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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 
or
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from to

Commission File No. 000-08185
 
TCF Financial Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Michigan
38-2022454
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
333 W. Fort Street, Suite 1800
Detroit, Michigan 48226
(Address and Zip Code of principal executive offices)

(800) 867-9757
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock (par value $1 per share)
TCF
The NASDAQ Stock Market
Depositary shares, each representing a 1/1000th interest in a share of the 5.70% Series C Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock
TCFCP
The NASDAQ Stock Market
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.     Yes     No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the close price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter as reported by The NASDAQ Stock Market, was $2,866,504,997.
As of February 24, 2020, there were 152,776,438 shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock, par value $1 per share, its only outstanding class of common stock.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Specific portions of the Registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 6, 2020 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Description
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




Part I

Item 1. Business

General

TCF Financial Corporation ("TCF") is a financial holding company, a Michigan corporation incorporated in 1973 and headquartered in Detroit, Michigan. TCF completed a merger of equals with Chemical Financial Corporation ("Merger of Equals") on August 1, 2019. We had total assets of $46.7 billion at December 31, 2019 and were the 28th largest publicly traded bank holding company in the United States based on total assets at December 31, 2019.

Through our wholly-owned bank subsidiary, TCF National Bank, a national banking association ("TCF Bank") with its main office in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, we provide a full range of consumer-facing and commercial services, including consumer and commercial banking, trust and wealth management, and specialty leasing and lending products and services to consumers, small businesses and commercial customers. As of December 31, 2019, we had 520 branches primarily located in Michigan, Minnesota, Illinois, Ohio, Colorado and Wisconsin (our "primary banking markets"). We also conduct business across all 50 states and Canada through our specialty lending and leasing businesses.

References herein to "TCF Financial" refer to TCF Financial Corporation on an unconsolidated basis. TCF Financial Corporation (together with its direct and indirect subsidiaries, are referred to as "we," "us," "our," "TCF" or the "Corporation".

Merger of Equals

On August 1, 2019 (the "Merger Date"), TCF Financial Corporation, a Delaware corporation ("Legacy TCF"), merged with and into Chemical Financial Corporation ("Chemical"), with Chemical surviving the merger (the "Merger"). Immediately following the Merger, Chemical’s wholly owned bank subsidiary, Chemical Bank, a Michigan state-chartered bank, merged with and into TCF Bank, with TCF Bank surviving the merger. Upon completion of the Merger, Chemical was renamed TCF Financial Corporation.

The Merger was accounted for as a reverse merger using the acquisition method of accounting, therefore, Legacy TCF was deemed the acquirer for financial reporting purposes, even though Chemical was the legal acquirer. Accordingly, Legacy TCF's historical financial statements are the historical financial statements of the combined company for all periods before the Merger Date. Our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019 include the results of operations of Chemical on and after August 1, 2019. Results for periods before August 1, 2019 reflect only those of Legacy TCF and do not include the results of operations of Chemical. Accordingly, comparisons of our results for the year ended December 31, 2019 with those of prior periods may not be meaningful. The number of shares issued and outstanding, earnings per share, additional paid-in-capital, dividends paid and all references to share quantities of TCF have been retrospectively adjusted to reflect the equivalent number of shares issued in the Merger. See "Note 2. Merger" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information. In addition, the assets, including the intangible assets identified, and liabilities of Chemical as of the Merger Date have been recorded at their estimated fair value and added to those of Legacy TCF.

Reportable Segments

Our reportable segments are Consumer Banking, Commercial Banking and Enterprise Services. In connection with the Merger, we renamed the Wholesale Banking segment to Commercial Banking to align with the way it is now managed.

Consumer Banking Segment

Consumer Banking is comprised of all of our consumer and small business-facing businesses and includes Retail Banking, Wealth Management, Residential and Consumer Lending, and Business Banking. Our consumer banking strategy is primarily to generate deposits and originate high credit quality loans for investment and sale. Deposits are generated from consumers and small businesses to provide a source of low-cost funds, with a focus on building and maintaining quality customer relationships.



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Retail Banking We offer an array of solutions for consumers and small businesses through its physical and digital distribution channels. We offer a broad selection of deposit and lending services including (i) checking and savings accounts, (ii) credit and debit cards, (iii) check cashing and remittance services and (iv) residential, consumer and small business lending.

Deposits are our primary source of funds for use in lending and for other general business purposes. Deposit inflows and outflows are significantly influenced by general interest rates, market and competitive conditions and other economic factors. We acquire deposits from within our primary banking markets through (i) checking, savings and money market accounts, (ii) certificates of deposit and (iii) individual retirement accounts. Such deposit accounts provide fee income, including fees and service charges.

At December 31, 2019, we had 520 branches, consisting of 396 traditional branches, 121 supermarket branches and three campus branches. We operate 236 branches in Michigan, 120 in Illinois, 85 in Minnesota, 32 in Colorado, 22 in Ohio, 17 in Wisconsin, seven in Arizona, and one in South Dakota. We also offer 1,099 ATMs across our primary banking markets.

Providing a wide range of retail banking services is an integral component of our business philosophy. Primary drivers of our fees and service charges include the number of customers we attract, our customers' level of engagement and the frequency with which our customer uses our solutions. Our business philosophy is to offer our customers an "easy-to-bank-with" experience, with multiple solutions that benefit the customer and are consistent with our business philosophy. Our customers have convenient access to their funds through their credit and debit cards, as well as by utilizing our enhanced digital channels. Our card programs are supported by interchange fees paid by retailers.

Wealth Management We offer services through the Wealth Management department of TCF Bank. These services include investment management and custodial services; trust services; financial and estate planning; and retirement planning and employee benefit programs. The Wealth Management department earns revenue largely from fees based on the market value of those assets under our management, which can fluctuate as the market fluctuates. Our Wealth Management department had assets under custodial and management arrangements of $5.0 billion at December 31, 2019. Through the Wealth Management department, we also sell investment products (largely annuity products and mutual funds) through the TCF Financial Advisors program. Customer assets within the TCF Financial Advisors program were $1.8 billion at December 31, 2019.

Residential and Consumer Lending We originate residential and other consumer loans for personal, family or household purposes, such as home purchases, debt consolidation and financing of home improvements. Our retail lending origination activity primarily consists of consumer real estate secured lending. It also includes originating loans secured by personal property and, to a limited extent, unsecured personal loans. Consumer loans are originated for investment and for sale, either on a fixed-term basis or as a revolving line of credit.

We also service loans for investors under contracts where we receive a fee for performing servicing activities on consumer loans that are not owned by us and are not included on our balance sheet. This process involves collecting monthly loan payments on behalf of investors, reporting information to those investors on a timely basis and maintaining custodial escrow accounts for remitting principal and interest payments to investors, and for paying property taxes and insurance premiums on behalf of borrowers.

On December 18, 2019, TCF Bank and its subsidiary Gateway One Lending & Finance, LLC completed the sale of the Legacy TCF auto finance portfolio, selling approximately $1.1 billion in motor vehicle consumer installment contracts to Santander Consumer USA Inc.

Business Banking We offer small businesses, corporations and governmental entities various products and services, including loans and lines of credit, deposits, cash management, capital market products, international trade finance, letters of credit, foreign exchange management services and loan syndication services.



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Commercial Banking Segment

Commercial Banking, previously named Wholesale Banking, is comprised of commercial and industrial, commercial real estate banking and lease financing. Our commercial banking strategy focuses on building full commercial relationships including originating high credit quality loans and leases and providing deposit and treasury services. 

Commercial and Industrial The commercial and industrial loans we originate are secured by various types of business assets including inventory, receivables, equipment or financial instruments, and may also be backed by personal guarantees of the owner or other sources of repayment. Commercial and industrial loans are used for a variety of purposes, including working capital and financing the purchase of equipment.

TCF Bank's wholly-owned subsidiary, TCF Inventory Finance, Inc. ("TCFIF") originates commercial, primarily variable-rate loans which are secured by the underlying floorplan equipment and supported by repurchase agreements from original equipment manufacturers. TCFIF focuses on establishing relationships with distributors, dealer buying groups and manufacturers, giving us access to thousands of independent retailers primarily in the areas of powersports equipment and lawn and garden equipment. TCFIF's portfolio balances are impacted by seasonal shipments and sales activities as dealers receive inventory shipments in anticipation of the upcoming selling season while carrying current season product. In 2009, TCFIF formed a joint venture with The Toro Company ("Toro") called Red Iron Acceptance, LLC ("Red Iron"). Red Iron provides U.S. distributors and dealers and select Canadian distributors of the Toro® and Exmark® brands with reliable, cost-effective sources of financing. We maintain a 55% ownership interest in Red Iron, with Toro owning the other 45%.

Commercial Real Estate The commercial real estate loans we originate are primarily secured by commercial real estate, including multi-family housing, office buildings, health care facilities, warehouse and industrial buildings, hotel and motel buildings, self-storage buildings and retail services buildings. The commercial real estate portfolio represented 39.3% and 24.3% of our total commercial portfolio at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Lease Financing Our leasing business, TCF Capital Solutions, a division of TCF Bank, delivers comprehensive lease and equipment finance products addressing the diverse financing needs of small to large companies in a growing number of select market segments including specialty vehicles, construction equipment, golf cart and turf equipment, manufacturing equipment, medical equipment, trucks and trailers, furniture and fixtures, technology and data processing equipment, and agricultural equipment.

Enterprise Services

Enterprise Services is comprised of (i) corporate treasury, which includes our investment and borrowing portfolios and management of capital, debt and market risks, (ii) corporate functions, such as information technology, risk and credit management, bank operations, finance, investor relations, corporate development, internal audit, legal and human capital management that provide services to the operating segments, (iii) TCF Financial and (iv) eliminations. Our investment portfolio accounts for the earning assets within this segment. Borrowings may be used to offset reductions in deposits or to support lending activities. This segment also includes residual revenues and expenses representing the difference between actual amounts incurred by Enterprise Services and amounts allocated to the operating segments, including interest rate risk residuals such as funds transfer pricing mismatches.

Corporate Treasury Corporate treasury's primary responsibility is management of our liquidity, capital, interest rate risk, and investment and borrowing portfolios. Corporate treasury has authority to invest in various types of liquid assets including, but not limited to, U.S. Department of the Treasury obligations and debt securities of various federal agencies and U.S. Government sponsored enterprises, obligations of states and political subdivisions, deposits of insured banks, bankers' acceptances and federal funds. Corporate treasury also has the authority to enter into wholesale borrowing transactions which may be used to compensate for reductions in deposit inflows or net deposit outflows, or to support lending, leasing and other expansion activities. These borrowings may include Federal Home Loan Bank ("FHLB") advances, brokered deposits, repurchase agreements, federal funds and other permitted borrowings from counterparties.

See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis - Consolidated Income Statement Analysis - Reportable Segments" and "Note 27. Reportable Segments" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.



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Other Information

Activities of Subsidiaries of TCF Our business operations include those conducted by direct and indirect subsidiaries of TCF Financial, all of which are consolidated for purposes of preparing our consolidated financial statements. TCF Bank's subsidiaries principally engage in inventory finance activities. See "Commercial Banking" above for further information.

Competition We compete with a number of depository institutions and financial service providers primarily based on price and service and we face significant competition in attracting and retaining deposits and in lending activities. Direct competition for deposits comes primarily from banks, savings institutions, credit unions and investment banks. Additional significant competition for deposits comes from institutions selling money market mutual funds and corporate and government securities. We compete for the origination of loans with banks, mortgage bankers, mortgage brokers, consumer and commercial finance companies, credit unions, insurance companies and savings institutions. We also compete nationwide with other companies and banks in the financing of equipment and inventory, leasing of equipment and origination of residential mortgage loans. The growth of financial technology companies, disintermediation and lowered barriers to entry through technology have increased competition for loan, lease and deposit products as non-banks now offer products and services traditionally provided by banks.

Employees As of December 31, 2019, we had 8,209 employees, including 955 part-time employees. We provide our employees with comprehensive benefits, some of which are provided on a contributory basis, including medical and dental plans, a 401(k) savings plan with a company matching contribution, life insurance and short- and long-term disability coverage.

Supervision and Regulation

As a financial institution, we operate in a highly regulated environment. The regulatory framework under which we operate is intended primarily for the protection of depositors and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s (the “FDIC’s”) Deposit Insurance Fund and not for the protection of our shareholders and creditors. The following is a general summary of the material aspects of certain statutes and regulations applicable to us. These summary descriptions are not complete, and you should refer to the full text of the statutes, regulations, and corresponding guidance for more information. These statutes and regulations are subject to change, and additional statutes, regulations, and corresponding guidance may be adopted. We are unable to predict these future changes or the effects, if any, that these changes could have on our business, revenues, and results of operations.

Examinations and Regulatory Sanctions  TCF Financial is a financial holding company registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (the “BHC Act”) and is subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve. Federal laws subject financial holding companies to particular restrictions on the types of activities in which they may engage and to a range of supervisory requirements and activities, including regulatory enforcement actions, for violation of laws and policies. TCF Financial is required to file annual and quarterly reports with the Federal Reserve and such additional information as the Federal Reserve may require pursuant to the BHC Act. The Federal Reserve may examine a bank holding company or any of its subsidiaries and charge the company for the cost of such an examination. TCF Bank is a national banking association, which is subject to regulation and supervision primarily by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ("OCC") and secondarily by the Federal Reserve and the FDIC. The OCC regularly examines TCF Bank. The FDIC may also periodically examine and evaluate insured banks. TCF Bank is subject to requirements and restrictions under federal law, including requirements to maintain reserves against deposits, restrictions on the types and amounts of loans that may be granted and the interest that may be charged thereon and limitations on the types of investments that may be made and the types of services that may be offered. Various consumer laws and regulations also affect the operations of TCF Bank.

Federal banking regulators may impose a number of restrictions or new requirements on institutions, including, but not limited to, growth limitations, dividend restrictions, increased regulatory capital requirements, increased loan and lease loss reserve requirements, increased supervisory assessments, activity limitations or other restrictions that could have an adverse effect on such institutions, their holding companies or holders of their debt and equity securities. Various enforcement remedies, including civil money penalties, may be assessed against an institution or an institution's directors, officers, employees, agents or independent contractors. Certain enforcement actions may not be publicly disclosed by us or our federal banking regulators. Subsidiaries of TCF Bank are also subject to state and/or self-regulatory organization licensing, regulation and examination requirements in connection with certain activities.



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Regulatory Capital Requirements TCF Financial and TCF Bank are subject to various minimum regulatory capital requirements administered by the Federal Reserve and the OCC. These requirements include quantitative measures that assign risk weightings to assets and off-balance sheet items, as well as define and set minimum regulatory capital requirements. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can initiate certain mandatory, and possible additional discretionary, actions by the federal banking regulators that, if undertaken, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The Basel III capital standards impose minimum capital requirements for bank holding companies and banks. The rules apply to all national and state banks and savings associations regardless of size and bank holding companies and savings and loan holding companies with more than $3 billion in total consolidated assets. More stringent requirements are imposed on “advanced approaches” banking organizations which are organizations with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets, $10 billion or more in total foreign exposures, or that have opted into the Basel III capital regime. In addition, in order to avoid restrictions on capital distributions or discretionary bonus payments to executives, under Basel III, a banking organization must maintain a “capital conservation buffer” on top of its minimum risk-based capital requirements. This buffer must consist solely of common equity Tier 1 capital, but the buffer applies to all three risk-based measurements (common equity Tier 1 capital, Tier 1 capital and total capital). The 2.5% capital conservation buffer was phased in incrementally over time, and became fully effective for us on January 1, 2019, resulting in the following effective minimum capital plus capital conservation buffer ratios: (i) a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 7.0%, (ii) a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.5%, and (iii) a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.5%. TCF Financial and TCF Bank made the one-time permanent election permitted under the Basel III capital standards to not include accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in regulatory capital. TCF Financial and TCF Bank exceeded the Basel III capital standard at December 31, 2019. See "Note 19Regulatory Capital Requirements" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

On December 21, 2018, the federal banking agencies issued a joint final rule to revise their regulatory capital rules to (i) address the upcoming implementation of a new credit impairment model, the Current Expected Credit Loss, or CECL model, an accounting standard under GAAP; (ii) provide an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects that banking organizations are expected to experience upon adopting CECL; and (iii) require the use of CECL in stress tests beginning with the 2020 capital planning and stress testing cycle for certain banking organizations that are subject to stress testing. See "Note 3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

In addition to the capital rules applicable to both banks and bank holding companies discussed above, under the prompt corrective action regulations, the federal bank regulators are required and authorized to take supervisory actions against undercapitalized banks. For this purpose, a bank is placed in one of five categories based on the bank’s capital: well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized. Currently, the quantitative requirements for being well-capitalized are (at least 5% leverage capital, 6.5% common equity Tier 1 capital, 8% Tier 1 capital and 10% total capital). TCF Bank was considered well-capitalized at December 31, 2019.

Federal banking regulators are required to take various mandatory supervisory actions and are authorized to take other discretionary actions with respect to institutions in the three undercapitalized categories. The severity of the action depends upon the capital category in which the institution is placed. Generally, subject to a narrow exception, banking regulators must appoint a receiver or conservator for an institution that is “critically undercapitalized.” The federal banking agencies have specified by regulation the relevant capital level for each category. An institution that is categorized as “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” or “critically undercapitalized” is required to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan to its appropriate federal banking agency, which, for TCF Bank, is the OCC. Failure to meet capital guidelines could subject TCF Bank to a variety of enforcement remedies, including issuance of a capital directive, the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, a prohibition on accepting brokered deposits and other restrictions on our business.

Restrictions on Distributions  TCF Financial's ability to pay dividends is subject to limitations imposed by the Federal Reserve. In general, Federal Reserve regulatory guidelines require the board of directors of a bank holding company to consider a number of factors in determining the payment of dividends, including the quality and level of current and future earnings. Restricted retained earnings represents earnings legally appropriated to thrift bad debt reserves and deducted for federal income tax purposes in prior years and is generally not available for payment of cash dividends or other distributions to shareholders. See "Note 18Equity" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on restricted retained earnings.



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Dividends or other capital distributions from TCF Bank to TCF Financial are the primary source of funds to enable TCF Financial to pay dividends on its preferred and common stock, to pay TCF Financial's obligations, to repurchase common stock or to meet other cash needs. The ability of TCF Financial and TCF Bank to pay dividends depends on regulatory policies and regulatory capital requirements and may be subject to regulatory approval. TCF Financial and TCF Bank must also obtain the common equity Tier 1 capital conservation buffer of 2.5% to avoid becoming subject to restrictions on capital distributions (as discussed above).
 
In general, TCF Bank may not declare or pay a dividend to TCF Financial in excess of 100% of its net retained earnings for the current year combined with its net retained earnings for the preceding two calendar years without prior approval of the OCC. The OCC also has the authority to prohibit the payment of dividends by a national bank when it determines such payments would constitute an unsafe and unsound banking practice. TCF Bank's ability to make capital distributions in the future may require regulatory approval and may be restricted by the OCC. TCF Bank's ability to make any such distributions will also depend on its earnings and ability to meet minimum regulatory capital requirements in effect during future periods. In the future, these capital adequacy standards may be higher than existing minimum regulatory capital requirements. See "Note 19Regulatory Capital Requirements" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.  

In addition, income tax considerations may limit the ability of TCF Bank to make dividend payments in excess of its current and accumulated tax earnings. Annual dividend distributions in excess of earnings could result in a tax liability based on the amount of excess earnings distributed and current tax rates.

Regulation of TCF and Affiliates and Insider Transactions  TCF Financial is subject to Federal Reserve regulations, examinations and reporting requirements applicable to bank holding companies. Subsidiaries of bank holding companies, like TCF Bank, are subject to certain restrictions in their dealings with holding company affiliates.

Source of Strength A holding company must serve as a source of strength for its subsidiary banks and the Federal Reserve may require a holding company to contribute additional capital to an undercapitalized subsidiary bank. In addition, the OCC may assess TCF Financial if it believes the capital of TCF Bank has become impaired. If TCF Financial were to fail to pay such an assessment within three months, the Board of Directors would be required to cause the sale of TCF Bank's stock to cover a deficiency in the capital. In the event of a bank holding company's bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal banking regulator to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank would be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and may be entitled to priority over other creditors.
 
Restrictions on Acquisitions and Changes in Control  Under federal and state law, merger and branch acquisition transactions may be subject to certain restrictions, including certain nationwide and statewide insured deposit maximum concentration levels or other limitations. In addition, federal and state laws and regulations contain a number of provisions which impose restrictions on changes in control of financial institutions such as TCF Bank and which require regulatory approval prior to any such changes in control.

Under the BHA Act, Federal Reserve approval is required before acquiring more than 5% control, or substantially all of the assets, of another bank or bank holding company, or merging or consolidating with such a bank or bank holding company. The BHCA also generally prohibits a bank holding company, with certain exceptions, from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company which is not a bank or bank holding company, or from engaging directly or indirectly in activities other than those of banking, managing or controlling banks, providing services for its subsidiaries or conducting activities permitted by the Federal Reserve as being closely related to the business of banking. Further restrictions or limitations on acquisitions or establishing financial subsidiaries may also be imposed by our regulators or examiners.

Insurance of Accounts  TCF Bank is a member of the FDIC, which maintains the Deposit Insurance Fund (the "DIF"). The FDIC insures deposits up to prescribed limits for each depositor through the DIF, which is funded through assessments on member institutions. To maintain the DIF, member institutions are assessed an insurance premium based on an assessment base and an assessment rate.



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The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the "Dodd-Frank Act") gave the FDIC much greater discretion to manage the DIF and also changed the assessment base from domestic deposits to average total assets less tangible equity. Additionally, the Dodd-Frank Act raised the minimum designated reserve ratio (the "DRR") to 1.35% of estimated insured deposits from 1.15% and required this new minimum be reached by September 30, 2020. From July 1, 2016 to October 1, 2018, an additional surcharge of 4.5 cents for each $100 of an institution's assessment base in excess of $10.0 billion was assessed to ensure the DRR reached this new minimum by the required date. The DIF ratio calculated by the FDIC using estimated insured deposits as of September 30, 2019 was 1.41%.

In 2019, insurance premiums on bank deposits insured by the FDIC for banks with at least $10.0 billion in total assets ranged from 1.5 cents to 40 cents per $100 of the institution's assessment base. Our FDIC insurance expense was $18.3 million$15.1 million and $16.0 million in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

In addition to deposit insurance premium assessments from the FDIC, additional assessments may be imposed by the Financing Corporation, a separate U.S. government agency affiliated with the FDIC, to pay for the interest cost of Financing Corporation bonds. The final collection for this assessment was on March 29, 2019.

Community Reinvestment Act TCF Bank is subject to certain requirements and reporting obligations under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”), which requires federal banking regulators to evaluate the record of each financial institution in meeting the credit needs of its local community, including low- and moderate- income neighborhoods. The CRA further requires these criteria to be considered in evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open a branch or facility. Failure to adequately meet these criteria could result in the imposition of additional requirements and limitations on TCF Bank. Additionally, financial institutions must publicly disclose the terms of various CRA‑related agreements. In its most recent CRA examination, TCF Bank received an “outstanding” rating.

In December 2019, the FDIC and the OCC proposed changes to the regulations implementing the CRA, which, if adopted will result in changes to the current CRA framework. The Federal Reserve Board did not join the proposal.

CFPB Examination The Dodd-Frank Act created the CFPB, which is granted broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws, including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Truth in Lending Act, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Consumer Financial Privacy provisions of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and certain other statutes. The CFPB has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets, such as TCF Bank. The CFPB has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products.

The CFPB has issued a number of regulations related to the origination of mortgages, foreclosures, and overdrafts as well as many other consumer issues. Additionally, the CFPB has proposed, or may propose, additional regulations or modifying existing regulations that directly relate to our business. Although it is difficult to predict at this time the extent to which the CFPB’s final rules impact the operations and financial condition of the TCF Bank, such rules may have a material impact on our compliance costs, compliance risk and fee income.

Anti-Money Laundering As a financial institution, TCF Bank must maintain anti‑money laundering programs that include established internal policies, procedures and controls; a designated compliance officer; an ongoing employee training program; and testing of the program by an independent audit function. Financial institutions are also prohibited from entering into specified financial transactions and account relationships and must meet enhanced standards for due diligence and “knowing your customer” in their dealings with foreign financial institutions, foreign customers and other high-risk customers. Financial institutions must take reasonable steps to conduct enhanced scrutiny of account relationships to guard against money laundering and to report any suspicious transactions, and recent laws provide law enforcement authorities with increased access to financial information maintained by banks. Anti‑money laundering obligations have been substantially strengthened as a result of the USA PATRIOT Act (the “Patriot Act”), as described below. Bank regulators routinely examine institutions for compliance with these obligations, and this area has become a particular focus of the regulators in recent years. In addition, the regulators are required to consider compliance in connection with the regulatory review of applications. The regulatory authorities have been active in imposing “cease and desist” orders and money penalty sanctions against institutions found to be violating these obligations.



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USA Patriot Act The Patriot Act became effective on October 26, 2001 and amended the Bank Secrecy Act. The Patriot Act provides, in part, for the facilitation of information sharing among governmental entities and financial institutions for the purpose of combating terrorism and money laundering by enhancing anti‑money laundering and financial transparency laws, as well as enhanced information collection tools and enforcement mechanics for the U.S. government, including:

requiring standards for verifying customer identification at account opening;
rules to promote cooperation among financial institutions, regulators and law enforcement entities in identifying parties that may be involved in terrorism or money laundering;
reports by nonfinancial trades and businesses filed with the Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network for transactions exceeding $10,000; and
filing suspicious activities reports by brokers and dealers if they believe a customer may be violating U.S. laws and regulations.
The Patriot Act requires financial institutions to undertake enhanced due diligence of private bank accounts or correspondent accounts for non‑U.S. persons that they administer, maintain, or manage. Bank regulators routinely examine institutions for compliance with these obligations and are required to consider compliance in connection with the regulatory review of applications.

Under the Patriot Act, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”) can send TCF Bank a list of the names of persons suspected of involvement in terrorist activities or money laundering. TCF Bank may be requested to search its records for any relationships or transactions with persons on the list. If TCF Bank finds any relationships or transactions, it must report those relationships or transactions to FinCEN.
Consumer Protection Regulations Interest and other charges that TCF Bank collects or contracts for are subject to state usury laws and federal laws concerning interest rates. TCF Bank’s loan operations also are subject to federal laws applicable to credit transactions, such as:
the Truth in Lending Act, governing disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers;
the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, requiring financial institutions to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether a financial institution is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs of the community it serves;
the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, creed or other prohibited factors in extending credit;
the Fair Credit Reporting Act, governing the use and provision of information to credit reporting agencies;
the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, governing the manner in which consumer debts may be collected by collection agencies; and
the rules and regulations of the various governmental agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing these federal laws.
In addition, TCF Bank’s deposit operations are subject to the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E issued by the Federal Reserve to implement that act, which govern automatic deposits to and withdrawals from deposit accounts and customers’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of ATMs and other electronic banking services.

National Bank Investment Limitations  Permissible investments by national banks are limited by the National Bank Act of 1864, as amended, and by rules of the OCC. Non-traditional bank activities permitted by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 will subject a bank to additional regulatory limitations or requirements, including a required regulatory capital deduction and application of transactions with affiliates limitations in connection with such activities.

Taxation 

Federal Taxation  Our federal income tax returns are open and subject to examination for 2016 and later tax return years.



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State Taxation  TCF and/or its subsidiaries currently file tax returns in all state and local taxing jurisdictions which impose corporate income, franchise or other taxes. Our various state income tax returns are generally open for 2015 and later tax return years based on individual state statutes of limitation. The methods of filing and the methods for calculating taxable and apportionable income vary depending on the laws of each taxing jurisdiction.

Foreign Taxation TCF and/or its subsidiaries currently file tax returns in Canada and certain Canadian provinces which impose corporate income taxes. Our various foreign income tax returns are open and subject to examination for 2015 and later tax return years. The methods of filing and the methods for calculating taxable and apportionable income vary depending on the laws of each taxing jurisdiction.
 
See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis - Consolidated Income Statement Analysis - Income Taxes", "Note 3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" and "Note 16. Income Taxes" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding TCF's income taxes.

Available Information
 
Our website, www.tcfbank.com, includes free access to our news releases, investor presentations, conference calls to discuss published financial results, our Annual Report and periodic filings required by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronic filing of such material with, or furnishing it to, the SEC. Our periodic filings required by the SEC are also available on the SEC's website, www.sec.gov. Our Compensation and Pension Committee, Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee and Audit Committee charters, Corporate Governance and Director Standards, Codes of Ethics and information on all of our securities are also available on our website. Shareholders may request these documents in print free of charge by contacting the Corporate Secretary at TCF Financial Corporation, 333 West Fort Street, Suite 1800, Detroit, MI 48226.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

There are risks, many beyond our control, which could cause our results to differ significantly from management’s expectations. Some of these significant risks and uncertainties are described below. Any factor described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K could, by itself or together with one or more other factors, adversely affect our business, results of operations and/or financial condition, and the market price of our common stock could decline significantly. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently consider to not be material also may materially and adversely affect us. In assessing these risks, you should also refer to other information disclosed in our SEC filings, including the financial statements and notes thereto. The risks discussed below also include forward-looking statements, and actual results may differ substantially from those discussed or implied in these forward-looking statements.



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Risks Related to our Business

If we fail to effectively manage credit risk, our business and financial condition will suffer.

We must effectively manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our borrowers will be unable to repay their loans according to their terms, and that the collateral securing repayment of their loans, if any, may not be sufficient to ensure repayment. In addition, there are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks relating to proper loan underwriting, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions and risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers, including the risk that a borrower may not provide information to us about its business in a timely manner, and/or may present inaccurate or incomplete information to us, and risks relating to the value of collateral. Collateral values are adversely affected by changes in prevailing economic, environmental and other conditions, including declines in the value of real estate, changes in interest rates, changes in monetary and fiscal policies of the federal government, terrorist activity, environmental contamination and other external events. In order to manage credit risk successfully, we must, among other things, maintain disciplined and prudent underwriting standards and ensure that our lenders follow those standards. The weakening of these standards for any reason, such as an attempt to attract higher yielding loans, a lack of discipline or diligence by our employees in underwriting and monitoring loans, the inability of our employees to adequately adapt policies and procedures to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting borrowers and the quality of our loan portfolio, may result in loan defaults, foreclosures and additional charge-offs and may necessitate that we significantly increase our allowance for loan losses, each of which could adversely affect our net income. As a result, our inability to successfully manage credit risk could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our financial results are significantly affected by general economic and political conditions.

Our operations and profitability are impacted by both business and economic conditions generally, as well as those in the primary banking markets in which we operate. Economic conditions have a significant impact on the demand for our products and services, as well as the ability of our customers to repay loans and leases, the value of the collateral securing loans and leases, our ability to sell loans and leases, the stability of our deposit funding sources and sales revenue at the end of contractual lease terms. A significant decline in general economic conditions caused by inflation, recession, unemployment, changes in debt securities markets, government shutdowns, defaults, anticipated defaults or rating agency downgrades of sovereign debt (including debt of the U.S.), changes in housing market prices, depressed oil prices, trade disputes and related tariffs or other factors could impact economic conditions or may have a destabilizing effect on the financial markets and, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Additionally, adverse economic conditions may result in a decline in demand for equipment that we lease or finance, which could result in a decline in the amount of new equipment being placed in service, as well as declines in the values of collateral already in service. Adverse economic conditions may also hinder us from expanding the commercial and industrial loan portfolio by limiting our ability to attract and retain manufacturers and dealers as expected. Any such difficulties could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

A failure in or breach of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of third-parties, including as a result of cyberattacks, could disrupt our businesses, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses.

Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other sensitive business and consumer information on our computer systems and networks and third-party providers. Under various federal and state laws, we are responsible for safeguarding such information, and ensuring that our collection, use, transfer and storage of personal information complies with all applicable laws and regulations can increase our costs.



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Although we take protective measures to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information across all geographic and product lines, and endeavor to modify these protective measures as circumstances (including changes in our size and complexity) warrant, the nature of the threats continues to evolve. As a result, our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, loss or destruction of data (including confidential client information), account takeovers, unavailability of service, computer viruses or other malicious code, cyber-attacks and other adverse events. Despite the defensive measures we take to manage our internal technological and operational infrastructure, these threats may originate externally from third-parties such as foreign governments, organized crime and other hackers, including as a result of attacks on infrastructure-support providers and application developers, or may originate internally from within our organization. We may not be able to ensure that all of our clients, suppliers, counterparties and other third-parties have appropriate controls in place to protect the confidentiality of the information that they exchange with us. In addition, the increasing reliance on technology systems and networks and the occurrence and potential adverse impact of attacks on such systems and networks, both generally and in the financial services industry, have enhanced government and regulatory scrutiny of the measures taken by companies to protect against cyber-security threats. As these threats, and government and regulatory oversight of associated risks, continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to enhance or expand upon the security measures we currently maintain.

In particular, information pertaining to us and our customers is maintained, and transactions are executed, on the networks and systems of us, our customers and certain of our third-party partners, such as our online banking or reporting systems. The secure maintenance and transmission of confidential information, as well as execution of transactions over these systems, are essential to protect us and our customers against fraud and security breaches and to maintain our clients’ confidence. While to the best of our knowledge we have not experienced any material breaches of information security, such breaches may occur through intentional or unintentional acts by those having or gaining access to our systems or our customers’ or counterparties’ confidential information, including employees. Vulnerabilities in third-party technologies (and technology, including browsers and operating systems used by our customers) or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology, processes and controls that we use to protect data. Furthermore, our customers' devices may become the target of cyber-attacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of our or our customers' confidential, proprietary and other information, or otherwise disrupt our, our customers' or other third-parties' business operations. For example, various retailers have reported they were victims of cyber-attacks in which large amounts of their customers' data, including debit and credit card information, was obtained. In these situations, we may incur costs to address fraudulent transaction activity affecting our customers.

Although we have developed and continue to invest in systems and processes that are designed to detect and prevent security breaches and cyber-attacks and periodically test our security, a breach of our systems, or those of third-parties, could result in losses to us or our customers; loss of business and/or customers; damage to our reputation; expenses (including the cost of notification to consumers, credit monitoring and forensics, and fees and fines imposed by card networks); disruption to our business; our inability to grow our online services or other businesses; additional regulatory scrutiny or penalties; or our exposure to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.



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Our financial results are subject to interest rate risk.

Our earnings and cash flows largely depend on our net interest income. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, including the Federal Reserve. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence the amount of interest we receive on loans, leases and other investments and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and other borrowings, as well as: (i) our ability to originate loans and leases and attract or retain deposits; (ii) the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities and (iii) the average life of our interest-earning assets. A significant portion of our loans, including certain consumer, commercial real estate and commercial and industrial loans, bear interest at variable- and adjustable-rates. Increases in market interest rates can have a negative impact on our business, including reducing the amount of money our customers borrow or adversely impacting their ability to make increased payments caused by any increase in interest rates. In addition, as interest rates increase, in order to compete for deposits in our primary banking markets, we may have to offer more attractive interest rates to depositors, or pursue other sources of liquidity, such as wholesale funding. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans, leases and other investments, our net interest income and earnings could be adversely affected due to the increase in interest expense without a corresponding increase in interest income. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans, leases and other investments decrease more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings. In addition, we have an investment security portfolio that could decline substantially in value if interest rates increase materially or if obligations of states and political subdivisions become subject to less favorable tax treatment. Although management believes it has implemented effective asset and liability management strategies, any substantial, unexpected or prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We operate in a highly competitive industry and market areas.

We face substantial competition in all areas of our operations from a variety of different competitors, both within and beyond our primary banking markets, many of which are larger and may have more financial resources than us. We compete with commercial banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, mortgage banking firms, other financial service businesses, including investment advisory and wealth management firms, mutual fund companies, and securities brokerage and investment banking firms, as well as super-regional, national and international financial institutions that operate offices in our primary market areas and elsewhere.

The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. In addition, as customers' preferences and expectations continue to evolve, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for banks to expand their geographic reach by providing services over the Internet and for non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic transfer and automatic payment systems. For example, consumers can now pay bills and transfer funds directly without banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries in financial transactions, known as disintermediation, could result in the loss of fee income, the loss of customer deposits and income generated from those deposits and lending opportunities.

We compete with these institutions both in attracting deposits and assets under management, and in making new loans. Many of our competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. Additionally, due to their size, many competitors may be able to achieve economies of scale and, as a result, may offer a broader range of products and services as well as better pricing for those products and services than we can. To compete with these institutions, we may have to pay higher interest rates to attract deposits, accept lower yields on loans to attract loans and pay higher wages for new employees, resulting in lower net interest margin and reduced profitability. In addition, the loss of deposits to competitors may require us to address our liquidity needs in ways that increase our funding costs.

Our ability to compete successfully also depends on a number of other factors, including, among other things: our ability to develop, maintain and build long-term customer relationships based on quality service, high ethical standards and safe, sound assets; customer satisfaction with our service; and the ability to expand our market position. Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our growth and profitability and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.



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Failure to keep pace with technological changes could adversely affect our business.

The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology‑driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. Although we are committed to keeping pace with technological advances and investing in new technology, our competitors may, through the use of new technologies that we have not implemented, whether due to cost or otherwise, be able to offer additional or superior products to those that we will be able to provide, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry and avoid interruptions, errors and delays could result in a loss of customers seeking new technology-driven products and services and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects.

In addition, the conversion of Legacy TCF’s business to the selected core operating system and any future implementation of technological changes and upgrades to maintain current systems represent significant undertakings that may result in operational and customer challenges during and after implementation. Key challenges include service interruptions, transaction processing errors and system conversion delays, which may cause us to alienate customers or fail to comply with applicable laws, and may cause us to incur additional expenses, which may be substantial.

Our allowance for loan and lease losses, and fair value adjustments with respect to loans and leases acquired in our acquisitions, may prove to be insufficient to absorb actual losses in our loan and lease portfolio, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We maintain an allowance for loan and lease losses, which is a reserve established through a provision for loan and lease losses charged to net income that represents management's estimate of probable and estimable losses that have been incurred within our existing loan and lease portfolio. The level of the allowance for loan and lease losses reflects management's continuing evaluation of specific credit risks, loan and lease loss experience, current loan portfolio quality, the value of real estate, present economic, political and regulatory conditions and unidentified losses inherent in the current loan and lease portfolio. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan and lease losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires us to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Deterioration in economic conditions and declines in real estate values, new information regarding existing loans and leases, and identification of additional problem loans and other factors, all may require an increase in the allowance for loan and lease losses.

The application of the purchase method of accounting in our past (and future) acquisitions will impact our allowance for loan and lease losses. Under the purchase method of accounting, all acquired loans and leases are recorded in our Consolidated Financial Statements at their estimated fair value at the time of acquisition and any related allowance for loan and lease loss was eliminated because credit quality, among other factors, is considered in the determination of fair value. To the extent that our estimates of fair value of purchased loans and leases were too high, we will incur losses associated with the acquired loans and leases.

If our analysis or assumptions prove to be incorrect, our current allowance may not be sufficient, and adjustments may be necessary to allow for different economic conditions or adverse developments in our loan and lease portfolio. Material additions to the allowance for loan and lease losses would materially decrease our net income and adversely affect our general financial condition.

In addition, our regulators, as an integral part of their periodic examination, review our allowance for loan and lease losses and may require an increase in the allowance for loan and lease losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management.



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New accounting standards will require us to increase our allowance for loan and lease losses and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued a new credit impairment model, the Current Expected Credit Loss ("CECL") model, applicable to us in 2020. Initial measurement will take place at January 1, 2020, the date of adoption, and the measure of our allowance for loan and lease losses depends on the adoption and interpretation of accounting standards. The CECL model requires certain financial assets carried at amortized cost, such as loans and leases held for investment and held-to-maturity debt securities, to be valued at the net amount expected to be collected over the remaining estimated life of the asset, based on information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the amount due. This measurement will take place at the time the financial asset is first added to the balance sheet and periodically thereafter. This differs significantly from the "incurred loss" model currently required under GAAP, which delays recognition until it is probable a loss has been incurred. Accordingly, we expect that the adoption of the CECL model will materially affect how we determine our allowance for loan and lease losses and could require us to significantly increase our allowance, increasing our capital needs. Moreover, the CECL model may create more volatility in the level of our provision for credit losses. If we are required to materially increase our level of allowance for loan and lease losses for any reason, such increase could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We also expect to incur transition costs and ongoing costs in refining and implementing the CECL methodology.

See the sections captioned "Credit Quality" in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and "Note 3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" and "Note 8Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses and Credit Quality" in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, located elsewhere in this Annual Report for further discussion related to our process for determining the appropriate level of the allowance for loan and lease losses.

Changes in U.S. trade policies and other factors beyond our control, including the imposition of tariffs and retaliatory tariffs and the impacts of epidemics or pandemics, may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

There have been changes and discussions with respect to U.S. trade policies, legislation, treaties and tariffs, including trade policies and tariffs affecting other countries, including China, the European Union, Canada and Mexico and retaliatory tariffs by such countries. Tariffs and retaliatory tariffs have been imposed, and additional tariffs and retaliation tariffs have been proposed. Such tariffs, retaliatory tariffs or other trade restrictions on products and materials that our customers import or export could cause the prices of our customers’ products to increase which could reduce demand for such products, or reduce our customer margins, and adversely impact their revenues, financial results and ability to service debt; which, in turn, could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, to the extent changes in the political environment have a negative impact on us or on the markets in which we operate our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted in the future. It remains unclear what the U.S. Administration or foreign governments will or will not do with respect to tariffs already imposed, additional tariffs that may be imposed, or international trade agreements and policies. On January 26, 2020, President Trump signed a new trade deal between the United States, Canada and Mexico to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement. The full impact of this agreement on us, our customers and on the economic conditions in our primary banking markets is currently unknown. In addition, coronavirus and concerns regarding the extent to which it may spread have affected, and may increasingly affect, international trade (including supply chains and export levels), travel, employee productivity and other economic activities. A trade war or other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements or policies, as well as coronavirus or other potential epidemics or pandemics, have the potential to negatively impact ours and/or our customers’ costs, demand for our customers' products, and/or the U.S. economy or certain sectors thereof and, thus, adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.



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Our supermarket branches are subject to a number of risks, including the long-term success and viability of our supermarket partners, our ability to maintain or terminate licenses or lease agreements for our supermarket locations, and customer preferences.

A significant financial decline or change in ownership involving one of our supermarket partners, including New Albertson's Inc. (our supermarket partner for our Jewel-Osco locations) and United Natural Foods, Inc. (“UNFI”, our supermarket partner for our Cub Foods locations), could result in the loss of supermarket branches or could increase costs to operate our supermarket branches, of which we had 121 at December 31, 2019. We are subject to the risk, among others, that our license or lease for a location or locations will terminate upon the sale or closure of that location or locations by the supermarket partner or that we may not be able to renew branch leases with our supermarket partners on favorable terms, or at all. UNFI stated in 2019 that it intends to divest of all company-owned Cub stores in 2020. Should UNFI choose to sell any Cub Foods store, the buyer may terminate the branch license or lease for that location after a specified notice period in certain circumstances at the buyer's election. Furthermore, UNFI or an independent franchisee could choose to close any Cub Foods store after a specified notice period at which point the branch license or lease as to that location would automatically terminate.

Difficult economic conditions, financial or labor difficulties in the supermarket industry, or a decrease in in-store customer traffic or utilization of traditional bank branches may reduce activity in our supermarket branches. Although utilization of these branches may decrease, the nature of these leases with our supermarket partners generally do not allow us to terminate significant numbers of individual branches. Because these leases are generally all renewed together, in the event of a decrease in customer utilization there may be limited opportunities to terminate unprofitable branch leases without incurring additional costs or penalties. Any of the above risks could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We may fail to realize all of the anticipated benefits, including estimated cost savings and revenue synergies, of our Merger with Legacy TCF.

The success of our Merger with Legacy TCF, which was consummated on August 1, 2019, will depend on, among other things, the ability to continue to successfully complete the integration of the merged companies in a manner that facilitates growth opportunities and realizes cost savings. In addition, we must achieve the anticipated growth and cost savings without adversely affecting current revenues and future growth. If we are not able to successfully achieve these objectives, the anticipated benefits of the Merger may not be realized fully, or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. An inability to realize the full extent of the anticipated benefits of the Merger could have an adverse effect on our revenues, level of expenses and operating results, which may adversely affect the value of our common stock.

We may be adversely affected by risks associated with future mergers and acquisitions, including execution risk, which could disrupt our business and dilute shareholder value.

We plan to grow our business both organically and through mergers and acquisitions. We periodically evaluate merger and acquisition opportunities and conduct due diligence activities related to possible transactions with other financial institutions and financial services companies. As a result, we may engage in discussions or negotiations that, if they were to result in a transaction, could have a material effect on our operating results and financial condition, including short- and long-term liquidity. Our merger and acquisition activities could be material and could require us to use a substantial amount of common stock, preferred stock, cash, other liquid assets, and/or incur debt. For example, completion of the Merger required us to issue approximately 81.9 million common shares and a new series of preferred stock. Furthermore, failure to realize the expected revenue increases, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, and/or other projected benefits from our merger and acquisition activities could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, including net income per common share.



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Our merger and acquisition activities could involve a number of additional risks, including the risks of:

delay in completing an acquisition or merger due to litigation;
the recording of assets and liabilities of the acquired or merged company at fair value may materially dilute shareholder value at the transaction date and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations;
incurring the time and costs associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisition or merger targets;
difficulty or unanticipated expense associated with converting the operating systems of the acquired or merged company into ours;
the possibility of regulatory approval being delayed, impeded, conditioned or denied due to existing or new regulatory issues surrounding TCF, the target institution or the proposed combined entity as a result of, among other things, issues related to anti-money laundering/Bank Secrecy Act compliance, fair lending laws, fair housing laws, consumer protection laws, unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices regulations, or the Community Reinvestment Act;
potential exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities of the acquired or merged company;
our estimates and judgments used to evaluate credit, operations, management and market risks with respect to the acquired or merged company may not be accurate;
our exposure to potential asset quality issues of the acquired or merged company;
the time and costs of evaluating new markets, hiring experienced local management and opening new offices, and the time lags between these activities and the generation of sufficient assets and deposits to support the costs of the expansion;
diversion of our management's attention to the negotiation of a transaction, and the integration of the operations and personnel of the combining businesses;
the introduction of new products and services into our business;
potential disruption to our business;
incurring and possible impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets associated with an acquisition or merger and possible adverse short-term effects on our results of operations;
the possible loss of key employees and customers of the acquired or merged company;
difficulty in estimating the value of the acquired or merged company; and
potential changes in banking or tax laws or regulations that may affect the acquired or merged company.

Failure to successfully address these and other issues related to acquisitions and mergers could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, and could adversely affect our ability to successfully implement our business strategy.

We may be exposed to difficulties in combining the operations of acquired or merged businesses into our own operations, which may prevent us from achieving the expected benefits from our merger and acquisition activities.

We may not be able to fully achieve the strategic objectives and operating efficiencies that we anticipate in our merger and acquisition activities. In particular, the success of a merger or acquisition, including anticipated benefits and cost savings, will depend, in part, on our ability to continue to successfully combine and integrate our businesses in a manner that permits growth opportunities and does not materially disrupt the existing customer relationships or result in loss of customers. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of businesses or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies that adversely affect the combined company's ability to maintain relationships with customers, depositors, clients and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the merger. If we experience difficulties with the integration process, the anticipated benefits of the merger may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. If key employees depart, our business could be harmed. These and other difficulties associated with the integration of our businesses could have a material adverse effect on our business, and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.



16


We face risk of noncompliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations and corresponding enforcement proceedings.

The federal Bank Secrecy Act, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the "PATRIOT Act") and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain effective anti-money laundering programs and to file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, established by the U.S. Treasury Department to administer the Bank Secrecy Act, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal banking regulators, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service. There is also increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control. Regulators also have focused on compliance with Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering regulations. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient or the policies, procedures and systems of the financial institutions that we have already acquired or may acquire in the future are deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, including our acquisition plans, which would negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Sanctions that the regulators have imposed on banks that have not complied with all requirements have been especially severe. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us. Any of these results could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

New lines of business or new products and services may subject us to additional risk.

From time to time, we may develop new lines of business, offer new products and services within existing lines of business, and expand into new markets or pursue new distribution channels. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly where the markets are new or not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and new products or services, we may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of, or anticipated level of growth or profitability for new lines of business and new products or services, may not be achieved. External factors such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences may also impact the success of implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Any new line of business or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business and new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to certain risks related to originating and selling loans that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We sell loans to generate earnings and manage our liquidity and capital levels, as well as to create geographical and product diversity in our loan portfolio. Disruptions in the financial markets, a decrease in demand for these loans, or changes to laws or regulations that reduce the attractiveness of such loans to purchasers of the loans could require us to decrease our lending activities or retain a greater portion of the loans we originate. Selling fewer loans would result in a decrease in the gains recognized on the sale of loans, could increase our capital needs as a result of the increase of risk weighted assets, result in decreased liquidity, and result in increased credit risk as our loan portfolio increased in size, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The structure of certain loan sales may result in the retention of credit or financial risks. We may receive interest-only strips or retain loan servicing rights in connection with certain of our loan sales. The interest-only strip is recorded at fair value, which represents the present value of future cash flows expected to be received by us. The value of these interest-only strips may be affected by factors such as changes in the behavior patterns of customers (including defaults and prepayments), changes in the strength of the economy and developments in the interest rate markets; therefore, actual performance may differ from our expectations. Loan servicing rights, the right to service a loan and receive servicing income over the life of the loan, are recognized as assets or liabilities at estimated fair value. The value of loan servicing rights are affected by prepayment speeds of mortgage loans and changes; therefore, actual performance may differ from our expectations. The impact of such factors could have a material adverse effect on the value of these interest-only strips and loan servicing rights and on our financial condition and results of operations.



17


When loans are sold or securitized, it is customary to make representations, warranties and covenants to the purchaser or investors about the loans, including the manner in which they were originated and will be serviced. These agreements generally require the repurchase of loans or indemnification in the event we breach these representations, warranties or covenants and such breaches are not cured. In addition, some agreements contain a requirement to repurchase loans as a result of early payoffs by the borrower, early payment default of the borrower or defects affecting the security interest in the collateral. We have not been obligated to make significant repurchases of sold loans in the past. A material increase in the amount of loans repurchased could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Some of our loan sales involve long-term residential mortgage loans. Purchasers of residential mortgage loans, such as government sponsored entities, require sellers of residential mortgage loans to either repurchase loans previously sold or reimburse purchasers for losses related to loans previously sold when losses are incurred on a loan due to actual or alleged failure to strictly conform to the purchaser's purchase criteria. As a result, we may face increased pressure from purchasers of our residential mortgage loans to repurchase those loans or reimburse purchasers for losses related to those loans and we may face increasing expenses to defend against such claims. If we are required in the future to repurchase loans, reimburse purchasers for losses related to loans previously sold, or if we incur increasing expenses to defend against such claims, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our ability to maintain our reputation is critical to the success of our business, including our ability to attract and retain customer relationships, and failure to do so may materially adversely affect our performance.

The reputation of TCF Bank is one of the most valuable components of our business. As such, we strive to conduct our business in a manner that enhances our reputation. Damage to our reputation could undermine the confidence of our current and potential clients in our ability to provide financial services. Such damage could also impair the confidence of our investors, counterparties and business partners, and ultimately affect our ability to effect transactions or maintain or hire qualified management and personnel. Maintenance of our reputation depends not only on our success in controlling and mitigating the various risks described herein, but also on our success in identifying and appropriately addressing issues that may arise in areas such as potential conflicts of interest, anti-money laundering, client personal information and privacy issues, recordkeeping, regulatory investigations and any litigation that may arise from the failure or perceived failure of us to comply with legal and regulatory requirements. If our reputation is negatively affected, by the actions of our employees or otherwise, the resulting negative public opinion and potential regulatory action could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to liquidity risk in our operations, which could adversely affect our ability to fund our various obligations and jeopardize our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Liquidity risk is the possibility that we will not be able to meet our obligations as they come due or capitalize on growth opportunities as they arise because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding on a timely basis, at a reasonable cost and within acceptable risk tolerances. Liquidity is required to fund various obligations, including credit obligations to borrowers, loan originations, withdrawals by depositors, repayment of debt, dividends to shareholders, operating expenses and capital expenditures. Liquidity is derived primarily from retail deposit growth and earnings retention, principal and interest payments on loans and investment securities, net cash provided from operations and access to other funding. If we are unable to continue to attract and retain core deposits, to obtain third-party financing on favorable terms, or to have access to interbank or other liquidity sources, we may not be able to grow our assets as quickly as we have historically. If customers move money out of bank deposits into other investments, we would need to seek other funding alternatives, including wholesale funding, in order to continue to grow, thereby increasing our funding costs, if such funding was available at all, and reducing our net interest income and net income.

Our liquidity could also be limited by an inability to access the capital markets or by unforeseen outflows of cash, which could arise due to circumstances outside of our control, such as a general market disruption, a downturn in the markets in which we function, difficult credit markets, regulatory actions against us, or operational problems that affect us or third-parties. Our credit rating is important to our liquidity. A reduction or anticipated reduction in our credit ratings could adversely affect the ability of TCF Bank and its subsidiaries to lend by adversely affecting liquidity and our competitive position, increasing our borrowing costs, limiting our access to the capital markets or triggering unfavorable contractual obligations, such as termination of or the requirement that we provide additional collateral pursuant to our derivative contracts. If we are unable to maintain adequate liquidity, then our business, financial condition and results of operations would be negatively affected.



18


Our earnings are significantly affected by the fiscal and monetary policies of the federal government and its agencies, as well as other legal changes affecting businesses and consumers.

The policies of the Federal Reserve impact us significantly. The Federal Reserve regulates the supply of money and credit in the U.S. Its policies directly and indirectly influence the rate of interest earned on loans and leases and paid on borrowings and interest-bearing deposits, and also affect the value of financial instruments that we hold. Changes in those policies are difficult to predict. Federal Reserve policies can also affect our borrowers, potentially increasing the risk that they may fail to repay their loans or leases. For example, a tightening of the money supply by the Federal Reserve could increase unemployment or reduce the demand for a borrower's products and services. This could adversely affect the borrower's earnings and ability to repay its loan or lease. As a result, changes to the fiscal and monetary policies by the Federal Reserve could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, legal changes affecting consumers and businesses, including the deductibility or other tax attributes associated with certain products, may significantly decrease the demand for certain products that we offer. For example, the Tax Cuts and Job Act ("Tax Reform") limits the tax deductibility of interest paid on home equity loans to those loans used to purchase or substantially improve qualified residences, which may decrease consumer demand for such loan products.

Our evaluation of investment securities for other-than-temporary impairment involves subjective determinations and could materially impact our financial condition and results of operations.

Our evaluation of impairment in our investment securities portfolio involves a quantitative and qualitative process, which is subject to risks and uncertainties and is intended to determine whether declines in the fair value of such investments should be recognized in current period earnings. The risks and uncertainties include changes in general economic conditions, the issuer's net income, projected net income and financial condition or future recovery prospects, the effects of changes in interest rates or credit spreads and the expected recovery period. Estimating future cash flows involves incorporating information received from third-party sources and making internal assumptions and judgments regarding the future performance of the underlying collateral and/or value of the underlying asset and assessing the probability that an adverse change in future cash flows has occurred. The determination of the amount of other-than-temporary impairments is based upon our periodic evaluation and assessment of known and inherent risks associated with the respective asset class. Such evaluations and assessments are revised as conditions change and new information becomes available.

Management considers a wide range of factors about the security issuer and uses judgment in evaluating the cause of the decline in the estimated fair value of the security and in assessing the prospects for recovery. Inherent in management's evaluation of the security are assumptions and estimates about the operations of the issuer and its future earnings potential. Considerations in the impairment evaluation process include, but are not limited to: (i) the length of time and the extent to which the market value has been less than cost or amortized cost; (ii) the potential for impairments of securities when the issuer is experiencing significant financial difficulties; (iii) the potential for impairments in an entire industry sector or sub-sector; (iv) the potential for impairments in certain economically depressed geographic locations; (v) the potential for impairments of securities where the issuer, series of issuers or industry has suffered a catastrophic type of loss or has exhausted natural resources; (vi) our intent and ability to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for the recovery of its value; (vii) unfavorable changes in forecasted cash flows on residential mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities; and (viii) other subjective factors, including concentrations and information obtained from regulators and rating agencies. Impairments to the carrying value of our investment securities may need to be taken in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.



19


We may be required to recognize an impairment of our goodwill or core deposit intangible assets, or to establish a valuation allowance against our deferred income tax assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Goodwill represents the excess of the amounts paid to acquire assets over their fair value at the date of acquisition. We test goodwill at least annually for impairment. Substantially all of our goodwill at December 31, 2019 was recorded on the books of TCF Bank. The fair value of TCF Bank is impacted by the performance of its business and other factors. Core deposit intangible ("CDI") assets represent the estimated value of stable customer deposits, excluding time deposits, acquired in business combinations that provide a source of funds below market interest rates. We amortize our CDI assets over the estimated period the corresponding customer deposits are expected to exist. We test our CDI assets periodically for impairment. If we experience higher than expected deposit run-off, our CDI assets could be impaired. If we determine that our goodwill or CDI assets have been impaired, we must recognize a write-down by the amount of the impairment, with a corresponding charge to net income. Such write-downs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. At December 31, 2019, we had $1.3 billion of goodwill, representing 22.7% of shareholders' equity and $130.2 million of CDI assets.

Deferred income tax represents the tax effect of the differences between the book and tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets are assessed periodically by management to determine if they are realizable. Factors in management's determination include our performance, including the ability to generate taxable net income. If, based on available information, it is more-likely-than-not that the deferred income tax asset will not be realized, then a valuation allowance must be established with a corresponding charge to net income. As of December 31, 2019, we carried a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets of $12.8 million. Charges to establish a valuation allowance with respect to our deferred tax assets could have a material adverse effect on the financial condition and results of operations.

We are periodically named as a defendant in a variety of litigation and other actions, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are periodically subject to claims and legal actions related to our operations. These claims and legal actions, could result in large, unpredictable monetary awards or penalties, as well as significant defense costs. While we maintain insurance coverage in amounts and with deductibles that we believe are appropriate for our operations, such insurance does not cover all types of liability, including regulatory fines or penalties and may not continue to be available to us at a reasonable cost, or at all. As a result, we may be exposed to substantial uninsured liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, customers may make claims and take legal action pertaining to our deposit products and sale and servicing of our loan and lease products, account opening/origination practices, fees, employment practices, checking account overdraft program “opt in” requirements, or fiduciary responsibilities. Whether or not such claims and legal actions have merit, they may result in significant financial liability and could adversely affect the market perception of TCF Bank and our products and services, as well as impact customer demand for those products and services. Any financial liability or reputational damage could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, the financial services industry has increasingly been targeted by lawsuits alleging infringement of patent rights, often from patent holding companies seeking to monetize patents they have purchased or otherwise obtained. Regardless of the scope or validity of such patents or other intellectual property rights, or the merits of any claims by potential or actual litigants, we may have to engage in protracted and costly litigation which may be time consuming and disruptive to our operations and management. If we are found to infringe on one or more patents or other intellectual property rights, we may be required to pay substantial damages or royalties to a third-party, or it may be subject to a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from utilizing certain technologies.

From time to time we are, or may become, involved in suits, legal proceedings, investigations and proceedings by governmental and self-regulatory agencies that may lead to adverse consequences.

Many aspects of the banking business involve a substantial risk of legal liability. From time to time, we are, or may become, the subject of reviews, investigations and proceedings, and other forms of regulatory inquiry, including by bank regulatory agencies, self-regulatory agencies, the SEC and law enforcement authorities. The results of such proceedings could lead to significant civil or criminal penalties, including monetary penalties, damages, adverse judgements, settlements, fines, injunctions, restrictions on the way we conduct our business or reputational harm.



20


We are subject to extensive laws and government regulation and supervision and these laws or regulations, or changes to them or their enforcement could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

We are subject to extensive federal and state laws, regulation and supervision. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect bank customers, depositors' funds, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, not shareholders. These regulations affect our revenues, lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulators continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes and the implementation of banking laws or regulations may change depending on leadership at federal banking agencies. Since many new banking rules are issued with limited interpretive guidance, we may not sufficiently comply with or anticipate the full impact of such new rules.

For example, the Community Reinvestment Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act impose nondiscriminatory lending requirements on financial institutions. The Federal Reserve, the CFPB, the Department of Justice, and other federal and state agencies are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation. A successful challenge to our performance under the fair lending laws and regulations could adversely impact our rating under the Community Reinvestment Act and result in a wide variety of sanctions, including the required payment of damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, imposition of restrictions on merger and acquisition activity and restrictions on expansion activity, which could negatively impact our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

Future changes in regulations, regulatory policies, interpretation and enforcement of statutes, regulations or policies could reduce revenues and increase compliance burdens and limit the types of financial services and products we may offer, or increase competition from non-banks offering competing financial services and products, among other things. Future legislative and regulatory initiatives cannot be fully or accurately predicted. Such proposals may impose more stringent standards than currently applicable or anticipated with respect to capital and liquidity requirements, leverage, deposit insurance and risk management requirements for depository institutions. For example, the CFPB has examination and enforcement authority over TCF Bank and its subsidiaries, and broad rulemaking authority to administer and carry out the purposes and objectives of the federal consumer financial laws with respect to all financial institutions that offer financial products and services to consumers. The CFPB is authorized to make rules identifying and prohibiting acts or practices that are unfair, deceptive or abusive in connection with any transaction with a consumer for a consumer financial product or service, or the offering of a consumer financial product or service. The term "abusive" may be interpreted in changing or inconsistent ways over time. Regulatory actions that adversely impact our deposit, lending, loan collection, campus banking programs or customer opt-in preferences with respect to overdrafts could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In recent years there has been an increase in the frequency of enforcement actions brought by federal banking regulators, such as the CFPB, dealing with matters such as fair lending, account fees, loan servicing and other products and services provided to customers.

While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent violations of laws, regulations and regulatory policies, and to ensure compliance with new or changed laws, regulations and regulatory policies, there can be no assurance that violations will not occur, and failure to comply could result in reputational damage, remediation, disgorgement, penalties, increased capital requirements, higher deposit insurance assessments, other monetary relief, injunctive relief or changes to our business practices or operations, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to real properties that we may acquire.

In the course of our business, we may acquire properties securing loans we have originated or purchased through the foreclosure of loans that are in default. Particularly in commercial real estate lending, there is a risk that hazardous substances could be discovered on these properties. In this event, we might be required to remove these substances from the affected properties at our sole cost and expense. The cost of this removal could substantially exceed the value of the affected properties. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third-parties seeking damages for environmental contamination emanating from the site. We may not have adequate remedies against the prior owner or other responsible parties and could find it difficult or impossible to sell the affected properties. If we were to become subject to significant environmental liabilities or costs, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.



21


Our framework for managing risks may not be effective in mitigating risk and any resulting loss.

Our risk management framework seeks to mitigate risk and any resulting loss. We have established processes intended to identify, measure, monitor, report and analyze the types of risk to which we are subject, including legal and compliance, operational, reputational, strategic and market risk such as interest rate, credit, liquidity and foreign currency risk. However, as with any risk management framework, there are inherent limitations to our risk management strategies. There may exist, or develop in the future, risks that we have not appropriately anticipated or identified. Any future breakdowns in our risk management framework could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about our customers and counterparties.

In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions, and in evaluating and monitoring our loan and lease portfolio on an ongoing basis, we rely on information provided to us by or on behalf of our customers and counterparties, including financial statements, credit reports and other financial information. We may also rely on representations of those customers and counterparties or of other third-parties, such as independent auditors, as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. Reliance on inaccurate, incomplete, fraudulent or misleading financial statements, credit reports or other financial or business information, or the failure to receive such information on a timely basis, could result in loan and lease losses, reputational damage or other effects that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We depend on our executive officers and other key employees to continue the implementation of our long-term business strategy, and we could be harmed by the unexpected loss of their services.

We believe that our continued growth and future success will depend in large part on the skills of our executive officers and other key employees and our ability to motivate and retain these individuals, as well as our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly skilled employees. Competition for employees is intense, and the process of locating key personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business strategy may be lengthy. If we are unable to retain personnel, including our key management, who are critical to the successful integration of Legacy TCF and our future operations, we could face disruptions in our operations, loss of existing customers, loss of key information, expertise or know-how, and unanticipated additional recruitment costs. If the services of any of our of key personnel should become unavailable for any reason, we may not be able to identify and hire qualified persons on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation and future prospects.

Our business needs and future growth may require us to raise additional capital, but that capital may not be available or may be dilutive.

We are required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain specified levels of capital to support our operations. We may need to raise additional capital, in the form of debt or equity, in the future to have sufficient capital resources to meet our commitments and to fund our business needs and future growth, particularly if the quality of our assets or earnings were to deteriorate significantly. In addition, we are required by federal regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support our operations. Our ability to raise additional capital will depend on conditions in the capital markets at that time, which are outside of our control, and on our financial performance. We cannot assure that we will be able to raise additional capital in the future on terms acceptable to us or at all. Any occurrence that limits our access to capital, may adversely affect our capital costs and our ability to raise capital and, in turn, our liquidity. Any inability to raise capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and could be dilutive to both tangible book value and our share price.

In addition, an inability to raise capital when needed may subject us to increased regulatory supervision and the imposition of restrictions on our growth and business. These restrictions could negatively affect our ability to operate or further expand our operations through loan growth, acquisitions or the establishment of additional branches and may result in increases in operating expenses and reductions in revenues that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and our share price.



22


The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.

Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. A diminished availability of counterparties who satisfy our credit quality requirements could negatively impact our business. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral that we hold cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices insufficient to recover the full amount of the loan. We can give no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented.

Management regularly reviews and updates our internal controls and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. A significant failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We depend on information technology, information and data, and telecommunications systems of third-parties, and systems failures, interruptions involving these systems could have an adverse effect on our operations, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is highly dependent on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems, third-party servicers accounting systems and mobile and online banking platforms. We outsource some of our major systems, such as payment processing systems, and online banking platforms. While we select these third-party vendors carefully and attempt to monitor ongoing compliance with any arrangements with TCF, we do not control their actions. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. If sustained or repeated, a system failure or service denial could result in a deterioration of our ability to process new and renewal loans, gather deposits and provide customer service, compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business and/or subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, failure of third-parties to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or fraud or misconduct on the part of employees of any of these third-parties could disrupt our operations or adversely affect our reputation. Furthermore, concentration among larger third-party providers servicing large segments of the banking industry can also potentially affect wide segments of the financial industry.

It may be difficult for us to replace some of our third-party vendors, particularly vendors providing our core banking, debit card services and information services in a timely manner if they are unwilling or unable to provide us with these services in the future for any reason, and even if we are able to replace them, it may be at higher cost or result in the loss of customers. Any such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, the conversion of Legacy TCF’s business to our core operating system and any future implementation of technological changes and upgrades to maintain current systems represent significant undertakings that may result in operational and customer challenges during and after implementation. Key challenges include service interruptions, transaction processing errors and system conversion delays, which may cause us to alienate customers or fail to comply with applicable laws, and may cause us to incur additional expenses, which may be substantial.



23


Uncertainty relating to the London Inter-bank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, calculation process and potential phasing out of LIBOR may adversely affect us.

On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calibration of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021. The announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. It is impossible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the administrator of LIBOR or whether any additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. At this time, no consensus exists as to what rate or rates may become acceptable alternatives to LIBOR and it is impossible to predict the effect of any such alternatives on the value of LIBOR-based securities and variable rate loans, or other securities or financial arrangements, given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally. If LIBOR rates are no longer available, and we are required to implement substitute indices for the calculation of interest rates under our loan agreements with our borrowers, we may experience significant expenses in effecting the transition, and may be subject to disputes or litigation with customers and creditors over the appropriateness or comparability to LIBOR of the substitute indices, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We rely on quantitative models to manage certain accounting, risk management and capital planning functions.

We use quantitative models to help manage certain aspects of our business and to assist with certain business decisions, including estimating probable loan losses, measuring the fair value of financial instruments when reliable market prices are unavailable, estimating the effects of changing interest rates and other market measures on our financial condition and results of operations, risk management and for capital planning purposes. Our modeling methodologies rely on many assumptions, historical analyses and correlations. These assumptions may be incorrect, particularly in times of market distress, and the historical correlations on which we rely may no longer be relevant. Additionally, as businesses and markets evolve, our measurements may not accurately reflect this evolution. Even if the underlying assumptions and historical correlations used in our models are adequate, our models may be deficient due to errors in computer code, bad data, misuse of data, or the use of a model for a purpose outside the scope of the model’s design.

All models have certain limitations. Reliance on models presents the risk that our business decisions based on information incorporated from models will be adversely affected due to incorrect, missing or misleading information. In addition, our models may not capture or fully express the risks we face, may suggest that we have sufficient capitalization when we do not, or may lead us to misjudge the business and economic environment in which we will operate. If our models fail to produce reliable results on an ongoing basis, we may not make appropriate risk management, capital planning, or other business or financial decisions. Strategies that we employ to manage and govern the risks associated with our use of models may not be effective or fully reliable, and as a result, we may realize losses or other lapses. Also, information that we provide to the public or regulators based on poorly designed models could be inaccurate or misleading.

Banking regulators continue to focus on the models used by banks and bank holding companies in their businesses. Some of our decisions that the regulators evaluate, including distributions to our shareholders, could be affected adversely due to their perception that the quality of the models used to generate the relevant information is insufficient. Accordingly, the failure or inadequacy of a model may result in increased regulatory scrutiny on us or may result in an enforcement action or proceeding against us by one of our regulators.

We are subject to examinations, challenges and rates set by tax authorities that could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We are subject to federal, state and foreign income tax regulations, which often require interpretation due to their complexity. Changes in income tax regulations or tax rates, including those resulting from the enactment of Tax Reform or in how the regulations are interpreted could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In the normal course of business, we are routinely subject to examinations and challenges from taxing authorities regarding our tax positions. Taxing authorities have been aggressive in challenging tax positions taken by financial institutions. These tax positions may relate to tax compliance, sales and use, franchise, gross receipts, payroll, property and income tax issues, including tax base, apportionment and tax credit planning. These challenges may result in adjustments to the timing or amount of taxable income or deductions, or the allocation of income among tax jurisdictions. If any such challenges are made and are not resolved in our favor, they could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


24



Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism and other external events could significantly impact our business.

Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism and other adverse external events could have a significant impact on our ability to conduct business. Such events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue and/or cause us to incur additional expenses. Although management has established disaster recovery policies and procedures, the occurrence of any such event in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our headquarters is located in Detroit, Michigan, in an office building that is leased. We also operate regional offices located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area of Minnesota and Midland, Michigan. At December 31, 2019, we leased or licensed 177 of our bank branch offices, owned the buildings and land for 313 of our bank branch offices and owned the buildings and leased the land for the remaining 30 of our bank branch offices, all of which are functional and appropriately maintained and are utilized by both our Consumer Banking and Commercial Banking reportable segments. These branch offices are located in Michigan, Illinois, Minnesota, Colorado, Ohio, Wisconsin, Arizona and South Dakota. For further information on premises and equipment, see "Note 9. Premises and Equipment, Net" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.



25


Item 3. Legal Proceedings
 
From time to time we are a party to legal proceedings arising out of our lending, leasing and deposit operations, including foreclosure proceedings and other collection actions as part of our lending and leasing collections activities. We may also be subject to regulatory examinations and enforcement actions brought by federal regulators, including the SEC, the Federal Reserve, the OCC and the CFPB which may impose sanctions on us for failures related to regulatory compliance. From time to time borrowers and other customers, and employees and former employees have also brought actions against us, in some cases claiming substantial damages. We, like other financial services companies, are also subject to the risk of class action litigation. Litigation is often unpredictable and the actual results of litigation cannot be determined and therefore the ultimate resolution of a matter and the possible range of loss associated with certain potential outcomes cannot be established. Based on our current understanding of our pending legal proceedings, management does not believe that judgments or settlements arising from pending or threatened legal matters, individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, operating results or cash flows.

On February 22, 2016, two putative class action and derivative complaints were filed in the Circuit Court for Oakland County, Michigan by individuals purporting to be a shareholder of Talmer Bancorp, Inc. ("Talmer"), a company that merged with Chemical on August 31, 2016. The actions are styled Regina Gertel Lee v. Chemical Financial Corporation, et. al., Case No. 2016-151642-CB and City of Livonia Employees’ Retirement System v. Chemical Financial Corporation et. al., Case No. 2016-151641-CB. These complaints purport to be brought derivatively on behalf of Talmer against the individual defendants, and individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated against Talmer and the Corporation (collectively, the "Defendants"). The complaints allege, among other things, that the directors of Talmer breached their fiduciary duties to Talmer’s shareholders in connection with the merger by approving a transaction pursuant to an allegedly inadequate process that undervalues Talmer and includes preclusive deal protection provisions, and that we allegedly aided and abetted the Talmer directors in breaching their duties to Talmer’s shareholders. The complaints also allege that the individual defendants have been unjustly enriched. Both complaints seek various remedies on behalf of the putative class (consisting of all shareholders of Talmer who are not related to or affiliated with any defendant). They request, among other things, that the Court enjoin the merger from being consummated in accordance with its agreed-upon terms, direct the Talmer directors to exercise their fiduciary duties, rescind the merger agreement to the extent that it is already implemented, award the plaintiff all costs and disbursements in each respective action (including reasonable attorneys’ and experts’ fees), and grant such further relief as the court deems just and proper. The City of Livonia plaintiff amended its complaint on April 21, 2016 to add additional factual allegations, including but not limited to allegations that Keefe Bruyette & Woods, Inc. ("KBW") served as a financial advisor for the merger despite an alleged conflict of interest, that Talmer’s board acted under actual or potential conflicts of interest, and that the defendants omitted and/or misrepresented material information about the merger in the Form S-4 Registration Statement relating to the merger. These two cases were consolidated as In re Talmer Bancorp Shareholder Litigation, case number 2016-151641-CB, per an order entered on May 12, 2016. On October 31, 2016, the plaintiffs in this consolidated action again amended their complaint, adding additional factual allegations, adding KBW as a defendant, and asserting that KBW acted in concert with us to aid and abet breaches of fiduciary duty by Talmer's directors. The Defendants all filed motions for summary disposition seeking dismissal of all claims with prejudice. The Court issued an opinion and order on those motions on May 4, 2017 and granted dismissal to us, but denied the motions filed by KBW and the individual defendants. KBW and the individual defendants filed an application seeking leave to appeal the Court's ruling to the Michigan Court of Appeals. That application was denied by the Michigan Court of Appeals on August 16, 2017. On June 8, 2017, the Defendants filed a notice with the Court that the plaintiffs had failed to timely certify a class as required by the Michigan Court Rules. Upon the filing of that notice, the City of Livonia case became an individual action brought by the two named plaintiffs, and cannot proceed as a class action. On October 19, 2017, the Defendants filed motions for summary disposition under MCR 2.116(C) (10) in the City of Livonia case, again seeking the dismissal of the case. A hearing on those motions was held on April 11, 2018. On May 11, 2018, the Court issued its opinion and order granting the motion of the Defendants, and dismissing the case. On May 25, 2018, the plaintiffs filed a claim of appeal from the Court's decision with the Michigan Court of Appeals. By order dated August 7, 2018, the Michigan Court of Appeals consolidated the City of Livonia case with the Nicholl case discussed below.



26


On June 16, 2016, the same putative class plaintiff that filed the City of Livonia state court action discussed in the preceding paragraph filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, styled City of Livonia Employees’ Retirement System v. Chemical Financial Corporation, et. al., Docket No. 1:16-cv-12229. The plaintiff purports to bring this action "individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated," and requests certification as a class action. The Complaint alleges violations of Section 14(a) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and alleges, among other things, that the Defendants issued materially incomplete and misleading disclosures in the Form S-4 Registration Statement relating to the merger. The Complaint contains requests for relief that include, among other things, that the Court enjoin the transaction unless and until additional information is provided to Talmer’s shareholders, declare that the Defendants violated the securities laws in connection with the merger, award compensatory damages, interest, attorneys’ and experts’ fees, and that the Court grant such other relief as it deems just and proper. On October 18, 2016, the Federal Court entered a stipulated order staying this action until the Oakland County Circuit Court issues rulings on motions for summary disposition in In re Talmer Bancorp Shareholder Litigation, case number 2016-151641-CB. Following the Oakland County Circuit Court's denial of the Motions by KBW and the individual defendants and their ensuing application for leave to appeal that ruling, the Federal Court issued an order extending the stay of this action. On November 13, 2017, the Federal Court issued an Order Directing Plaintiff To Show Cause Why The Stay Should Not Be Lifted. On June 29, 2018, the Court issued an Order Lifting Stay. The plaintiff filed an amended complaint on July 27, 2018. In response to the amended complaint, the Defendants filed a Motion To Dismiss on August 24, 2018. On November 8, 2018, the Court entered an Order Staying Case Pending Appeal And Holding In Abeyance Motion To Dismiss. In the Order, the Court ruled that the case is stayed pending resolution of the appeals in the state court actions. The Order provides that if the Michigan Court of Appeals upholds the trial court decisions, and that ruling becomes final, the doctrine of collateral estoppel will preclude the plaintiffs in the City of Livonia and Nicholl cases from pursuing the federal case.

In response to the failure of the City of Livonia case to qualify as a class action, on July 31, 2017, the same attorneys who filed the City of Livonia action field a new lawsuit in the Oakland County, Michigan Circuit Court, based on the Talmer transaction. That case is styled Kevin Nicholl v Gary Torgow et al, Case No. 2017-160058-CB. The Nicholl case makes substantially the same claims as were brought in the City of Livonia case, and seeks certification of a shareholder class. The Nicholl case was assigned to Judge Wendy Potts, the same judge presiding over the City of Livonia case. On November 22, 2017, the plaintiff filed a First Amended Complaint purporting to add the City of Livonia Employees’ Retirement System and Regina Gertel Lee as additional named plaintiffs in the case. The Defendants moved to strike the class allegations in the Nicholl case based on the failure of the plaintiffs to timely file a motion to certify a class. On April 2, 2018, the Court entered an opinion and order confirming that the class allegations in the Nicholl case are stricken, and the Nicholl case will proceed as an individual action only. On April 23, 2018, the plaintiffs filed a claim of appeal with the Michigan Court of Appeals from the Court’s April 2, 2018 opinion and order.

As in the City of Livonia case, the Defendants filed motions for summary disposition in the Nicholl case, seeking dismissal of the Nicholl case. Argument on these motions was heard on April 11, 2018, together with arguments on the summary disposition motions of the Defendants in the City of Livonia case. On May 8, 2018 the Court issued its opinion and order granting the motion of the Defendants, and dismissing the Nicholl case. On May 25, 2018 the plaintiffs filed a claim of appeal from the Court’s decision with the Michigan Court of Appeals. The Court’s dismissal of the Nicholl case obviates the April 23, 2018 appeal filed by the Nicholl plaintiff with respect to the Court’s order of April 2, 2018 finding that the plaintiff failed to timely certify a class in the Nicholl litigation. By order dated August 7, 2018, the Michigan Court of Appeals consolidated the Nicholl case with the City of Livonia case.

On January 3, 2018, the plaintiffs in the City of Livonia case filed a Motion For Voluntary Dismissal Without Prejudice. Defendants filed an opposition to that motion. The Court did not rule on that motion, pending ruling on the Defendant’s summary disposition motions in the City of Livonia and Nicholl cases. The Court's dismissal of the City of Livonia case obviates the need for a ruling on this motion.

On October 17, 2019 the Michigan Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the Defendants in both the City of Livonia and Nicholl cases, affirming the decisions of the trial court. The plaintiffs did not appeal the Michigan Court of Appeals decision; the decision became final on December 2, 2019. The City of Livonia and Nicholl cases are closed. By stipulation of the parties, an order dated December 20, 2019 was issued in the federal case, closing that case with prejudice. All litigation concerning the Talmer merger transaction has now been finally resolved in favor of the Defendants.
 
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
 
Not applicable.


27


Part II

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock trades on the NASDAQ Stock Market® under the symbol "TCF." As of February 24, 2020, there were 8,617 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividends

The Board of Directors of TCF Financial and TCF Bank have each adopted a Capital Adequacy and Dividend Policy. The policies define how enterprise risk related to capital will be managed, how the adequacy of capital will be measured and the process by which capital strategy, capital management and preferred and common stock dividend recommendations will be presented to TCF's Board of Directors. Our management is charged with ensuring that capital strategy actions, including the declaration of preferred and common stock dividends, are prudent, efficient and provide value to our shareholders, while ensuring that past and prospective earnings retention is consistent with our capital needs, asset quality, risk profile and overall financial condition.

The Board of Directors currently intends to continue its practice of paying quarterly cash dividends on our common stock as justified by our financial condition. The declaration and amount of future dividends will depend on circumstances existing at the time, including our earnings, financial condition and capital requirements, the cash available to pay such dividends (derived mainly from dividends and distributions from TCF Bank which may be limited by its dividend paying capacity), alternative uses of capital, and regulatory and contractual limitations and such other factors as the Board of Directors may deem relevant. In addition, the ability of TCF Financial and TCF Bank to pay dividends depends on regulatory policies and capital requirements and may be subject to regulatory approval. See "Item 1. Business - Regulation - Regulatory Capital Requirements", "Item 1. Business - Regulation - Restrictions on Distributions", "Note 19. Regulatory Capital Requirements" and "Note 28. Parent Company Financial Information" of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Dividends for the current dividend period on all outstanding shares of preferred stock must be declared and paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment thereof must be set aside before any dividend may be declared or paid on our common stock.



28


Total Return Performance

The following chart compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock over the last five fiscal years with the cumulative total return of the KBW NASDAQ Regional Banking Index and the Standard and Poor's ("S&P") 500 Stock Index (assuming the investment of $100 in each index on December 31, 2014 and reinvestment of all dividends). As a result of the Merger in which Chemical Financial Corporation was the legal acquirer and subsequently changed its name to TCF Financial Corporation, the total shareholder return shown below for TCF Financial Corporation reflects Chemical Financial Corporation's stock price and dividends paid for the period of December 31, 2014 through the closing of the Merger on August 1, 2019, and the combined company's stock price and dividends paid for the period of August 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019.

TCF Total Stock Return Performance Chart(1) 
403093164_chart-6f1b2dac854951f792e.jpg
        
u TCF Financial Corporation(1) l KBW NASDAQ Regional Banking Index     n S&P 500 Index
 
At December 31,
Index
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
TCF Financial Corporation
$
100.00

 
$
115.40

 
$
187.09

 
$
188.80

 
$
132.36

 
$
174.96

KBW NASDAQ Regional Banking Index
100.00

 
105.91

 
147.24

 
149.82

 
123.60

 
153.03

S&P 500 Index
100.00

 
101.38

 
113.51

 
138.29

 
132.23

 
173.86

Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence

(1) Prior to the Merger, the shares were traded under the symbol "CHFC".




29


Repurchases of TCF Common Stock

Share repurchase activity for the quarter ended December 31, 2019 was as follows:
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
 
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced Plan
 
Approximate Dollar Value of
Shares that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the Plan
October 1 to October 31, 2019
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Share repurchase program(1)
37,000

 
$
39.61

 
37,000

 
$
148,534

Employee transactions(2)
4,924

 
37.14

 
N.A.

 
N.A.

November 1 to November 30, 2019
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Share repurchase program(1)
620,817

 
$
41.93

 
620,817

 
$
122,505

Employee transactions(2)
7,450

 
41.78

 
N.A.

 
N.A.

December 1 to December 31, 2019
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Share repurchase program(1)

 
$

 

 
$
122,505

Employee transactions(2)
408

 
46.80

 
N.A.

 
N.A.

Total
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Share repurchase program(1)
657,817

 
$
41.80

 
657,817

 
$
122,505

Employee transactions(2)
12,782

 
40.15

 
N.A.

 
N.A.

 N.A. Not Applicable
(1) 
On October 24, 2019, the Board of Directors approved an authorization to repurchase up to $150 million of our common stock. Repurchases will be based on market conditions, the trading price of our shares and other factors. The ability to repurchase shares in the future may be adversely affected by new legislation or regulations or by changes in regulatory policies.
(2) 
Represents restricted stock withheld pursuant to the terms of awards granted under the Legacy TCF Financial 2015 Omnibus Incentive Plan to offset tax withholding obligations that occur upon vesting and release of restricted stock. The plan provides that the value of shares withheld shall be the average of the high and low prices of common stock of TCF Financial Corporation on the date the relevant transaction occurs.






30


Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The selected five-year financial summary presented below should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes. Financial results were significantly impacted by the Merger, and periods before the Merger reflect financial data of Legacy TCF, while periods after the Merger reflect financial data for the combined company. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period financial statements to conform to the current period presentation. In addition, the number of shares issued and outstanding, earnings per share, additional paid-in-capital, dividends paid and all references to share quantities of TCF have been retrospectively restated to reflect the equivalent number of shares issued in the Merger as the Merger was treated as a reverse merger. Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). As noted in the following table, certain non-GAAP financial measures are included, which should be read in conjunction with the section entitled, "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" and the accompanying table entitled "Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Operating Results," for reconciliation of non-GAAP measures to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure. Historical data is not necessarily indicative of our future results of operations or financial condition. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors" for more discussion of factors that could cause our results to differ significantly from management's expectation.

Five-Year Financial Summary
 
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Consolidated Income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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