

Additional funding sources are available through securities sold under agreements to repurchase and the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.

Acquisitions

On June 6, 2014, the Bank completed its purchase and assumption of the Sharon, Connecticut branch of Union Savings Bank, which included deposits of approximately $18 million at a premium of 2.32%. Operations of the Bank’s existing Sharon, Connecticut branch were consolidated into this new location. On December 5, 2014, the Bank completed its acquisition of Riverside Bank of Poughkeepsie, New York, adding four new offices and a strong commercial loan focus to Salisbury’s New York market presence. Such transaction was valued at approximately $27 million. In the merger, Riverside Bank shareholders received 1.35 shares of Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. common stock for each share of Riverside Bank common stock. In June 2017, the Bank completed its purchase and assumption of the New Paltz, New York branch of Empire State Bank, which included approximately $31 million in deposits and $7 million in branch related loans. In addition, in December 2017, the Bank entered into a purchase and assumption agreement with Orange Bank & Trust Company, pursuant to which the Bank will acquire the Fishkill, New York branch of Orange Bank & Trust Company and certain related deposits, loans and other assets. The Bank has received regulatory approval from the CTDOB and NYDFS and is awaiting approval from the FDIC for the transaction, which is expected to be completed during the second quarter of 2018.

Subsidiaries

Salisbury has one wholly-owned subsidiary, Salisbury Bank and Trust Company. The Bank has two wholly-owned subsidiaries, SBT Mortgage Service Corporation and S.B.T. Realty, Inc. SBT Mortgage Service Corporation is a passive investment company ("PIC") that holds loans collateralized by real estate originated or purchased by the Bank. Income of the PIC and its dividends to Salisbury are exempt from the Connecticut Corporate Business Tax. S.B.T. Realty, Inc. was formed to hold New York state real estate and is presently inactive.

Employees

At December 31, 2017, the Bank had 166 full-time employees and 28 part-time employees. The employees are not represented by a collective bargaining group. The Bank maintains a comprehensive employee benefit program providing, among other benefits, group medical and dental insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, an ESOP and an employee 401(k) plan. Management considers relations with its employees to be good.

Market Area

Salisbury and the Bank are headquartered in Lakeville, Connecticut, which is located in the northwestern quadrant of Connecticut’s Litchfield County. The Bank has a total of fourteen banking offices, four of which are located in Connecticut's Litchfield County; three of which are located in Massachusetts’ Berkshire County; five of which are located in New York’s Dutchess County, one of which is located in New York’s Ulster County, and one of which is located in New York’s Orange County. The Bank’s primary deposit gathering and lending area consists of the communities and surrounding towns that are served by its branch network in these counties. The Bank also has deposit, lending and trust relationships outside of these areas.

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Competition

The Bank faces strong competition in attracting and retaining deposits and in making loans. The primary factors in competing for deposits are interest rates, personalized services, the quality and range of financial services, convenience of office locations, automated services and office hours. Its most direct competition for deposits and loans has come from other commercial banks, savings institutions and credit unions located in its market area. Competition for deposits also comes from mutual funds and other investment alternatives, which offer a range of deposit and deposit-like products. Although the Bank expects this continuing competition to have an effect upon the cost of funds, it does not anticipate any substantial adverse effect on maintaining the current deposit base. The Bank is competitive within its market area in the various deposit products it offers to depositors. Due to this fact, management believes the Bank has the ability to maintain its deposit base.

The Bank's competition for real estate loans comes primarily from mortgage banking companies, savings banks, commercial banks, insurance companies, and other institutional lenders. The primary factors in competing for loans are interest rates, loan origination fees, the quality and range of lending services and personalized service. Factors that affect competition include, among others, the general availability of funds and credit, general and local economic conditions, current interest rate levels and volatility in the mortgage markets.

The banking industry is also experiencing rapid changes in technology. In addition to improving customer services, effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. Technological advances are likely to increase competition by enabling more companies to provide cost effective products and services.

Regulation and Supervision

General

Salisbury is required to file reports and otherwise comply with the rules and regulations of the FRB, the FDIC, the SEC and NASDAQ as well as the state banking supervisory authorities in Connecticut, New York and Massachusetts.

The Bank is subject to extensive regulation by the CTDOB, as its chartering agency, and by the FDIC, as its primary federal supervisory agency. The Bank is required to file reports with, and is periodically examined by, the FDIC and the CTDOB concerning its activities and financial condition. It must obtain regulatory approvals prior to entering into certain transactions, such as mergers.

The following discussion of the laws, regulations and policies material to the operations of Salisbury and the Bank is a summary and is qualified in its entirety by reference to such laws, regulations and policies. Such statutes, regulations and policies are continually under review by Congress and the Connecticut, New York and Massachusetts State Legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies. Any change in such laws, regulations, or policies could have a material adverse impact on Salisbury or the Bank.

Bank Holding Company Regulation

SEC and NASDAQ

Salisbury is subject to the rules and regulations of the SEC and is required to comply with the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as administered by the SEC. Salisbury’s common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the trading symbol “SAL” and, accordingly, Salisbury is also subject to the rules of NASDAQ for listed companies.

Federal Reserve Board Regulation

Salisbury is a registered bank holding company under the BHCA and is subject to comprehensive regulation and regular examinations by the FRB. The FRB also has extensive enforcement authority over bank holding companies, including, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, to issue cease and desist or removal orders and to require that a holding company divest subsidiaries (including its bank subsidiaries). In general, enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of law and regulations and unsafe or unsound practices.

Under FRB policy, a bank holding company must serve as a source of financial and managerial strength for its subsidiary bank. Under this policy, Salisbury is expected to commit resources to support the Bank. The FRB may require a holding company to contribute additional capital to an undercapitalized subsidiary bank.

Bank holding companies must obtain FRB approval before: (i) acquiring, directly or indirectly, ownership or control of another bank or bank holding company; (ii) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of another bank or bank holding company; or (iii) merging or consolidating with another bank holding company.

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The BHCA also prohibits a bank holding company, with certain exceptions, from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of any company, which is not a bank or bank holding company, or from engaging directly or indirectly in activities other than those of banking, managing or controlling banks, or providing services for its subsidiaries. The principal exceptions to these prohibitions involve certain non-bank activities, which, by statute or by FRB regulation or order, have been identified as activities closely related to the business of banking or managing or controlling banks. The list of activities permitted by the FRB includes, among other things: (i) operating a savings institution, mortgage company, finance company, credit card company or factoring company; (ii) performing certain data processing operations; (iii) providing certain investment and financial advice; (iv) underwriting and acting as an insurance agent for certain types of credit-related insurance; (v) leasing property on a full-payout, non-operating basis; (vi) selling money orders; (vii) real estate and personal property appraising; (viii) providing tax planning and preparation services; (ix) financing and investing in certain community development activities; and (x) subject to certain limitations, providing securities brokerage services for customers.

Connecticut Bank Holding Company Regulation

Salisbury is a Connecticut corporation and is also subject to the Connecticut Business Corporation Act and Connecticut banking law applicable to Connecticut bank holding companies. Under Connecticut banking law, no person may acquire beneficial ownership of more than 10% of any class of voting securities of a Connecticut-chartered bank, or any bank holding company of such a bank, without prior notification to, and lack of disapproval by, the CTDOB. The CTDOB will disapprove the acquisition if the bank or holding company to be acquired has been in existence for less than five years, unless the CTDOB waives this five-year restriction, or if the acquisition would result in the acquirer controlling 30% or more of the total amount of deposits in insured depository institutions in Connecticut. Similar restrictions apply to any person who holds in excess of 10% of any such class and desires to increase its holdings to 25% or more of such class.

Dividends

Salisbury’s dividends to shareholders are substantially dependent upon Salisbury’s receipt of dividends from the Bank. The FRB has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the FRB’s view that a bank holding company should be a “source of strength” to its bank subsidiary and should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the holding company’s net income for the past year is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the holding company’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The FRB also indicated its view that, generally, it would be inappropriate for a company experiencing serious financial problems to borrow funds to pay dividends. Furthermore, the FRB may prohibit a bank holding company from paying any dividends if the holding company’s bank subsidiary is classified as “undercapitalized” or if the dividend would violate applicable law or would be an unsafe or unsound banking practice.

Financial Modernization

GLBA permits greater affiliation among banks, securities firms, insurance companies, and other companies under a type of financial services company known as a “financial holding company.” A financial holding company essentially is a bank holding company with expanded powers. Financial holding companies are authorized by statute to engage in a number of financial activities previously impermissible for bank holding companies, including securities underwriting, dealing and market making; sponsoring mutual funds and investment companies; insurance underwriting and agency; and merchant banking activities. The act also permits the FRB and the Treasury to authorize additional activities for financial holding companies if they are “financial in nature” or “incidental” to financial activities. A bank holding company may become a financial holding company if each of its subsidiary banks is “well capitalized” and “well managed” as defined in the FRB’s Regulation Y, and has at least a “satisfactory” Community Reinvestment Act rating. A financial holding company must provide notice to the FRB within 30 days after commencing activities previously determined to be permissible by statute or by the FRB and the Treasury. Salisbury is a registered financial holding company.

All financial institutions are required to establish policies and procedures with respect to the ability of the Bank to share nonpublic customer data with nonaffiliated parties and to protect customer data from unauthorized access. The Bank has developed policies and procedures, and believes it is in compliance with all privacy, information sharing, and notification provisions of GLBA and the FACT Act.

State Banking Laws and Supervision

The Bank is a state-chartered commercial bank under Connecticut law and as such is subject to regulation and examination by the CTDOB. In addition, because the Bank operates branch offices in Massachusetts and New York, the Bank is also subject to certain Massachusetts and New York laws and the supervisory authority of the Massachusetts Division of Banks, and New York Department of Financial Services (“NYDFS”) with respect to its branch offices in Massachusetts and New York, respectively. The approval of the state banking regulators is generally required for, among other things, the establishment of branch offices and business combination transactions. The CTDOB conducts periodic examinations of Connecticut-chartered banks. The FDIC also regulates many of the areas regulated by the CTDOB, and federal law may limit some of the authority provided to Connecticut-chartered banks by Connecticut law.

Lending Activities

Connecticut banking laws grant commercial banks broad lending authority. With certain limited exceptions, total secured and unsecured loans made to any one obligor generally may not exceed 15% of the Bank’s equity capital and reserves for loan and lease losses. However, if the loan is fully secured, such limitations generally may be increased by an additional 10%.

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Dividends

The Bank may pay cash dividends only out of its net profits. For purposes of this restriction, “net profits” represents the remainder of all earnings from current operations. Further, the total amount of all dividends declared by the Bank in any year may not exceed the sum of its net profits for the year in question combined with its retained net profits from the preceding two years, unless the CTDOB approves the larger dividend. Federal law also prevents the Bank from paying dividends or making other capital distributions that would cause it to become “undercapitalized.” The FDIC may also limit a bank’s ability to pay dividends based upon safety and soundness considerations.

Powers

Connecticut law permits Connecticut banks to sell insurance and fixed and variable-rate annuities if licensed to do so by the Connecticut Insurance Department. With the prior approval of the CTDOB, Connecticut banks are also authorized to engage in a broad range of activities related to the business of banking, or that are financial in nature or that are permitted under the BHCA, other federal statutes, or the regulations promulgated pursuant to these statutes. Connecticut banks generally are also authorized to engage in any activity permitted for a federal bank or upon filing prior written notice of its intention to engage in such activity with the CTDOB, unless the CTDOB disapproves the activity.

Assessments

Connecticut banks are required to pay assessments to the CTDOB based upon a bank’s asset size to fund the CTDOB’s operations. The assessments are generally made annually.

Enforcement Authority

Under Connecticut law, the CTDOB has extensive enforcement authority over Connecticut banks and, under certain circumstances, affiliated parties, insiders, and agents. The CTDOB’s enforcement authority includes cease and desist orders, fines, receivership, conservatorship, removal of officers and directors, emergency closures, dissolution and liquidation.

New York and Massachusetts Banking Laws and Supervision

The Bank conducts activities and operates branch offices in New York and Massachusetts as well as Connecticut. Generally, with respect to its business in New York and Massachusetts, the Bank may conduct any activity that is authorized under Connecticut law that is permissible for either New York or Massachusetts state banks or for an out-of-state national bank, at its New York and Massachusetts branch offices, respectively. The New York State Superintendent of Financial Services may exercise regulatory authority with respect to the Bank’s New York branch offices. The Bank is subject to certain rules related to community reinvestment, consumer protection, fair lending, establishment of intra-state branches and the conduct of banking activities with respect to its branches located in New York State. The Massachusetts Commissioner of Banks may exercise similar authority, and the Bank is subject to similar rules under Massachusetts Banking Law with respect to the Bank’s Massachusetts branch offices. Federal and state laws authorize the interstate merger of banks. Among other things, banks may establish new branches on an interstate basis provided that such action is specifically authorized by the law of the host state.

Federal Regulations

Capital Requirements

Under FDIC regulations, federally insured state-chartered banks, such as the Bank, that are not members of the Federal Reserve System (“state non-member banks”) are required to comply with the following minimum leverage capital requirements: common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital to risk-based assets ratio of 6.0%, a total capital to risk-based assets of 8.0%, and a 4.0% Tier 1 capital to total assets leverage ratio. The existing capital requirements became effective January 1, 2015 and are the result of a final rule implementing regulatory amendments based on recommendations of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act. Common equity Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common stockholders’ equity and retained earnings. Tier 1 capital is generally defined as common equity Tier 1 and additional Tier 1 capital. Additional Tier 1 capital includes certain noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus and minority interests in equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries. Total capital includes Tier 1 capital (common equity Tier 1 capital plus additional Tier 1 capital) and Tier 2 capital. Tier 2 capital is comprised of capital instruments and related surplus, meeting specified requirements, and may include cumulative preferred stock and long-term perpetual preferred stock, mandatory convertible securities, intermediate preferred stock and subordinated debt. Also included in Tier 2 capital is the allowance for loan and lease losses limited to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets and, for institutions that have exercised an opt-out election regarding the treatment of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”), up to 45% of net unrealized gains on available-for-sale equity securities with readily determinable fair market values. The Bank chose the opt-out election. Institutions that have not exercised the AOCI opt-out have AOCI incorporated into common equity Tier 1 capital (including unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities). Calculation of all types of regulatory capital is subject to deductions and adjustments specified in the regulations.

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The FDIC regulations require state non-member banks to maintain certain levels of regulatory capital in relation to regulatory risk-weighted assets. The ratio of regulatory capital to regulatory risk-weighted assets is referred to as a bank’s “risk-based capital ratio.” Risk-based capital ratios are determined by allocating assets and specified off-balance sheet items (including recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes and residual interests) to risk-weighted categories ranging from 0% to 1,250%, with higher levels of capital being required for the categories perceived as representing greater risk.

In addition to establishing the minimum regulatory capital requirements, the regulations limit capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments to management if the institution does not hold a “capital conservation buffer” consisting of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets above the amount necessary to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements. The capital conservation buffer requirement began phasing in January 1, 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and will increase each year until fully implemented at 2.5% on January 1, 2019.

In assessing an institution’s capital adequacy, the FDIC takes into consideration not only these numeric factors, but qualitative factors as well, and has the authority to establish higher capital requirements for individual institutions where deemed necessary. As a bank holding company, the Company is also subject to regulatory capital requirements, as described in a subsequent section.

As a bank holding company, Salisbury is subject to FRB capital adequacy guidelines for bank holding companies similar to those of the FDIC for state-chartered banks.

As of December 31, 2017, the Company and the Bank met each of their capital requirements and the most recent notification from the FDIC categorized the Bank as “well-capitalized.” There are no conditions or events since that notification that management believes have changed the Bank’s category.

Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action

Federal law requires, among other things, that federal bank regulatory authorities take “prompt corrective action” with respect to banks that do not meet minimum capital requirements. For these purposes, the law establishes five capital categories:

Well capitalized – at least 5% leverage capital, 6.5% Common Equity Tier 1 capital, 8% Tier 1 risk based capital and 10% total risk based capital.
Adequately capitalized – at least 4% leverage capital, 4.5% Common Equity Tier 1 capital, 6% Tier 1 risk based capital and 8% total risk based capital.
Undercapitalized – less than 4% leverage capital, 4.5% Common Equity Tier 1 capital, 6% Tier 1 risk based capital and 8% total risk based capital. “Undercapitalized” banks must adhere to growth, capital distribution (including dividend) and other limitations and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. A bank’s compliance with such a plan is required to be guaranteed by any company that controls the undercapitalized institution in an amount equal to the lesser of 5% of the institution’s total assets when deemed undercapitalized or the amount necessary to achieve the status of adequately capitalized.
Significantly undercapitalized – less than 3% leverage capital, 3% Common Equity Tier 1 capital, 4% Tier 1 risk based capital and 6% total risk based capital. “Significantly undercapitalized” banks must comply with one or more of a number of additional restrictions, including but not limited to an order by the FDIC to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets, cease receipt of deposits from correspondent banks or dismiss directors or officers, and restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, compensation of executive officers and capital distributions by the parent holding company.
Critically undercapitalized – less than 2% tangible capital. “Critically undercapitalized” institutions are subject to additional measures including, subject to a narrow exception, the appointment of a receiver or conservator within 270 days after it obtains such status.

 

Transactions with Affiliates

Under federal law, transactions between depository institutions and their affiliates are governed by Sections 23A and 23B of the FRA. In a holding company structure, at a minimum, the parent holding company of a bank, and any companies that are controlled by such parent holding company, are deemed affiliates of its subsidiary bank. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B are intended to protect insured depository institutions from suffering losses arising from transactions with non-insured affiliates by limiting the extent to which a bank or its subsidiaries may engage in covered transactions with any one affiliate and with all affiliates of the bank in the aggregate, and by requiring that such transactions be on terms that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices.

The FRA and Regulation O impose restrictions on loans to directors, executive officers, and principal shareholders (“insiders”). Loans to insiders and their related interests may not exceed, together with all other outstanding loans to such persons and affiliated entities, the institution’s total capital and surplus. Loans to insiders above specified amounts must receive the prior approval of the board of directors and must be made on terms substantially the same as offered in comparable transactions to other persons. The FRA imposes additional limitations on loans to executive officers.

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Enforcement

The FDIC has extensive enforcement authority over insured banks, including the Bank. This enforcement authority includes, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, issue cease and desist orders and remove directors and officers. In general, these enforcement actions may be initiated in response to violations of laws and regulations and unsafe or unsound practices.

Standards for Safety and Soundness

The FDIC, together with the other federal bank regulatory agencies, prescribe standards of safety and soundness by regulations or guidelines, relating generally to operations and management, asset growth, asset quality, earnings, stock valuation and compensation. The federal bank regulatory agencies have adopted a set of guidelines prescribing safety and soundness standards, which establish general standards relating to internal controls and information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, and compensation, fees and benefits. In general, the guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risks and exposures specified in the guidelines. The guidelines prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice and describe compensation as excessive when the amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services performed by an executive officer, employee, director or principal shareholder. In addition, the federal bank regulatory agencies adopted regulations that authorize, but do not require, the agencies to order an institution that has been given notice that it is not satisfying the safety and soundness guidelines to submit a compliance plan. The federal bank regulatory agencies have also adopted guidelines for asset quality and earning standards. As a state-chartered bank, the Bank is also subject to state statutes, regulations and guidelines relating to safety and soundness, in addition to the federal requirements.

Insurance of Deposit Accounts

The Bank’s deposit accounts are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) of the FDIC up to applicable legal limits (generally, $250,000 per depositor for each account ownership category and $250,000 for certain retirement plan accounts) and are subject to deposit insurance assessments. The FDIC insurance coverage limit applies per depositor, per insured depository institution for each account ownership category.

The FDIC utilizes a risk-based assessment system that imposes insurance premiums based upon a risk matrix that takes into account a bank’s capital level and supervisory rating. The FDIC assigns an institution to one of the following capital categories based on the institution’s financial condition consisting of (1) well capitalized, (2) adequately capitalized or (3) undercapitalized, and one of three supervisory subcategories within each capital group. The supervisory subgroup to which an institution is assigned is based on a supervisory evaluation by the institution’s primary federal regulator and information which the FDIC determines to be relevant to the institution’s financial condition and the risk posed to the deposit insurance funds. An institution’s assessment rate depends on the capital category and supervisory category to which it is assigned.

FDIC insured institutions are required to pay assessments to the FDIC to fund the DIF. The Bank’s current annual assessment rate is approximately 5.85 basis points of total assets. Additionally, FDIC insured institutions are required to pay assessments to the FDIC to fund interest payments on bonds issued by The Financing Corporation, an agency of the federal government established to recapitalize the predecessor to the Savings Association Insurance Fund. The assessment rate is adjusted quarterly to reflect changes in the assessment bases of the DIF based on quarterly Call Report submissions. From time to time, the FDIC may impose a supplemental special assessment in addition to other special assessments and regular premium rates to replenish the DIF during periods of economic difficulty. The amount of an emergency special assessment imposed on a bank will be determined by the FDIC if such amount is necessary to provide sufficient assessment income to repay amounts borrowed from the Treasury; to provide sufficient assessment income to repay obligations issued to and other amounts borrowed from insured depository institutions; or for any other purpose the FDIC may deem necessary.

The FDIC may terminate insurance of deposits, after notice and a hearing, if it finds that the institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC. The management of the Bank does not know of any practice, condition or violation that might lead to termination of deposit insurance.

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”)

The Dodd-Frank Act, enacted in July 2010, significantly changed the bank regulatory landscape and has impacted lending, deposit, investment, trading and operating activities of financial institutions and their holding companies. The Dodd-Frank Act revised the statutory authorities governing the FDIC’s management of the DIF. The Dodd-Frank Act granted the FDIC new DIF management tools: maintaining a positive fund balance even during a banking crisis and maintaining moderate, steady assessment rates throughout economic and credit cycles.

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Among other things, the Dodd-Frank Act: (1) raised the minimum Designated Reserve Ratio (“DRR”), which the FDIC must set each year, to 1.35% (from the former minimum of 1.15%) and removed the upper limit on the DRR (which was formerly capped at 1.5%) and therefore on the size of the DIF; (2) required that the DIF reserve ratio reach 1.35% by September 30, 2020 (rather than 1.15% by the end of 2016, as formerly required); (3) required that, in setting assessments, the FDIC offset the effect of requiring that the reserve ratio reach 1.35% by September 30, 2020 (rather than 1.15% by the end of 2016) on insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion; (4) eliminated the requirement that the FDIC provide dividends from the Fund when the reserve ratio is between 1.35% and 1.50%; and (5) continued the FDIC’s authority to declare dividends when the reserve ratio at the end of a calendar year is at least 1.50%, but granted the FDIC sole discretion in determining whether to suspend or limit the declaration or payment of dividends.

The Dodd-Frank Act also required that the FDIC amend its regulations to redefine the assessment base used for calculating deposit insurance assessments. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the assessment base must, with some possible exceptions, equal average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity.

The FDIC amended 12 CFR 327 to implement revisions to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act made by the Dodd-Frank Act by modifying the definition of an institution’s deposit insurance assessment base; to change the assessment rate adjustments; to revise the deposit insurance assessment rate schedules in light of the new assessment base and altered adjustments; to implement the Dodd-Frank Act’s dividend provisions; to revise the large insured depository institution assessment system to better differentiate for risk and better take into account losses from large institution failures that the FDIC may incur; and to make technical and other changes to the FDIC's assessment rules. The FDIC Board of Directors adopted the final rule, which redefined the deposit insurance assessment base as required by the Dodd-Frank Act; made changes to assessment rates; implemented the Dodd-Frank Act’s DIF dividend provisions; and revised the risk-based assessment system for all large insured depository institutions, generally, those institutions with at least $10 billion in total assets. Nearly all institutions with assets less than $10 billion, including the Bank, have benefited from a reduction in their assessments as a result of this final rule.

The Dodd-Frank Act requires publicly traded companies to give shareholders a non-binding vote of executive compensation at least every three (3) years. The legislation also authorizes the SEC to prohibit broker discretion on any voting on election of directors, executive compensation matters, and any other significant matter.

The Dodd-Frank Act also adopts various mortgage lending and predatory lending provisions and requires loan originators to retain 5% of any loan sold and securitized, unless it is a “qualified residential mortgage,” which includes standard 30 and 15-year fixed rate loans.

Consumer Protection and the Financial Protection Bureau

The Dodd-Frank Act created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). As required by the Dodd-Frank Act, jurisdiction for all existing consumer protection laws and regulations has been transferred to the CFPB. In addition, the CFPB is granted authority to promulgate new consumer protection regulations for banks and nonbank financial firms offering consumer financial services or products to ensure that consumers are protected from “unfair, deceptive, or abusive” acts or practices.

Salisbury is subject to a number of federal and state laws designed to protect borrowers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, various state law counterparts, and the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, which constitutes part of the Dodd-Frank Act and establishes the CFPB, as described above.

The CFPB issued a final rule implementing the ability-to-repay and qualified mortgage (“QM”) provisions of the Truth in Lending Act, as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act (the “QM Rule”), which became effective on January 10, 2014. The ability-to-repay provision requires creditors to make reasonable, good faith determinations that borrowers are able to repay their mortgages before extending the credit based on a number of factors and consideration of financial information about the borrower from reasonably reliable third-party documents. Under the Dodd-Frank Act and the QM Rule, loans meeting the definition of “qualified mortgage” are entitled to a presumption that the lender satisfied the ability-to-repay requirements. The presumption is a conclusive presumption/safe harbor for prime loans meeting the QM requirements and a rebuttable presumption for higher-priced/subprime loans meeting the QM requirements. The definition of a “qualified mortgage” incorporates the statutory requirements, such as not allowing negative amortization or terms longer than 30 years. The QM Rule also adds an explicit maximum 43% debt-to-income ratio limit for borrowers if the loan is to meet the QM definition, with some exceptions.

Federal Reserve System

All depository institutions must hold a percentage of certain types of deposits as reserves. Reserve requirements currently are assessed on the depository institution's net transaction accounts (mostly checking accounts). Depository institutions must also regularly submit deposit reports of their deposits and other reservable liabilities.

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For net transaction accounts in 2017, the first $15.5 million (which may be adjusted by the FRB) was exempt from reserve requirements. A 3% reserve ratio was assessed on net transaction accounts over $15.5 million up to and including $115.1 million (which may be adjusted by the FRB). A 10% reserve ratio was assessed on net transaction accounts in excess of $115.1 million (which may be adjusted by the FRB). The Bank is in compliance with these requirements.

Federal Home Loan Bank System

The Bank is a member of the Boston region of the Federal Home Loan Bank System, which consists of 11 regional Federal Home Loan Banks. The FHLBB provides a central credit facility primarily for member institutions. Member institutions are required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in the FHLBB calculated periodically based primarily on its level of borrowings from the FHLBB. The Bank was in compliance with this requirement. At December 31, 2017, the Bank had FHLBB stock of $3.8 million and FHLBB advances of $54.4 million.

No market exists for shares of the FHLBB and, therefore, they are carried at par value. FHLBB stock may be redeemed at par value five years following termination of FHLBB membership, subject to limitations which may be imposed by the FHLBB or its regulator, the Federal Housing Finance Board, to maintain capital adequacy of the FHLBB. While the Bank currently has no intentions to terminate its FHLBB membership, the ability to redeem its investment in FHLBB stock would be subject to the conditions imposed by the FHLBB.

Small Business Lending Fund

Treasury’s SBLF program is a $30 billion fund established under the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 to encourage lending to small businesses by providing Tier 1 capital to qualified community banks with assets of less than $10 billion.

Salisbury elected to participate in Treasury’s SBLF program and on August 25, 2011, sold to the Secretary of the Treasury $16 million of its Series B Preferred Stock under the SBLF program, while simultaneously repurchasing all of its Series A Preferred Stock sold to the Treasury in 2009 under the Capital Purchase Program, a part of TARP. All of the proceeds from the sale of its Series B Preferred Stock were treated as Tier 1 Capital for regulatory purposes.

Salisbury paid noncumulative dividends on its Series B Preferred Stock. The dividend rate on the Series B Preferred Stock for the initial ten quarterly dividend periods, commencing with the period ended September 30, 2011 and ending with the period ended December 31, 2013, was determined each quarter based on the increase in the Bank’s Qualified Small Business Lending over a baseline amount. The dividend rate for the quarterly period ended December 31, 2015 was 1.0%. For the eleventh quarterly dividend payment through four and one-half years after its issuance, the dividend rate on the Series B Preferred Stock would have been 1.0%. Salisbury redeemed all of its Series B Preferred Stock in December 2015 prior to the scheduled increase in the dividend rate on such securities. Commencing with the second quarter of 2016, four and one-half years from its issuance, the dividend rate would have been fixed at 9.0% per annum.

Other Regulations

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

The stated goals of SOX are to increase corporate responsibility, to provide for enhanced penalties for accounting and auditing improprieties at publicly traded companies and to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures pursuant to the securities laws.

SOX includes very specific disclosure requirements and corporate governance rules, requires the SEC and securities exchanges to adopt extensive additional disclosure, corporate governance and other related rules, and mandates further studies of certain issues by the SEC and the Comptroller General. SOX represents significant federal involvement in matters traditionally left to state regulatory systems, such as the regulation of the accounting profession, and to state corporate law, such as the relationship between a board of directors and management and between a board of directors and its committees.

SOX addresses, among other matters, audit committees; certification of financial statements and internal controls by the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer; the forfeiture of bonuses or other incentive-based compensation and profits from the sale of an issuer’s securities by directors and senior officers in the twelve-month period following initial publication of any financial statements that later require restatement; a prohibition on insider trading during pension plan black-out periods; disclosure of off-balance sheet transactions; a prohibition on certain loans to directors and officers; expedited filing requirements for Forms 4; disclosure of a code of ethics and filing a Form 8-K for significant changes or waivers of such code; “real time” filing of periodic reports; the formation of a Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; auditor independence; and various increased criminal penalties for violations of securities laws. The SEC has enacted rules to implement various provisions of SOX.

As of December 31, 2017 the Bank is subject to section 404(b) of SOX, which requires public companies' annual reports to include the company's own assessment of internal control over financial reporting, and an auditor's attestation. See Item 9A “CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES” for management’s assessment of internal controls and Item 8 “FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTAL DATA” for the auditor’s attestation.

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USA PATRIOT Act

Under the USA PATRIOT Act, all financial institutions are required to take certain measures to identify their customers, prevent money laundering, monitor customer transactions and report suspicious activity to U.S. law enforcement agencies. Financial institutions also are required to respond to requests for information from federal banking regulatory authorities and law enforcement agencies. Information sharing among financial institutions for the above purposes is encouraged by an exemption granted to complying financial institutions from the privacy provisions of GLBA and other privacy laws. Financial institutions that hold correspondent accounts for foreign banks or provide private banking services to foreign individuals are required to take measures to avoid dealing with certain foreign individuals or entities, including foreign banks with profiles that raise money laundering concerns, and are prohibited from dealing with foreign “shell banks” and persons from jurisdictions of particular concern. The primary federal banking regulators and the Secretary of the Treasury have adopted regulations to implement several of these provisions. All financial institutions are also required to establish internal anti-money laundering programs. The effectiveness of a financial institution in combating money laundering activities is a factor to be considered in any application submitted by the financial institution under the Bank Merger Act or the BHCA. Salisbury has in place a Bank Secrecy Act and USA PATRIOT Act compliance program, and has implemented internal practices, procedures, and controls to comply with anti-money laundering requirements.

Community Reinvestment Act and Fair Lending Laws

The Bank has a responsibility under the CRA to help meet the credit needs of our communities, including low and moderate-income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions nor does it limit an institution’s discretion to develop the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community, consistent with the CRA. In connection with its examination, the FDIC assesses the Bank’s record of compliance with the CRA. In addition, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act prohibit discrimination in lending practices on the basis of characteristics specified in those statutes. The Bank’s failure to comply with the provisions of the CRA could, at a minimum, result in regulatory restrictions on our activities. The Bank’s failure to comply with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act could result in enforcement actions against the Bank by the FDIC as well as other federal regulatory agencies and the Department of Justice. The Bank’s most recent FDIC CRA rating was “satisfactory.”

The Electronic Funds Transfer Act, Regulation E and Related Laws

The Electronic Funds Transfer Act (the “EFTA”) provides a basic framework for establishing the rights, liabilities, and responsibilities of consumers who use electronic funds transfer (“EFT”) systems. The EFTA is implemented by the Federal Reserve's Regulation E, which governs transfers initiated through ATMs, point-of-sale terminals, payroll cards, automated clearing house (“ACH”) transactions, telephone bill-payment plans, or remote banking services. Regulation E requires consumers to opt in (affirmatively consent) to participation in a bank's overdraft service program for ATM and one-time debit card transactions before overdraft fees may be assessed on the consumer’s account. Notice of the opt-in right must be provided to all new customers who are consumers, and the customer's affirmative consent must be obtained, before charges may be assessed on the consumer's account for paying such overdrafts.

Regulation E also provides bank customers with an ongoing right to revoke consent to participation in an overdraft service program for ATM and one-time debit card transactions and prohibits banks from conditioning the payment of overdrafts for checks, ACH transactions, or other types of transactions that overdraw the consumer's account on the consumer's opting into an overdraft service for ATM and one-time debit card transactions. For customers who do not affirmatively consent to overdraft service for ATM and one-time debit card transactions, a bank must provide those customers with the same account terms, conditions, and features that it provides to consumers who do affirmatively consent, except for the overdraft service for ATM and one-time debit card transactions. Salisbury does not provide an overdraft service with respect to one time point-of-sale or ATM transactions.

Future Legislative Initiatives

In light of the recent changes in the composition of Congress and many state legislatures, it is anticipated that state legislatures and financial regulatory agencies will introduce various legislative and regulatory initiatives that may impact the financial services industry, generally. Such initiatives may include proposals to expand or contract the powers of bank holding companies and/or depository institutions or proposals to substantially change the financial institution regulatory system. Such legislation could change banking statutes and the operating environment of Salisbury in significant and unpredictable ways. For example, if enacted, such legislation could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities, or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions, and other financial institutions. Salisbury cannot predict whether any such legislation will be enacted, and, if enacted, what effects that such legislation would have on the financial condition or results of operations of Salisbury. A change in statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies applicable to Salisbury or any of its subsidiaries could have a material effect on the business of Salisbury.

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Impact of Inflation and Changing Prices

The Consolidated Financial Statements and their Notes presented within this document have been prepared in accordance with GAAP, which require the measurement of financial position and operating results in terms of historical dollar amounts without considering changes in the relative purchasing power of money over time due to inflation. The impact of inflation is reflected in the increased cost of Salisbury’s operations. Unlike the assets and liabilities of industrial companies, nearly all of the assets and liabilities of Salisbury are monetary in nature. As a result, interest rates have a greater impact on Salisbury’s performance than do the effects of general levels of inflation. Interest rates do not necessarily move in the same direction or to the same extent as the prices of goods and services.

Availability of Securities and Exchange Commission Filings

Salisbury makes available free of charge on its website (salisburybank.com) a link to its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Such reports filed with the SEC are also available on its website (www.sec.gov). The public may also read and copy any materials filed with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room, 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Information about accessing company filings can be obtained by calling 1-800-SEC-0330. Information on Salisbury’s website is not incorporated by reference into this report. Investors are encouraged to access these reports and the other information about Salisbury’s business and operations on its website. Copies of these filings may also be obtained from Salisbury free of charge upon request.

Guide 3 Statistical Disclosure by Bank Holding Companies

The following information required by Securities Act Guide 3 “Statistical Disclosure by Bank Holding Companies” is located on the pages noted below.

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I. Distribution of Assets, Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity; Interest Rates and Interest Differential 23-24
II. Investment Portfolio 28-29, 56-58
III. Loan Portfolio 29-34 ,59-65
IV. Summary of Loan Loss Experience 25, 63-65
V. Deposits 34-35, 67
VI. Return on Equity and Assets 21
VII. Short-Term Borrowings 35, 68

Item 1A.RISK FACTORS

Salisbury is the registered bank holding company for the Bank, its wholly-owned subsidiary. Salisbury's business and activity is currently limited to the holding of the Bank's outstanding capital stock, and the Bank is Salisbury's primary investment.

An investment in Salisbury common stock entails certain risks, some of which are inherent in the financial services industry and others of which are more specific to the Bank’s business. Salisbury considers the most significant factors of which we are aware affecting risk in Salisbury common stock as those that are set forth below. These are not the only risks to which an investment in Salisbury common stock is subject, and none of the factors set forth below relates to the personal circumstances of individual investors. Investors should read this entire Form 10-K, as well as other documents and exhibits that are incorporated by reference in the 10-K and that have been filed with the SEC, in order to better understand these risks and to evaluate investment in Salisbury common stock.

Changes in interest rates and spreads could have a negative impact on earnings and financial condition.

Salisbury’s earnings and financial condition are dependent to a large degree upon net interest income, which is the difference between interest earned from loans and investments and interest paid on deposits and borrowings. The narrowing of interest rate spreads, meaning the difference between interest rates earned on loans and investments, and the interest rates paid on deposits and borrowings, could adversely affect Salisbury’s earnings and financial condition. Salisbury cannot predict with certainty or control changes in interest rates. Global, national, regional, and local economic conditions and the policies of regulatory authorities, including monetary policies of the FRB, affect interest income and interest expense. Salisbury has ongoing policies and procedures designed to manage the risks associated with changes in market interest rates.

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However, changes in interest rates still may have an adverse effect on Salisbury’s profitability. For example, high interest rates could also affect the volume of loans that Salisbury originates, because higher rates could cause customers to apply for fewer mortgages, or cause depositors to shift funds from accounts that have a comparatively lower rate, to accounts with a higher rate, or experience customer attrition due to competitor pricing or disintermediation. If the cost of interest-bearing deposits increases at a rate greater than the yields on interest-earning assets increase, net interest income will be negatively affected. Changes in the asset and liability mix may also affect net interest income. Similarly, lower interest rates cause higher yielding assets to prepay and floating or adjustable rate assets to reset to lower rates. If Salisbury is not able to reduce its funding costs sufficiently, due to either competitive factors or the maturity schedule of existing liabilities, then Salisbury’s net interest margin will decline.

Weakness in the markets for residential or commercial real estate, including the secondary residential mortgage loan markets, could reduce Salisbury’s net income and profitability.

Declines in home prices, increases in delinquency and default rates, and constrained secondary credit markets affect the mortgage industry generally. Salisbury’s financial results may be adversely affected by changes in real estate values. Decreases in real estate values could adversely affect the value of property used as collateral for loans and investments. If poor economic conditions result in decreased demand for real estate loans, Salisbury’s net income and profits may decrease.

Weakness in the secondary market for residential lending could have an adverse impact upon Salisbury’s profitability. The effects of ongoing mortgage market challenges, combined with the ongoing correction in residential real estate market prices and reduced levels of home sales, could result in further price reductions in single family home values, adversely affecting the value of collateral securing mortgage loans held, mortgage loan originations and gains on sale of mortgage loans. Declines in real estate values and home sales volumes, and financial stress on borrowers as a result of job losses, or other factors, could have further adverse effects on borrowers that result in higher delinquencies and greater charge-offs in future periods beyond that which is provided for in Salisbury’s allowance for loan losses, which would adversely affect Salisbury’s financial condition or results of operations.

Fluctuations in economic conditions and collateral values could impact the adequacy of Salisbury’s allowance for loan losses.

Salisbury’s business is subject to periodic fluctuations based on national and local economic conditions. These fluctuations are not predictable, cannot be controlled and may have a material adverse impact on Salisbury’s operations and financial condition. For example, declines in housing activity including declines in building permits, housing sales and home prices may make it more difficult for Salisbury’s borrowers to sell their homes or refinance their debt. Slow sales could strain the resources of real estate developers and builders. The ongoing economic uncertainty has affected employment levels and could impact the ability of Salisbury’s borrowers to service their debt. Bank regulatory agencies also periodically review Salisbury’s allowance for loan losses and may require an increase in the provision for credit losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. In addition, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for loan losses Salisbury will need additional provisions to increase the allowance for loan losses. Any increases in the allowance for loan losses will result in a decrease in net income and, possibly, capital, and may have a material adverse effect on Salisbury’s financial condition and results of operations. Salisbury may suffer higher loan losses as a result of these factors and the resulting impact on its borrowers.

Credit market conditions may impact Salisbury’s investments.

Significant credit market anomalies may impact the valuation and liquidity of Salisbury’s investment securities. Illiquidity could reduce the market value of Salisbury’s investments, even those with no apparent credit exposure. The valuation of Salisbury’s investments requires judgment, and as market conditions change investment values may also change.

Salisbury’s securities portfolio performance in difficult market conditions could have adverse effects on Salisbury’s results of operations.

Under GAAP, Salisbury is required to review Salisbury’s investment portfolio periodically for the presence of other-than-temporary impairment of its securities, taking into consideration current market conditions, the extent and nature of changes in fair value, issuer rating changes and trends, volatility of earnings, current analysts’ evaluations, Salisbury’s ability and intent to hold investments until a recovery of amortized cost, as well as other factors. Adverse developments with respect to one or more of the foregoing factors may require Salisbury to deem particular securities to be other-than-temporarily impaired, with the credit related portion of the reduction in the value recognized as a charge to Salisbury’s earnings. Market volatility may make it extremely difficult to value certain securities of Salisbury. Subsequent valuations, in light of factors prevailing at that time, may result in significant changes in the values of these securities in future periods. Any of these factors could require Salisbury to recognize further impairments in the value of Salisbury’s securities portfolio, which may have an adverse effect on Salisbury’s results of operations in future periods.

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If the goodwill that Salisbury has recorded in connection with its acquisitions becomes impaired, it could have a negative impact on Salisbury’s profitability.

Applicable accounting standards require that the purchase method of accounting be used for all business combinations. Under purchase accounting, if the purchase price of an acquired company exceeds the fair value of the acquired company’s net assets, the excess is carried on the acquirer’s balance sheet as goodwill. At December 31, 2017, Salisbury had $13.8 million of goodwill on its balance sheet. Salisbury must evaluate goodwill for impairment at least annually. Write-downs of the amount of any impairment, if necessary, are to be charged to the results of operations in the period in which the impairment occurs. There can be no assurance that future evaluations of goodwill will not result in findings of impairment and related write-downs, which may have a material adverse effect on Salisbury’s financial condition and results of operations.

Salisbury’s ability to pay dividends substantially depends upon its receipt of dividends from the Bank.

Cash dividends from the Bank and Salisbury’s liquid assets are the principal sources of funds for paying cash dividends on Salisbury’s common stock. Unless Salisbury receives dividends from the Bank or chooses to use its liquid assets, it may not be able to pay dividends. The Bank’s ability to pay dividends to Salisbury is subject to its condition and profitability as well as its regulatory requirements.

Strong competition within Salisbury’s market areas may limit growth and profitability.

Competition in the banking and financial services industry is intense. Salisbury competes with commercial banks, savings institutions, mortgage brokerage firms, credit unions, finance companies, mutual funds, insurance companies, and brokerage and investment banking firms operating locally and elsewhere. As Salisbury grows, it may expand into contiguous market areas where it may not be as well-known as other institutions that have been operating in those areas for some time. In addition, larger banking institutions may become increasingly active in Salisbury’s market areas, may have substantially greater resources and lending limits and may offer certain services that Salisbury does not, or cannot efficiently, provide. Salisbury’s profitability depends upon its continued ability to successfully compete in its market areas. The greater resources and deposit and loan products offered by some competitors may limit its ability to grow profitably.

Salisbury and the Bank are subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision.

Salisbury and the Bank are subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, not shareholders. These regulations affect Salisbury’s lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, and dividend policy and growth, among other things. State and federal legislatures and regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect Salisbury in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject Salisbury to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products it may offer and/or increase the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse effect on Salisbury’s business, financial condition and results of operations. While Salisbury has policies and procedures designed to prevent any such violations, there can be no assurance that such violations will not occur. See the section captioned “Regulation and Supervision” in Item 1 of this report for further information.

Salisbury’s stock price may be volatile.

Salisbury’s stock is inactively traded and its stock price may fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors including:

Actual or anticipated variations in quarterly operating results
Recommendations by securities analysts
New technology used, or services offered, by competitors
Significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving Salisbury or Salisbury’s competitors
Failure to integrate acquisitions or realize anticipated benefits from acquisitions
Operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to Salisbury
News reports relating to trends, concerns and other issues in the financial services industry
Changes in government regulations
Geopolitical conditions such as acts or threats of terrorism or military conflicts
Changes in the economic environment of the market areas the Bank serves

General market fluctuations, industry factors and general economic and political conditions and events, such as economic slowdowns or recessions, interest rate changes, credit loss trends or currency fluctuations could also cause Salisbury’s stock price to decrease regardless of Salisbury’s operating results.

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Salisbury’s ability to attract and retain skilled personnel may impact its success.

Salisbury’s success depends, in large part, on its ability to attract and retain key people. Competition for people with specialized knowledge and skills can be intense, and Salisbury may not be able to hire people or to retain them. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of Salisbury’s key personnel could have a material adverse impact on the business because of their skills, knowledge of the market, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel.

Salisbury continually encounters technological change.

The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology can increase efficiency and enable financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. However, some new technologies needed to compete effectively result in incremental operating costs. Salisbury’s future success depends, in part, upon its ability to address the needs of its customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in operations. Many of Salisbury’s competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. Salisbury may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to its customers. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse impact on Salisbury’s business and, in turn, its financial condition and results of operations.

A failure involving controls and procedures may have an adverse effect on Salisbury.

Management regularly reviews and updates Salisbury’s internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of the controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on Salisbury’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

If customer information was to be misappropriated and used fraudulently, due to a breach of our systems, or those of third party vendors or service providers, including as a result of cyberattacks, Salisbury could be exposed to potential liability and reputation risk as well as increased costs.

Risk of theft of customer information resulting from security breaches by third parties exposes banks to reputation risk and potential monetary loss. Like other financial institutions, Salisbury has exposure to fraudulent misuse of its customers’ personal information resulting from its general business operations through loss or theft of the information and through misappropriation of information by third parties in connection with customer use of financial instruments, such as debit cards.

In addition, Salisbury relies upon a variety of computing platforms and networks over the internet for the purposes of data processing, communications and information exchange. Despite the safeguards instituted by Salisbury, any system is susceptible to a breach of security. In addition, Salisbury relies on the services of a variety of third party vendors to meet Salisbury’s data processing and communication needs. The occurrence of any failures, interruptions or security breaches of Salisbury’s information systems or that of its vendors could damage Salisbury’s reputation, result in a loss of customer business or expose Salisbury to civil litigation and possible financial loss. Such costs and/or losses could materially impact Salisbury’s earnings.

Changes in accounting standards can materially impact Salisbury’s financial statements.

Salisbury’s accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how Salisbury records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. From time to time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board or regulatory authorities change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of Salisbury’s financial statements. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how it records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, it could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in Salisbury restating prior period financial statements.

Changes and interpretations of tax laws and regulations may adversely impact Salisbury’s financial statements.

Local, state or federal tax authorities may interpret tax laws and regulations differently than Salisbury and challenge tax positions that Salisbury has taken on its tax returns. This may result in the disallowance of deductions or differences in the timing of deductions and result in the payment of additional taxes, interest or penalties that could materially affect Salisbury’s performance.

In addition, changes in tax law, such as the federal tax reform provisions recently enacted, may adversely affect Salisbury’s lending business and performance, especially those provisions regarding the deductibility of residential mortgage interest and state property taxes.

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The risks presented by recent or future acquisitions could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business strategy has included, and may continue to include, growth through acquisition from time to time. Any recent and future acquisitions will be accompanied by the risks commonly encountered in acquisitions. These risks may include, among other things: our ability to realize anticipated cost savings; the difficulty of integrating operations and personnel; the loss of key employees; the potential disruption of our or the acquired company’s ongoing business in such a way that could result in decreased revenues; the inability of our management to maximize our financial and strategic position; the inability to maintain uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies; and the impairment of relationships with the acquired company’s employees and customers as a result of changes in ownership and management.

Item 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 2.PROPERTIES

Salisbury does not directly own or lease any properties. The properties described below are owned or leased by the Bank.

The Bank conducts its business at its main office, located at 5 Bissell Street, Lakeville, Connecticut, and through an additional thirteen full service branch offices located in Canaan, Salisbury and Sharon, Connecticut; Great Barrington, South Egremont and Sheffield, Massachusetts; and Dover Plains, Fishkill, Millerton, Newburgh, New Paltz, Poughkeepsie, and Red Oaks Mill, New York. The Bank’s Trust and Wealth Advisory Services Division is based in a separate building adjacent to the main office of the Bank in Lakeville, Connecticut. The Bank owns its main office and six of its branch offices and its Canaan Operations office, and currently leases seven branch offices.

The Company acquired one branch in Sharon, Connecticut from Union Savings Bank on June 6, 2014, and the acquisition of Riverside Bank on December 5, 2014 added four additional full-service branch offices. On June 5, 2017, the Bank completed its acquisition of the New Paltz, New York branch of Empire State Bank. In addition, in December 2017 the Bank announced that it executed a definitive agreement to acquire the Fishkill, New York branch of Orange Bank & Trust Company. The Bank has received regulatory approval for such transaction from the CTDOB and the NYDFS and is awaiting approval from the FDIC and expects to complete the transaction during the second quarter of 2018. The Bank also announced its plans to consolidate its existing Fishkill, New York branch with the proposed Fishkill, New York branch. In March 2018, the Bank will relocate its current branch in Newburgh, New York to another location in the same city. The Bank has entered into a lease agreement for the new facility and it will cease paying rent for the current location as of April 1, 2018. For additional information, see Note 7, “Bank Premises and Equipment,” and Note 19, “Commitments and Contingent Liabilities” to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

The following table includes all property owned or leased by the Bank, but does not include Other Real Estate Owned.

Offices Location Owned/Leased Lease expiration
Main Office 5 Bissell Street, Lakeville, CT Owned
Trust and Wealth Advisory Services Division 19 Bissell Street, Lakeville, CT Owned
Salisbury Office 18 Main Street, Salisbury, CT Owned
Sharon Office 5 Gay Street, Sharon, CT Owned
Canaan Operations 94 Main Street, Canaan, CT Owned
Canaan Office 100 Main Street, Canaan, CT Owned
South Egremont Office 51 Main Street, South Egremont, MA Leased 9/09/18
Sheffield Office 640 North Main Street, Sheffield, MA Owned
Gt. Barrington Office 210 Main Street, Gt. Barrington, MA Leased 12/31/20
Millerton Office 87 Main Street, Millerton, NY Owned
Poughkeepsie Office 11 Garden Street, Poughkeepsie, NY Owned
Fishkill Office 1004 Main Street, Fishkill, NY Leased 12/31/20
Proposed Fishkill Office(1) 703 Route 9, Fishkill, NY Leased 10/30/29
Red Oaks Mill Office 2064 New Hackensack Road, Poughkeepsie, NY Leased 2/03/23
Newburgh Office 52 Route 17K, Newburgh, NY Leased 3/31/18
Dover Plains Office 5 Dover Village Plaza, Dover Plains, NY Leased 7/31/22
Proposed Newburgh Office 801 Auto Park Place, Newburgh, NY Leased 12/31/21
New Paltz Office 275 Main Street, Paltz, NY Leased 9/14/19
(1)The Bank has agreed to assume the lease in connection with its acquisition of Orange Bank & Trust Company’s Fishkill, New York branch contingent upon consummation of such transaction.
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Item 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The Bank is involved in various claims and legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business, which management currently believes are not material, individually or in the aggregate, to the business, financial condition or operating results of Salisbury or any of its subsidiaries.

There are no material pending legal proceedings, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to Salisbury’s business, to which Salisbury is a party or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any of their property is subject.

Item 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

PART II

Item 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Salisbury’s common stock trades on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “SAL”. The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices per share for Salisbury’s common stock for each quarterly period within the two most recent fiscal years:

Quarter 2017 2016
High Low High Low
Fourth Quarter $48.35 $44.00 $38.15 $30.92
Third Quarter $46.90 $40.40 $32.52 $29.60
Second Quarter $41.50 $38.50 $32.75 $29.78
First Quarter $40.00 $37.30 $34.43 $29.51

Holders

There were approximately 2,340 holders of record of the common stock of Salisbury as of March 1, 2018. This number includes brokerage firms and other financial institutions that hold stock in their name, but which is actually beneficially owned by third parties.

Dividends

For a discussion of Salisbury's dividend policy and restrictions on dividends see "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" under the caption “Dividends.” See also, Note 13 – “Shareholders’ Equity” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Equity Compensation Plan Information

For the information required by this item see Note 15 – “Long Term Incentive Plans” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.

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Item 6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following table contains certain information concerning the financial position and results of operations of Salisbury at the dates and for the periods indicated. This information should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes.

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

(in thousands, except ratios and per share amounts)

At or for the years ended December 31,    2017      2016      2015      2014      2013  
Statement of Income                         
Interest and dividend income  $35,521   $34,454   $34,610   $22,855   $21,750 
Interest expense   4,238    3,849    3,026    2,704    3,062 
Net interest and dividend income   31,283    30,605    31,584    20,151    18,688 
Provision for loan losses   1,020    1,835    917    1,134    1,066 
Gains on securities, net   178    584    192         
Trust and wealth advisory   3,477    3,338    3,265    3,295    3,074 
Service charges and fees   3,718    3,133    2,986    2,473    2,293 
Gains on sales of mortgage loans, net   125    229    274    64    579 
Mortgage servicing, net   255    156    47    94    40 
Other   483    451    510    326    319 
Non-interest income   8,236    7,891    7,274    6,252    6,305 
Non-interest expense   29,329    27,387    25,921    22,138    18,935 
Income before income taxes   9,170    9,274    12,020    3,131    4,992 
Income tax provision   2,914    2,589    3,563    610    909 
Net income   6,256    6,685    8,457    2,521    4,083 
Net income allocated to common stock   6,201    6,633    8,298    2,355    3,922 
Financial Condition                         
Total assets  $986,984   $935,366   $891,192   $855,427   $587,109 
Loans receivable, net   801,703    763,184    699,018    673,330    438,178 
Allowance for loan losses   6,776    6,127    5,716    5,358    4,683 
Securities   82,860    82,834    79,870    94,827    99,831 
Deposits   815,495    781,770    754,533    715,426    477,369 
Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston advances   54,422    37,188    26,979    28,813    30,411 
Repurchase agreements   1,668    5,535    3,914    4,163    2,554 
Subordinated debt, net of issuance costs   9,811    9,788    9,764         
Total shareholders' equity   97,514    94,007    90,574    101,821    72,790 
Non-performing assets   7,354    12,565    16,264    10,892    7,549 
Per Common Share Data                         
Earnings, basic  $2.25   $2.43   $3.04   $1.32   $2.30 
Earnings, diluted   2.24    2.41    3.02    1.32    2.30 
Cash dividends declared and paid   1.12    1.12    1.12    1.12    1.12 
Tangible book value   29.39    28.90    27.69    25.83    27.12 
Statistical Data                         
Net interest margin (taxable equivalent)   3.58%   3.69%   3.99%   3.64%   3.57%
Efficiency ratio (taxable equivalent)   66.79    66.74    63.03    78.41    70.70 
Effective tax rate   31.78    27.92    29.64    19.49    18.21 
Return on average assets   0.63    0.72    0.94    0.37    0.66 
Return on average common shareholders' equity   6.42    7.16    9.36    3.88    7.01 
Dividend payout ratio   49.76    46.16    36.82    81.43    48.83 
Allowance for loan losses to loans receivable, gross   0.84    0.80    0.81    0.79    1.06 
Non-performing assets to total assets   0.74    1.34    1.82    1.27    1.29 
Tier 1 leverage capital   8.53    8.69    8.56    12.31    10.65 
Total risk-based capital   12.94    13.26    13.51    14.27    16.46 
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic   2,755    2,733    2,706    1,764    1,691 
Weighted average common shares outstanding, diluted   2,774    2,749    2,723    1,765    1,691 

 

 

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Item 7.MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

BUSINESS

Salisbury, a Connecticut corporation, formed in 1998, is the bank holding company for the Bank, a Connecticut-chartered and FDIC insured commercial bank headquartered in Lakeville, Connecticut. Salisbury's principal business consists of the business of the Bank. The Bank, formed in 1848, is engaged in customary banking activities, including general deposit taking and lending activities to both retail and commercial markets, and trust and wealth advisory services. The Bank conducts its banking business from fourteen full-service offices in the towns of: Canaan, Lakeville, Salisbury and Sharon, Connecticut; Great Barrington, South Egremont and Sheffield, Massachusetts; and, Fishkill, Newburgh, New Paltz, Poughkeepsie, Red Oaks Mill, Dover Plains and Millerton, New York, and its trust and wealth advisory services from offices in Lakeville, Connecticut. In May 2014, the Bank established a new branch in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. In June 2014, the Bank acquired a branch office and related deposits from another institution in Sharon, Connecticut and consolidated its existing Sharon office with the new branch.

Additionally, on December 5, 2014, Salisbury completed its acquisition of Riverside Bank of Poughkeepsie, New York, adding four new offices and a strong commercial loan focus to Salisbury’s New York market presence.

In June 2017, the Bank completed its acquisition of the New Paltz, New York branch of Empire State Bank, and in December 2017, the Bank entered into a purchase and assumption agreement to acquire the Fishkill, New York branch of Orange Bank & Trust Company, which is expected to be completed during the second quarter of 2018, pending regulatory approval.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Salisbury’s consolidated financial statements follow U. S. GAAP as applied to the banking industry in which it operates. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements. These estimates, assumptions and judgments are based on information available as of the date of the financial statements; accordingly, as this information changes, the financial statements could reflect different estimates, assumptions and judgments and as such have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally reported. Estimates, assumptions and judgments are necessary when assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at fair value, when a decline in the value of an asset not carried at fair value warrants an impairment write-down or valuation reserve to be established, or when an asset or liability needs to be recorded contingent upon a future event.

Salisbury’s significant accounting policies are presented in Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which, along with this Management’s Discussion and Analysis, provide information on how significant assets are valued in the financial statements and how those values are determined. Management believes that the following accounting estimates are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating Salisbury’s reported financial results, and they require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, resulting from the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain.

Loans acquired in business combinations are initially recorded at fair value with no carryover of the related allowance for credit losses. Determining the fair value of the loans involves estimating the amount and timing of cash flows initially expected to be collected and discounting those cash flows at an appropriate market rate of interest. The Bank continues to evaluate reasonableness of the timing and the amount of cash expected to be collected. Subsequent decreases in expected cash flows may result in changes in the amortization or accretion of fair market value adjustments, and in some cases may result in the loan being considered impaired.  Such decreases may also result in recognition of additional provisions to the allowance for loan losses. For collateral dependent loans with deteriorated credit quality, the Bank estimates the fair value of the underlying collateral of the loans.  These values are discounted using market derived rates of return, with consideration given to the period of time and costs associated with the foreclosure and disposition of the collateral.

The allowance for loan losses represents management’s estimate of credit losses inherent in the loan portfolio. Determining the amount of the allowance for loan losses is considered a critical accounting estimate because it requires significant judgment and the use of estimates related to the amount and timing of expected future cash flows on impaired loans, estimated losses on pools of homogeneous loans based on historical loss experience, and consideration of current economic trends and conditions, all of which may be susceptible to significant change. The loan portfolio also represents the largest asset type on the balance sheet. Note 1 describes the methodology used to determine the allowance for loan losses. A discussion of the factors driving changes in the amount of the allowance for loan losses is included in the “Provision and Allowance for Loan Losses” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis.

Management, with the assistance of a third party, evaluates goodwill and identifiable intangible assets for impairment annually using valuation techniques that involve observations and adjustments as to comparable transactions, estimates for discount rates, projected future cash flows and time period calculations, all of which are susceptible to change based on changes in economic conditions and other factors.

For both goodwill and for the core deposit intangible, the comparable transaction methodology was used to assess, and conclude that there was no impairment at December 31, 2017.

Future events, or changes in the estimates, which are used to determine the carrying value of goodwill and identifiable intangible assets or which otherwise adversely affect their value or estimated lives could have a material adverse impact on the results of operations.

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Management evaluates securities for other-than-temporary impairment giving consideration to the extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, estimates of future cash flows, delinquencies and default severity, and the intent and ability of Salisbury to retain its investment in the issuer for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value. The consideration of the above factors is subjective and involves estimates and assumptions about matters that are inherently uncertain. Should actual factors and conditions differ materially from those used by management, the actual realization of gains or losses on investment securities could differ materially from the amounts recorded in the financial statements. 

The following discussion and analysis of Salisbury's consolidated results of operations should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and footnotes.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016

Net Interest and Dividend Income

Net interest and dividend income (presented on a tax-equivalent basis) increased $446,000 in 2017 over 2016. Interest income for 2017 included interest of approximately $183,000 related to the settlement of a past due loan. The net interest margin decreased 11 basis points to 3.58% from 3.69%, due to an 8 basis point decrease in the average yield on interest-earning assets and a 4 basis point increase in the average cost of interest-bearing liabilities. The net interest margin is affected by changes in the mix of interest-earning assets and funding liabilities, asset and liability growth, and the effects of changes in market interest rates on the pricing and re-pricing of assets and liabilities. The following table sets forth the components of Salisbury's net interest income and yields on average interest-earning assets and interest-bearing funds. Income and yields on tax-exempt securities are presented on a fully taxable equivalent basis.

  Years ended December 31,  Average Balance  Income / Expense  Average Yield / Rate
  (dollars in thousands)    2017      2016      2015      2017      2016      2015      2017      2016      2015  
Loans (a)(d)(f)  $780,968   $745,957   $687,755   $33,824   $32,727   $32,208    4.33%   4.39%   4.68%
Securities (c)(d)   79,767    76,138    78,420    2,130    2,583    3,359    2.67    3.39    4.28 
FHLBB stock   3,551    3,287    3,430    142    121    89    4.00    3.68    2.59 
Short term funds (b)   36,351    35,951    50,870    343    173    120    0.94    0.48    0.24 
Total earning assets   900,637    861,333    820,475    36,439    35,604    35,776    4.05    4.13    4.36 
Other assets   56,859    58,101    60,319                               
Total assets  $957,496   $919,434   $880,794                               
Interest-bearing demand deposits  $135,756   $125,563   $121,431    319    359    311    0.23    0.29    0.26 
Money market accounts   191,407    200,760    177,956    685    572    472    0.36    0.28    0.27 
Savings and other   145,779    127,539    125,181    425    226    220    0.29    0.18    0.18 
Certificates of deposit   116,608    122,475    134,577    1,054    1,024    841    0.90    0.84    0.62 
Total interest-bearing deposits   589,550    576,337    559,145    2,483    2,181    1,844    0.42    0.38    0.33 
Repurchase agreements   2,517    3,770    4,111    5    6    7    0.20    0.16    0.17 
Capital lease   1,157    419    423    96    70    70    8.30    16.71    16.57 
Note payable   327    359    138    18    21    6    5.50    5.85    4.62 
Subordinated debt (net of issuance costs)   9,799    9,776    594    624    624    35    6.37    6.38    5.84 
FHLBB advances   35,309    30,850    27,827    1,012    947    1,064    2.87    3.07    3.82 
Total interest-bearing liabilities   638,659    621,511    592,238    4,238    3,849    3,026    0.66    0.62    0.51 
Demand deposits   216,151    199,163    178,943                               
Other liabilities   5,937    6,057    5,043                               
Shareholders’ equity   96,749    92,703    104,570                               
Total liabilities & shareholders’ equity  $957,496   $919,434   $880,794                               
Net interest income (f)                 $32,201   $31,755   $32,750                
Spread on interest-bearing funds                                 3.39    3.51    3.85 
Net interest margin (e)                                 3.58    3.69    3.99 
(a)Includes non-accrual loans.
(b)Includes interest-bearing deposits in other banks and federal funds sold.
(c)Average balances of securities are based on amortized cost.
(d)Includes tax exempt income of $921,000, $1,205,000 and $1,205,000, respectively for 2017, 2016 and 2015 on tax-exempt securities and loans whose income and yields are calculated on a tax-equivalent basis.
(e)Net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets.
(f)Interest income for 2017, 2016 and 2015 reflects net accretion related to the fair value adjustments of loans acquired in the Riverside Bank acquisition in the amount of $1.2 million, $1.9 million and $2.7 million, respectively.

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The following table sets forth the changes in net interest income (presented on a tax-equivalent basis) due to volume and rate.

  Years ended December 31, (in thousands)  2017 versus 2016  2016 versus 2015
Change in interest due to   Volume    Rate    Net    Volume    Rate    Net 
Loans  $1,526   $(429)  $1,097   $2,640   $(2,121)  $519 
Securities   110    (563)   (453)   (88)   (688)   (776)
FHLBB stock   10    11    21    (4)   36    32 
Short term funds   3    167    170    (53)   106    53 
Interest-earning assets   1,649    (814)   835    2,495    (2,667)   (172)
Deposits   53    248    301    61    276    337 
Repurchase agreements   (2)   1    (1)   (1)       (1)
Capital lease   92    (66)   26    (1)   1     
Note payable   (2)   (1)   (3)   11    4    15 
Subordinated Debt   2    (1)       564    25    589 
FHLBB advances   132    (67)   65    104    (221)   (117)
Interest-bearing liabilities   274    114    388    738    85    823 
Net change in net interest income  $1,375   $(928)  $447   $1,757   $(2,752)  $(995)

Net interest and dividend income represents the difference between interest and dividends earned on loans and securities and interest expense incurred on deposits and borrowings. The level of net interest income is a function of volume, rates and mix of both earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Net interest income can be affected by changes in interest rate levels, changes in the volume of assets and liabilities that are subject to re-pricing within different future time periods, and in the level of non-performing assets.

Interest and Dividend Income

Tax equivalent interest and dividend income increased $835,000, or 2.3%, to $36.4 million in 2017.

Loan income increased $1.1 million, or 3.4%, to $33.8 million in 2017. The increase was primarily due to a $35.0 million, or 4.7%, increase in average loans, partially offset by a 6 basis point decrease in average yield. Interest income for 2017 and 2016 reflects purchase accounting adjustments consisting of net accretion related to the fair value adjustments of loans acquired in the Riverside Bank acquisition in the amount of $1.2 million and $1.9 million, respectively.

Tax equivalent interest and dividend income from securities decreased $453,000, or 17.5%, to $2.1 million in 2017, as a result of a $3.6 million, or 4.8%, decrease in average security balances, and a 72 basis point decrease in average yield. Contributing factors to the lower yield include the maturity, sale, call or pay down of higher yielding securities resulting in a remaining mix of lower yielding securities in the portfolio. Interest from short term funds increased $170,000 in 2017 as a result of a 46 basis point increase in average yield and $0.4 million, or 1.1%, increase in average short term balances.

Interest Expense

Interest expense increased $389,000, or 10.1%, to $4.2 million in 2017.

Interest expense on interest bearing deposit accounts increased $302,000, or 13.8%, to $2.5 million in 2017, as a result of a $13.3 million, or 2.3%, increase in average interest bearing deposits and a 4 basis point increase in the average rate to 0.42%.

Interest expense on FHLBB advances increased $65,000, or 6.9%, due to a $4.5 million, or 14.5%, increase in average advances, partially offset by a 20 basis point decrease in the average borrowing rate to 2.87%.

In December 2015, Salisbury issued $10 million of subordinated debentures. The proceeds of such issuance, along with cash-on-hand, were used by Salisbury to fully redeem $16 million of its outstanding Series B Preferred Stock, which was issued pursuant to the participation in the U.S. Treasury’s SBLF program. Interest expense on the subordinated debt for 2017 and 2016 was $624,000 and $624,000, respectively.

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Provision and Allowance for Loan Losses

The provision for loan losses was $1,020,000 for 2017, compared with $1,835,000 for 2016. Net loan charge-offs were $371,000 and $1,424,000, for the respective years. The lower provision for loan losses in 2017 reflected lower charge-offs and higher recoveries.

The following table sets forth changes in the allowance for loan losses and other statistical data:

At or for the years ended December 31, (dollars in thousands)    2017      2016      2015      2014      2013  
Balance, beginning of period  $6,127   $5,716   $5,358   $4,683   $4,360 
Provision for loan losses   1,020    1,835    917    1,134    1,066 
Charge –offs                         
Real estate mortgages   (733)   (1,031)   (1,061)   (512)   (700)
Commercial and industrial   (162)   (452)   (69)   (19)   (4)
Consumer   (76)   (67)   (82)   (28)   (70)
Charge-offs   (971)   (1,550)   (1,212)   (559)   (774)
Recoveries                         
Real estate mortgages   286    32    129    60    6 
Commercial and industrial   296    72    498    16    1 
Consumer   18    22    26    24    24 
Recoveries   600    126    653    100    31 
Net charge-offs   (371)   (1,424)   (559)   (459)   (743)
Balance, end of period  $6,776   $6,127   $5,716   $5,358   $4,683 
                          
Loans receivable, gross  $807,190   $768,064   $703,545   $677,485   $441,679 
Non-performing loans   6,635    8,792    16,265    9,890    7,172 
Accruing loans past due 30-89 days   3,536    4,537    4,499    4,128    5,374 
Ratio of allowance for loan losses:                         
to loans receivable, gross   0.84%   0.80%   0.81%   0.79%   1.06%
to non-performing loans   102.13    69.69    35.15    54.18    65.30 
Ratio of non-performing loans                         
to loans receivable, gross   0.82    1.14    2.31    1.46    1.62 
Ratio of accruing loans past due 30-89 days                         
to loans receivable, gross   0.44    0.59    0.64    0.61    1.22 

 

The reserve coverage at December 31, 2017, as measured by the ratio of allowance for loan losses to gross loans, was 0.84%, as compared with 0.80% at December 31, 2016. Non-performing loans (non-accrual loans and accruing loans past-due 90 days or more) decreased $2.2 million to $6.6 million, or 0.82% of gross loans receivable, at December 31, 2017, down from 1.14% at December 31, 2016. Accruing loans past due 30-89 days decreased $1.0 million to $3.5 million, or 0.44% of gross loans receivable at December 31, 2017. See “Overview – Loan Credit Quality” below for further discussion and analysis.

 

 

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Non-Interest Income

The following table details the principal categories of non-interest income.

  Years ended December 31, (dollars in thousands)    2017      2016      2015      2017 vs. 2016      2016 vs. 2015  
Trust and wealth advisory  $3,477   $3,338   $3,265   $139    4.16%  $73    2.2%
Service charges and fees   3,718    3,133    2,986    585    18.67    147    4.9 
Gains on sales of mortgage loans, net   125    229    274    (104)   (45.41)   (45)   (16.4)
Mortgage servicing, net   255    156    47    99    63.46    109    231.9 
Gains on securities, net   178    584    192    (406)   (69.52)   392    204.20 
Bank-owned life insurance   343    353    371    (10)   (2.83)   (18)   (4.9)
Other   140    98    139    42    42.86    (41)   (29.5)
Total non-interest income  $8,236   $7,891   $7,274   $345    4.37%  $617    8.50%

Non-interest income increased $345,000, or 4.4%, in 2017 versus 2016. Trust and Wealth Advisory revenues increased $139,000 primarily due to increased market values and a higher volume of assets under management, partially offset by decreased estate fee income. Service charges and fees increased $585,000 mainly due to increased ATM fees and ancillary account service related fees. Gains on sales of mortgage loans decreased $104,000 due to a decline in sales volume. Mortgage loans sales totaled $5.3 million in 2017 versus $10.3 million in 2016. Income from servicing of mortgage loans increased $99,000 due primarily to a reduction in the amortization of mortgage servicing rights. Loans serviced under the FHLBB Mortgage Partnership Finance Program totaled $117.5 million and $125.2 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Non-Interest Expense

The following table details the principal categories of non-interest expense.

  Years ended December 31, (dollars in thousands)    2017      2016      2015      2017 vs. 2016      2016 vs. 2015  
Salaries  $11,135   $10,926   $10,301   $209    1.91%  $625    6.07%
Employee benefits   3,767    3,891    3,729    (124)   (3.19)   162    4.34 
Premises and equipment   3,831    3,375    3,541    456    13.51    (166)   (4.69)
Data processing   2,057    2,106    1,677    (49)   (2.33)   429    25.58 
Professional fees   2,499    1,933    2,150    566    29.28    (217)   (10.09)
Collections, OREO, and appraisals   2,179    999    567    1,180    118.12    432    76.19 
FDIC insurance   497    606    658    (109)   (17.99)   (52)   (7.90)
Marketing and community support   793    686    593    107    15.60    93    15.68 
Amortization of intangibles   533    601    652    (68)   (11.31)   (51)   (7.82)
Other   2,038    2,264    2,053    (226)   (9.98)   211    10.28 
Non-interest expense  $29,329   $27,387   $25,921   $1,942    7.09%  $1,466    5.66%

Non-interest expenses of $29.3 million for 2017 included charges of $1.7 million related to the write down and loss on the sale of an OREO property compared with OREO charges of $435,000 in 2016. Excluding OREO related charges, non-interest expenses increased $660,000, or 2.45% in 2017 versus 2016. Salary expense increased $209,000 due to changes in staffing levels and mix and merit increases. Employee benefit expense decreased $124,000 primarily as a result of lower deferred compensation and a decrease in employee stock ownership plan expenses. Premises and equipment expense increased $456,000 primarily as a result of the acquisition of the New Paltz branch in June 2017 and the additional lease expense associated with the relocation of the current Newburgh, New York branch to a new location. Building maintenance and depreciation costs for computer equipment and software were also higher. Data processing expense decreased $49,000 mainly as a result of expenses incurred in 2016 related to the conversion of the bank’s core processing system and related infrastructure. The increase of $566,000 in professional fees primarily reflected higher consulting and audit fees as a result of Salisbury’s core system conversion and new general ledger implementation as well as higher legal costs due to the New Paltz branch acquisition. Collections, OREO and appraisal expenses increased $1,180,000 primarily due to the OREO charges noted above, which were partly offset by lower taxes, appraisal and litigation costs. Marketing and community support increased $107,000 mainly related to an increase in general marketing campaigns. Amortization of intangibles decreased $68,000 reflecting the completion of the intangible asset amortization of an acquired branch office. All other operating expenses decreased $226,000.

Income Taxes

The effective income tax rates for 2017 and 2016 were 31.78% and 27.92 %, respectively. Fluctuations in the effective tax rate generally result from changes in the mix of taxable and tax exempt income. In addition, the effective tax rate for 2017 also included a discrete charge of $445,000 related to the remeasurement of Salisbury’s net deferred tax assets as a result of the enactment of the new U.S. tax law in December 2017. Salisbury’s effective tax rate was less than the 34% federal statutory rate due to tax-exempt income, primarily from municipal bonds, tax advantaged loans and bank-owned life insurance. For further information on income taxes, see Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Salisbury did not incur Connecticut income tax in 2017, 2016 or 2015, other than minimum state income tax, as a result of a Connecticut law that permits banks to shelter certain mortgage income from the Connecticut corporation business tax through the use of a special purpose entity called a Passive Investment Company or PIC. In 2004, Salisbury availed itself of this benefit by forming a PIC, SBT Mortgage Service Corporation. Salisbury's income tax provision reflects the full impact of the Connecticut legislation. Salisbury does not expect to pay other than minimum Connecticut state income tax in the foreseeable future unless there is a change in Connecticut tax law.

 

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2016 and 2015

Net Interest and Dividend Income

Net interest and dividend income represents the difference between interest and dividends earned on loans and securities and interest expense incurred on deposits and borrowings. The level of net interest income is a function of volume, rates and mix of both earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Net interest income can be affected by changes in interest rate levels, changes in the volume of assets and liabilities that are subject to re-pricing within different future time periods, and in the level of non-performing assets.

Interest and Dividend Income

Tax equivalent interest and dividend income decreased $0.2 million, or 0.5%, to $35.6 million in 2016.

Loan income increased $0.5 million, or 1.6%, primarily due to a $58.2 million, or 8.5%, increase in average loans, partially offset by a 29 basis point decrease in average yield. Interest income for 2016 and 2015 reflects purchase accounting adjustments consisting of net accretion related to the fair value adjustments of loans acquired in the Riverside Bank acquisition in the amount of $1.8 million and $2.7 million, respectively.

Tax equivalent interest and dividend income from securities decreased $776,000, or 23.1%, in 2016, as a result of a $2.3 million decrease in average security balances, and an 89 basis point decrease in average yield. Contributing factors to the lower yield include the maturity, sale, call or pay down of higher yielding securities resulting in a remaining mix of lower yielding securities in the portfolio. Interest from short term funds increased $53,000 in 2016 as a result of a 24 basis point increase in average yield on short term funds which occurred primarily as a result of the late 2015 increase in the Fed Funds target rate, partially offset by a $14.9 million decrease in average short term balances.

Interest Expense

Interest expense increased $823,000, or 27.2%, to $3.8 million in 2016.

Interest expense on interest bearing deposit accounts increased $337,000, or 18.3%, in 2016, as a result of a $17.2 million, or 3.1%, increase in average interest bearing deposits and a 5 basis point increase in the average rate to 0.38%.

Interest expense on FHLBB advances decreased $117,000, or 11.0%, due to a $3.0 million, or 10.9%, increase in average advances, partially offset by a 75 basis point decrease in the average borrowing rate to 3.07% from 3.82%.

In December 2015, Salisbury issued $10 million of subordinated debentures. Interest expense on the subordinated debt, along with issuance costs, in 2015 totaled $35,000. In 2016 this expense totaled $624,000, which represents an increase of $589,000 as compared to 2015. The proceeds of such issuance, along with cash-on-hand, were used by Salisbury to fully redeem $16 million of its outstanding Series B Preferred Stock, which was issued pursuant to the participation in the U.S. Treasury’s SBLF program.

Provision and Allowance for Loan Losses

The provision for loan losses was $1,835,000 for 2016, compared with $917,000 for 2015. Net loan charge-offs were $1,424,000 and $559,000, for the respective years. The higher provision for loan losses was supported by maintaining an adequate allowance to gross loans as gross loans continue to increase.

The reserve coverage at December 31, 2016, as measured by the ratio of allowance for loan losses to gross loans, was 0.80%, as compared with 0.81% at December 31, 2015. Non-performing loans (non-accrual loans and accruing loans past-due 90 days or more) decreased $7.5 million to $8.8 million, or 1.14% of gross loans receivable, at December 31, 2016, down from 2.31% at December 31, 2015. Accruing loans past due 30-89 days increased $0.4 million to $4.9 million, or 0.64% of gross loans receivable at December 31, 2016. See “Overview – Loan Credit Quality” below for further discussion and analysis.

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Non-Interest Income

Non-interest income increased $617,000, or 8.5%, in 2016 versus 2015. Trust and Wealth Advisory revenues increased $73,000 primarily due to increased market values and a higher volume of assets under management, partially offset by decreased estate fee income. Service charges and fees increased $147,000 mainly due to increased ancillary account service related fees and deposit related fee income. Gains on sales of mortgage loans decreased $45,000 due to pressure on gain on sale margins with rising interest rates. Mortgage loans sales totaled $10.3 million in 2016 versus $8.4 million in 2015. Income from servicing of mortgage loans increased $109,000 due primarily to a slowdown in amortization. Loans serviced under the FHLBB Mortgage Partnership Finance Program totaled $125.2 million and $130.8 million at December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Non-Interest Expense

Non-interest expense increased $1,466,000, or 5.66% in 2016 versus 2015. Salary expense increased $625,000 due to changes in staffing levels and mix and merit increases. Employee benefit expense increased $162,000 primarily as a result of increased deferred compensation, workmen's compensation, and taxes, partially offset by a decrease in employee stock ownership plan expenses. Premises and equipment expense decreased $166,000 primarily as a result of a decrease in building maintenance, lease expense, and utilities expenses. Data processing expense increased $429,000 mainly as a result of expenses related to the conversion of the bank’s core processing system and related infrastructure. Professional fees decreased $217,000 primarily due to decreased consulting (core conversion, technology support, and imaging projects) services. Collections, OREO and appraisal expenses increased $432,000 mainly due to a write down on an OREO property. Marketing and community support increased $93,000 mainly related to an increase in general marketing campaigns. Amortization of intangibles decreased $51,000 reflecting the completion of the intangible asset amortization of an acquired branch office. All other operating expenses increased $211,000.

Income Taxes

The effective income tax rates for 2016 and 2015 were 27.92% and 29.64%, respectively. Fluctuations in the effective tax rate result from changes in the mix of taxable and tax exempt income. Salisbury’s effective tax rate was less than the 34% federal statutory rate due to tax-exempt income, primarily from municipal bonds, tax advantaged loans and bank-owned life insurance. For further information on income taxes, see Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Salisbury did not incur Connecticut income tax in 2016, 2015 or 2014, other than minimum state income tax, as a result of a Connecticut law that permits banks to shelter certain mortgage income from the Connecticut corporation business tax through the use of a special purpose entity called a Passive Investment Company or PIC. In 2004, Salisbury availed itself of this benefit by forming a PIC, SBT Mortgage Service Corporation. Salisbury's income tax provision reflects the full impact of the Connecticut legislation. Salisbury does not expect to pay other than minimum state income tax in the foreseeable future unless there is a change in Connecticut tax law.

Overview

Assets

During 2017, Salisbury’s assets increased by $51.5 million to $987.0 million, while net loans increased $38.5 million at December 31, 2017. At December 31, 2017, Salisbury’s tangible book value per common share was $29.39 and Tier 1 leverage and total risk-based capital ratios were 8.53% and 12.94%, respectively. As of December 31, 2017, the Bank was categorized as "well capitalized."

Securities and Short Term Funds

During 2017, securities increased $0.1 million to $82.9 million, while short-term funds (interest-bearing deposits with other banks) increased $9.0 million to $39.1 million. The carrying values of securities are as follows:

  December 31, (dollars in thousands)    2017      2016      2015  
Available-for-Sale               
U.S. Treasury notes  $   $   $2,541 
U.S. Government agency notes           498 
Municipal bonds   3,486    15,996    30,385 
Mortgage-backed securities   45,868    53,301    32,202 
Collateralized mortgage obligations   13,041    5,209    6,962 
SBA bonds   12,267    2,064    3,096 
Other   4,385    3,053    1,010 
Non-Marketable              
FHLBB stock   3,813    3,211    3,176 
Total Securities  $82,860   $82,834   $79,870 

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The amortized cost, fair value and tax equivalent yield of securities, by maturity, are as follows:

  December 31, 2017 (in thousands) Maturity  Amortized cost      Fair value    Yield(1)  
Municipal bonds  Within 1 year  $353   $353    6.17%
   After 1 year but within 5 years   439    440    5.03%
   After 10 years but within 15 years   1,494    1,500    7.15%
   After 15 years   1,190    1,193    7.13%
   Total   3,476    3,486    6.78%
Mortgage backed securities  U.S. Government Agency and U.S. Government-sponsored enterprises   45,983    45,868    2.33%
Collateralized mortgage obligations  U.S. Government Agency and U.S. Government-sponsored enterprises   10,462    10,377    2.76%
   Non-agency   2,271    2,664    3.97%
SBA bonds      12,278    12,267    2.99%
CRA mutual funds      851    835    2.17%
Corporate bonds  After 5 years but within 10 years   3,500    3,550    5.57%
Securities available-for-sale     $78,821   $79,047    2.87%

(1)       Yield is based on amortized cost.

Salisbury evaluates securities for OTTI where the fair value of a security is less than its amortized cost basis at the balance sheet date. As part of this process, Salisbury considers whether it has the intent to sell each debt security and whether it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the security before its anticipated recovery. If either of these conditions is met, Salisbury recognizes an OTTI charge to earnings equal to the entire difference between the security’s amortized cost basis and its fair value at the balance sheet date. For securities that meet neither of these conditions, an analysis is performed to determine if any of these securities are at risk for OTTI.

Salisbury evaluates securities for strategic fit and may reduce its position in securities, although it is not more likely than not that Salisbury will be required to sell these securities before recovery of their cost basis, which may be maturity, and does not intend to sell these securities. Therefore, management does not consider any of its securities, other than one non-agency CMO security reflecting OTTI, to be OTTI at December 31, 2017.

In 2009 Salisbury determined that five non-agency CMO securities reflected OTTI and recognized losses for deterioration in credit quality of $1,128,000. Salisbury deemed the four remaining securities not to have additional OTTI and all other CMO securities not to be OTTI as of December 31, 2017. It is possible that future loss assumptions could change necessitating Salisbury to recognize future OTTI. Salisbury evaluates securities for strategic fit and may reduce its position in securities, although it is not more likely than not that Salisbury will be required to sell securities before recovery of their cost basis, which may be maturity.

The carrying value of such securities judged to be OTTI are as follows:

Available-for-Sale (dollars in thousands)    Par value    Carrying value      Fair value  
Non-agency CMO               
December 31, 2017  $1,055   $651   $981 
December 31, 2016   1,431    1,008    1,340 
December 31, 2015   1,867    1.419    1,772 

Accumulated other comprehensive income at December 31, 2017 included net unrealized holding gains, net of tax, of $0.2 million, which is a decrease of $0.3 million from December 31, 2016.

Loans

During 2017, net loans receivable increased $38.5 million, or 5%, to $801.7 million at December 31, 2017. Portfolio growth during 2017 reflects the acquisition of the New Paltz branch and Salisbury’s strong market presence.

Salisbury’s retail lending department originates residential mortgage, home equity loans and lines of credit, and consumer loans for the portfolio. During 2017, Salisbury originated $51.3 million of residential mortgage loans and $8.3 million of home equity loans for the portfolio, compared with $70.5 million and $7.8 million, respectively, in 2016. During 2017, total residential mortgage and home equity loans receivable grew by $19.5 million to $380.7 million at December 31, 2017, and represent 47.2% of gross loans receivable. During 2017, Salisbury’s residential mortgage lending department also originated and sold $5.4 million of residential mortgage loans, compared with $10.5 million during 2016. All such sold loans were sold through the FHLBB Mortgage Partnership Finance Program with servicing retained by Salisbury. Consumer loans, amounting to $4.8 million at December 31, 2017, represent 0.6% of gross loans receivable.

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Salisbury’s commercial lending department specializes in lending to small and mid-size companies, businesses and municipalities. More specifically, we meet our clients’ credit needs by providing short-term and long-term financing, construction loans, commercial mortgages, equipment, working capital, property improvement loans and municipal financing. The department also works with both the Small Business Administration (“SBA”) and United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) Government Guaranteed Lending Programs; however, such loans represent a very small percent of the commercial loan portfolio. Salisbury originated $169.0 million of commercial loans during 2017 compared with $155.3 million in 2016. Total commercial loans, which include commercial real estate, commercial and industrial and municipal loans, increased $18.5 million to $409.5 million at December 31, 2017, and represent 50.7% of loans receivable.

Change in Presentation of Loan Balances and Related Credit Metrics

As a result of Salisbury’s acquisition of Riverside Bank in 2014, Salisbury previously disclosed the loan balances, the allowance for loan and lease losses and the credit quality metrics for the acquired loans separately from its business activities loans. As the acquired loan portfolio has become a smaller percentage of Salisbury’s overall loan portfolio, all loan balances and the related credit metrics, including those for prior periods, are presented on a consolidated basis.

The principal categories of loans receivable and loans held-for-sale are as follows:

December 31, (dollars in thousands)    2017      2016      2015      2014      2013  
Residential 1-4 family  $317,639   $301,128   $269,294   $261,481   $231,113 
Residential 5+ multifamily   18,108    13,625    12,547    14,291    4,848 
Construction of residential 1-4 family   11,197    10,951    7,998    2,004    1,876 
Home equity lines of credit   33,771    35,487    35,017    34,627    34,139 
Residential real estate   380,715    361,191    324,856    312,403    271,976 
Commercial   249,311    235,482    218,275    196,397    91,853 
Construction of commercial   9,988    5,398    11,399    27,647    10,948 
Commercial real estate   259,299    240,880    229,674    224,044    102,801 
Farm land   4,274    3,914    3,193    3,239    3,402 
Vacant land   7,883    6,600    8,563    9,342    9,067 
Real estate secured   652,171    612,585    566,286    549,028    387,246 
Commercial and industrial   132,731    141,473    121,421    117,918    46,292 
Municipal   17,494    8,626    9,566    6,083    4,252 
Consumer   4,794    5,380    6,272    4,456    3,889 
Loans receivable, gross   807,190    768,064    703,545    677,485    441,679 
Deferred loan origination fees and costs, net   1,289    1,247    1,189    1,203    1,182 
Allowance for loan losses   (6,776)   (6,127)   (5,716)   (5,358)   (4,683)
Loans receivable, net  $801,703   $763,184   $699,018   $673,330   $438,178 
Loans held for-sale                         
Residential 1-4 family   669        763    568    173 

 

The composition of loans receivable by forecasted maturity distribution is as follows:

December 31, 2017 (in thousands)    Within 1 year    Within 2-5 years      After 5 years      Total  
Residential  $3,426   $9,019   $334,499   $346,944 
Home equity lines of credit   1,302    288    32,181    33,771 
Commercial   21,072    32,656    195,583    249,311 
Construction of commercial   350    441    9,197    9,988 
Land   2,469    174    9,514    12,157 
Real estate secured   28,619    42,578    580,974    652,171 
Commercial and industrial   22,542    34,236    75,953    132,731 
Municipal   9,393    1,399    6,702    17,494 
Consumer   1,012    2,576    1,206    4,794 
Loans receivable, gross  $61,566   $80,789   $664,835   $807,190 

 

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The composition of loans receivable with either fixed, variable or adjustable interest rates is as follows:

December 31, 2017 (in thousands)  Fixed interest rates  Variable or adjustable interest rates  Total Loans
Residential  $156,789   $190,155   $346,944 
Home equity lines of credit       33,771    33,771 
Commercial   115,087    134,224    249,311 
Construction of commercial   2,833    7,155    9,988 
Land   1,811    10,346    12,157 
Real estate secured   276,520    375,651    652,172 
Commercial and industrial   49,744    82,987    132,731 
Municipal   14,784    2,710    17,494 
Consumer   4,336    458    4,794 
Loans receivable, gross  $345,384   $461,806   $807,190 

Loan Credit Quality

Salisbury has cooperative relationships with the vast majority of its non-performing loan customers. Substantially all non-performing loans are collateralized with real estate and the repayment of such loans is largely dependent on the return of such loans to performing status or the liquidation of the underlying real estate collateral. Salisbury pursues the resolution of all non-performing loans through collections, restructures, voluntary liquidation of collateral by the borrower and, where necessary, legal action. When attempts to work with a customer to return a loan to performing status, including restructuring the loan, are unsuccessful, Salisbury will initiate appropriate legal action seeking to acquire property by deed in lieu of foreclosure or through foreclosure, or to liquidate business assets.

Past Due Loans

Loans past due 30 days or more decreased $3.2 million during 2017 to $9.1 million, or 1.13% of gross loans receivable at December 31, 2017, compared with $12.3 million, or 1.60% of gross loans receivable at December 31, 2016. The components of loans past due 30 days or greater are as follows:

(in thousands)    2017      2016      2015  
Past due 30-59 days  $2,594   $3,733   $3,533 
Past due 60-89 days   942    804    966 
Past due 90-179 days   31    256     
Past due 180 days+           90 
Accruing loans   3,567    4,793    4,589 
Past due 30-59 days   1,186    344    306 
Past due 60-89 days   684        27 
Past due 90-179 days   516    2,260    1,320 
Past due 180 days and over   3,164    4,927    9,663 
Non-accrual loans   5,550    7,531    11,316 
Total loans past due 30 days and over  $9,117   $12,324   $15,905 

Credit Quality Segments

Salisbury categorizes loans receivable into the following credit quality segments.

Impaired loans consist of all non-accrual loans and troubled debt restructured loans, and represent loans for which it is probable that Salisbury will not be able to collect all principal and interest amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreements.
Non-accrual loans, a sub-set of impaired loans, are loans for which the accrual of interest has been discontinued because, in the opinion of management, full collection of principal or interest is unlikely.
Non-performing loans consist of non-accrual loans, and accruing loans past due 90 days and over that are well collateralized, in the process of collection and where full collection of principal and interest is reasonably assured. Non-performing assets consist of non-performing loans plus real estate acquired in settlement of loans.
Troubled debt restructured loans are loans for which concessions such as reduction of interest rates, other than normal market rate adjustments, or deferral of principal or interest payments, extension of maturity dates, or reduction of principal balance or accrued interest, have been granted due to a borrower’s financial condition. Loan restructuring is employed when management believes the granting of a concession will increase the probability of the full or partial collection of principal and interest.
Potential problem loans consist of performing loans that have been assigned a substandard credit risk rating and are not classified as impaired.

 

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Non-Performing Assets

Non-performing assets decreased $5.2 million to $7.4 million at December 31, 2017, or 0.74% of assets, from $12.6 million or 1.34% of assets at December 31, 2016. The components of non-performing assets are as follows:

December 31, (in thousands)    2017      2016      2015      2014      2013  
Commercial  $3,622   $4,901   $4,611   $3,150   $1,857 
Vacant land           2,855    2,862    2,870 
Farm land   250    1,002    1,031    384    384 
Residential 1-4 family   2,045    1,920    6,446    3,007    1,525 
Residential 5+ multifamily   151    163    89    89     
Home equity lines of credit   66    519    601    348    402 
Real estate secured   6,134    8,505    15,633    9,840    7,038 
Commercial and industrial   470    27    461    33    134 
Consumer       4    80         
Non-accrual loans   6,604    8,536    16,174    9,873    7,172 
Accruing loans past due 90 days and over   31    256    90    17     
Non-performing loans   6,635    8,792    16,264    9,890    7,172 
Real estate acquired in settlement of loans, net   719    3,773        1,002    377 
Non-performing assets  $7,354   $12,565   $16,264   $10,892   $7,549 

Reductions in interest income associated with non-accrual loans are as follows:

Years ended December 31, (in thousands)    2017      2016      2015  
Income in accordance with original terms  $992   $1,085   $1,416 
Income recognized   673    404    327 
Reduction in interest income  $319   $681   $1,089 

The past due status of non-performing loans is as follows:

December 31, (in thousands)    2017      2016      2015  
Current  $1,054   $1,005   $4,858 
Past due 30-59 days   1,186    344    306 
Past due 60-89 days   684        27 
Past due 90-179 days   546    2,516    1,320 
Past due 180 days and over   3,165    4,927    9,753 
Total non-performing loans  $6,635   $8,792   $16,264 

At December 31, 2017, 15.89% of non-performing loans were current with respect to loan payments, compared with 11.43% at December 31, 2016. Loans past due 180 days and over are substantially all mortgage loans in the process of foreclosure or liquidation.

Salisbury endeavors to work constructively to resolve its non-performing loan issues with customers. Substantially all non-performing loans are collateralized with real estate and the repayment of such loans is largely dependent on the return of such loans to performing status or the liquidation of the underlying real estate collateral.

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Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

Troubled debt restructured loans decreased $1.4 million in 2017 to $8.6 million, or 1.07% of gross loans receivable, from $10.1 million, or 1.31% of gross loans receivable at December 31, 2016. The components of troubled debt restructured loans are as follows:

December 31, (in thousands)    2017      2016      2015  
Residential 1-4 family  $3,138   $3,209   $2,669 
Residential 5+ multifamily   1,595    1,660    1,682 
Home equity lines of credit   47    114    118 
Personal           222 
Vacant land   199    210    122 
Commercial   2,454    2,549    2,666 
Real estate secured   7,433    7,742    7,479 
Commercial and industrial   49    56    65 
Accruing troubled debt restructured loans   7,482    7,798    7,544 
Residential 1-4 family   269    77    1,149 
Residential 5+ multifamily   151    163     
Commercial   624    2,022    1,554 
Real estate secured   1,044    2,262    2,703 
Commercial and Industrial   110        341 
Non-accrual troubled debt restructured loans   1,154    2,262    3,044 
Troubled debt restructured loans  $8,636   $10,060   $10,588 

The past due status of troubled debt restructured loans is as follows:

December 31, (in thousands)    2017      2016      2015  
Current  $7,293   $7,683   $7,224 
Past due 30-59 days   189    115    320 
Past due 60-89 days            
Accruing troubled debt restructured loans   7,482    7,798    7,544 
Current   530    240    1,810 
Past due 30-59 days           28 
Past due 60-89 days   624         
Past due 90-179 days       1,793    1,206 
Past due 180 days and over       229     
Non-accrual troubled debt restructured loans   1,154    2,262    3,044 
Total troubled debt restructured loans  $8,636   $10,060   $10,588 

At December 31, 2017, 90.59% of troubled debt restructured loans were current with respect to loan payments, as compared with 78.76% at December 31, 2016. As of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, there were specific reserves on troubled debt restructured loans amounting to $245,000, $208,000, and $454,000, respectively.

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Potential Problem Loans

Potential problem loans consist of performing loans that have been assigned a substandard credit risk rating and are not classified as impaired. Potential problem loans increased $2.6 million during 2017 to $9.9 million or 1.23% of gross loans receivable at December 31, 2017, compared with $7.3 million, or 0.95% of gross loans receivable at December 31, 2016. The components of potential problem loans are as follows:

December 31, (in thousands)    2017      2016      2015  
Residential 1-4 family  $1,432   $514   $655 
Residential 5+ multifamily            
Construction of residential 1-4 family            
Home equity lines of credit   104    123    150 
Residential real estate   1,536    637    805 
Commercial   7,905    6,057    2,030 
Construction of commercial            
Commercial real estate   7,905    6,057    2,030 
Farm land            
Vacant land           23 
Real estate secured   9,441    6,694    2,858 
Commercial and industrial   457    581    478 
Consumer           6 
Other classified loans receivable  $9,898   $7,275   $3,342 

The past due status of potential problem loans is as follows:

December 31, (in thousands)    2017      2016      2015  
Current  $8,520   $6,383   $2,945 
Past due 30-59 days   1,291    826    150 
Past due 60-89 days    56    66    247 
Past due 90-179 days   31         
Total potential problem loans  $9,898   $7,275   $3,342 

At December 31, 2017, 86.08% of potential problem loans were current with respect to loan payments, as compared with 87.73% at December 31, 2016. Management cannot predict the extent to which economic or other factors may impact such borrowers’ future payment capacity, and there can be no assurance that such loans will not be placed on nonaccrual status, restructured, or require increased provisions for loan losses.

Deposits and Borrowings

Deposits increased $33.7 million during 2017, or 4.3%, to $815.5 million at December 31, 2017, compared with $781.8 million at December 31, 2016. Retail repurchase agreements decreased $3.8 million during 2017 to $1.7 million at December 31, 2017, compared with $5.5 million at December 31, 2016. Total deposits at December 31, 2017 include a single relationship totaling $30.5 million, or 3.74% of total deposits.

The distribution of average total deposits by account type is as follows:

   December 31, 2017  December 31, 2016
(in thousands)  Average Balance  Percent  Weighted Average  Average Balance  Percent  Weighted Average
Demand deposits  $216,164    26.83%   0.00%  $199,163    25.68%   0.00%
Interest-bearing checking accounts   135,756    16.85    0.23    125,563    16.19    0.29 
Regular savings accounts   145,779    18.09    0.29    127,539    16.45    0.18 
Money market savings   191,407    23.76    0.36    200,760    25.89    0.28 
Certificates of deposit   116,608    14.47    0.90    122,475    15.79    0.84 
Total deposits  $805,714    100.00%   0.31%  $775,500    100.00%   0.28%

 

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The classification of certificates of deposit by interest rates is as follows:

   At December 31,
Interest rates  2017  2016
Less than 1.00%  $50,226   $58,975 
1.00% to 1.99%   52,558    40,993 
2.00% to 2.99%   14,047    17,618 
3.00% to 3.99%        
4.00% to 4.99%        
Total  $116,831   $117,586 

 

The distribution of certificates of deposit by interest rate and maturity is as follows:

   At December 31, 2017
Interest rates  Less Than or Equal to One Year  More Than One to Two Years  More Than Two to Three Years 

More Than Three Years

  Total  Percent of Total
Less than 1.00%  $42,766   $7,417   $42   $1   $50,226    42.99%
1.00% to 1.99%   13,288    18,090    9,816    11,364    52,558    44.99 
2.00% to 2.99%       3,623    5,338    5,086    14,047    12.02 
3.00% to 3.99%                       0.00 
4.00% to 4.99%                       0.00 
Total  $56,054   $29,130   $15,196   $16,451   $116,831    100.00%

 

Scheduled maturities of time certificates of deposit in denominations of $100,000 or more are as follows:

December 31, 2017 (in thousands)  Within
3 months
  Within
3-6 months
  Within
6-12 months
  Over
1 year
  Total
Certificates of deposit $100,000 and over  $7,454   $7,479   $14,397   $35,555   $64,885 

FHLBB advances increased $17.2 million during 2017 to $54.4 million at December 31, 2017, compared with $37.2 million at December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to three short term loans totaling $27 million entered into during December 2017 and maturing in January 2018. Salisbury has an Irrevocable Letter of Credit Reimbursement Agreement with the FHLBB, whereby upon the Bank’s request an irrevocable letter of credit is issued to secure municipal and certain other transactional deposit accounts.  These letters of credit are secured primarily by residential mortgage loans.  The amount of funds available from the FHLBB to the Bank is reduced by any letters of credit outstanding.  At December 31, 2017, there were no such letters of credit outstanding.

The following table sets forth certain information concerning short-term FHLBB advances:

December 31, (dollars in thousands)    2017    2016  
Highest month-end balance during period  $30,000   $20,000 
Ending balance   27,000    10,000 
Average balance during period   8,013    3,770 
Weighted average rate during period   1.03%   0.55%

Subordinated Debentures

In December 2015, Salisbury completed the issuance of $10.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.00% Fixed to Floating Rate Subordinated Notes Due 2025 (the “Notes”) in a private placement transaction to various accredited investors including $500 thousand to certain of Salisbury’s related parties. The Notes have a maturity date of December 15, 2025 and bear interest at an annual rate of 6.00% from and including the original issue date of the Notes to, but excluding, December 15, 2020 or the earlier redemption date payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year. Thereafter, from and including December 15, 2020 to, but excluding, December 15, 2025, the annual interest rate will be reset quarterly and equal to the three-month LIBOR, plus 430 basis points, as described in the Notes, payable quarterly, in arrears, on March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15 of each year during the time that the Notes remain outstanding through December 15, 2025 or earlier redemption date. The notes are redeemable, without penalty, on or after December 15, 2020 and, in certain limited circumstances, prior to that date. As more completely described in the Notes, the indebtedness evidenced by the Notes, including principal and interest, is unsecured and subordinate and junior in right of Salisbury’s payments to general and secured creditors and depositors of the Bank. The Notes also contain provisions with respect to redemption features and other matters pertaining to the Notes. The Notes have been structured to qualify as Tier 2 capital for regulatory capital purposes, subject to applicable limitations.

Subordinated debentures totaled $9.8 million at December 31, 2017, which includes $189 thousand of remaining unamortized debt issuance costs. The debt issuance costs are being amortized to maturity. The effective interest rate of the subordinated debentures is 6.36%.

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OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS AND CONTRACTUAL CASH OBLIGATIONS

In the normal course of business, Salisbury enters into various contractual obligations that may require future cash payments. Contractual obligations at December 31, 2017 include operating leases, capital leases, contractual purchases and certain other benefit plans. For further discussion regarding leases see Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

The accompanying table summarizes Salisbury’s off-balance sheet lending-related financial instruments and significant cash obligations, by remaining maturity, at December 31, 2017. Salisbury’s lending-related financial instruments include commitments that have maturities over one year. Contractual purchases include commitments for future cash expenditures, primarily for services and contracts that reflect the minimum contractual obligation under legally enforceable contracts with contract terms that are both fixed and determinable. Excluded from the following table are a number of obligations to be settled in cash, primarily in under one year. These obligations are reflected in Salisbury’s Consolidated Balance Sheets and include deposits, FHLBB advances and repurchase agreements that settle within standard market timeframes.

December 31, 2017 (in thousands)  Within  Within  Within  After 
By Remaining Maturity  1 year  1-3 years  4-5 years  5 years  Total
Residential  $2,694   $6,095   $109   $7,871   $16,769 
Home equity lines of credit   148    396        28,487    29,031 
Commercial   1,263    4,900    2,727    17,255    26,145 
Land               64    64 
Real estate secured   4,105    11,391    2,836    53,677    72,009 
Commercial and industrial   17,561    4,557    495    41,329    63,942 
Municipal   188                188 
Consumer   2            1,572    1,574 
Unadvanced portions of loans   21,856    15,948    3,331    96,578    137,713 
Commitments to originate loans   28,222                28,222 
Standby letters of credit   2,520    2,324        61    4,905 
Total  $52,598   $18,272   $3,331   $96,639   $170,840 

 

LIQUIDITY

Salisbury manages its liquidity position to ensure it has sufficient funding availability at all times to meet both anticipated and unanticipated deposit withdrawals, loan originations and advances, securities purchases and other operating cash outflows. Salisbury’s primary source of liquidity is deposits and though its preferred funding strategy is to attract and retain low cost deposits, its ability to do so is affected by competitive interest rates and terms in its marketplace, and other financial market conditions. Other sources of funding include cash flows from loan and securities principal payments and maturities, funds provided by operations, and discretionary use of national market certificates of deposit and FHLBB advances. Liquidity can also be provided through sales of securities and loans.

Salisbury manages its liquidity in accordance with a liquidity funding policy, and also maintains a contingency funding plan that provides for the prompt and comprehensive response to unexpected demands for liquidity. At December 31, 2017, Salisbury's liquidity ratio, as represented by cash, short term available-for-sale securities and marketable assets to net deposits and short term unsecured liabilities, was 20.51%, down from 21.89% at December 31, 2016. Management believes Salisbury’s funding sources will meet anticipated funding needs.

Operating activities for 2017 provided net cash of $10.2 million. Investing activities utilized net cash of $9.9 million, principally from loan originations and principal collections of $32.5 million and purchases of securities of $36.7 million, offset by sales, calls, and maturities of securities of $36.8 million. Financing activities provided net cash of $12.7 million, principally from a net deposit increase of $2.4 million and FHLBB advances of $17 million, offset by a decrease of $3.9 million in securities sold under agreements to repurchase and common stock dividends of $3.1 million.

Operating activities for 2016 provided net cash of $11.3 million. Investing activities utilized net cash of $74.0 million, principally from loan originations and principal collections of $69.2 million and purchases of securities of $56.2 million, offset by sales, calls, and maturities of securities of $52.7 million. Financing activities provided net cash of $36.1 million, principally from a net deposit increase of $33.9 million and an FHLBB advance of $10 million, offset by a non-time deposits decrease of $6.6 million.

Operating activities for 2015 provided net cash of $8.1 million. Investing activities utilized net cash of $10.3 million, principally from sales, calls and maturities of securities of $29.5 million, offset by purchases of securities available-for-sale of $16.4 million and net loan originations and purchases of $24.5 million. Financing activities provided net cash of $28.3 million, principally from a net deposit and issuance of subordinated debt increase of $49.3 million, offset by payoff of SBLF preferred stock, repurchase agreements, repayment, modifications, and maturities of FHLBB advances of $18.0 million and cash dividend payments, on common and preferred stock, of $3.3 million.

 

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CAPITAL RESOURCES

Shareholders’ Equity

Shareholders’ equity increased $3.5 million in 2017 to $97.5 million at December 31, 2017. Contributing to the increase in shareholders’ equity was net income of $6.3 million, stock options exercised of $0.3 million and restricted stock awards of $0.3 million, partially offset by common stock dividends declared of $3.1 million and a loss in other comprehensive income of $0.3 million.

Preferred Stock

In August 2011, Salisbury issued to the Treasury $16 million of its Series B Preferred Stock under the SBLF program. The SBLF program is a $30 billion fund established under the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 to encourage lending to small businesses by providing Tier 1 capital to qualified community banks with assets of less than $10 billion. The Preferred Stock qualifies as Tier 1 capital for regulatory purposes and ranks senior to the Common Stock.

Salisbury paid noncumulative dividends on the Series B Preferred Stock. The dividend rate on the Series B Preferred Stock for the initial ten quarterly dividend periods, commencing with the period ended September 30, 2011 and ending with the period ended December 31, 2013, was determined each quarter based on the increase in the Bank’s Qualified Small Business Lending over a baseline amount. The dividend rate for the quarterly period ended December 31, 2015 was 1.0%. For the eleventh quarterly dividend payment through four and one-half years after its issuance, the dividend rate on the Series B Preferred Stock would have been 1.0%. Salisbury redeemed all of its Series B Preferred Stock in December 2015 prior to the scheduled increase in the dividend rate on such securities. Commencing with the second quarter of 2016, four and one-half years from its issuance, the dividend rate would have been fixed at 9.0% per annum.

In December 2015, Salisbury issued $10 million of subordinated debentures and used the proceeds along with other cash-on-hand to redeem all of the Series B Preferred Stock.

Capital Requirements

Salisbury and the Bank are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by the federal banking agencies. Under current regulatory definitions, Salisbury and the Bank meet all capital adequacy requirements to which they are subject and the Bank is considered to be well-capitalized. As a result, the Bank pays lower federal deposit insurance premiums than those banks that are not “well capitalized.” Requirements for classification as a well-capitalized institution and for minimum capital adequacy along with Salisbury’s and the Bank's regulatory capital ratios are as follows at December 31, 2017 and 2016 under the regulatory capital rules then in effect:

   Minimum for Capital Adequacy  Well Capitalized  December 31, 2017  December 31, 2016
     2017      2016      2017      2016      Salisbury      Bank      Salisbury      Bank  
Total Capital (to risk-weighted assets)   8.00%   8.00%   10.00%   10.00%   12.94%   12.54%   13.26%   12.92%
Common Equity Tier 1 Capital   4.50    4.50    6.50    6.50    10.73    11.64    11.02    12.05 
Tier 1 Capital (to risk-weighted assets)   6.00    6.00    8.00    8.00    10.73    11.64    11.02    12.05 
Tier 1 Capital (to average assets)   4.00    4.00    5.00    5.00    8.53    9.25    8.69    9.51 

A well-capitalized institution, which is the highest capital category for an institution as defined by the Prompt Corrective Action regulations issued by the FDIC and the FRB, is one which maintains a Total Risk-Based ratio of 10% or above, a Tier 1 Risk-Based ratio of 8% or above, a Common Equity Tier 1 ratio of 6.5% or above, and a Leverage ratio of 5% or above, and is not subject to any written order, written agreement, capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level. Maintaining strong capital is essential to Salisbury and the Bank’s safety and soundness. However, the effective management of capital resources requires generating attractive returns on equity to build value for shareholders while maintaining appropriate levels of capital to fund growth, meet regulatory requirements and be consistent with prudent industry practices.

In July 2013, the Federal Reserve Bank (FRB) approved the final rules implementing the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s capital guidelines for bank holding companies and their bank subsidiaries. On July 9, 2013, the FDIC substantially approved, as an interim final rule, the regulatory capital requirements for U.S. banks, following the actions of the FRB. On April 8, 2014, the FDIC adopted as final its interim final rule, which is identical in substance to the final rules issued by the FRB in July 2013. Under the final rules, minimum requirements increased for both the quantity and quality of capital held by the Bank and Salisbury. The rules include a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets minimum ratio of 4.5%, a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 6.0%, require a minimum ratio of Total capital to risk-weighted assets of 8.0%, and require a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4.0%. A capital conservation buffer, comprised of common equity Tier 1 capital, is also established above the regulatory minimum capital requirements. This capital conservation buffer began phasing in January 1, 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and increases each subsequent year by an additional 0.625% until reaching its final level of 2.50% on January 1, 2019. Strict eligibility criteria for regulatory capital instruments were also implemented under the final rules.

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The phase-in period for the final rules began for Salisbury and the Bank on January 1, 2015. As of December 31, 2017, the Company and the Bank met each of their capital requirements and the most recent notification from the FDIC categorized the Bank as “well-capitalized.” There are no conditions or events since that notification that management believes have changed the Bank’s category.

Dividends

During 2017 and 2016, Salisbury declared and paid four quarterly common stock dividends of $0.28 per common share each quarter, totaling $3,113,000 and $3,086,000, respectively. The Board of Directors of Salisbury declared a common stock dividend of $0.28 per common share payable on February 23, 2018 to shareholders of record on February 9, 2018. Common stock dividends, when declared, will generally be paid the last business day of February, May, August and November, although Salisbury is not obligated to pay dividends on those dates or at any other time.

During 2015, Salisbury declared Series B Preferred Stock dividends of $158,000 to the Treasury. In December 2015, Salisbury redeemed all $16 million shares of its Series B Preferred Stock and, therefore, will not have to pay future dividends to the Treasury with respect to such stock.

Salisbury's ability to pay cash dividends is dependent on the Bank's ability to pay cash dividends to Salisbury. There are certain restrictions on the payment of cash dividends and other payments by the Bank to Salisbury. Under Connecticut law, the Bank cannot declare a cash dividend except from net profits, defined as the remainder of all earnings from current operations. The total of all cash dividends declared by the Bank in any calendar year shall not, unless specifically approved by the Banking Commissioner, exceed the total of its net profits of that year combined with its retained net profits of the preceding two years.

FRB Supervisory Letter SR 09-4, February 24, 2009, revised March 30, 2009, states that, as a general matter, the Board of Directors of a Bank Holding Company (“BHC”) should inform the Federal Reserve and should eliminate, defer, or significantly reduce dividends if (1) net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends previously paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends; (2) the prospective rate of earnings retention is not consistent with capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition; or (3) the BHC will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios. Moreover, a BHC should inform the Federal Reserve reasonably in advance of declaring or paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period (e.g., quarter) for which the dividend is being paid or that could result in a material adverse change to the BHC capital position.

Salisbury believes that the payment of common stock cash dividends is appropriate, provided that such payment considers Salisbury's capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition and does not adversely affect the financial stability of Salisbury or the Bank. The continued payment of common stock cash dividends by Salisbury will be dependent on Salisbury's future core earnings, financial condition and capital needs, regulatory restrictions, and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors of Salisbury.

RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for details of recently issued accounting pronouncements and their expected impact on Salisbury’s consolidated financial statements.

IMPACT OF INFLATION AND CHANGING PRICES

Salisbury’s consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto presented elsewhere in this Form 10-K are prepared in conformity with GAAP, which require the measurement of financial condition and operating results in terms of historical dollars without considering changes in the relative purchasing power of money, over time, due to inflation. Unlike some other types of companies, the financial nature of Salisbury’s consolidated financial statements is more clearly affected by changes in interest rates than by inflation. Interest rates do not necessarily fluctuate in the same direction or in the same magnitude as the prices of goods and services. However, inflation does affect Salisbury to some extent because, as prices increase, the money supply grows and interest rates are affected by inflationary expectations. There is no precise method, however, to measure the effects of inflation on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Accordingly, any examination or analysis of the financial statements should take into consideration the possible effects of inflation. Although not a material factor in recent years, inflation could impact earnings in future periods.

 

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Item 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Salisbury manages its exposure to interest rate risk through its Asset/Liability Management Committee (“ALCO”) using risk limits and policy guidelines to manage assets and funding liabilities to produce financial results that are consistent with Salisbury’s liquidity, capital adequacy, growth, risk and profitability targets. Interest rate risk is the risk of a negative impact to future earnings due to changes in interest rates.

The ALCO manages interest rate risk using income simulation to measure interest rate risk inherent in Salisbury’s financial instruments at a given point in time by showing the effect of interest rate shifts on net interest income over a 24-month horizon. In management’s December 31, 2017 analysis, the simulations incorporate static growth assumptions over the simulation horizons for regulatory compliance and interest rate risk measurement purposes. In the dynamic growth scenarios, allowances are made for loan, deposit and security product mix shifts in selected interest rate scenarios, such as movements between lower rate savings and money market deposit accounts and higher rate time deposits, and changes in the reinvestment of loan and securities cash flows. Additionally, the simulations take into account the specific re-pricing, maturity and prepayment characteristics of differing financial instruments that may vary under different interest rate scenarios.

The ALCO reviews the simulation results to determine whether Salisbury’s exposure to change in net interest income remains within established tolerance levels over the simulation horizons and to develop appropriate strategies to manage this exposure. Salisbury’s tolerance levels for changes in net interest income in its income simulations varies depending on the magnitude of interest rate changes and level of risk-based capital. All changes are measured in comparison to the projected net interest income that would result from an “unchanged” rate scenario where interest rates remain stable over the forecast horizon. The ALCO also evaluates the directional trends of net interest income, net interest margin and other financial measures over the forecast horizon for consistency with its liquidity, capital adequacy, growth, risk and profitability targets.

ALCO uses four interest rate scenarios to evaluate interest risk exposure and may vary these interest rate scenarios to show the effect of steepening or flattening changes in yield curves as well as parallel changes in interest rates. At December 31, 2017, ALCO used the following interest rate scenarios: (1) unchanged interest rates; (2) immediately rising interest rates – immediate parallel upward shift in market interest rates of 300 basis points across the yield curve; (3) immediately falling interest rates – immediate parallel downward shift in market interest rates of 100 basis points across the yield curve; and (4) gradual and non-parallel increase in interest rates – upward shift in market interest rates ranging from 372 basis points for the 2-year Treasury rates to 284 basis points for the 10-year Treasury. Deposit rates are assumed to shift by lesser amounts due to their relative historical insensitivity to market interest rate movements. Further, deposits are assumed to have certain minimum rate levels below which they will not fall. Income simulations do not reflect adjustments in strategy that the ALCO could implement in response to rate shifts.

As of December 31, 2017, net interest income simulations indicated that Salisbury’s exposure to changing interest rates over the simulation horizons remained within its tolerance levels, except for year two in the immediately falling interest rate scenario. The following table sets forth the estimated change in net interest income from an unchanged interest rate scenario over the periods indicated for changes in market interest rates using Salisbury’s financial instruments as of December 31, 2017.

  December 31, 2017 (in thousands)    Months 1-12      Months 13-24  
Immediately rising interest rates +300bp (static growth assumptions)   (6.89)%   0.18%
Immediately falling interest rates -100bp (static growth assumptions)   (2.30)   (6.92)
Immediately rising interest rates +400bp (static growth assumptions)   (2.35)   (5.86)

The negative exposure of net interest income to immediately and gradually rising rates as compared to the unchanged rate scenario results from a faster projected rise in the cost of funds versus income from earning assets, as relatively rate-sensitive money market and time deposits re-price faster than longer duration earning assets. The negative exposure of net interest income to immediately falling rates as compared to an unchanged rate scenario results from a greater decline in earning asset yields compared to rates paid on funding liabilities, as a result of faster prepayments on existing assets and lower reinvestment rates on future loans originated and securities purchased.

While the ALCO reviews simulation assumptions and back-tests simulation results to ensure that they are reasonable and current, income simulation may not always prove to be an accurate indicator of interest rate risk or future net interest margin. Over time, the re-pricing, maturity and prepayment characteristics of financial instruments and the composition of Salisbury’s balance sheet may change to a different degree than estimated. Simulation modeling assumes Salisbury’s expectation for future balance sheet growth, which is a function of the business environment and customer behavior. Another significant simulation assumption is the sensitivity of core savings deposits to fluctuations in interest rates. Income simulation results assume that changes in both core savings deposit rates and balances are related to changes in short-term interest rates. The relationship between short-term interest rate changes and core deposit rate and balance changes may differ from those used in ALCO’s estimates for income simulation. Lastly, mortgage-backed securities and mortgage loans involve a level of risk that unforeseen changes in prepayment speeds may cause related cash flows to vary significantly in differing rate environments. Such changes could affect the level of reinvestment risk associated with cash flow from these instruments, as well as their market value. Changes in prepayment speeds could also increase or decrease the amortization of premium or accretion of discounts related to such instruments, thereby affecting interest income.

 39 

 

Salisbury also monitors the potential change in market value of its available-for-sale debt securities in changing interest rate environments. The purpose is to determine market value exposure that may not be captured by income simulation, but which might result in changes to Salisbury’s capital and liquidity position. Results are calculated using industry-standard analytical techniques and securities data. Available-for-sale equity securities are excluded from this analysis because the market value of such securities cannot be directly correlated with changes in interest rates. The following table summarizes the potential change in market value of available-for-sale debt securities resulting from immediate parallel rate shifts:

  December 31, 2017 (in thousands)Rates up 100bp  Rates up 200bp  
Municipal bonds  $(7)  $(31)
Mortgage backed securities   (867)   (2,071)
Collateralized mortgage obligations   (436)   (936)
SBA pools   (685)   (1,281)
Other   (117)   (229)
Total available-for-sale debt securities  $(2,112)  $(4,548)

 

 

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Item 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

  Page
Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firms 42
Consolidated Balance Sheets 43
Consolidated Statements of Income 44
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income 45
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders' Equity 45
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows 46-47
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements 48-83

 

 

 41 

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

  

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Salisbury Bancorp, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements and Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary (the Company) as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, changes in shareholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the financial statements). We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in 2013.

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, in conformity with accounting principles general accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by COSO in 2013.

Basis for Opinions

The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Assessment of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements and an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. 

Our audits of the financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

  

 /s/ Baker Newman & Noyes LLC

Portsmouth, New Hampshire

March 15, 2018

 

We (or our predecessor firms) have served as the Company’s auditor consecutively since 1993.

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Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

  December 31, (dollars in thousands, except par value)    2017      2016  
ASSETS          
Cash and due from banks  $9,357   $5,434 
Interest bearing demand deposits with other banks   39,129    30,051 
Total cash and cash equivalents   48,486    35,485 
Securities          
Available-for-sale at fair value   79,047    79,623 
Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston stock at cost   3,813    3,211 
Loans held-for-sale   669     
Loans receivable, net (allowance for loan losses: $6,776 and $6,127)   801,703    763,184 
Other real estate owned   719    3,773 
Bank premises and equipment, net   16,401    14,398 
Goodwill   13,815    12,552 
Intangible assets (net of accumulated amortization: $4,044 and $3,511)   1,837    1,737 
Accrued interest receivable   2,665    2,424 
Cash surrender value of life insurance policies   14,381    14,038 
Deferred taxes   677    1,367 
Other assets   2,771    3,574 
Total Assets  $986,984   $935,366 
LIABILITIES and SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY          
Deposits          
Demand (non-interest bearing)  $220,536   $218,420 
Demand (interest bearing)   142,575    127,854 
Money market   190,953    182,476 
Savings and other   144,600    135,435 
Certificates of deposit   116,831    117,585 
Total deposits   815,495    781,770 
Repurchase agreements   1,668    5,535 
Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston advances   54,422    37,188 
Subordinated debt   9,811    9,788 
Note payable   313    344 
Capital lease liability   1,835    418 
Accrued interest and other liabilities   5,926    6,316 
Total Liabilities   889,470    841,359 
Shareholders' Equity          
Common stock - $0.10 per share par value          
Authorized: 5,000,000;          
Issued: 2,872,578 and 2,859,654          
Outstanding: 2,785,216 and 2,758,086   279    276 
Unearned compensation - restricted stock awards   (606)   (352)
Paid-in capital   42,998    42,085 
Retained earnings   54,664    51,521 
Accumulated other comprehensive income, net   179    477 
Total Shareholders' Equity   97,514    94,007 
Total Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity  $986,984   $935,366 

 

 43 

 

Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME

 

  Years ended December 31, (in thousands except per share amounts)   2017      2016      2015  
Interest and dividend income               
Interest and fees on loans  $33,090   $32,050   $31,791 
Interest on debt securities               
Taxable   1,566    1,183    1,179 
Tax exempt   380    927    1,431 
Other interest and dividends   485    294    209 
Total interest and dividend income   35,521    34,454    34,610 
Interest expense               
Deposits   2,483    2,181    1,844 
Repurchase agreements   5    6    7 
Capital lease   96    70    70 
Note payable   18    21    6 
Subordinated debt   624    624    35 
Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston advances   1,012    947    1,064 
    Total interest expense   4,238    3,849    3,026 
Net interest and dividend income   31,283    30,605    31,584 
Provision for loan losses   1,020    1,835    917 
Net interest and dividend income after provision for loan losses   30,263    28,770    30,667 
Non-interest income               
Trust and wealth advisory   3,477    3,338    3,265 
Service charges and fees   3,718    3,133    2,986 
Gains on sales of mortgage loans, net   125    229    274 
Mortgage servicing, net   255    156    47 
Gains on securities, net   178    584    192 
Other   483    451    510 
Total non-interest income   8,236    7,891    7,274 
Non-interest expense               
Salaries   11,135    10,926    10,301 
Employee benefits   3,767    3,891    3,729 
Premises and equipment   3,831    3,375    3,541 
Data processing   2,057    2,106    1,677 
Professional fees   2,499    1,933    2,150 
Collections, OREO, and appraisals   2,179    999    567 
FDIC insurance   497    606    658 
Marketing and community support   793    686    593 
Amortization of intangibles   533    601    652 
Other   2,038    2,264    2,053 
Total non-interest expense   29,329    27,387    25,921 
Income before income taxes   9,170    9,274    12,020 
Income tax provision   2,914    2,589    3,563 
Net income  $6,256   $6,685   $8,457 
Net income allocated to common stock  $6,201   $6,633   $8,227 
                
Basic earnings per common share  $2.25   $2.43   $3.04 
Weighted average common shares outstanding, to calculate basic earnings per share   2,755    2,733    2,706 
Diluted earnings per common share   2.24    2.41    3.02 
Weighted average common shares outstanding, to calculate diluted earnings per share   2,774    2,749    2,723 
Common dividends per share   1.12    1.12    1.12 

 

 44 

 

Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

 

  Years ended December 31, (in thousands except per share amounts)   2017      2016      2015  
Net income  $6,256   $6,685   $8,457 
Other comprehensive (loss)               
Net unrealized (losses) on securities available-for-sale   (318)   (399)   (1,297)
Reclassification of net realized gains in net income   (178)   (584)   (192)
Unrealized (losses) on securities available-for-sale   (496)   (983)   (1,489)
Income tax benefit   198    335    506 
Unrealized (losses) on securities available-for-sale, net of tax   (298)   (648)   (983)
Other comprehensive (loss), net of tax   (298)   (648)   (983)
Comprehensive income  $5,958   $6,037   $7,474 

 

Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY

 

                             Unearned    Accumulated      
                             compensation-    other comp-    Total 
    Common Stock                   restricted    rehensive    share- 
(in thousands,             Preferred    Paid-in    Retained    stock    income    holders’ 
except share amounts)   Shares    Amount    Stock    capital    earnings    awards    (loss)    equity 
Balances at December 31, 2014    2,720,766   $272   $16,000   $41,077   $42,677   $(313)  $2,108   $101,821 
Net income for year                   8,457            8,457 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax                           (983)   (983)
Common stock dividends declared ($1.12 per share)                   (3,054)           (3,054)
Preferred stock dividends declared                   (158)           (158)
Stock options exercised   9,450    1        182                183 
Issuance of common stock for executives   1,000            29                29 
Forfeiture of restricted common stock   (300)           (7)       7         
Issuance of common stock for directors fees   2,660            81                81 
Stock based compensation-restricted stock awards               2        196        198 
Redemption of preferred stock           (16,000)                   (16,000)
Balances at December 31, 2015   2,733,576   $273   $   $41,364   $47,922   $(110)  $1,125   $90,574 
Net income for year                   6,685            6,685 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax                           (648)   (648)
Common stock dividends declared ($1.12 per share)                   (3,086)           (3,086)
Stock options exercised   4,050            87                87 
Issuance of restricted common stock   15,800    2        464        (466)        
Forfeiture of restricted common stock   (100)           (3)       3         
Issuance of common stock for directors fees   4,760    1        140                141 
Stock based compensation-restricted stock awards                       221        221 
Tax benefit from stock compensation               33                33 
Balances at December 31, 2016   2,758,086   $276   $   $42,085   $51,521   $(352)  $477   $94,007 
Net income for year                   6,256            6,256 
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax                           (298)   (298)
Common stock dividends declared ($1.12 per share)                   (3,113)           (3,113)
Stock options exercised   12,150    1        315                316 
Issuance of restricted common stock   11,800    2        462        (464)        
Forfeiture of restricted common stock   (900)           (28)       28         
Issuance of common stock for directors fees   2,056            81                81 
Issuance of directors restricted stock awards   2,024            83        (83)        
Stock based compensation-restricted stock awards                       265        265 
Balances at December 31, 2017  $2,785,216   $279   $   $42,998   $54,664   $(606)  $179   $97,514 

 

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Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

  Years ended December 31, (in thousands)   2017      2016      2015  
Operating Activities               
Net income  $6,256   $6,685   $8,457 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities               
(Accretion), amortization and depreciation               
Securities   145    241    240 
Bank premises and equipment   1,441    1,181    1,234 
Core deposit intangible   533    601    652 
Modification fees on Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston advances   234    230     
Subordinated debt issuance costs   23    24     
Mortgage servicing rights   169    242    356 
Fair value adjustment on loans   (1,207)   (1,784)   (2,725)
Fair value adjustment on deposits   (78)   (121)   (417)
(Gains) and losses, including write-downs               
Gain on sales and calls of securities available-for-sale, net   (178)   (584)   (192)
Gain on sales of loans, excluding capitalized servicing rights   (95)   (171)   (125)
Loss on other real estate owned   1,717    435    81 
Loss on sale/disposals of premises and equipment   1    13    45 
Provision for loan losses   1,020    1,835    917 
Proceeds from loans sold   5,440    10,505    8,549 
Loans originated for sale   (6,014)   (9,571)   (8,619)
(Increase) decrease in deferred loan origination fees and costs, net   (42)   (58)   14 
Mortgage servicing rights originated   (63)   (95)   (148)
(Decrease) increase in mortgage servicing rights impairment reserve   (23)   20    3 
(Increase) decrease in interest receivable   (229)   (117)   27 
Deferred tax expense   888    957    945 
Decrease (increase) in prepaid expenses   123    (296)   (295)
Increase in cash surrender value of life insurance policies   (343)   (353)   (371)
Increase in income tax receivable   (173)   (178)   (512)
Decrease in income taxes payable           (86)
Decrease (increase) in other assets   790    (242)   (103)
(Decrease) increase in accrued expenses   (643)   660    (155)
Increase (decrease) in interest payable   10    (60)   (16)
Increase in other liabilities   240    1,086    107 
Stock based compensation-restricted stock awards   265    221    227 
Tax benefit from stock compensation       (33)    
Net cash provided by operating activities   10,207    11,273    8,090 
Investing Activities               
(Purchase) redemption of Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston stock   (602)   (35)   339 
Purchases of securities available-for-sale   (36,654)   (56,229)   (16,373)
Proceeds from sales of securities available-for-sale   199    4,865    3,861 
Proceeds from calls of securities available-for-sale   16,141    14,221    10,925 
Proceeds from maturities of securities available-for-sale   20,427    33,574    14,668 
Loan originations and principal collections, net   (32,536)   (69,240)   (24,481)
Recoveries of loans previously charged off   600    126    653 
Proceeds from sales of other real estate owned   2,080        855 
Capital expenditures   (1,954)   (1,285)   (779)
Net cash and cash equivalents acquired in branch acquisition   22,396         
Net cash (utilized) by investing activities   (9,903)   (74,003)   (10,332)

 

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Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Continued)

 

  Years ended December 31, (in thousands)   2017      2016      2015  
Financing Activities               
Increase in deposit transaction accounts, net   7,578    33,946    56,023 
Decrease in time deposits, net   (5,208)   (6,588)   (16,499)
(Decrease) increase in securities sold under agreements to repurchase, net   (3,867)   1,621    (249)
Short-term Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston advances   17,000    10,000     
Payments made on long-term Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston advances           (791)
Principal payments on Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston advances       (21)    
Modification fees on Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston advances           (1,043)
Principal payments on note payable   (31)   (32)    
Decrease in capital lease obligation   (59)   (4)   (2)
Stock options exercised   316    87    183 
Tax benefit from stock compensation       33     
Issuance of shares for directors’ fees   81    141    81 
Payoff of preferred stock           (16,000)
Issuance of subordinated debt, net of issuance costs           9,764 
Common stock dividends paid   (3,113)   (3,086)   (3,054)
Series B preferred stock dividends paid           (158)
Net cash provided by financing activities   12,697    36,097    28,255 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents   13,001    (26,633)   26,013 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year   35,485    62,118    36,105 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year  $48,486   $35,485   $62,118 
Cash paid during year               
Interest  $4,049   $3,777   $3,460 
Income taxes   2,291    1,238    3,216 
Non-cash transfers               
From other real estate owned to loans           167 
Note payable to finance building purchase           376 
From loans to other real estate owned   743    4,955    101 
From other real estate owned to other assets       747     
Empire State Bank branch acquisition 2017               
Cash and cash equivalents acquired  $22,396         
Net loans acquired   7,097         
Fixed assets acquired   1,491         
Accrued interest receivable acquired   12         
Other assets acquired   20         
Core deposit intangible   633         
Goodwill   1,263         
Deposits assumed   31,433         
Capital lease assumed   1,476         
Other liabilities assumed   3         

 

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Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. and Subsidiary

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

NOTE 1 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Salisbury Bancorp, Inc. (“Salisbury” or the “Company”) is the bank holding company for Salisbury Bank (the “Bank”), a State chartered commercial bank. Salisbury's activity is currently limited to the holding of the Bank's outstanding capital stock and the Bank is Salisbury's only subsidiary and its primary investment. The Bank is a Connecticut chartered and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC") insured commercial bank headquartered in Lakeville, Connecticut. The Bank's principal business consists of attracting deposits from the public and using such deposits, with other funds, to make various types of loans and investments. The Bank conducts its business through fourteen full-service offices located in Litchfield, Berkshire and Dutchess, Orange and Ulster Counties in Connecticut, Massachusetts and New York, respectively.

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include those of Salisbury and its subsidiary after elimination of all inter-company accounts and transactions.

Basis of Financial Statement Presentation

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management is required to make extensive use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the statement of condition, and revenues and expenses for the period. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates. Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change in the near term relate to the determination of the allowance for loan losses, expected cash flows from loans acquired in a business combination, other-than-temporary impairment of securities and impairment of goodwill and intangibles.

Certain reclassifications have been made to the 2016 and 2015 consolidated financial statements to make them consistent with the 2017 presentation.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash and balances due from banks. Due to the nature of cash and cash equivalents, Salisbury estimated that the carrying amount of such instruments approximated fair value. The nature of the Bank’s business requires that it maintain amounts due from banks which, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Bank has not experienced any losses on such amounts and all amounts are maintained with well-capitalized institutions. At December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, Salisbury maintained cash reserves of $25 million and $21 million, respectively consistent with FRB requirements.

Securities

Securities that may be sold as part of Salisbury's asset/liability or liquidity management or in response to or in anticipation of changes in interest rates and resulting prepayment risk, or for other similar factors, are classified as available-for-sale and carried at their fair market value. Unrealized holding gains and losses on such securities are reported net of related taxes, if applicable, as a separate component of shareholders' equity. Securities that Salisbury has the ability and positive intent to hold to maturity are classified as held-to-maturity and carried at amortized cost. Realized gains and losses on the sales of all securities are reported in earnings and computed using the specific identification cost basis. Securities are reviewed regularly for other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”). Premiums and discounts are amortized or accreted utilizing the interest method over the life or call of the term of the investment security. For any debt security with a fair value less than its amortized cost basis, Salisbury will determine whether it has the intent to sell the debt security or whether it is more likely than not it will be required to sell the debt security before the recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either condition is met, Salisbury will recognize a full impairment charge to earnings. For all other debt securities that are considered OTTI and do not meet either condition, the credit loss portion of impairment will be recognized in earnings as realized losses. Declines in marketable equity securities below their cost that are deemed other than temporary are reflected in earnings as realized losses.

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Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston Stock

The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston (“FHLBB”). The FHLBB is a cooperative that provides services, including funding in the form of advances, to its member banking institutions. As a requirement of membership, the Bank must own a minimum amount of FHLBB stock, calculated periodically based primarily on its level of borrowings from the FHLBB. No market exists for shares of the FHLBB and therefore, they are carried at par value. FHLBB stock may be redeemed at par value five years following termination of FHLBB membership, subject to limitations which may be imposed by the FHLBB or its regulator, the Federal Housing Finance Board, to maintain capital adequacy of the FHLBB. While the Bank currently has no intentions to terminate its FHLBB membership, the ability to redeem its investment in FHLBB stock would be subject to the conditions imposed by the FHLBB. Based on the capital adequacy and the liquidity position of the FHLBB, management believes there is no impairment related to the carrying amount of the Bank’s FHLBB stock as of December 31, 2017. Deterioration of the FHLBB’s capital levels may require the Bank to deem its restricted investment in FHLBB stock to be OTTI. If evidence of impairment exists in the future, the FHLBB stock would reflect fair value using either observable or unobservable inputs. The Bank will continue to monitor its investment in FHLBB stock.

Loans

Loans receivable consist of loans that management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or pay-off. Loans receivable are reported at their outstanding principal balance, net of unamortized deferred loan origination fees and costs. Interest income is accrued on the unpaid principal balance. Deferred loan origination fees and costs are amortized as an adjustment to yield over the lives of the related loans.

Loans held-for-sale consist of residential mortgage loans that management has the intent to sell. Loans held-for-sale are valued at the lower of cost or market as determined by outstanding commitments from investors or current investor yield requirements calculated on the aggregate loan basis, net of deferred loan origination fees and costs. Changes in the carrying value, deferred loan origination fees and costs, and realized gains and losses on sales of loans held-for-sale are reported in earnings as gains and losses on sales of mortgage loans, net, when the proceeds are received from investors.

The accrual of interest on loans, including troubled debt restructured loans, is generally discontinued when principal or interest is past due by 90 days or more, or earlier when, in the opinion of management, full collection of principal or interest is unlikely, except for loans that are well collateralized, in the process of collection and where full collection of principal and interest is assured. When a loan is placed on non-accrual status, interest previously accrued but not collected is reversed against current income. Income on such loans, including impaired loans, is then recognized only to the extent that cash is received and future collection of principal is probable. Loans, including troubled debt restructured loans, are restored to accrual status when principal and interest payments are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured, following a sustained period of repayment performance by the borrower in accordance with the loan's contractual terms.

Troubled debt restructured loans include those for which concessions such as reduction of interest rates, other than normal market rate adjustments, or deferral of principal or interest payments, extension of maturity dates, or reduction of principal balance or accrued interest, have been granted due to a borrower’s financial condition. The decision to restructure a loan, versus aggressively enforcing the collection of the loan, may benefit Salisbury by increasing the ultimate probability of collection.

Troubled debt restructured loans are classified as accruing or non-accruing based on management’s assessment of the collectability of the loan. Loans which are already on non-accrual status at the time of the troubled debt restructuring generally remain on non-accrual status for approximately six months before management considers such loans for return to accruing status. Accruing troubled debt restructured loans are generally placed into non-accrual status if and when the borrower fails to comply with the restructured terms.

Acquired Loans

Loans that Salisbury acquired through business combinations are initially recorded at fair value with no carryover of the related allowance for credit losses. Determining the fair value of the loans involves estimating the amount and timing of principal and interest cash flows initially expected to be collected on the loans and discounting those cash flows at an appropriate market rate of interest.

For loans that meet the criteria stipulated in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 310-30, “Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality,” Salisbury recognizes the accretable yield, which is defined as the excess of all cash flows expected to be collected at acquisition over the initial fair value of the loan, as interest income on a level-yield basis over the expected remaining life of the loan. The excess of the loan’s contractually required payments over the cash flows expected to be collected is the nonaccretable difference. The nonaccretable difference is not recognized as an adjustment of yield, a loss accrual, or a valuation allowance. Going forward, Salisbury continues to evaluate whether the timing and the amount of cash to be collected are reasonably expected. Subsequent significant increases in cash flows Salisbury expects to collect will first reduce any previously recognized valuation allowance and then be reflected prospectively as an increase to the level yield. Subsequent decreases in expected cash flows may result in the loan being considered impaired. Such decreases may also result in recognition of additional provisions to the allowance for loan losses. Interest income is not recognized to the extent that the net investment in the loan would increase to an amount greater than the estimated payoff amount.

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For ASC 310-30 loans, the expected cash flows reflect anticipated prepayments, determined on a loan by loan basis according to the anticipated collection plan of these loans. The expected prepayments used to determine the accretable yield are consistent between the cash flows expected to be collected and projections of contractual cash flows so as to not affect the nonaccretable difference. For ASC 310-30 loans, prepayments result in the recognition of the nonaccretable balance as current period yield. Changes in prepayment assumptions may change the amount of interest income and principal expected to be collected.

For loans that do not meet the ASC 310-30 criteria, Salisbury accretes interest income on a level yield basis using the contractually required cash flows. Salisbury subjects loans that do not meet the ASC 310-30 criteria to ASC Topic 450, “Contingencies” by collectively evaluating these loans for an allowance for loan losses.

Acquired loans that met the criteria for nonaccrual of interest prior to the acquisition are considered performing upon acquisition, regardless of whether the customer is contractually delinquent, if Salisbury can reasonably estimate the timing and amount of the expected cash flows on such loans and if Salisbury expects to fully collect the new carrying value of the loans. As such, Salisbury may no longer consider the loan to be nonaccrual or nonperforming and may accrue interest on these loans, including the impact of any accretable yield.

Allowance for Loan Losses

The allowance for loan losses represents management’s estimate of the probable credit losses inherent in the loan portfolio as of the reporting date. The allowance is increased by provisions charged to earnings and by recoveries of amounts previously charged off, and is reduced by loan charge-offs. Loan charge-offs are recognized when management determines a loan or portion of a loan to be uncollectible.

The determination of the adequacy of the allowance is based on management’s ongoing review of numerous factors, including the growth and composition of the loan portfolio, historical loss experience over an economic cycle, probable credit losses based upon internal and external portfolio reviews, credit risk concentrations, changes in lending policy, current economic conditions, analysis of current levels and asset quality, delinquency levels and trends, estimates of the current value of underlying collateral, the performance of individual loans in relation to contract terms, and other pertinent factors.

While management believes that the allowance for loan losses is adequate, the allowance is an estimate, and ultimate losses may vary from management’s estimate. Future additions to the allowance may also be necessary based on changes in assumptions and economic conditions. In addition, various regulatory agencies periodically review the allowance for loan losses. Such agencies may require additions to the allowance based on their judgments about information available to them at the time of their examination.

Changes in the estimate are recorded in the results of operations in the period in which they become known, along with provisions for estimated losses incurred during that period.

The allowance for loan losses is computed by segregating the portfolio into three components: (1) loans collectively evaluated for impairment: general loss allocation factors for non-impaired loans based on loan product, collateral type and abundance, loan risk rating, historical loss experience, delinquency factors and other similar economic indicators, (2) loans individually evaluated for impairment: individual loss allocations for loans deemed to be impaired based on discounted cash flows or collateral value, and (3) unallocated: general loss allocations for other environmental factors.

Loans collectively evaluated for impairment

This component of the allowance for loan losses is stratified by the following loan segments: residential real estate secured (residential 1-4 family and 5+ multifamily, construction of residential 1-4 family, and home equity lines of credit), commercial real estate secured (commercial and construction of commercial), secured by land (farm and vacant land), commercial and industrial, municipal and consumer. Management’s general loss allocation factors are based on a rolling five-year annual historical loss rate for each loan segment adjusted for qualitative factors and specific risk ratings. Qualitative factors include levels/trends in delinquencies; trends in volume and terms of loans; effects of changes in risk selection and underwriting standards and other changes in lending policies, procedures and practices; experience/ability/depth of lending management and staff; and national and local economic trends and conditions. There were no changes in Salisbury’s policies or methodology pertaining to the general component of the allowance for loan losses during 2017.

The qualitative factors are determined based on the various risk characteristics of each loan segment. Risk characteristics relevant to each portfolio segment are as follows:

Residential real estate - Salisbury generally does not originate loans with a loan-to-value ratio greater than 80 percent and does not grant subprime loans. Loans in this segment are collateralized primarily by owner-occupied residential real estate and repayment is dependent on the credit quality of the individual borrower. The overall health of the economy, including unemployment rates and housing prices, will have an effect on the credit quality in this segment.

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Commercial real estate - Loans in this segment are primarily owner-occupied businesses or income-producing investment properties throughout Salisbury’s market area. The underlying cash flows generated by the properties are adversely impacted by a downturn in the economy as evidenced by decreased sales or increased vacancy rates which, in turn, will have an effect on the credit quality in this segment. For commercial loans management annually obtains business and personal financial statements, tax returns, and, where applicable, rent rolls, and continually monitors the repayment of these loans.

Construction loans - Loans in this segment are primarily residential construction loans which typically roll into a permanent residential mortgage loan when construction is completed, or commercial construction which consist primarily of owner occupied commercial construction projects.

Commercial and industrial loans - Loans in this segment are made to businesses and are generally secured by assets of the business, including equipment and/or inventory. Repayment is expected from the cash flows of the business. A weakened economy, and resultant decreased retail or wholesale spending, has an effect on the credit quality in this segment.

Farm – Loans in this segment are made to independent agricultural businesses and may be affected by adverse weather conditions or weak commodity prices.

Vacant land – Loans in this segment are primarily dependent on the credit quality of the individual borrowers. Loan-to-value ratios for loans with vacant land for collateral are more conservative than for commercial or residential real estate loans.

Municipal loans – Loans in this segment are extensions of credit to municipal and other governmental entities throughout Salisbury’s market area. The bank-qualified, tax-exempt loans are backed by the full faith and credit of the borrowing entity with taxing or appropriating authority, as appropriate. Maturities range from one year for bond anticipation notes to twenty years for long-term project finance. The ability of the borrower to pay may be affected by an economic downturn resulting in a severe reduction in tax or other revenues coupled with the depletion of an entity’s reserve liquidity. Historical default rates for bank-qualified (small issuer) general obligation municipal credit facilities are 0% since the asset class was created in 1986.

Consumer loans - Loans in this segment are generally unsecured and repayment is dependent on the credit quality of the individual borrower.

Loans individually evaluated for impairment

This component relates to loans that are classified as impaired. Impairment is measured on a loan by loan basis for all portfolio loans (except consumer loans and homogeneous residential real estate loans) by either the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. An allowance is established when the discounted cash flows (or collateral value) of the impaired loan are lower than the carrying value of that loan.

A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that Salisbury will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Factors considered by management in determining impairment include payment status, collateral value, and the probability of collecting scheduled principal and interest payments when due. Loans that experience insignificant payment delays and payment shortfalls generally are not classified as impaired. Management determines the significance of payment delays and payment shortfalls on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration all of the circumstances surrounding the loan and the borrower, including the length of the delay, the reasons for the delay, the borrower’s prior payment record, and the amount of the shortfall in relation to the principal and interest owed.

Salisbury periodically may agree to modify the contractual terms of loans. When a loan is modified and a concession is made to a borrower experiencing financial difficulty, the modification is considered a troubled debt restructuring ("TDR"). All TDRs are classified as impaired.

Unallocated

An unallocated component is maintained to cover uncertainties that could affect management’s estimate of probable losses. The unallocated component of the allowance reflects the margin of imprecision inherent in the underlying assumptions used in the methodologies for estimating allocated and general reserves in the portfolio.

Mortgage Servicing Rights

As part of our growth and risk management strategy, we from time to time will sell whole loans. These are typically fixed rate residential loans. Our ability to sell whole loans benefits the bank by freeing up capital and funding to lend to new customers. Additionally, we typically earn a gain on the sale of loans sold and receive a servicing fee while maintaining the customer relationship. Mortgage Servicing Rights (“MSRs”), which the bank evaluates with the assistance of a third party on a quarterly basis, are included in other assets on the consolidated balance sheets and are accounted for under the amortization method. Under that method mortgage servicing rights are amortized in proportion to, and over the period of, estimated net servicing revenues. Refinance activities are considered in estimating the period of net servicing revenues.

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Other Real Estate Owned (“OREO”)

Salisbury's loans collateralized by real estate and all other real estate owned (“OREO”) are located principally in northwestern Connecticut and New York and Massachusetts towns, which constitute Salisbury's service area. Accordingly, the collectability of a substantial portion of the loan portfolio and OREO is susceptible to changes in market conditions in Salisbury’s service area. While management uses available information to recognize losses on loans and OREO, future additions to the allowance or write-downs of OREO may be necessary based on changes in local economic conditions, particularly in Salisbury’s service area. In addition, various regulatory agencies, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review Salisbury's allowance for loan losses and valuation of OREO. Such agencies may require Salisbury to recognize additions to the allowance or write-downs based on their judgments of information available to them at the time of their examination.

OREO consists of properties acquired through foreclosure or a deed in lieu of foreclosure. These properties are initially transferred at fair value less estimated costs to sell. Any write-down from cost to estimated fair value required at the time of foreclosure is charged to the allowance for loan losses. A valuation allowance is maintained for declines in market value and for estimated selling expenses. Increases to the valuation allowance, expenses associated with ownership of these properties, and gains and losses from their sale are included in OREO expense.

As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the recorded investment in residential mortgage loans collateralized by residential real estate that were in the process of foreclosure was $1.1 million and $2.1 million, respectively.

Income Taxes

Deferred income taxes are provided for differences arising in the timing of income and expenses for financial reporting and for income tax purposes using the asset/liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred income taxes and tax benefits are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Salisbury provides deferred taxes for the estimated future tax effects attributable to temporary differences and carry-forwards when realization is assured beyond a reasonable doubt. A valuation allowance is established against deferred tax assets when, based upon all available evidence, it is determined that it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

Bank Premises and Equipment

Bank premises, furniture and equipment are carried at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization computed on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized on the straight-line basis over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the improvements or the term of the related leases. Guidelines for expected useful life are as follows:

Buildings/Improvements – 39 years
Land Improvements – 15 years
Furniture and Fixtures – 7 years
Computer Equipment – 5 years
Software – 3 years

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets consist of core deposit intangibles and goodwill. Intangible assets equal the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the tangible net assets acquired in business combinations accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. Salisbury’s intangible assets at December 31, 2017, and 2016, include goodwill of $2,358,000 arising from the purchase of a branch office in 2001, $7,152,000 arising from the 2004 acquisition of Canaan National Bancorp, Inc., $319,000 arising from the 2007 purchase of a branch office in New York State, $2,723,000 arising from the acquisition of Riverside Bank in December 2014 and $1,263,000 from the purchase of an additional branch office in New York in 2017. See Note 8.

On an annual basis, management assesses intangible assets for impairment, and for the year ending December 31, 2017, concluded there was no impairment. If a permanent loss in value is indicated, an impairment charge to income will be recognized.

Stock Based Compensation

Stock based compensation expense is recognized, based on the fair value at the date of grant on a straight line basis over the period of time between the grant date and vesting date.

Advertising Expense

Advertising costs of $613,000 and $508,000 in 2017 and 2016, respectively, are expensed as incurred and not capitalized.

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Statements of Cash Flows

For the purpose of the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, cash and cash equivalents include cash and due from banks and interest-bearing demand deposits with other financial institutions.

Computation of Earnings per Share

The Company defines unvested share-based payment awards that contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends as participating securities that are included in computing earnings per share (“EPS”) using the two-class method.

The two-class method is an earnings allocation formula that determines earnings per share for each share of common stock and participating securities according to dividends declared and participation rights in undistributed earnings. Under this method, all earnings (distributed and undistributed) are allocated to common shares and participating securities based on their respective rights to receive dividends. Basic EPS excludes dilution and is computed by dividing income allocated to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, August 2015, May 2016, and December 2016, respectively, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, 2015-14, 2016-12, and 2016-20, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606).” The objective of ASU 2014-09 is to clarify principles for recognizing revenue and to develop a common revenue standard for GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards. The guidance in ASU 2014-09 affects any entity that either enters into contracts with customers to transfer goods or services or enters into contracts for the transfer of nonfinancial assets unless those contracts are within the scope of other standards. The core principal of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. For public entities, the amendments in ASU 2015-14 defer the effective date of ASU 2014-09 to interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, but not before the original effective date (i.e. interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016). The amendments in ASU 2016-12 do not change the core principle of the guidance in Topic 606, but rather affect only certain narrow aspects aimed to reduce the potential for diversity in practice at initial application and the cost and complexity of applying Topic 606 both at transition and on an ongoing basis. The amendments in ASU 2016-20 include technical corrections and improvements to Topic 606 and other Topics amended by ASU 2014-09 to increase stakeholders’ awareness of the proposals and to expedite improvements to ASU 2014-09. Salisbury engaged an outside consulting firm to help management assess if the implementation of Topic 606 would have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements. A significant portion of Salisbury’s revenue is outside the scope of Topic 606. For the portion of revenue within scope, management has identified three revenue streams for review: deposit-related fees, interchange fees and wealth management fees. The contracts associated with these revenue streams have been evaluated to determine if changes to Salisbury’s revenue recognition policies are required. As a result of this review management has determined that its revenue recognition policies conform to Topic 606 and that no changes will be required to Salisbury’s consolidated financial statements when the ASU is implemented in 2018.

In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, “Financial Instruments – overall (subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities." This ASU addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments by making targeted improvements to GAAP as follows: (1) require equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. However, an entity may choose to measure equity investments that do not have readily determinable fair values at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer; (2) simplify the impairment assessment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values by requiring a qualitative assessment to identify impairment. When a qualitative assessment indicates that impairment exists, an entity is required to measure the investment at fair value; (3) eliminate the requirement to disclose the fair value of financial instruments measured at amortized cost for entities that are not public business entities; (4) eliminate the requirement for public business entities to disclose the method(s) and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value that is required to be disclosed for financial instruments measured at amortized cost on the balance sheet; (5) require public business entities to use the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes; (6) require an entity to present separately in other comprehensive income the portion of the total change in the fair value of a liability resulting from a change in the instrument-specific credit risk when the entity has elected to measure the liability at fair value in accordance with the fair value option for financial instruments; (7) require separate presentation of financial assets and financial liabilities by measurement category and form of financial asset (that is, securities or loans and receivables) on the balance sheet or the accompanying notes to the financial statements; and (8) clarify that an entity should evaluate the need for a valuation allowance on a deferred tax asset related to available-for-sale securities in combination with the entity’s other deferred tax assets. ASU 2016-01 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early application is permitted as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption only for provisions (3) and (6) above. Early adoption of the other provisions mentioned above is not permitted. Salisbury does not expect ASU 2016-01 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

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In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)”. Under the new guidance, lessees will be required to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases): 1) a lease liability, which is the present value of a lessee's obligation to make lease payments, and 2) a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee's right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. Lessor accounting under the new guidance remains largely unchanged as it is substantially equivalent to existing guidance for sales-type leases, direct financing leases, and operating leases. Leveraged leases have been eliminated, although lessors can continue to account for existing leveraged leases using the current accounting guidance. Other limited changes were made to align lessor accounting with the lessee accounting model and the new revenue recognition standard. All entities will classify leases to determine how to recognize lease-related revenue and expense. Quantitative and qualitative disclosures will be required by lessees and lessors to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The intention is to require enough information to supplement the amounts recorded in the financial statements so that users can understand more about the nature of an entity’s leasing activities. ASU 2016-02 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018; early adoption is permitted. All entities are required to use a modified retrospective approach for leases that exist or are entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the financial statements. They have the option to use certain relief; full retrospective application is prohibited. Salisbury does not expect ASU 2016-02 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Compensation–Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting.” This ASU includes provisions intended to simplify various aspects related to how share-based payments are accounted for and presented in the financial statements. Some of the key provisions of this new ASU include: (1) companies will no longer record excess tax benefits and certain tax deficiencies in additional paid-in capital (“APIC”). Instead, they will record all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies as income tax expense or benefit in the income statement, and APIC pools will be eliminated. The guidance also eliminates the requirement that excess tax benefits be realized before companies can recognize them. In addition, the guidance requires companies to present excess tax benefits as an operating activity on the statement of cash flows rather than as a financing activity; (2) increase the amount an employer can withhold to cover income taxes on awards and still qualify for the exception to liability classification for shares used to satisfy the employer’s statutory income tax withholding obligation. The new guidance will also require an employer to classify the cash paid to a tax authority when shares are withheld to satisfy its statutory income tax withholding obligation as a financing activity on its statement of cash flows (current guidance did not specify how these cash flows should be classified); and (3) permit companies to make an accounting policy election for the impact of forfeitures on the recognition of expense for share-based payment awards. Forfeitures can be estimated, as required today, or recognized when they occur. Salisbury has opted to recognize forfeitures as they occur as the impact is not expected to be material. Salisbury adopted ASU 2016-09 as of January 1, 2017. Adoption contributed a $105 thousand benefit to the tax provision in the second quarter 2017 and did not have a material effect on the financial results for the twelve month period ended December 31, 2017.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which adds a new Topic 326 to the Codification and removes the thresholds that companies apply to measure credit losses on financial instruments measured at amortized cost, such as loans, receivables, and held-to-maturity debt securities. Under current U.S. GAAP, companies generally recognize credit losses when it is probable that the loss has been incurred. The revised guidance will remove all recognition thresholds and will require companies to recognize an allowance for credit losses for the difference between the amortized cost basis of a financial instrument and the amount of amortized cost that the company expects to collect over the instrument’s contractual life. ASU 2016-13 also amends the credit loss measurement guidance for available-for-sale debt securities and beneficial interests in securitized financial assets. The guidance in ASU 2016-13 is effective for “public business entities,” as defined, that are SEC filers for fiscal years and for interim periods with those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted as of the fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Salisbury is currently evaluating the provisions of ASU 2016-13 to determine the potential impact the new standard will have on Salisbury’s Consolidated Financial Statements.

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments." This ASU is intended to reduce diversity in practice in how eight particular transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those years. Early adoption is permitted, provided that all of the amendments are adopted in the same period. Entities will be required to apply the guidance retrospectively. If it is impracticable to apply the guidance retrospectively for an issue, the amendments related to that issue would be applied prospectively. As this guidance only affects the classification within the statement of cash flows, ASU 2016-15 is not expected to have a material impact on Salisbury’s Consolidated Financial Statements.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business." This ASU is intended to add guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The amendments in this update provide a screen to determine when a set of inputs, processes, and outputs is not a business. ASU 2017-01 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those years. Early adoption is permitted for transactions for which the acquisition date occurs before the issuance date or effective date of the amendments, only when the transaction has not been reported in financial statements that have been issued or made available for issuance, or for transactions in which a subsidiary is deconsolidated or a group of assets is derecognized that occur before the issuance date or effective date of the amendments, only when the transaction has not been reported in financial statements that have been issued or made available for issuance. Entities should apply the guidance prospectively on or after the effective date. ASU 2017-01 is not expected to have a material impact on Salisbury’s Consolidated Financial Statements.

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In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment.” This ASU is intended to allow companies to simplify how an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. The FASB is researching whether similar amendments should be considered for other entities, including public business entities. ASU 2017-04 is effective for public business entities that are SEC filers for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those years. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. Entities should apply the guidance prospectively. Salisbury is currently evaluating the provisions of ASU 2017-04 to determine the potential impact the new standard will have on Salisbury’s Consolidated Financial Statements.

In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08, “Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities.” This ASU will amend the amortization period for certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium. The Board is shortening the amortization period for the premium to the earliest call date. Under current generally accepted accounting principles, entities generally amortize the premium as an adjustment of yield over the contractual life of the instrument. ASU 2017-08 is effective for public business entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. Entities should apply the guidance on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. Salisbury is currently evaluating the provisions of ASU 2017-08 and does not expect that the adoption of the new standard will have a material impact on Salisbury’s Consolidated Financial Statements.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting.” This ASU will provide clarity in the accounting guidance regarding a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. ASU 2017-09 is effective for public business entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. Entities should apply the guidance prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. ASU 2017-09 is not expected to have a material impact on Salisbury’s Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

NOTE 2 – MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

On December 5, 2014, the Company acquired Riverside Bank. Riverside Bank operated four banking offices serving Dutchess, Ulster and Orange Counties in New York, and was merged with and into the Bank. 

The following table summarizes activity in the accretable yield for the acquired loan portfolio that falls under the purview of ASC 310-30. 

 

  (In thousands)    2017      2016  
Balance at beginning of period  $1,190   $1,901 
Acquisitions        
Accretion   (541)   (980)
Disposals   (405)   (342)
Reclassification from non-accretable to accretable   273    611 
Balance at end of period  $517   $1,190 

 

At December 31, 2017 and 2016, Salisbury ASC 310-30 loans had an outstanding balance totaling $4.2 million and $8.1 million, respectively. The carrying value as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 was $3.7 million and $7.1 million, respectively.

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NOTE 3 - SECURITIES

The composition of securities is as follows:

  (in thousands)  Amortized
cost (1)
 

Gross un-

realized gains

 

Gross un-

realized losses

  Fair value
December 31, 2017                    
Available-for-sale                    
Municipal bonds  $3,476   $11   $1   $3,486 
Mortgage-backed securities                    
U.S. Government agencies and U.S. Government-sponsored enterprises   45,983    152    267    45,868 
Collateralized mortgage obligations                    
U.S. Government agencies   10,462    2    87    10,377 
Non-agency   2,271    410    17    2,664