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Section 1: 424B5 (424B5)

424B5
Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration Nos. 333-249932 and 333-249932-01

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title Of Each Class of

Securities To Be Registered

 

Amount

To Be
Registered

  Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit
 

Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee(1)

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. 2.125% Notes due 2030

  $400,000,000   99.211%   $396,844,000   $43,295.68

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. Guarantee of 2.125% Notes due 2030

  (2)   (2)   (2)   (2)

 

 

(1)

The filing fee is calculated in accordance with Rules 457(o) and 457(r) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”). In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) of the Act, the registrants initially deferred payment of all of the registration fees for Registration Statement Nos. 333-249932 and 333-249932-01 filed by the registrants on November 6, 2020.

(2)

No separate consideration will be received for the guarantees. Pursuant to Rule 457(n) under the Act, no separate fee is payable with respect to the guarantees being registered hereby.


Table of Contents

 

Prospectus Supplement

(To Prospectus dated November 6, 2020)

LOGO

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

$400,000,000

2.125% Senior Notes due 2030

guaranteed by

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

 

 

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., which we refer to as the operating partnership, is offering $400,000,000 aggregate principal amount of its 2.125% Senior Notes due 2030, or the notes. Interest on the notes will be paid semi-annually in arrears on June 1 and December 1 of each year, beginning on June 1, 2021. The notes will mature on December 1, 2030. The operating partnership may redeem the notes at its option and sole discretion, at any time in whole or from time to time in part, for cash at the applicable redemption price described in this prospectus supplement in the section entitled “Description of Notes—The operating partnership’s redemption rights.”

The notes will be our direct, senior unsecured and unsubordinated obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of our other senior unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness from time to time outstanding. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to our existing and future secured indebtedness (as to which the repayment obligation may be limited to the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness). In addition, the notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future liabilities and other indebtedness, whether secured or unsecured, of the operating partnership’s subsidiaries.

The notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., the sole general partner of the operating partnership. Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. does not have any material assets other than its investment in the operating partnership.

The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or for quotation of the notes on any automated dealer quotation system.

Investing in the notes involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement and the risks set forth under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, as supplemented by the risks described under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020, which are incorporated by reference herein, for certain risks relevant to an investment in the notes.

 

 

 

     Per note     Total  

Public offering price (1)

     99.211   $ 396,844,000  

Underwriting discount (2)

     0.650   $ 2,600,000  

Proceeds, before expenses, to Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

     98.561   $ 394,244,000  

 

 

 

(1)

Plus accrued interest from November 16, 2020 if settlement occurs after that date.

(2)

See “Underwriting.”

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

We expect that the notes will be ready for delivery in book-entry form through The Depository Trust Company on or about November 16, 2020.

 

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

 

J.P. Morgan    BofA Securities    US Bancorp

 

Citigroup    Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

Senior Co-Managers

 

Capital One Securities    PNC Capital Markets LLC    Truist Securities

Co-Managers

 

Regions Securities LLC    Stifel    Roberts & Ryan

 

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is November 10, 2020.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE PROSPECTUS

     S-ii  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-iii  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

THE OFFERING

     S-2  

CERTAIN RESULTS OF OPERATIONS, FINANCIAL CONDITION AND OTHER DATA

     S-5  

RISK FACTORS

     S-7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-14  

DESCRIPTION OF NOTES

     S-15  

UNDERWRITING

     S-35  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-40  

EXPERTS

     S-40  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-41  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-41  

Prospectus

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE.

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

     24  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     25  

DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

     29  

MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     39  

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     45  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     73  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     74  

LEGAL MATTERS

     75  

EXPERTS

     75  

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any applicable free writing prospectus in making a decision about whether to invest in the notes. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, any securities in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any applicable free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of their respective dates or on the date or dates which are specified in these documents. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE PROSPECTUS

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to, changes and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering.

To the extent the information contained in this prospectus supplement differs or varies from the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, the information in this prospectus supplement will supersede such information. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission that adds to, updates or changes information contained in an earlier filing we made with the Securities and Exchange Commission shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information in the earlier filing.

This prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read the accompanying prospectus as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus supplement and “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” in the accompanying prospectus. Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus supplement to “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership of which we are the sole general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus supplement as the “operating partnership”; our “senior unsecured credit facility” refers to our $600 million senior unsecured credit facility, comprised of (i) a $500 million senior unsecured revolving credit facility, or our “unsecured revolving credit facility” and (ii) a $100 million unsecured term loan facility, or our “$100 million term loan facility”; our “$225 million term loan facility” refers to our $225 million unsecured term loan facility; our “$150 million term loan facility” refers to our $150 million unsecured term loan facility; our “unsecured term loan facilities” refers collectively to our $225 million term loan facility, our $150 million term loan facility and our $100 million term loan facility; our “unsecured credit facilities” refers collectively to our unsecured term loan facilities and our unsecured revolving credit facility; and our “private placement notes” refers collectively to our 3.88% Series 2019A Guaranteed Senior Notes due July 16, 2029, our 4.03% Series 2019B Guaranteed Senior Notes due July 16, 2034, our 4.29% Guaranteed Senior Notes due August 6, 2025 and our 3.930% Guaranteed Senior Notes due July 13, 2027.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference into each contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act). Also, documents we subsequently file with the Securities and Exchange Commission and incorporate by reference will contain forward-looking statements. In particular, statements relating to our liquidity and capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Furthermore, all of the statements regarding future financial or operating performance or expectations (including anticipated funds from operations, or FFO), or anticipated market conditions and demographics are forward-looking statements. We are including this cautionary statement to make applicable, and take advantage of, the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for any such forward-looking statements. We caution investors that any forward-looking statements presented in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in each are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions made by, and information currently available to, management. When used, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “result” and similar expressions that do not relate solely to historical matters are intended to identify forward-looking statements. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of our plans, intentions, expectations, strategies and prospects, which are based on the information currently available to us and on assumptions we have made.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions and may be affected by known and unknown risks, trends, uncertainties and factors that are beyond our control. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated or projected. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all).

Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance, liquidity or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:

 

   

the competitive environment in which we operate;

 

   

real estate risks, including fluctuations in real estate values and the general economic climate in local markets and competition for tenants in such markets;

 

   

decreased rental rates or increasing vacancy rates;

 

   

potential defaults on or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

   

potential bankruptcy or insolvency of tenants;

 

   

acquisition risks, including failure of such acquisitions to perform in accordance with expectations;

 

   

the timing of acquisitions and dispositions;

 

   

potential natural disasters such as earthquakes, wildfires or floods;

 

   

the consequence of any future security alerts and/or terrorist attacks;

 

   

national, international, regional and local economic conditions, including impacts and uncertainty from trade disputes and tariffs on goods imported to the United States and goods exported to other countries;

 

   

the general level of interest rates;

 

   

potential changes in the law or governmental regulations that affect us and interpretations of those laws and regulations, including changes in real estate and zoning or real estate investment trust (“REIT”) tax laws, and potential increases in real property tax rates;

 

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financing risks, including the risks that our cash flows from operations may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest and we may be unable to refinance our existing debt upon maturity or obtain new financing on attractive terms or at all;

 

   

lack of or insufficient amounts of insurance;

 

   

our failure to complete acquisitions;

 

   

our failure to successfully integrate acquired properties;

 

   

our ability to qualify and maintain our qualification as a REIT;

 

   

our ability to maintain our current investment grade ratings;

 

   

litigation, including costs associated with prosecuting or defending pending or threatened claims and any adverse outcomes;

 

   

possible environmental liabilities, including costs, fines or penalties that may be incurred due to necessary remediation of contamination of properties presently owned or previously owned by us; and

 

   

an epidemic or pandemic (such as the outbreak and worldwide spread of novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”)), and the measures that international, federal, state and local governments, agencies, law enforcement and/or health authorities may implement to address it, which may (as with COVID-19) precipitate or exacerbate one or more of the above-mentioned factors and/or other risks, and significantly disrupt or prevent us from operating our business in the ordinary course for an extended period.

Accordingly, there is no assurance that our expectations will be realized. Except as otherwise required by the federal securities laws, we disclaim any obligations or undertaking to publicly release any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement contained herein (or elsewhere) to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. The reader should review carefully our financial statements and the notes thereto, as well as the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing the notes. We urge you to read this entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein carefully, including the financial statements and notes to those financial statements incorporated by reference herein and therein. Please read “Risk Factors” for more information about important risks that you should consider before investing in the notes.

The Company

We are a self-administered and self-managed full-service REIT focused on owning, operating and acquiring industrial properties in Southern California infill markets. Our goal is to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns for our stockholders by providing superior access to industrial property investments in Southern California infill markets.

The Company was formed as a Maryland corporation on January 18, 2013 and the operating partnership was formed as a Maryland limited partnership on January 18, 2013. Through the Company’s controlling interest in the operating partnership and its subsidiaries, the Company owns, manages, leases, acquires and develops industrial real estate primarily located in Southern California infill markets, and from time to time, acquires or provides mortgage debt secured by industrial property. As of September 30, 2020, the Company’s consolidated portfolio consisted of 231 properties with approximately 27.7 million rentable square feet. In addition, the Company currently manages an additional 20 properties with approximately 1.0 million rentable square feet.

The Company elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with its taxable year ended December 31, 2013. We believe that the Company has been organized and has operated in a manner that has allowed the Company to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with such taxable year, and the Company intends to continue to be organized and to operate in such a manner. The Company conducts substantially all of its business through the operating partnership, of which it is the sole general partner.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000, Los Angeles, California 90025. Our telephone number is 310-966-1680. Our website address is www.rexfordindustrial.com. The information on, or otherwise accessible through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.



 

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THE OFFERING

The following contains basic information about the notes and is not complete. It does not contain all of the information that is important to you. For a more complete understanding of the notes, please refer to the sections entitled “Description of Notes” in this prospectus supplement and “Description of Debt Securities and Related Guarantees” in the accompanying prospectus. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise required, references under this caption “The Offering” to Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. or the operating partnership refer to Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., excluding its subsidiaries, and references to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. or the Company refer to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., excluding its subsidiaries.

 

Issuer of Notes

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

 

Guarantor

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

 

Securities Offered

$400,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 2.125% Senior Notes due 2030 (the “notes”).

 

Maturity Date

The notes will mature on December 1, 2030 unless redeemed, at our option prior to such date.

 

Interest Rate

2.125% per year, accruing from November 16, 2020.

 

Interest Payment Dates

June 1 and December 1 of each year, beginning June 1, 2021.

 

Optional Redemption

The operating partnership may redeem the notes at its option and sole discretion, at any time or from time to time prior to September 1, 2030 (three months prior to the maturity date) in whole or in part, at the applicable redemption price described herein. If the notes are redeemed on or after September 1, 2030 (three months prior to the maturity date), the redemption price will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes being redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but not including, the applicable redemption date. “Description of Notes—The operating partnership’s redemption rights.”

 

Ranking of Notes

The notes will be the operating partnership’s senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

 

   

all of the operating partnership’s existing and future mortgage indebtedness and other secured indebtedness (to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness);

 

   

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the operating partnership’s subsidiaries and of any entity the operating partnership accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

 

   

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the operating partnership, if any, in the operating partnership’s subsidiaries and in any entity the operating partnership accounts for using the equity method of accounting.



 

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Guarantee

The notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. The Company guarantee will be a senior unsecured obligation of the Company and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness and senior unsecured guarantees. The Company’s guarantee of the notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

 

   

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the Company (to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and guarantees);

 

   

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating partnership) and of any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

 

   

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the Company in the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating partnership) and in any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.

 

  The Company has no material assets other than its investment in the operating partnership.

 

Certain Covenants

The indenture that will govern the notes will contain certain covenants that, among other things, limit the operating partnership, the Company and their subsidiaries’ ability to:

 

   

consummate a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of their assets; and

 

   

incur secured and unsecured indebtedness.

 

  These covenants are subject to a number of important exceptions and qualifications. For additional information, see “Description of Notes—Certain covenants.”

 

Absence of a Public Market for the Notes

The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or for quotation of the notes on any automated dealer quotation system. The underwriters have advised us that they intend to make a market in the notes, but they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue any market-making at any time without notice.

 

Use of Proceeds

We expect that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $392.9 million, after deducting the underwriting discount and our estimated expenses. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund future acquisitions, fund our development or redevelopment activities and for general corporate purposes, which may include the repayment of outstanding indebtedness. See “Use of Proceeds.”


 

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Trustee

U.S. Bank National Association is the trustee under the indenture relating to the notes.

 

Book-entry

The notes will be issued in book-entry form and will be represented by one or more permanent global notes deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, and registered in the name of a nominee of DTC. Beneficial interests in the global notes will be shown on, and transfers will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee, and such interests may not be exchanged for notes in certificated form, except in limited circumstances described under “Description of Debt Securities and Related Guarantees—Book-entry System” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Tax Considerations

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors with respect to the federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of the notes. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Additional Issuances

We may, from time to time, without the consent of holders of the notes, increase the principal amount of the notes by issuing additional notes in the future on the same terms and conditions (except for any difference in the issue date, public offering price and, if applicable, the date from which interest thereon will begin to accrue and the initial interest payment date) and with the same CUSIP number as the notes offered hereby so long as such additional notes are fungible for U.S. federal income tax purposes with the notes offered hereby. The notes offered by this prospectus supplement and any additional notes would rank equally and ratably in right of payment and would be treated as a single series of debt securities for all purposes under the indenture.

 

Governing Law

The indenture, the notes and the guarantees endorsed on the notes will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

 

Risk Factors

An investment in the notes involves various risks and prospective investors should carefully consider the matters discussed under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement, and the risks described under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as supplemented by the risks described under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in the Company’s subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which reports are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, as well as the other risks described in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated and deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before making a decision to invest in the notes.


 

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CERTAIN RESULTS OF OPERATIONS, FINANCIAL CONDITION AND OTHER DATA

EBITDAre and Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio

The table below presents a reconciliation of net income to EBITDAre (as defined below), as well as a calculation of our Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio (as defined below), for each of the three months ended September 30, 2020, December 31, 2019, December 31, 2018, December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 (dollars in thousands):

 

     Three Months
Ended
September 30,
2020
    Three Months
Ended
December 31,
2019
    Three Months
Ended
December 31,
2018
    Three Months
Ended
December 31,
2017
    Three Months
Ended
December 31,
2016
 

Net income

   $ 31,197     $ 24,382     $ 15,207     $ 14,115     $ 8,546  

Add:

          

Interest expense

     7,299       7,364       6,656       5,638       4,074  

Depreciation and amortization

     28,811       26,877       20,671       18,767       14,242  

Subtract:

          

Gains on sale of real estate

     (13,669     (10,592     (5,631     (10,336     (5,814

EBITDAre

   $ 53,638     $ 48,031     $ 36,903     $ 28,184     $ 21,048  

Add:

          

Non-cash stock compensation

     3,101       2,800       2,282       1,328       956  

Subtract:

          

Amortization of above/below market lease intangibles, net

     (2,751     (2,191     (1,627     (1,067     (95

Straight line rental revenue adjustment

     (3,088     (2,200     (1,539     (1,508     (1,145

Recurring capital expenditures

     (1,380     (1,383     (2,403     (826     (667

Gain on extinguishment of debt

     —         —         —         (47     —    

Cash distributions from unconsolidated joint ventures

     —         —         —         —         (8

Cash flow for fixed charge coverage calculation(1)

   $ 49,520     $ 45,057     $ 33,616     $ 26,064     $ 20,089  

Cash interest expense calculation detail:

          

Interest expense

     7,299       7,364       6,656       5,638       4,074  

Capitalized interest

     1,163       867       469       384       338  

Note payable premium/discount amortization, net

     66       (2     (1     38       60  

Less: Amortization of deferred financing costs

     (373     (347     (345     (294     (266

Cash interest expense

   $ 8,155     $ 7,882     $ 6,779     $ 5,766     $ 4,206  

Scheduled principal payments

     205       40       38       264       300  

Preferred stock/unit dividends

     4,344       3,936       2,424       1,909       1,322  

Fixed charges

   $ 12,704     $ 11,858     $ 9,241     $ 7,939     $ 5,828  

Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio

     3.9x       3.8x       3.6x       3.3x       3.4x  

 

(1)

Excludes capitalized payments and second generation tenant improvements and leasing commissions.

We calculate earnings before interest expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization for real estate (“EBITDAre”) in accordance with the standards established by NAREIT. EBITDAre is calculated as net income (loss) (computed in accordance with GAAP), before interest expense, income tax expense, depreciation and amortization, gains (or losses) from sales of depreciable operating property, impairment losses and adjustments for unconsolidated joint ventures.



 

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We believe that EBITDAre is helpful to investors as a supplemental measure of our operating performance as a real estate company because it is a direct measure of the actual operating results of our properties. We also use this measure in ratios to compare our performance to that of our industry peers. In addition, we believe EBITDAre is frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in the evaluation of equity REITs. However, our industry peers may not calculate EBITDAre in accordance with the NAREIT definition as we do and, accordingly, our EBITDAre may not be comparable to our peers’ EBITDAre. Accordingly, EBITDAre should be considered only as a supplement to net income (loss) as a measure of our performance.

Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio is calculated as the ratio of EBITDAre to annualized fixed charges, a ratio derived from non-GAAP measures that we use to evaluate our liquidity and ability to obtain financing. Fixed charges consist of cash interest expense plus scheduled principal payments and dividends on our preferred stock and units of limited partnership in the operating partnership. In addition, we believe the Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio is frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties. However, others may not calculate fixed charges or Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio as we do and, accordingly, our Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio may not be comparable to our peers’ or others’ Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio. Accordingly, Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio should be considered only as a supplement to our GAAP financial measures.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in the notes involves a high degree of risk. In addition to the other information in this prospectus supplement, you should carefully consider the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein or therein and any free writing prospectus that we may provide you in connection with this offering, including, without limitation, the following risks, the risks described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020, as well as the other information and data set forth in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein before making an investment decision with respect to the notes. The occurrence of any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, funds from operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of the notes, and might cause you to lose all or a part of your investment in the notes. Some statements in this prospectus supplement, including statements in the following risk factors, constitute forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to this Offering

The effective subordination of the notes may limit our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes.

The notes will be the operating partnership’s senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

 

   

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the operating partnership (to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and guarantees);

 

   

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the operating partnership’s subsidiaries and of any entity the operating partnership accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

 

   

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the operating partnership in the operating partnership’s subsidiaries and in any entity the operating partnership accounts for using the equity method of accounting.

Similarly, the Company’s guarantee of the notes will be its senior unsecured obligation and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness and senior unsecured guarantees. The Company’s guarantee of the notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

 

   

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the Company (to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and guarantees);

 

   

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating partnership) and of any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

 

   

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the Company in the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating partnership) and in any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.

The indenture that will govern the notes will not prohibit the operating partnership, the Company or any of their respective subsidiaries from incurring secured or unsecured indebtedness in the future and, although the indenture will contain covenants that will limit the ability of the operating partnership and its subsidiaries to incur secured and unsecured indebtedness, those covenants are subject to significant exceptions and limitations, and in any event the operating partnership and its subsidiaries may be able, without taking advantage of any such

 

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exceptions and limitations, to incur substantial amounts of additional secured and unsecured indebtedness without violating those covenants. Moreover, these covenants limiting the incurrence of indebtedness will not apply to the Company. For additional information, see “Description of Notes—Certain covenants.”

In the event of the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of the operating partnership or the Company, assets that secure any of their respective secured indebtedness, secured guarantees and other secured obligations will be available to pay their respective obligations under the notes or the guarantee of the notes, as applicable, and their other respective unsecured indebtedness, unsecured guarantees and other unsecured obligations only after all of their respective indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations secured by those assets has been repaid in full, and we caution you that there may not be sufficient assets remaining to pay amounts due on any or all the notes or the guarantee of the notes, as the case may be, then outstanding. In the event of the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of any of subsidiaries of the operating partnership or the Company, the rights of holders of indebtedness and other obligations of the operating partnership (including the notes) or the Company (including its guarantee of the notes), as the case may be, will be effectively subordinated to the prior claims of that subsidiary’s creditors and of the holders of any indebtedness or other obligations of or guaranteed by that subsidiary, except to the extent that the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be, is itself a creditor with recognized claims against that subsidiary, in which case those claims would still be effectively subordinated to all indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations secured by mortgages or other liens on the assets of that subsidiary (to the extent of the value of those assets) and would be subordinate to all indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations of that subsidiary senior to that held by the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be. Moreover, in the event of the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of any subsidiary of the operating partnership or the Company, the rights of holders of indebtedness and other obligations of the operating partnership (including the notes) or the Company (including its guarantee of the notes), as the case may be, will be effectively subordinated to any preferred equity interests in that subsidiary held by persons other than the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be. In addition, in the event of the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of any entity that the operating partnership or the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting, the rights of holders of indebtedness and other obligations of the operating partnership (including the notes) or the Company (including its guarantee of the notes), as the case may be, will be subject to the prior claims of that entity’s creditors and the holders of any indebtedness or other obligations of or guaranteed by that entity, except to the extent that the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be, is itself a creditor with recognized claims against that entity, in which case those claims would still be effectively subordinated to all indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations secured by mortgages or other liens on the assets of that entity (to the extent of the value of those assets) and would be subordinate to all indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations of that entity senior to that held by the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be.

As of November 9, 2020, the operating partnership (excluding its subsidiaries) had, in addition to trade payables and other liabilities, $800 million aggregate principal amount of outstanding direct unsecured indebtedness (including $475 million of outstanding indebtedness under the operating partnership’s unsecured term loan facilities and $325 million aggregate principal amount of private placement notes) and no outstanding direct secured indebtedness, had $500 million of remaining borrowing capacity available (subject to customary conditions) under its unsecured revolving credit facility and no borrowing capacity available under its unsecured term loan facilities and had guaranteed approximately $49 million of secured indebtedness of certain of its subsidiaries. As of November 9, 2020, the Company (excluding its subsidiaries) had no outstanding direct indebtedness and had guaranteed the operating partnership’s borrowings under the operating partnership’s unsecured credit facilities, the private placement notes and secured indebtedness of the operating partnership’s subsidiaries totaling approximately $858 million aggregate principal amount. As of November 9, 2020, in addition to their trade payables and other liabilities, the subsidiaries of the operating partnership and the subsidiaries of the Company (excluding the operating partnership) had approximately $108 million of secured indebtedness outstanding and no outstanding unsecured indebtedness outstanding. In addition, as of November 9, 2020, the subsidiaries of the operating partnership guaranteed $800 million aggregate principal amount of outstanding indebtedness of the operating partnership under the unsecured credit facilities and private placement

 

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notes; however, we have delivered notices to the lenders under our unsecured credit facilities and holders of the private placement notes requiring the release of all such guarantees as a result of our having obtained investment grade credit ratings, and we expect such guarantees to be released within 10 business days of November 9, 2020.

We may not be able to meet our debt service obligations.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, including the notes, and to fund our operations, working capital and capital expenditures, depends on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our cash flow is subject to general economic, industry, financial, competitive, operating, legislative, regulatory, environmental and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.

The instruments and agreements governing some of our outstanding indebtedness (including borrowings under the operating partnership’s unsecured credit facilities) contain provisions that require us repay that indebtedness under specified circumstances or upon the occurrence of specified events (including upon the acquisition by any person or group of more than a specified percentage of the aggregate voting power of all of the Company’s issued and outstanding voting stock, upon certain changes in the composition of a majority of the members of the Company’s board of directors, if the Company ceases to be the sole general partner of the operating partnership or the Company ceases to own, directly or indirectly, at least 50% of the voting equity interests in the operating partnership) and our future debt agreements and debt securities may contain similar provisions or may require that we repay or repurchase or offer to repurchase for cash the applicable indebtedness under specified circumstances or upon the occurrence of specified changes of control of the Company or the operating partnership or other events. We may not have sufficient funds to pay our indebtedness when due (including upon any such required repurchase, repayment or offer to repurchase), and we may not be able to arrange for the financing necessary to make those payments or repurchases on favorable terms or at all. In addition, our ability to make required payments on our indebtedness when due (including upon any such required repurchase, repayment or offer to repurchase) may be limited by the terms of other debt instruments or agreements. Our failure to pay amounts due in respect of any of our indebtedness when due would generally constitute an event of default under the instrument governing that indebtedness, which could permit the holders of that indebtedness to require the immediate repayment of that indebtedness in full and, in the case of secured indebtedness, could allow them to sell the collateral securing that indebtedness and use the proceeds to repay that indebtedness. Moreover, any acceleration of or default in respect of any of our indebtedness could, in turn, constitute an event of default under other debt instruments or agreements, thereby resulting in the acceleration and required repayment of that other indebtedness. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our ability to make payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness, including the notes, when due and could prevent us from making those payments altogether.

We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future sources of cash will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay amounts due on our indebtedness, including the notes, or to fund our other liquidity needs, including cash distributions to stockholders necessary to maintain the Company’s REIT qualification. Additionally, if we incur additional indebtedness in connection with future acquisitions or for any other purpose, our debt service obligations could increase.

We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, including the notes, on or before maturity. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness or obtain additional financing will depend on, among other things:

 

   

our financial condition, results of operations and market conditions at the time; and

 

   

restrictions in the agreements governing our indebtedness.

As a result, we may not be able to refinance our indebtedness, including the notes, on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations, and additional borrowings or refinancings or proceeds of asset sales or other sources of cash are not available to us, we may not have sufficient cash to enable us to meet all of our obligations, including payments on the notes. Accordingly, if we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as seeking additional equity financing, delaying capital expenditures, or entering into strategic acquisitions and alliances.

 

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Any of these events or circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, the trading price of our securities (including the notes) and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay dividends and distributions to our security holders. In addition, foreclosures of properties that we own could create taxable income without accompanying cash proceeds, which could require us to borrow or sell assets to raise the funds necessary to pay amounts due on our indebtedness, including the notes, and to meet the REIT distribution requirements under Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, even if such actions are not on favorable terms.

Despite our substantial indebtedness, we may still incur significantly more debt, which could exacerbate the risks related to our indebtedness, and adversely impact our ability to pay the principal of or interest on the notes.

We may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. Although the agreements governing our secured and unsecured indebtedness limit, and the indenture governing the notes will limit, our ability to incur additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant exceptions and, in addition, we will have the ability to incur additional indebtedness, which could be substantial, without violating the limitations imposed by these debt instruments. To the extent we incur additional indebtedness, we may face additional risks associated with our indebtedness, including our possible inability to pay the principal of and interest on the notes.

The Company has no significant operations, other than as the operating partnership’s general partner, and no material assets, other than its investment in the operating partnership.

The notes will be guaranteed by the Company. However, the Company has no significant operations, other than as general partner of the operating partnership, and no material assets, other than its investment in the operating partnership. Accordingly, if the operating partnership fails to make a payment on the notes when due, there can be no assurance that the Company would have funds to pay that amount pursuant to its guarantee. Furthermore, as described above under “—The effective subordination of the notes may limit our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes,” the Company’s guarantee will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

 

   

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the Company (to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness or guarantees);

 

   

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating partnership) and of any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

 

   

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the Company in the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating partnership) and in any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.

Federal and state laws allow courts, under specific circumstances, to void guarantees and require holders of guaranteed debt to return payments received from guarantors.

Under the federal bankruptcy law and comparable provisions of state fraudulent transfer laws, a court could void the guarantee of the notes provided by the Company or could subordinate the guarantee to all other debts and guarantees of the Company if, among other things, the Company, at the time it incurred or entered into its guarantee of the notes, received less than reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration for the incurrence of the guarantee and any of the following is also true:

 

   

the Company was insolvent or rendered insolvent by reason of the incurrence of the guarantee;

 

   

the Company was engaged in a business or transaction for which its remaining assets constituted unreasonably small capital; or

 

   

the Company intended to incur, or believed that it would incur, debts beyond its ability to pay those debts as they mature.

 

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In addition, under any of the circumstances described above, any payment by the Company pursuant to its guarantee of the notes could be voided and holders of the notes could be required to return those payments to the Company or to a fund for the benefit of the creditors of the Company.

The measures of insolvency for purposes of these fraudulent transfer laws will vary depending upon the law applied in any proceeding to determine whether a fraudulent transfer has occurred. Generally, however, a guarantor would be considered insolvent if:

 

   

the sum of its debts, including contingent liabilities, was greater than the fair saleable value of all of its assets;

 

   

the present fair saleable value of its assets was less than the amount that would be required to pay its probable liabilities on its existing debts, including contingent liabilities, as they became due; or

 

   

it could not pay its debts as they became due.

Moreover, a court might also void the Company’s guarantee of the notes, without regard to the above factors, if it found that the Company entered into its guarantee with actual or deemed intent to hinder, delay, or defraud its creditors.

We cannot be certain as to the standards a court would use to determine whether reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration was received by the Company for its guarantee of the notes. If a court voided such guarantee, holders of the notes would no longer have a claim against the Company under such guarantee. In addition, the court might direct holders of the notes to repay any amounts already received from the Company under its guarantee.

If the court were to void the Company’s guarantee, require the return of monies paid by the Company under its guarantee or subordinate the guarantee to other obligations of the Company, we could not assure you that funds to pay the notes would be available from the operating partnership or any of our other subsidiaries or from any other source.

There is currently no trading market for the notes, and an active public trading market for the notes may not develop or, if it develops, be maintained or be liquid. The failure of an active public trading market for the notes to develop or be maintained is likely to adversely affect the market price and liquidity of the notes.

The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or for inclusion in any quotation system. Although the underwriters have advised us that they intend to make a market in the notes, they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue any market-making at any time without notice. Accordingly, an active public trading market may not develop for the notes and, even if one develops, may not be maintained or be liquid. If an active public trading market for the notes does not develop or is not maintained, the market price and liquidity of the notes are likely to be adversely affected and holders may not be able to sell their notes at desired times and prices or at all. If any of the notes are traded after their purchase in this offering, they may trade at a discount, which could be substantial, from their purchase price.

The liquidity of the trading market, if any, and future trading prices of the notes will depend on many factors, including, among other things, prevailing interest rates, the financial condition, results of operations, business, prospects and credit quality of the operating partnership and its subsidiaries and the Company and its subsidiaries and other comparable entities, the market for similar securities and the overall securities markets, and may be adversely affected by unfavorable changes in any of these factors, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, market volatility or events or developments in the credit markets could materially and adversely affect the market value of the notes, regardless of the operating partnership’s, the Company’s or their respective subsidiaries’ financial condition, results of operations, business, prospects or credit quality.

 

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The market price of the notes may fluctuate significantly.

The market price of the notes may fluctuate significantly in response to many factors, including:

 

   

actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results or dividends;

 

   

changes in our funds from operations or earnings estimates;

 

   

publication of research reports about us or the real estate industry;

 

   

increases in market interest rates;

 

   

changes in market valuations of similar companies;

 

   

adverse market reaction to any debt or equity securities we may issue or additional debt we incur in the future;

 

   

additions or departures of key management personnel;

 

   

actions by institutional investors;

 

   

speculation in the press or investment community;

 

   

the realization of any of the other risk factors presented in this prospectus supplement, including the risks incorporated by reference herein from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020;

 

   

the extent of investor interest in our securities;

 

   

the general reputation of REITs;

 

   

our underlying asset value;

 

   

investor confidence in the stock and bond markets, generally;

 

   

changes in tax laws;

 

   

failure to meet earnings estimates;

 

   

failure to qualify and maintain our qualification as a REIT;

 

   

changes in our credit ratings;

 

   

litigation or threatened litigation, which may divert our management’s time and attention, require us to pay damages and expenses or restrict the operation of our business;

 

   

general market and economic conditions;

 

   

our financial condition, results of operations and prospects; and

 

   

negative impacts from continued spread of COVID-19, including on the global economy or on our and our tenants’ businesses, financial position or results of operations.

Many of the factors listed above are beyond our control. These factors may cause the market price of the notes to decline, regardless of our financial condition, results of operations, business or prospects. It is impossible to provide any assurance that the market price of the notes will not fall in the future, and it may be difficult for investors to resell the notes at prices they find attractive or at all.

Holders of the notes will not be entitled to require us to redeem or repurchase the notes upon the occurrence of change of control or highly levered transactions or other designated events.

As November 9, 2020, we had no indebtedness outstanding under the operating partnership’s unsecured revolving credit facility, and we had $500 million of borrowing capacity available (subject to customary conditions) under the

 

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unsecured revolving credit facility. As of November 9, 2020, we had $475 million of outstanding indebtedness under the operating partnership’s unsecured term loan facilities, which were fully drawn, and $325 million aggregate principal amount of private placement notes outstanding. The instruments and agreements governing some of our outstanding indebtedness (including borrowings under the operating partnership’s unsecured credit facilities) contain provisions that require us to repay that indebtedness under specified circumstances or upon the occurrence of specified events (including upon the acquisition by any person or group of more than a specified percentage of the aggregate voting power of all of the Company’s issued and outstanding voting stock, upon certain changes in the composition of a majority of the members of the Company’s board of directors, if the Company ceases to be the sole general partner of the operating partnership or the Company ceases to own, directly or indirectly, at least 50% of the voting equity interests in the operating partnership) and our future debt agreements and debt securities may contain similar provisions or may require that we repay or repurchase or offer to repurchase for cash the applicable indebtedness under specified circumstances or upon the occurrence of specified changes of control of the Company or the operating partnership or other events. The notes offered hereby do not have any similar rights to require us to repurchase or repay the notes, whether upon the occurrence of a change of control or highly leveraged transaction or otherwise, even though these transactions could increase the amount of our indebtedness or otherwise adversely affect our capital structure or credit ratings, thereby adversely affecting the market value of the notes. These provisions may also allow holders of that other indebtedness to be repaid upon the occurrence of specified transactions or events, which may deplete our available cash and sources of financing and make it difficult or impossible for us to make payments on the notes when due.

An increase in interest rates could result in a decrease in the market value of the notes.

In general, as market interest rates rise, notes bearing interest at a fixed rate generally decline in value. Consequently, if you purchase these notes and market interest rates increase, the market value of your notes may decline. We cannot predict the future level of market interest rates.

A downgrade in our credit ratings could materially adversely affect our business and financial condition and the market value of the notes.

The credit ratings assigned to the notes and other debt securities of the operating partnership could change based upon, among other things, our results of operations and financial condition. These ratings are subject to ongoing evaluation by credit rating agencies, and we cannot assure you that any rating will not be changed or withdrawn by a rating agency in the future if, in its judgment, circumstances warrant. Moreover, these credit ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold the notes or any other securities. If any of the credit rating agencies that have rated the notes or other debt securities of the operating partnership downgrades or lowers its credit rating, or if any credit rating agency indicates that it has placed any such rating on a so- called “watch list” for a possible downgrading or lowering or otherwise indicates that its outlook for that rating is negative, it could have a material adverse effect on our costs and availability of capital, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations (including payments on the notes) and to make dividends and distributions to our security holders and could also have the material adverse effect on the market value of the notes.

The notes are subject to early redemption.

As described under “Description of Notes—The operating partnership’s redemption rights,” the operating partnership may, at its option, redeem the notes offered hereby at any time in whole or from time to time in part at the redemption prices described under such caption. Consequently, the operating partnership may choose to redeem your notes at times when prevailing interest rates are lower than the effective interest rate on your notes. If that were to occur, you may be unable to reinvest your redemption proceeds in an investment with a return that is as high as the return you would have earned on the notes had they not been redeemed and that presents a similar level of investment risk as the notes.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $392.9 million after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund future acquisitions, fund our development or redevelopment activities and for general corporate purposes, which may include the repayment of outstanding indebtedness.

Pending application of cash proceeds, the operating partnership will invest the net proceeds from this offering in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our intention to qualify for taxation as a REIT.

Affiliates of certain of the underwriters are lenders under certain of our outstanding indebtedness. As described above, to the extent that we use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay indebtedness from the underwriters or their affiliates, those underwriters or their affiliates will receive their proportionate share of any amount of such borrowings that are repaid with the proceeds from this offering.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF NOTES

The following description summarizes key terms and provisions of the notes and the indenture referred to below, does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the actual terms and provisions of the notes and the indenture, which are incorporated herein by reference. We urge you to read those documents in their entirety because they, and not this description nor the description in the accompanying prospectus, define your rights as a holder of notes. You may request a copy of those documents from us as described in “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus. The information in this section supplements and, to the extent inconsistent therewith, replaces the information in the accompanying prospectus under the caption “Description of Debt Securities and Related Guarantees.”

Capitalized terms used but not otherwise defined herein shall have the meanings given to them in the notes or the indenture, as applicable. As used in this “Description of Notes,” references to the “operating partnership,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer solely to Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. and not to any of its subsidiaries and references to the “Company” or “guarantor” refer solely to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires. Unless the context requires otherwise, references to “interest” include additional interest, as described below and references to “dollars” mean U.S. dollars. Capitalized terms used in this section have the meaning set forth below in “—Definitions.”

General

The notes will be issued pursuant to an indenture, dated as of November 16, 2020, among the operating partnership, the Company, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee, as supplemented by the first supplemental indenture dated as of November 16, 2020. We refer to the indenture, as supplemented, as the “indenture”.

The terms of the notes include those provisions contained in the notes and the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the trust indenture act. The notes are subject to all such terms, and holders of notes are referred to the notes, the indenture and the trust indenture act for a statement thereof. You may request copies of the indenture and the form of the notes from us.

The notes will be issued only in fully registered, book-entry form, in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, except under the limited circumstances described below under “—Book-Entry System.” The principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, the notes will be payable in U.S. dollars. The registered holder of a note will be treated as its owner for all purposes.

If any interest payment date, stated maturity date or redemption date is not a business day, the payment otherwise required to be made on such date will be made on the next business day without any additional payment as a result of such delay. The term “business day” means, with respect to any note, any day, other than a Saturday, Sunday or any other day on which banking institutions in New York, New York or the place of payment are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.

The notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company on a senior unsecured basis. See “—Guarantee” below.

The terms of the notes provide that the operating partnership is permitted to reduce interest payments and payments upon a redemption of notes otherwise payable to a holder for any amounts the operating partnership is required to withhold by law. For example, non-United States holders of the notes may, under some circumstances, be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax with respect to payments of interest on the notes. The operating partnership will set-off any such withholding tax that the operating partnership is required to pay against payments of interest payable on the notes and payments upon a redemption of notes.

 

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Ranking

The notes will be the operating partnership’s senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of the operating partnership’s other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

 

   

all of the operating partnership’s existing and future mortgage indebtedness and other secured indebtedness (to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness);

 

   

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the operating partnership’s subsidiaries and of any entity the operating partnership accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

 

   

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the operating partnership, if any, in the operating partnership’s subsidiaries and in any entity the operating partnership accounts for using the equity method of accounting.

As of September 30, 2020, the operating partnership had approximately $108 million of secured indebtedness and $800 million of senior unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness outstanding on a consolidated basis. Of such indebtedness, all of the secured indebtedness and none of the senior unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness was attributable to the operating partnership’s subsidiaries.

See “—Guarantee” below for a description of the ranking of the guarantee.

Except as described under “—Certain covenants” and “—Merger, consolidation or sale,” the indenture that will govern the notes will not prohibit the operating partnership, the Company or any of their respective subsidiaries from incurring secured or unsecured indebtedness or issuing preferred equity in the future and, although the indenture will contain covenants that will limit the ability of the operating partnership and its subsidiaries to incur secured and unsecured indebtedness, those covenants are subject to significant exceptions, and in any event the operating partnership and its subsidiaries may be able, without taking advantage of any such exceptions, to incur substantial amounts of additional secured and unsecured indebtedness without violating those covenants. For additional information, see “Risk Factors—The effective subordination of the notes may limit our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes.”

Additional notes

The notes will initially be limited to an aggregate principal amount of $400.0 million. The operating partnership may, without the consent of holders of the notes, increase the principal amount of the notes by issuing additional notes in the future on the same terms and conditions (except for any difference in the issue date, public offering price and, if applicable, the date from which interest thereon will begin to accrue and the initial interest payment date) and with the same CUSIP number as the notes offered hereby so long as such additional notes are fungible for U.S. federal income tax purposes with the notes offered hereby. The notes offered by this prospectus supplement and any additional notes would rank equally and ratably in right of payment and would be treated as a single series of debt securities for all purposes under the indenture.

Interest

Interest on the notes will accrue at the rate of 2.125% per year from and including November 16, 2020 or the most recent interest payment date to which interest has been paid or provided for, and will be payable semi- annually in arrears on June 1 and December 1 of each year, beginning June 1, 2021. The interest so payable will be paid to each holder in whose name a note is registered at the close of business on the May 15 or November 15 (whether or not a business day) immediately preceding the applicable interest payment date. Interest on the notes will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.

 

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If any interest payment date or maturity or redemption date falls on a day that is not a business day, the required payment shall be made on the next business day as if it were made on the date such payment was due and no interest shall accrue on the amount so payable from and after such interest payment date or maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, to such next business day.

If the operating partnership redeems the notes in accordance with the terms of such note, the operating partnership will pay accrued and unpaid interest and premium, if any, to the holder that surrenders such note for redemption. However, if a redemption falls after a record date and on or prior to the corresponding interest payment date, the operating partnership will pay the full amount of accrued and unpaid interest and premium, if any, due on such interest payment date to the holder of record at the close of business on the corresponding record date.

Maturity

The notes will mature on December 1, 2030 and will be paid against presentation and surrender thereof at the corporate trust office of the trustee unless earlier redeemed by us at our option as described under “—The operating partnership’s redemption rights” below. The notes will not be entitled to the benefits of, or be subject to, any sinking fund.

The operating partnership’s redemption rights

The operating partnership may redeem the notes at its option and sole discretion, at any time or from time to time prior to September 1, 2030 (three months prior to their maturity date) (the “Par Call Date”) in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to the greater of:

 

   

100% of the principal amount of the notes being redeemed; and

 

   

as determined by the Quotation Agent (as defined below), the sum of the present values of the remaining scheduled payments of principal and interest on the notes to be redeemed that would be due if the notes matured on the Par Call Date (not including any portion of such payments of interest accrued as of the redemption date) discounted to the redemption date on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) at the Adjusted Treasury Rate (as defined below) plus 20 basis points (0.200%);

plus, in each case, accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but not including, the applicable redemption date.

On or after the Par Call Date, the operating partnership may redeem the notes at its option and sole discretion, at any time or from time to time, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes being redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon to, but not including, the applicable redemption date.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the redemption date falls after a record date and on or prior to the corresponding interest payment date, we will pay the full amount of accrued and unpaid interest, if any (plus additional interest, if applicable), on such interest payment date to the holder of record at the close of business on the corresponding record date (instead of the holder surrendering its notes for redemption).

As used herein:

“Adjusted Treasury Rate” means, with respect to any redemption date:

 

  (1)

the yield, under the heading which represents the average for the immediately preceding week, appearing in the most recently published statistical release designated “H.15” or any successor publication which is published weekly by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and

 

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  which establishes yields on actively traded United States Treasury securities adjusted to constant maturity under the caption “Treasury Constant Maturities,” for the maturity corresponding to the Comparable Treasury Issue (if no maturity is within three months before or after the Remaining Life (as defined below), yields for the two published maturities most closely corresponding to the Comparable Treasury Issue shall be determined and the Adjusted Treasury Rate shall be interpolated or extrapolated from such yields on a straight line basis, rounding to the nearest month); or

 

  (2)

if such release (or any successor release) is not published during the week preceding the calculation date or does not contain such yields, the rate per annum equal to the semiannual equivalent yield to maturity of the Comparable Treasury Issue, calculated using a price for the Comparable Treasury Issue (expressed as a percentage of its principal amount) equal to the Comparable Treasury Price for such redemption date.

The Adjusted Treasury Rate shall be calculated by the operating partnership on the third business day preceding the notice of the redemption date.

“Comparable Treasury Issue” means, with respect to any redemption date, the United States Treasury security selected by the Quotation Agent as having an actual or interpolated maturity comparable to the remaining term (the “Remaining Life”) of the notes to be redeemed, calculated as if the maturity date of such notes were the Par Call Date, that would be utilized, at the time of selection and in accordance with customary financial practice, in pricing new issues of corporate debt securities of comparable maturity to the Remaining Life of such notes.

“Comparable Treasury Price” means, with respect to any redemption date, (1) the average of the Reference Treasury Dealer Quotations for such redemption date, after excluding the highest and lowest of such Reference Treasury Dealer Quotations, or (2) if the operating partnership obtains fewer than four such Reference Treasury Dealer Quotations, the average of all such Quotations.

“Quotation Agent” means, with respect to any redemption date, the Reference Treasury Dealer appointed by the operating partnership.

“Reference Treasury Dealer” means, with respect to any redemption date, each of (1) J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, (2) BofA Securities, Inc., (3) U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc. or (4) any one other Primary Treasury Dealer selected by us; provided, however, that if any of the Reference Treasury Dealers referred to in clause (1), (2) or (3) above ceases to be a primary U.S. Government securities dealer (“Primary Treasury Dealer”), the operating partnership will substitute therefor another Primary Treasury Dealer.

“Reference Treasury Dealer Quotations” means, with respect to each Reference Treasury Dealer and any redemption date, the average, as determined by the operating partnership, of the bid and asked prices for the Comparable Treasury Issue (expressed in each case as a percentage of its principal amount) quoted in writing to the operating partnership by such Reference Treasury Dealer at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on the third business day preceding the notice of such redemption date.

Notice of any redemption will be delivered at least 15 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of the notes to be redeemed, with a copy to the trustee. Unless we default in payment of the redemption price, on and after the redemption date, interest will cease to accrue on the notes or portions thereof called for redemption.

If the operating partnership decides to redeem the notes in part, the trustee will select the notes to be redeemed (in principal amounts of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof) on a pro rata basis or such other method it deems fair and appropriate or is required by the depository for notes in global form.

 

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In the event of any redemption of notes, the operating partnership will not be required to:

 

   

issue or register the transfer or exchange of any note during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the mailing of a notice of redemption of the notes selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of any note so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any note being redeemed in part.

If the paying agent holds funds sufficient to pay the redemption price of the notes on the redemption date, then on and after such date:

 

   

such notes will cease to be outstanding;

 

   

interest on such notes will cease to accrue; and

 

   

all rights of holders of such notes will terminate except the right to receive the redemption price.

Such will be the case whether or not book-entry transfer of the notes in book-entry form is made and whether or not notes in certificated form, together with the necessary endorsements, are delivered to the paying agent.

The operating partnership will not redeem the notes on any date if the principal amount of the notes has been accelerated, and such an acceleration has not been rescinded or cured on or prior to such date.

Certain covenants

Limitation on total outstanding debt. The notes will provide that the operating partnership will not, and will not permit any Subsidiary to, incur any Debt (including, without limitation, Acquired Debt) if, immediately after giving effect to the incurrence of such Debt and the application of the proceeds from such Debt on a pro forma basis, the aggregate principal amount of all of its and its Subsidiaries’ outstanding Debt (determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles) is greater than 60% of the sum of the following (without duplication): (1) its and its Subsidiaries’ Total Assets as of the last day of the then most recently ended fiscal quarter covered in the Company’s annual or quarterly report most recently furnished to holders of the notes or filed with the SEC, as the case may be, and (2) the aggregate purchase price of any real estate assets or mortgages receivable acquired, and the aggregate amount of any securities offering proceeds received (to the extent such proceeds were not used to acquire real estate assets or mortgages receivable or used to reduce Debt), by the operating partnership or any Subsidiary since the end of such fiscal quarter, including the proceeds obtained from the incurrence of such additional Debt.

For purposes of this covenant, Debt will be deemed to be incurred by the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries whenever the operating partnership or such Subsidiary shall create, assume, guarantee (on a non-contingent basis) or otherwise become liable in respect thereof.

Secured debt test. The notes will provide that the operating partnership will not, and will not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, incur any Debt (including, without limitation, Acquired Debt) secured by any Lien on any of its or any of its Subsidiaries’ property or assets, whether owned on the date of the indenture or subsequently acquired, if, immediately after giving effect to the incurrence of such Debt and the application of the proceeds from such Debt on a pro forma basis, the aggregate principal amount (determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles) of all of its and its Subsidiaries’ outstanding Debt which is secured by a Lien on any of its or its Subsidiaries’ property or assets is greater than 40% of the sum of (without duplication): (1) its and its Subsidiaries’ Total Assets as of the last day of the then most recently ended fiscal quarter covered in the Company’s annual or quarterly report most recently furnished to holders of the notes or filed with the SEC, as the case may be; and (2) the aggregate purchase price of any real estate assets or mortgages receivable acquired, and the aggregate amount of any securities offering proceeds

 

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received (to the extent such proceeds were not used to acquire real estate assets or mortgages receivable or used to reduce Debt), by the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries since the end of such fiscal quarter, including the proceeds obtained from the incurrence of such additional Debt.

For purposes of this covenant, Debt will be deemed to be incurred by the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries whenever the operating partnership or such Subsidiary shall create, assume, guarantee (on a non-contingent basis) or otherwise become liable in respect thereof.

Debt service test. The notes also will provide that the operating partnership will not, and will not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, incur any Debt (including without limitation Acquired Debt) if the ratio of Consolidated Income Available for Debt Service to Annual Debt Service Charge for the period consisting of the four consecutive fiscal quarters ending with the latest quarter covered in the Company’s annual or quarterly report most recently furnished to holders of the notes or filed with the SEC, as the case may be, most recently ended prior to the date on which such additional Debt is to be incurred shall have been less than 1.5:1 on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the incurrence of such Debt and the application of the proceeds from such Debt (determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles), and calculated on the following assumptions: (1) such Debt and any other Debt (including, without limitation, Acquired Debt) incurred by the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries since the first day of such four-quarter period had been incurred, and the application of the proceeds from such Debt (including to repay or retire other Debt) had occurred, on the first day of such period; (2) the repayment or retirement of any other Debt of the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries since the first day of such four-quarter period had occurred on the first day of such period (except that, in making this computation, the amount of Debt under any revolving credit facility, line of credit or similar facility will be computed based upon the average daily balance of such Debt during such period); and (3) in the case of any acquisition or disposition by the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries of any asset or group of assets with a fair market value in excess of $1.0 million since the first day of such four-quarter period, whether by merger, stock purchase or sale or asset purchase or sale or otherwise, such acquisition or disposition had occurred as of the first day of such period with the appropriate adjustments with respect to such acquisition or disposition being included in such pro forma calculation.

If the Debt giving rise to the need to make the calculation described above or any other Debt incurred after the first day of the relevant four-quarter period bears interest at a floating rate, then, for purposes of calculating the Annual Debt Service Charge, the interest rate on such Debt will be computed on a pro forma basis by applying the average daily rate which would have been in effect during the entire four quarter period to the greater of the amount of such Debt outstanding at the end of such period or the average amount of such Debt outstanding during such period.

For purposes of this covenant, Debt will be deemed to be incurred by the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries whenever the operating partnership or such Subsidiary shall create, assume, guarantee (on a non-contingent basis) or otherwise become liable in respect thereof.

Maintenance of total unencumbered assets. The notes will provide that the operating partnership will not have at any time Total Unencumbered Assets of less than 150% of the aggregate principal amount of all of its and its Subsidiaries’ outstanding Unsecured Debt determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles.

For purposes of this covenant, Debt will be deemed to be incurred by the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries whenever the operating partnership or such Subsidiary shall create, assume, guarantee (on a non-contingent basis) or otherwise become liable in respect thereof.

 

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Existence. Except as permitted by the covenant described under “—Merger, consolidation or sale,” the notes will provide that the operating partnership will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its existence, rights (charter and statutory) and franchises, and the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its existence, rights (charter and statutory) and franchises. However, neither the operating partnership nor the Company will be required to preserve any right or franchise if the Company’s board of directors (or any duly authorized committee of that board of directors), as the case may be, determines that the preservation of the right or franchise is no longer desirable in the conduct of our or the Company’s business, as the case may be.

Maintenance of properties. The notes will provide that the operating partnership will cause all of its properties used or useful in the conduct of its business or the business of any Subsidiary to be maintained and kept in good condition, repair and working order and supplied with all necessary equipment and cause all necessary repairs, renewals, replacements, betterments and improvements to be made, all as in the judgment of the operating partnership may be necessary in order for the operating partnership to at all times properly and advantageously conduct its business carried on in connection with such properties.

Insurance. The notes will provide that the operating partnership will, and will cause each of its Subsidiaries to, keep in force upon all of its and each of its Subsidiaries’ properties and operations insurance policies carried with responsible companies in such amounts and covering all such risks as is customary in the industry in which the operating partnership and its Subsidiaries do business in accordance with prevailing market conditions and availability.

Payment of taxes and other claims. The notes will provide that each of the operating partnership and the Company will each pay or discharge or cause to be paid or discharged before it becomes delinquent:

 

   

all taxes, assessments and governmental charges levied or imposed on it or any of its Subsidiaries or on its or any such Subsidiary’s income, profits or property; and

 

   

all lawful claims for labor, materials and supplies that, if unpaid, might by law become a Lien upon its property or the property of any of its Subsidiaries.

However, neither the operating partnership nor the Company will be required to pay or discharge or cause to be paid or discharged any tax, assessment, charge or claim the amount, applicability or validity of which is being contested in good faith.

Provision of financial information. The notes will provide that the Company will:

 

   

file with the trustee, within 15 days after the Company files them with the SEC, copies of the annual reports and information, documents and other reports which the Company may be required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to those sections, then the Company will file with the trustee and the SEC, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the SEC, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports which Section 13 of the Exchange Act may require with respect to a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange on or prior to the respective dates by which the Company would have been required to so file such documents if it were so subject; and

 

   

file with the trustee and the SEC, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the SEC, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants of the indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

 

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Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this covenant; provided, however, that the trustee shall have no obligation whatsoever to determine whether or not such information, documents or reports have been filed via EDGAR. Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the trustee is for informational purposes only and the trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including its compliance with any of its covenants relating to the notes (as to which the trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an officer’s certificate).

The covenants described under this caption “ —Certain covenants” shall, insofar as they relate to the notes, be subject to covenant defeasance as described under “ —Defeasance—Defeasance of certain covenants,” provided that, notwithstanding the foregoing, the covenant of the operating partnership and the Company to do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect their respective existence (except as permitted by the provisions described under “ —Merger, consolidation or sale”) and the provisions described above under “ —Provision of financial information” shall not be subject to covenant defeasance. In addition, the operating partnership and the Company may omit in any particular instance to comply, insofar as relates to the notes, with any covenant described under this caption “ —Certain covenants” (other than the covenant described under “ —Provision of financial information”) if the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes waive such compliance.

Guarantee

The Company will fully and unconditionally guarantee the operating partnership’s obligations under the notes, including the due and punctual payment of principal of and interest on the notes, whether at stated maturity, by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise. Under the terms of the Company’s guarantee, holders of the notes will not be required to exercise their remedies against the operating partnership before they proceed directly against the Company. The Company’s obligations under the guarantee of the notes will be limited to the maximum amount that will not, after giving effect to all other contingent and fixed liabilities of the Company, result in the guarantee constituting a fraudulent transfer or conveyance. See “Risk factors—Federal and state laws allow courts, under specific circumstances, to void guarantees and require holders of guaranteed debt to return payments received from guarantors.”

The guarantee of the notes will be a senior unsecured obligation of the Company and will rank equally in right of payment with all other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness and senior unsecured guarantees of the Company. The Company’s guarantee of the notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

 

   

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the Company (to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and guarantees);

 

   

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating partnership) and of any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

 

   

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the Company in the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating partnership) and in any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.

The covenants in the indenture that will limit the ability of the operating partnership and its subsidiaries to incur indebtedness will not apply to the Company.

The Company has no significant operations, other than as the operating partnership’s general partner, and no material assets, other than its investment in the operating partnership. Accordingly, if the operating partnership fails to make a payment on the notes when due, there can be no assurance that the Company would have funds to

 

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pay that amount pursuant to its guarantee. See “Risk factors—The Company has no significant operations, other than as the operating partnership’s general partner, and no material assets, other than its investment in the operating partnership.”

For additional information, see “Risk Factors—The effective subordination of the notes may limit our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes.”

Merger, consolidation or sale

The indenture will provide that the operating partnership and the Company may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our or its assets to, or merge with or into, any other entity, provided that the following conditions are met:

 

   

the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be, shall be the continuing entity, or the successor entity (if other than the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be) formed by or resulting from any consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of assets shall be domiciled in the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and in the case of the operating partnership shall expressly assume by supplemental indenture payment of the principal of and interest on all of the notes and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions in the indenture or in the case of the Company, shall expressly assume by supplemental indenture the payment of all amounts due under its guarantee of the notes and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions of the Company in the indenture and the guarantee, as the case may be;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Event of Default under the indenture, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

an officer’s certificate and legal opinion covering these conditions shall be delivered to the trustee.

In the event of any transaction described in and complying with the conditions listed in the immediately preceding paragraphs in which the operating partnership and/or the Company are not the continuing entity, the successor person formed or remaining shall succeed, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of the operating partnership and/or the Company, and the operating partnership and/or the Company shall be discharged from its or their obligations under the notes and the indenture.

Events of default

The indenture provides that the following events are “Events of Default” with respect to the notes:

 

   

default for 30 days in the payment of any installment of interest under the notes;

 

   

default in the payment of the principal amount or redemption price due with respect to the notes, when the same becomes due and payable; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of the notes in accordance with the terms of the indenture shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal;

 

   

failure by us or the Company to comply with any of our or the Company’s respective other agreements in the notes or the indenture with respect to the notes upon receipt by us of notice of such default by the trustee or by holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the notes then outstanding and our failure to cure (or obtain a waiver of) such default within 60 days after we receive such notice;

 

   

failure to pay any Debt (other than Non-Recourse Debt) for monies borrowed by the operating partnership, the Company or any of their respective Significant Subsidiaries in an outstanding

 

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principal amount in excess of $50.0 million at final maturity or upon acceleration after the expiration of any applicable grace period, which Debt (other than Non-Recourse Debt) is, or has become, the primary obligation of the operating partnership or the Company and is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within 60 days after written notice to the operating partnership from the trustee (or to the operating partnership and the trustee from holders of at least twenty five percent (25%) in principal amount of the outstanding notes); or

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of us or the Company or any Significant Subsidiary or all or substantially all of their respective property.

If an Event of Default under the indenture with respect to the notes occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default specified in the last bullet above with respect to us, which shall result in an automatic acceleration), then in every case the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding notes may declare the principal amount of all of the notes to be due and payable immediately by written notice thereof to us and the Company (and to the trustee if given by the holders). However, at any time after the declaration of acceleration with respect to the notes has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of outstanding notes may waive all defaults or Events of Default and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal of (or specified portion thereof) or interest on the notes have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture.

The indenture also provides that the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes may waive any past default with respect to the notes and its consequences, except a default:

 

   

in the payment of the principal of or interest on the notes, unless such default has been cured and we or the Company shall have deposited with the trustee all required payments of the principal of and interest on the notes; or

 

   

in respect of a covenant or provision contained in the indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected thereby.

The trustee will be required to give notice to the holders of the notes of a default under the indenture unless the default has been cured or waived within 90 days; provided, however, that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the notes of any default with respect to the notes (except a default in the payment of the principal of or interest on the notes) if the trustee considers the withholding to be in the interest of the holders.

The indenture provides that no holder of the notes may institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for any remedy thereunder, except in the case of failure of the trustee, for 60 days, to act after it has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an Event of Default from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding notes, as well as an offer of indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee. This provision will not prevent, however, any holder of the notes from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of and interest on the notes at the respective due dates thereof.

The trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any holders of the notes then outstanding under the indenture, unless the holders shall have offered, and, if requested, provided to the trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to the trustee. The holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes (or of all notes then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be) shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon the trustee. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction which is in conflict with any law or the indenture, or which may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of the notes not joining therein.

 

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Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, the operating partnership and the Company must deliver a certificate of an officer certifying to the trustee whether or not the officer has knowledge of any default under the indenture and, if so, specifying each default and the nature and status thereof.

Defeasance

Legal defeasance

The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the notes, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the notes (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest on, if any, the notes on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and the notes.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service, a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

Defeasance of certain covenants

The indenture provides that upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

   

we may omit to comply with certain covenants set forth in the indenture, and

 

   

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a default or an Event of Default with respect to the notes, or covenant defeasance.

The conditions include:

 

   

depositing with the trustee cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, in respect of the notes on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and the notes, and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.

Covenant defeasance and Events of Default

In the event we exercise our option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to the notes and the notes are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the notes at the time of the acceleration resulting from the event of default. In such a case, we would remain liable for those payments.

 

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Satisfaction and discharge

The indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to all outstanding notes when:

 

   

either:

 

   

all notes that have been authenticated and delivered (other than notes that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid and notes for whose payment money has been deposited in trust and thereafter repaid) to the trustee for cancellation; or

 

   

all notes that have not been delivered to the trustee for cancellation: (i) have become due and payable by reason of sending a notice of redemption or otherwise; (ii) will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year; (iii) have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the trustee in our name, and at our expense; or (iv) are deemed paid and discharged as set forth under the caption “—Defeasance—Legal Defeasance”; and we, in case of (i), (ii) or (iii), have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the trustee in trust cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations that, through the payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms, will provide cash sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on the notes not delivered to the trustee for cancellation for principal of, and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on, the notes to the date of maturity or redemption, as the case may be, in accordance with the terms of the indenture and the notes;

 

   

the operating partnership has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable under the indenture by the operating partnership; and

 

   

the operating partnership has delivered to the trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.

Modification, waiver and meetings

Modifications and amendments of the indenture with respect to the notes will be permitted to be made only with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of all outstanding notes; provided, however, that no modification or amendment may, without the consent of each holder affected:

 

   

reduce the amount of the notes whose holders must consent to an amendment or waiver;

 

   

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on the notes;

 

   

reduce the principal of, or premium, if any, on, or change the fixed maturity of, the notes;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the notes (except a rescission of acceleration of the notes by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding notes and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

   

make the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the notes payable in currency other than that stated in the notes;

 

   

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of the notes to receive payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the notes and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments;

 

   

waive a redemption payment with respect to the notes; or

 

   

release the Company as a guarantor of the notes other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders of the notes.

 

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Notwithstanding the foregoing, modifications and amendments of the indenture with respect to the notes will be permitted to be made by us and the trustee without the consent of any holder of the notes for any of the following purposes:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; provided that this action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of the notes in any material respect;

 

   

to evidence a successor to us as obligor or the Company as guarantor under the indenture with respect to the notes;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of the holders of any notes then outstanding;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of additional notes in accordance with the limitations set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

 

   

to reflect the release of the Company, as guarantor, in accordance with the provisions of the indenture;

 

   

to secure the notes;

 

   

to add guarantors with respect to the notes; or

 

   

to conform the text of the indenture, any guarantee or the notes to any provision of this “Description of notes” to the extent that such provision in this “Description of notes” was intended to be a verbatim recitation of a provision of the indenture, such guarantee or the notes (as certified in an officer’s certificate).

In addition, without the consent of any holder of the notes, the Company, or a subsidiary thereof, may directly assume the due and punctual payment of the principal of, any premium and interest on all the notes and the performance of every covenant of the indenture on our part to be performed or observed. Upon any assumption, the Company or such subsidiary shall succeed us, and be substituted for and may exercise every right and power of ours, under the indenture with the same effect as if the Company or such subsidiary had been the issuer of the notes, and the operating partnership shall be released from all obligations and covenants with respect to the notes. No assumption shall be permitted unless the Company has delivered to the trustee (1) an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, stating, among other things, that the guarantee and all other covenants of the Company in the indenture remain in full force and effect and (2) an opinion of independent counsel that the holders of the notes shall have no materially adverse U.S. federal tax consequences as a result of the assumption, and that, if any notes are then listed on the New York Stock Exchange, that the notes shall not be delisted as a result of the assumption.

In determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding notes have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver thereunder or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of notes, the indenture provides that notes owned by us or the Company or any other obligor upon the notes or any affiliate of ours or the Company or any of the other obligors known to a responsible officer of the trustee shall be disregarded.

The indenture contains provisions for convening meetings of the holders of notes. A meeting will be permitted to be called at any time by the trustee, and also, upon request, by us or the Company or the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding notes, in any case upon notice given as provided in the indenture. Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each note affected by certain modifications and amendments

 

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of the indenture, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present will be permitted to be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes; provided, however, that, except as referred to above, any resolution with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority, in principal amount of the outstanding notes may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of the holders of the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes. Any resolution passed or decision taken at any meeting of holders of notes duly held in accordance with the indenture will be binding on all holders of the notes. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any reconvened meeting, will be holders holding or representing a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes; provided, however, that if any action is to be taken at the meeting with respect to a consent or waiver which may be given by the holders of not less than a specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes, holders holding or representing the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes will constitute a quorum.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, any action to be taken at a meeting of holders of the notes with respect to any action that the indenture expressly provides may be taken by the holders of a specified percentage which is less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes may be taken at a meeting at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of holders of the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes.

Trustee

U.S. Bank National Association will initially act as the trustee, registrar and paying agent for the notes, subject to replacement at the operating partnership’s option as provided in the indenture.

If an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be required to use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee will become obligated to exercise any of its powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the required percentage under the indenture of holders of the notes only after those holders have offered, and, if requested, provided the trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to it.

If the trustee becomes one of our creditors, it will be subject to limitations on its rights to obtain payment of claims or to realize on some property received for any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with the operating partnership. If, however, it acquires any conflicting interest, it must eliminate that conflict or resign.

No conversion or exchange rights

The notes will not be convertible into or exchangeable for any shares of beneficial interest of the operating partnership or the Company.

No personal liability of trustees, officers, employees and shareholders

Except as provided in the indenture, no past, present or future trustee, officer, employee, incorporator, shareholder or limited partner of the operating partnership or the Company, as such, will have any liability for any of the operating partnership’s obligations or those of the Company under the notes, the indenture, any guarantees or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder of notes by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the notes. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.

 

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Book-entry, delivery and form

The notes will be issued in the form of one or more fully registered global securities (“Global Notes”) that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depositary Trust Company (“DTC”), and registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede&Co. The Global Notes may be transferred, in whole and not in part, only to another nominee of DTC or to a successor of DTC or its nominee. Beneficial interests in the Global Notes may not be exchanged for definitive notes in registered certificated form (“Certificated Notes”) except in the limited circumstances described below. See “—Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes.” Except in the limited circumstances described below, owners of beneficial interests in the Global Notes will not be entitled to receive physical delivery of notes in certificated form. Investors may elect to hold their interest in the Global Securities through either DTC, Clearstream or Euroclear if they are participants in these systems, or indirectly through organizations which are participants in these systems. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their participants though customers’ securities accounts in Clearstream and Euroclear’s names on the books of their respective depositaries, which in turn will hold interests in customers’ securities accounts in the depositaries’ names on the books of DTC.

Depository procedures

The following description of the operations and procedures of DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream is provided solely as a matter of convenience. These operations and procedures are solely within the control of the respective settlement system and are subject to changes by them. Neither the trustee nor the operating partnership takes any responsibility for these operations and procedures and each urges investors to contact the system or their participants directly to discuss these matters.

DTC has advised the operating partnership that DTC is a limited-purpose trust company created to hold securities for its participating organizations (collectively, the “Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions in those securities between the Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of its Participants. The Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations. Access to DTC’s system is also available to other entities such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Participant, either directly or indirectly (collectively, the “Indirect Participants”). Persons who are not Participants may beneficially own securities held by or on behalf of DTC only through the Participants or the Indirect Participants. The ownership interests in, and transfers of ownership interests in, each security held by or on behalf of DTC are recorded on the records of the Participants and Indirect Participants.

DTC has also advised the operating partnership that, pursuant to procedures established by it:

 

  (1)

upon deposit of the Global Notes, DTC will credit the accounts of the Participants designated by the underwriters with portions of the principal amount of the Global Notes; and

 

  (2)

ownership of these interests in the Global Notes will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership of these interests will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to the Participants) or by the Participants and the Indirect Participants (with respect to other owners of beneficial interest in the Global Notes).

Investors in the Global Notes who are Participants may hold their interests therein directly through DTC. Investors in the Global Notes who are not Participants may hold their interests therein indirectly through organizations (including Euroclear and Clearstream) which are Participants. All interests in a Global Note, including those held through Euroclear or Clearstream, may be subject to the procedures and requirements of DTC. Those interests held through Euroclear or Clearstream may also be subject to the procedures and requirements of such systems. The laws of some states require that certain persons take physical delivery in definitive form of securities that they own. Consequently, the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a Global Note to such persons will be limited to that extent. Because DTC can act only on behalf of the Participants,

 

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which in turn act on behalf of the Indirect Participants, the ability of a person having beneficial interests in a Global Note to pledge such interests to persons that do not participate in the DTC system, or otherwise take actions in respect of such interests, may be affected by the lack of a physical certificate evidencing such interests.

Except as described below, owners of interests in the Global Notes will not have notes registered in their names, will not receive physical delivery of notes in certificated form and will not be considered the registered owners or “holders” thereof under the indenture governing the notes for any purpose.

Payments in respect of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee will be payable to DTC in its capacity as the registered holder under the indenture governing the notes. Under the terms of the indenture, the operating partnership, the Company and the trustee will treat the persons in whose names the notes, including the Global Notes, are registered as the owners of the notes for the purpose of receiving payments and for all other purposes.

Consequently, neither the operating partnership, the Company, the trustee nor any agent of them or the trustee has or will have any responsibility or liability for:

 

  (1)

any aspect of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interest in the Global Notes or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to the beneficial ownership interests in the Global Notes; or

 

  (2)

any other matter relating to the actions and practices of DTC or any of its Participants or Indirect Participants.

DTC has advised the operating partnership that its current practice, upon receipt of any payment in respect of securities such as the notes (including principal and interest), is to credit the accounts of the relevant Participants with the payment on the payment date unless DTC has reason to believe that it will not receive payment on such payment date. Each relevant Participant is credited with an amount proportionate to its beneficial ownership of an interest in the principal amount of the relevant security as shown on the records of DTC. Payments by the Participants and the Indirect Participants to the beneficial owners of notes will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices and will be the responsibility of the Participants or the Indirect Participants and will not be the responsibility of DTC, the trustee or us. Neither we nor the trustee will be liable for any delay by DTC or any of the Participants or the Indirect Participants in identifying the beneficial owners of the notes, and we and the trustee may conclusively rely on and will be protected in relying on instructions from DTC or its nominee for all purposes.

DTC has advised the operating partnership that it will take any action permitted to be taken by a holder of notes only at the direction of one or more Participants to whose account DTC has credited the interests in the notes and only in respect of such portion of the aggregate principal amount at maturity of the notes as to which such Participant or Participants has or have given such direction. However, if there is an Event of Default under the notes, DTC reserves the right to exchange the notes for legended notes in certificated form, and to distribute such notes to its Participants.

Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes

A Global Note is exchangeable for Certificated Notes if:

 

  (1)

DTC (a) notifies the operating partnership that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for the Global Notes or (b) has ceased to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and, in either case, we fail to appoint a successor depositary;

 

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  (2)

the operating partnership, at its option, notifies the trustee in writing that the operating partnership elects to cause the issuance of the Certificated Notes; or

 

  (3)

upon request from DTC if there has occurred and is continuing a default or Event of Default with respect to the notes.

In addition, beneficial interests in a Global Note may be exchanged for Certificated Notes upon prior written notice given to the trustee by or on behalf of DTC in accordance with the indenture. In all cases, Certificated Notes delivered in exchange for any Global Note or beneficial interests in Global Notes will be registered in the names, and issued in any approved denominations, requested by or on behalf of the depositary (in accordance with its customary procedures).

Exchange of Certificated Notes for Global Notes

Certificated Notes may be exchanged for beneficial interests in Global Notes.

Same Day Settlement and Payment

The underwriters will settle the notes in immediately available funds. In accordance with the indenture, the operating partnership will make payments in respect of the notes represented by the Global Notes (including principal, premium, if any, and interest) by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by DTC or its nominee. In accordance with the indenture, the operating partnership will make all payments of principal, interest and premium, if any, with respect to Certificated Notes by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by the holders of the Certificated Notes or, if no such account is specified, by mailing a check to each such holder’s registered address. The notes represented by the Global Notes are expected to trade in DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System, and any permitted secondary market trading activity in such notes will, therefore, be required by DTC to be settled in immediately available funds. The operating partnership expects that secondary trading in any Certificated Notes will also be settled in immediately available funds.

Because of time zone differences, the securities account of a Euroclear or Clearstream participant purchasing an interest in a Global Note from a Participant will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream participant, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear and Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. DTC has advised the operating partnership that cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a Global Note by or through a Euroclear or Clearstream participant to a Participant will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

Notices

Except as otherwise provided in the indenture, notices to holders of the notes will be given by mail to the addresses of holders of the notes as they appear in the note register or electronically pursuant to the Depository’s procedures; provided that notices given to holders holding notes in book-entry form may be given through the facilities of DTC or any successor depository.

Governing law

The indenture, the notes and the guarantee will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

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Definitions

As used in the indenture, the following terms have the respective meanings specified below:

“Acquired Debt” means Debt of a person:

 

   

existing at the time such person is merged or consolidated with or into the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries or becomes a Subsidiary of the operating partnership; or

 

   

assumed by the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries in connection with the acquisition of assets from such person.

Acquired Debt shall be deemed to be incurred on the date the acquired person is merged or consolidated with or into the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries or becomes a Subsidiary of the operating partnership or the date of the related acquisition, as the case may be.

“Annual Debt Service Charge” means, for any period, the interest expense of the operating partnership and its Subsidiaries for such period, determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles.

“Consolidated Income Available for Debt Service” for any period means Consolidated Net Income of the operating partnership and its Subsidiaries for such period, plus amounts which have been deducted and minus amounts which have been added for, without duplication:

 

   

interest expense on Debt;

 

   

provision for taxes based on income;

 

   

amortization of debt discount, premium and deferred financing costs;

 

   

impairment losses and gains on sales or other dispositions of properties and other investments;

 

   

property depreciation and amortization;

 

   

amortization of right-of-use assets associated with finance leases of property;

 

   

credit losses recognized on financial assets and certain other instruments not measured at fair value;

 

   

the effect of any non-recurring, non-cash items;

 

   

the effect of any non-cash charge resulting from a change in accounting principles in determining Consolidated Net Income for such period;

 

   

amortization of deferred charges;

 

   

gains or losses on early extinguishment of Debt;

 

   

gains or losses on derivative financial instruments;

 

   

acquisition expenses; and

 

   

with regard to unconsolidated real estate joint ventures, plus amounts which have been deducted and minus amounts which have been added for the activity types referred to above (excluding interest expense) included in arriving at equity in income of unconsolidated entities;

all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles.

“Consolidated Net Income” for any period means the amount of net income (or loss) of the operating partnership and its Subsidiaries for such period determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles.

“Debt” means, without duplication, with respect to any person, any indebtedness of such person in respect of:

 

   

borrowed money or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments;

 

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indebtedness secured by any Lien on any property or asset owned by such person, but only to the extent of the lesser of (a) the amount of indebtedness so secured and (b) the fair market value (determined in good faith by the board of directors of such person or, in the case of the operating partnership and a subsidiary, by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof) of the property subject to such Lien;

 

   

reimbursement obligations, contingent or otherwise, in connection with any letters of credit actually issued or amounts representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property except any such balance that constitutes an accrued expense or trade payable; or

 

   

any lease of property by such person as lessee which is required to be reflected on such person’s balance sheet as a finance lease in accordance with GAAP; provided, however, that in the case of this clause, Debt excludes operating lease liabilities on a person’s balance sheet in accordance with GAAP.

Debt also includes, to the extent not otherwise included, any non-contingent obligation of such person to be liable for, or to pay, as obligor, guarantor or otherwise (other than for purposes of collection in the ordinary course of business), Debt of the types referred to above of another person (it being understood that Debt shall be deemed to be incurred by such person whenever such person shall create, assume, guarantee (on a non-contingent basis) or otherwise become liable in respect thereof). Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to the operating partnership, the Company or any Subsidiary, the term “Debt” shall not include Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantees of the Company, the operating partnership or any Subsidiary until such time as they become primary obligations of, and payments are due and required to be made thereunder by, the Company, the operating partnership or any Subsidiary.

“Lien” means any mortgage, deed of trust, lien, charge, pledge, security interest, security agreement, or other encumbrance of any kind.

“Non-Recourse Debt” means Debt of a Subsidiary of the operating partnership (or an entity in which the operating partnership is the general partner or managing member) that is directly or indirectly secured by real estate assets or other real estate-related assets (including equity interests) of a Subsidiary of the operating partnership (or entity in which the operating partnership is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower and is non-recourse to the operating partnership or any Subsidiary of the operating partnership (other than pursuant to a Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantee and other than with respect to the Subsidiary of the operating partnership (or entity in which the operating partnership is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower); provided, further, that, if any such Debt is partially recourse to the operating partnership or any Subsidiary of the operating partnership (other than pursuant to a Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantee and other than with respect to the Subsidiary of the operating partnership (or entity in which the operating partnership is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower) and therefore does not meet the criteria set forth above, only the portion of such Debt that does meet the criteria set forth above shall constitute “Non-Recourse Debt.”

“Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantees” means customary completion or budget guarantees or indemnities (including by means of separate indemnification agreements and carve-out guarantees) provided under Non-Recourse Debt in the ordinary course of business by the operating partnership or any Subsidiary of the operating partnership in financing transactions that are directly or indirectly secured by real estate assets or other real estate-related assets (including equity interests) of a Subsidiary of the operating partnership (or entity in which the operating partnership is the general partner or managing member), in each case that is the borrower in such financing, but is non-recourse to the operating partnership or any of the operating partnership’s other Subsidiaries, except for customary completion or budget guarantees or indemnities (including by means of separate indemnification agreements or carve-out guarantees) as are consistent with customary industry practice (such as environmental indemnities and recourse triggers based on violation of transfer restrictions and other customary exceptions to nonrecourse liability).

 

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“Significant Subsidiary” of any specified person means any Subsidiary in which such person has invested at least $50,000,000 in capital.

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to the operating partnership or the Company, any person (as defined in the indenture but excluding an individual), a majority of the outstanding voting stock, partnership interests, membership interests or other equity interest, as the case may be, of which is owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be, or by one or more other Subsidiaries of the operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be. For the purposes of this definition, “voting stock” means stock having voting power for the election of directors, trustees or managers, as the case may be, whether at all times or only so long as no senior class of stock has such voting power by reason of any contingency.

“Total Assets” means the sum of, without duplication:

 

   

Undepreciated Real Estate Assets; and

 

   

all other assets (excluding accounts receivable and non-real estate intangibles) of the operating partnership and its Subsidiaries,

all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles.

“Total Unencumbered Assets” means the sum of, without duplication:

 

   

those Undepreciated Real Estate Assets which are not subject to a Lien securing Debt; and

 

   

all other assets (excluding accounts receivable and non-real estate intangibles) of us and our Subsidiaries not subject to a Lien securing Debt,

all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles; provided, however, that, in determining Total Unencumbered Assets as a percentage of outstanding Unsecured Debt for purposes of the covenant set forth above in “Certain Covenants—Maintenance of Total Unencumbered Assets,” all investments in unconsolidated limited partnerships, unconsolidated limited liability companies and other unconsolidated entities shall be excluded from Total Unencumbered Assets.

“Undepreciated Real Estate Assets” means, as of any date, the cost (original cost plus capital improvements) of real estate assets, right-of-use assets associated with leases of property required to be reflected as finance leases on the balance sheet of the operating partnership and its Subsidiaries in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles and related intangibles of the operating partnership and its Subsidiaries on such date, before depreciation and amortization, all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles; provided, however, that “Undepreciated Real Estate Assets” shall not include right-of-use assets associated with leases of property required to be reflected as operating leases on the balance sheet of the operating partnership and its Subsidiaries in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles.

“Unsecured Debt” means Debt of the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries which is not secured by a Lien on any property or assets of the operating partnership or any of its Subsidiaries.

“U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

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UNDERWRITING

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, BofA Securities, Inc. and U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc. are acting as the representatives of each of the underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in an underwriting agreement among us and the underwriters, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the principal amount of notes set forth opposite its name below.

 

Underwriter

   Principal
Amount of
Notes
 

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

   $ 120,000,000  

BofA Securities, Inc.

     60,000,000  

U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc.

     60,000,000  

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

     40,000,000  

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

     40,000,000  

Capital One Securities, Inc.

     20,000,000  

PNC Capital Markets LLC

     20,000,000  

Truist Securities, Inc.

     20,000,000  

Regions Securities LLC

     8,000,000  

Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated

     8,000,000  

Roberts & Ryan Investments, Inc.

     4,000,000  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 400,000,000  
  

 

 

 

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, the underwriters have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase all of the notes sold under the underwriting agreement if any of these notes are purchased. If an underwriter defaults, the underwriting agreement provides that the purchase commitments of the nondefaulting underwriters may be increased or the underwriting agreement may be terminated.

The operating partnership and the Company have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

The underwriters are offering the notes, subject to prior sale, when, as and if issued to and accepted by them, subject to approval of legal matters by their counsel, including the validity of the notes, and satisfaction of other conditions contained in the underwriting agreement, such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part. Sales of notes made outside of the United States may be made by affiliates of the underwriters.

Commissions and Discounts

The representatives have advised us that the underwriters propose initially to offer the notes to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and may offer notes to dealers at that price less a concession not in excess of 0.400% of the principal amount of the notes. The underwriters may allow, and the dealers may reallow, a discount not in excess of 0.250% of the principal amount of the notes to other dealers. After the initial public offering, the public offering price, concession and discount may be changed.

The following table shows the underwriting discount payable by us.

 

     Per Note     Total  

Underwriting discount

     0.650   $ 2,600,000  

 

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The expenses of the offering, not including the underwriting discount, are estimated at $1.3 million and are payable by us.

New Issue of Notes

The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or for inclusion of the notes on any automated quotation system. We have been advised by the underwriters that they presently intend to make a market in the notes after completion of the offering. However, they are under no obligation to do so and may discontinue any market-making activities at any time without any notice.

We cannot assure you that an active trading market for the notes will develop or as to the liquidity of any trading market that may develop. If an active trading market for the notes does not develop, the market price and liquidity of the notes may be adversely affected.

Price Stabilization, Short Positions

In connection with the offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell the notes in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, purchases on the open market to cover positions created by short sales and stabilizing transactions. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of the notes than they are required to purchase in the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of various bids for or purchases of the notes made by the underwriters in the open market prior to the completion of the offering.

Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriters’ purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of the notes or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the notes. As a result, the price of the notes may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. The underwriters may conduct these transactions in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price the notes. In addition, neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation that the representatives will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.

Delayed Settlement

We expect that the delivery of the notes will be made against payment therefor on or about the settlement date specified on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, which will be the third business day following the date of pricing of the notes (such settlement cycle being referred to herein as “T+3”). Under rules of the SEC, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to that trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the notes before the second business day prior to the settlement date specified on the cover page of this prospectus supplement will be required, by virtue of the fact that the notes initially will settle in T+3, to specify an alternate settlement cycle at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement and should consult their own advisors.

Electronic Distribution

In connection with the offering, certain of the underwriters or securities dealers may distribute this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by electronic means, such as e-mail.

Other Relationships

Some of the underwriters and their affiliates have engaged in, and may in the future engage in, investment banking and other commercial dealings in the ordinary course of business with us or our affiliates. They have

 

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received, or may in the future receive, customary fees and commissions for these transactions. For instance, affiliates of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, BofA Securities, Inc., U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Capital One Securities, Inc., PNC Capital Markets LLC, Truist Securities, Inc. and Regions Securities LLC are lenders under our unsecured revolving credit facility, affiliates of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, BofA Securities, Inc., U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Capital One Securities, Inc., PNC Capital Markets LLC and Regions Securities LLC are lenders under our $100 million term loan facility, affiliates of U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc., Capital One Securities, Inc. and PNC Capital Markets LLC are lenders under our $225 million term loan facility and affiliates of Capital One Securities, Inc. and Truist Securities, Inc. are lenders under our $150 million term loan facility. As described in this prospectus supplement under “Use of Proceeds,” to the extent that we use any of the net proceeds from this offering to repay indebtedness, such affiliates will receive their proportionate share of any amount of the outstanding borrowings that is repaid with the net proceeds from this offering. The aggregate amount received by the underwriters and their affiliates, as applicable, from the repayment of borrowings are expected to exceed 5% of the proceeds from this offering (not including the underwriting discount). Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated may pay an unaffiliated entity or its affiliate, who is also a lender under our senior unsecured credit facility, a fee in connection with this offering. In addition, U.S. Bancorp Investments, Inc. is an affiliate of the trustee.

In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the underwriters and their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. If any of the underwriters or their affiliates has a lending relationship with us, certain of these underwriters or their affiliates routinely hedge and certain other of these underwriters or their affiliates may hedge, their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. Typically, such underwriters and their affiliates would hedge exposure by entering into transactions which consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short position in our securities, including potentially the notes offered hereby. Any such credit default swaps or short positions could adversely affect future trading prices the notes. The underwriters and their affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Australia

No placement document, prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document has been lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”), in relation to this offering. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act 2001 (the “Corporations Act”), and do not purport to include the information required for a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act.

 

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Any offer in Australia of the notes may only be made to persons (the “Exempt Investors”) who are “sophisticated investors” (within the meaning of section 708(8) of the Corporations Act), “professional investors” (within the meaning of section 708(11) of the Corporations Act) or otherwise pursuant to one or more exemptions contained in section 708 of the Corporations Act so that it is lawful to offer the notes without disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act.

The notes applied for by Exempt Investors in Australia must not be offered for sale in Australia in the period of 12 months after the date of allotment under this offering, except in circumstances where disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act would not be required pursuant to an exemption under section 708 of the Corporations Act or otherwise or where the offer is pursuant to a disclosure document which complies with Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act. Any person acquiring notes must observe such Australian on-sale restrictions.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain general information only and do not take account of the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain any securities recommendations or financial product advice. Before making an investment decision, investors need to consider whether the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is appropriate to their needs, objectives and circumstances, and, if necessary, seek expert advice on those matters.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the Dubai International Financial Centre

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Offered Securities Rules of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (“DFSA”). This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Offered Securities Rules of the DFSA. They must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus nor taken steps to verify the information set forth herein or therein and has no responsibility for this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. The notes to which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the notes offered should conduct their own due diligence on the notes. If you do not understand the contents of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus you should consult an authorized financial advisor.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong

The contents of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus have not been reviewed or approved by any regulatory authority in Hong Kong. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer or invitation to the public in Hong Kong to acquire the notes. Accordingly, (1) no person has offered or sold or will offer or sell in Hong Kong, by means of any document, any notes other than (i) to “professional investors” (as such term is defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong) (the “SFO”) and any rules made under the SFO; or (ii) in other circumstances which do not result in this prospectus supplement and/or the accompanying prospectus being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong (the “C(WUMP)O”), or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the C(WUMP)O; and (2) no person has issued or had in its possession for the purposes of issue, or will issue or have in its possession for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, any advertisement, invitation or document relating to the notes, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to notes which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the SFO and any rules made under the SFO. You are advised to exercise caution in relation to the offer. If you are in any doubt about the contents of this prospectus supplement and/or the accompanying prospectus, you should obtain independent professional advice.

 

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European Economic Area and the United Kingdom

The notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the European Economic Area (“EEA”) or in the United Kingdom (“UK”). For these purposes, a retail investor means a person who is one (or more) of: (i) a retail client as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU (as amended, “MiFID II”); or (ii) a customer within the meaning of Directive (EU) 2016/97 (as amended, the “Insurance Distribution Directive”), where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or (iii) not a qualified investor as defined in Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 (as amended, the “Prospectus Regulation”). Consequently no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 (as amended, the “PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the EEA or in the UK has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA or in the UK may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation. This prospectus supplement has been prepared on the basis that any offer of notes in any Member State of the EEA will be made pursuant to an exemption under the Prospectus Regulation from the requirement to publish a prospectus for offers of notes. This prospectus supplement is not a prospectus for the purposes of the Prospectus Regulation.

References to Regulations or Directives include, in relation to the UK, those Regulations or Directives as they form part of UK domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 or have been implemented in UK domestic law, as appropriate.

The above selling restriction is in addition to any other selling restrictions set out below.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are only being distributed to, and are only directed at, (i) persons who are outside the United Kingdom, (ii) investment professionals falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005 (the “Order”), (iii) high net worth companies, and such other persons to whom they may lawfully be communicated, falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order, and (iv) persons who are “qualified investors” within the meaning of the Prospectus Regulation (each such person being referred to as a “relevant person”). The notes are only available to, and any invitation, offer or agreement to subscribe, purchase or otherwise acquire the notes will be engaged in only with, relevant persons. Any person who is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or any of their contents.

Each underwriter has represented and agreed that:

 

  (a)

it has only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated an invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, as amended (the “FSMA”)) received by it in connection with the issue or sale of any notes in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to us; and

 

  (b)

it has complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by it in relation to any notes in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters with respect to the validity of the notes will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP and for the underwriters by Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP. Venable LLP will pass upon certain matters under Maryland law.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements and schedule of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. appearing in Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2019, including the schedule appearing therein, and the effectiveness of Rexford Industrial Realty Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and schedule are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with this offering. In addition, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission are also available to the public through the Securities and Exchange Commission’s Internet website www.sec.gov.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The Securities and Exchange Commission allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The incorporated documents contain significant information about us, our business and our finances. Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is automatically updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, or information that we later file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, modifies or replaces this information. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, June  30, 2020 and September 30, 2020;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K or 8-K/A, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January  16, 2020, February  14, 2020, February  14, 2020, March  6, 2020, May  14, 2020, May  20, 2020, May  28, 2020, July  9, 2020, August  13, 2020, October  9, 2020, November  9, 2020 and November 9, 2020;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 13, 2020; and

 

   

all documents filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of the offering of the underlying securities pursuant to this prospectus supplement.

To the extent that any information contained in any current report on Form 8-K, or any exhibit thereto, was furnished to, rather than filed with, the Securities and Exchange Commission, such information or exhibit is specifically not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

We will provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is delivered, on written or oral request of that person, a copy of any or all of the documents we are incorporating by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, other than exhibits to those documents unless those exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. A written request should be addressed to 11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000, Los Angeles, California 90025, Attention: General Counsel (telephone (310) 966-1680).

 

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Warrants

Rights

Units

Guarantees of Debt Securities

 

 

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

Debt Securities

 

 

We may offer and sell the securities identified above, and the selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of common stock, in each case from time to time in one or more offerings. Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. may offer from time to time debt securities in one or more series. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling securityholders.

Each time we or any of the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or such selling securityholders will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and, if applicable, the selling securityholders, as well as the amounts, prices and terms of the securities to be offered, which may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve the status of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. as a real estate investment trust, or REIT. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, the selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “REXR.” On November 5, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $50.16 per share.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ AND CONSIDER THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is November 6, 2020


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE.

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

     24  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     25  

DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

     29  

MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     39  

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     45  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     73  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     74  

LEGAL MATTERS

     75  

EXPERTS

     75  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings and the selling securityholders to be named in a supplement to this prospectus may, from time to time, sell shares of common stock from time to time in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. Each time that we or the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or the selling securityholders will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

Neither we, nor the selling securityholders, have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the selling securityholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the selling securityholders will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Rexford,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company,” mean Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership, of which we are the sole general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus as our “operating partnership.” When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable class or series of securities.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

Our website address is www.rexfordindustrial.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC as provided above, or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

We incorporate by reference into this prospectus our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 13, 2020;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, June  30, 2020 and September 30, 2020;

 

   

our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 16, 2020, February  14, 2020, February  14, 2020, March  6, 2020, May  14, 2020, May  20, 2020, May  28, 2020, July  9, 2020, August  13, 2020 and October 9, 2020; and

 

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the description of our common stock included in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on July 17, 2013 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000

Los Angeles, California 90025

Attention: General Counsel

(310) 966-1680

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a self-administered and self-managed full-service REIT focused on owning, operating and acquiring industrial properties in Southern California infill markets. Our goal is to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns for our stockholders by providing superior access to industrial property investments in Southern California infill markets.

The Company was formed as a Maryland corporation on January 18, 2013 and the operating partnership was formed as a Maryland limited partnership on January 18, 2013. Through the Company’s controlling interest in the operating partnership and its subsidiaries, the Company owns, manages, leases, acquires and develops industrial real estate primarily located in Southern California infill markets, and from time to time, acquires or provides mortgage debt secured by industrial property. As of September 30, 2020, the Company’s consolidated portfolio consisted of 231 properties with approximately 27.7 million rentable square feet. In addition, the Company currently manages an additional 20 properties with approximately 1.0 million rentable square feet.

The Company elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, commencing with the Company’s taxable year ended December 31, 2013. The Company is generally not subject to federal taxes on its income to the extent the Company distributes its income to its stockholders and maintains its qualification as a REIT.

Our principal executive offices are located at 11620 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1000, Los Angeles, California 90025. Our telephone number is 310-966-1680. Our website address is www.rexfordindustrial.com. The information on, or otherwise accessible through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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GUARANTOR DISCLOSURES

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. may guarantee debt securities of the operating partnership as described in “Description of Debt Securities and Related Guarantees.” Any such guarantees by Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. will be full, irrevocable, unconditional and absolute joint and several guarantees to the holders of each series of such outstanding guaranteed debt securities. The Company owns all of its assets and conducts all of its operations through the operating partnership and the operating partnership is consolidated into the Company’s financial statements.

In March 2020, the SEC adopted amendments to Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X and created Rule 13-01 to simplify disclosure requirements related to certain registered securities. The amendments become effective January 4, 2021 but earlier compliance is permitted. The Company and the operating partnership have filed this prospectus with the SEC registering, among other securities, debt securities of the operating partnership, which will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. As a result of the amendments to Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X, subsidiary issuers of obligations guaranteed by the parent are not required to provide separate financial statements, provided that the subsidiary obligor is consolidated into the parent company’s consolidated financial statements, the parent guarantee is “full and unconditional” and, subject to certain exceptions as set forth below, the alternative disclosure required by Rule 13-01 is provided, which includes narrative disclosure and summarized financial information. Accordingly, separate consolidated financial statements of the operating partnership have not been presented.

Furthermore, as permitted under Rule 13-01(a)(4)(vi) of Regulation S-X, we have excluded the summarized financial information for the operating partnership because the assets, liabilities and results of operations of the operating partnership are not materially different than the corresponding amounts in Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference herein, and management believes such summarized financial information would be repetitive and would not provide incremental value to investors.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of offered securities by us to our operating partnership. Our operating partnership will use the net proceeds from us or from any sale of offered securities by it as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Pending application of cash proceeds, we will invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts, money market accounts and interest bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our intention to qualify for taxation as a REIT. Such investments may include, for example, government and government agency certificates, government bonds, certificates of deposit, interest-bearing bank deposits, money market accounts and mortgage loan participations. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling securityholders, if any, pursuant to this prospectus.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

General

This prospectus describes the general terms of our common stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, and our charter and bylaws. When we or any selling securityholders offer to sell a particular class or series of common stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of common stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 489,950,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, or common stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board of directors and without any action by our common stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock. As of September 30, 2020, 123,788,591 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding.

Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

All of the shares of our common stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of holders of any other class or series of our stock, including our series A preferred stock, series B preferred stock and series C preferred stock (each as described below), and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends and other distributions on such shares if, as and when authorized by our board of directors out of assets legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, after payment or establishment of reserves for all known debts and liabilities of our company.

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of our stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of our stock, the holders of shares of common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors. Directors are elected by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes cast “for” and “against” the election of a nominee at any meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present; provided, however, that directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors if there is a contested election. Our corporate governance guidelines require a nominee for director in an uncontested election not elected by the vote required in the bylaws and who is an incumbent director to promptly tender his or her resignation to the board of directors for consideration.

Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company. Our charter provides that our stockholders generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines prospectively that appraisal rights will apply to one or more transactions in which our stockholders would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

 

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Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, consolidate, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless declared advisable by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides for approval of any of these matters by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such matters, except that the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors is required to remove a director (and such removal must be for cause) and the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter is required to amend the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors or the vote required to amend such provisions. Maryland law also permits a Maryland corporation to transfer all or substantially all of its assets without the approval of the stockholders of the corporation to an entity if all of the equity interests of the entity are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation. Because our operating assets may be held by our operating partnership or its subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, to establish the designation and number of shares of each class or series and to set, subject to the provisions of our charter relating to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each such class or series.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of common stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional authorized shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of our preferred stock we may issue in the future or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, our charter contains certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

General

This prospectus describes the general terms of our preferred stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the MGCL and our charter and bylaws. When we offer to sell a particular class or series of preferred stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 10,050,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, or preferred stock of which 3,600,000 shares are classified as 5.875% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or series A preferred stock, 3,000,000 shares are classified as 5.875% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or series B preferred stock, and 3,450,000 shares are classified as 5.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share, or series C preferred stock. The series A preferred stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “REXR Pr A,” the series B preferred stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “REXR Pr B” and the series C preferred stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “REXR Pr C.” Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board and without any action by our common stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of preferred stock into one or more classes or series of preferred stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each new class or series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of each such class or series. As a result, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock that have priority over shares of our common stock with respect to dividends or other distributions or rights upon liquidation or with other terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. As of the date hereof, there are 3,600,000 shares of series A preferred stock, 3,000,000 shares of series B preferred stock and 3,450,000 shares of series C preferred stock issued and outstanding.

The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series, including a prospectus supplement providing that preferred stock may be issuable upon the exercise of warrants or the exercise or conversion of other securities we issue. The description of preferred stock set forth below and the description of the terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the articles supplementary or other charter provisions relating to that class or series.

Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

The preferences and other terms of the preferred stock of each class or series will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such class or series. A prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series, will specify the terms of the class or series of preferred stock as follows:

 

   

the designation and par value of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

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the number of shares of such class or series of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s), and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

whether dividends on such class or series of preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on such class or series of preferred stock shall accumulate,

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

the provision for redemption, if applicable, of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

any listing of such class or series of preferred stock on any securities exchange,

 

   

the preemptive rights, if any, of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which shares such class or series of preferred stock will be convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof),

 

   

a discussion of any additional material federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

any limitations on actual, beneficial and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to assist us to preserve our status as a REIT,

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

 

   

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of stock ranking senior to or on parity with such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

 

   

any voting rights of such class or series of preferred stock, and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of such class or series of preferred stock.

Rank

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, rank: (1) senior to all classes or series of our common stock, and to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking junior to such class or series of preferred stock; (2) on parity with any class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking on parity with such class or series of preferred stock; and (3) junior to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking senior to such class or series of preferred stock.

Conversion Rights

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any shares of any class or series of preferred stock are convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of our common stock or the number of shares of such other class or series of our stock or other securities into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of such class or series of preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of such class or series of preferred stock.

 

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Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock

Dividends on outstanding shares of series A preferred stock and series B preferred stock are cumulative and are payable quarterly in arrears at the rate of 5.875% per annum of the $25.00 liquidation preference, or $1.46875 per annum per share. Dividends on outstanding shares of series C preferred stock are cumulative and are payable quarterly in arrears at the rate of 5.625% per annum of the $25.00 liquidation preference, or $1.40625 per annum per share. Unless full cumulative dividends on the series A preferred stock, series B preferred stock or series C preferred stock, which we refer to as the series A/B/C preferred stock for purposes of describing the three series together, for all past dividend periods have been or contemporaneously are declared and paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment thereof is set apart for payment, we generally may not:

 

   

declare and pay or declare and set apart for payment any dividends or other distributions of cash or other property, directly or indirectly, on or with respect to any shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our capital stock ranking, as to dividends, on parity with or junior to the series A/B/C preferred stock; or

 

   

redeem, purchase or otherwise acquire any common stock or shares of any other class or series of our capital stock ranking, as to dividends and upon liquidation, on parity with or junior to the series A/B/C preferred stock.

The series A preferred stock is not redeemable by us before August 16, 2021, the series B preferred stock is not redeemable by us before November 13, 2022 and the series C preferred stock is not redeemable by us before September 20, 2024, in each case, except under limited circumstances to preserve our status as a REIT or relating to our maintenance of our ability to qualify as a REIT. On and after August 16, 2021, November 13, 2022 or September 20, 2024, as applicable, we may, at our option, redeem the series A/B/C preferred stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, for cash at a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon (whether or not authorized or declared) up to but excluding the date fixed for redemption.

In addition, upon the occurrence of certain change of control transactions after which our common stock (or the common stock of the successor) is not listed (as defined in our charter, a “Change of Control”), we may, subject to certain conditions and at our option, redeem the series A/B/C preferred stock, in whole or in part, within 120 days after the date of the change of control, for a cash redemption price per share of series A/B/C preferred stock equal to $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends to, but not including, the date of redemption.

Unless we have elected to redeem the series A/B/C preferred stock prior to a Change of Control, upon the occurrence of a Change of Control, each holder of the series A/B/C preferred stock will have the right to convert some or all of the shares of series A/B/C preferred stock held by such holder into a number of shares of our common stock per share of series A/B/C preferred stock to be converted equal to the lesser of: (A) the quotient obtained by dividing the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference plus the amount of any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to, but not including, the conversion date by the Common Stock Price (as defined below); and (B) 2.2738, with respect to the series A preferred stock, 1.6578, with respect to the series B preferred stock, or 1.1390, with respect to the series C preferred stock, subject to certain adjustments and subject, in each case, to provisions for the receipt of alternative consideration as described in the articles supplementary designating the terms of the series A/B/C preferred stock.

The “Common Stock Price” will be (i) if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by the holders of our common stock is solely cash, the amount of cash consideration per share of our common stock or (ii) if the consideration to be received in the Change of Control by holders of our common stock is other than solely cash (x) the average of the closing sale prices per share of our common stock (or, if no closing sale price is reported, the average of the closing bid and ask prices or, if more than one in either case, the average of the average closing bid and the average closing ask prices) for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control as reported on the principal U.S. securities exchange on which our common stock is then traded, or (y) the average of the last quoted bid prices for

 

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our common stock in the over-the-counter market as reported by OTC Markets Group Inc. or similar organization for the ten consecutive trading days immediately preceding, but not including, the effective date of the Change of Control, if our common stock is not then listed for trading on a U.S. securities exchange.

Each holder of the series A/B/C preferred stock is entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share of series A/B/C preferred stock, plus any accumulated and unpaid distributions thereon (whether or not authorized or declared), before the holders of our common stock or other junior securities receive any distributions in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company.

Holders of the series A/B/C preferred stock will generally have no voting rights. However, if we do not pay dividends on the series A/B/C preferred stock for six or more quarterly periods, whether or not consecutive, holders of shares of the series A/B/C preferred stock and holders of all other classes or series of parity preferred stock with which the holders of series A/B/C preferred stock are entitled to vote together as a single class (voting together as a single class), will be entitled to vote for the election of two additional directors to serve on our board of directors until all unpaid dividends for past dividend periods with respect to the series A/B/C preferred stock have been paid. In addition, we may not authorize or issue any class or series of equity securities ranking senior to the series A/B/C preferred stock or amend our charter (whether by merger, consolidation, transfer or conveyance of substantially all of the company’s assets or otherwise) so as to materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers of the series A/B/C preferred stock without the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of affected series A/B/C preferred stock and each other class or series of parity preferred stock with which the holders of the applicable series A/B/C preferred stock are entitled to vote together as a single class on such matter (voting together as a single class).

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Preferred Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of preferred stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our preferred stock in one or more classes or series and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series of preferred stock, as well as the additional authorized shares of preferred stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of preferred stock we may issue in the future or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we expect that each class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be subject to certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of such class or series of preferred stock set forth in our charter, including the articles supplementary for each such class or series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any ownership limitations relating to such class or series. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” for a description of the restrictions on ownership and transfer applicable to shares of our common stock and to shares of our capital stock in the aggregate (including any and all classes or series of our preferred stock).

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES AND RELATED GUARANTEES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of our operating partnership’s debt securities and related guarantees by the Company, if any, that we may offer under this prospectus. When our operating partnership offers to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus, including the terms of any related guarantees. We will also indicate in the prospectus supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Debt securities may be our operating partnership’s senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be the direct, unsecured obligations of our operating partnership and may be issued in one or more series.

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be issued under an indenture among our operating partnership, as issuer, Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. We have filed the indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and you should read the indenture and debt securities carefully for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined in this prospectus have the meanings specified in the indenture.

As used in this “Description of Debt Securities and Related Guarantees,” references to the “operating partnership,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer solely to Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P. and not to any of its subsidiaries and references to the “Company” or “guarantor” refer solely to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by the Company, as the sole general partner of our operating partnership, by or pursuant to a resolution of the board of directors of the Company and set forth or determined in the manner provided in such resolutions, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series, including any pricing supplement or term sheet.

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the indenture will designate U.S. Bank National Association as the trustee for the indenture with respect to one or more series of our operating partnership’s debt securities and related guarantees by the Company, if any. U.S. Bank National Association, or any other specified trustee, may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of our debt securities, and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to that series.

Unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be the direct, unsecured obligations of our operating partnership and may be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. Our operating partnership can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement, including any pricing supplement or term sheet, relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions),

 

   

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities,

 

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any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities,

 

   

the date or dates on which the principal on the debt securities is payable,

 

   

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date,

 

   

the place or places where principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be payable, the method of such payment, where debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to us relating to the debt securities may be delivered,

 

   

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities,

 

   

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the debt securities shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation,

 

   

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations,

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof,

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities,

 

   

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount,

 

   

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency,

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be made,

 

   

if payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined,

 

   

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index,

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities or the guarantees,

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default (as defined below) described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,

 

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a discussion of any additional material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the debt securities,

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities,

 

   

whether the debt securities are exchangeable for, or convertible into, any other securities,

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities,

 

   

whether the debt securities are entitled to the benefits of the guarantee of any guarantor, and whether any such guarantee is made on a senior or subordinated basis and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms of any such guarantee,

 

   

whether a person other than U.S. Bank National Association is to act as trustee,

 

   

the securities exchange, if any, on which the debt securities may be listed, and

 

   

any change in the right of the trustee or the right of the requisite holders to declare the principal amount of debt securities due and payable.

Our operating partnership may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If our operating partnership denominates the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, and any premium and interest on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary or DTC, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, and any premium and interest on, certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary.

 

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No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) that could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale

Our operating partnership and the Company may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its respective properties and assets to, any person (such person, a “successor person”), unless:

(1) our operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be, is the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than our operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes in the case of the operating partnership, payment of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest and any redemption price due on all of the debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions of the operating partnership in the indenture and the debt securities, or in the case of the Company, the payment of all amounts due under its guarantees of the debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions of the Company in the indenture and the guarantees, as the case may be;

(2) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, has occurred and is continuing; and

(3) in the case of a consolidation by our operating partnership, if our operating partnership is not the successor person, then each guarantor of the debt securities, unless it has become the successor person, confirms that its guarantee will continue to apply to the obligations under the debt securities and the indenture to the same extent as prior to such merger, conveyance, transfer or lease, as applicable.

Our operating partnership or the Company, as the case may be, must deliver to the trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an officer’s certificate to the foregoing effect and an opinion of counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with the indenture.

In the event of any transaction described in and complying with the conditions listed in the immediately preceding paragraphs in which our operating partnership and/or the Company are not the continuing entity, the successor person formed or remaining shall succeed, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of ours, and our operating partnership and/or the Company shall be discharged from our obligations under the debt securities and the indenture.

Events of Default

The following events constitute Events of Default, unless otherwise provided by resolution of the board of directors, supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate:

(a)    default in the payment of any interest on any debt security when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by our operating partnership with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period);

 

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(b)    default in the payment of principal of any debt security at maturity;

(c)    default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of our operating partnership under the debt security of that series or the indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to our operating partnership by the trustee or to our operating partnership and the trustee by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a notice of default;

(d)    failure to pay any indebtedness (other than non-recourse indebtedness) for monies borrowed by the operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their respective significant subsidiaries in an outstanding principal amount in excess of $50,000,000 at final maturity or upon acceleration after the expiration of any applicable grace period, which indebtedness (other than non-recourse indebtedness) is, or has become, the primary obligation of the operating partnership or any guarantor and is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within 60 days after written notice to the operating partnership from the trustee (or to the operating partnership and the trustee from holders of at least twenty five percent (25%) in principal amount of the outstanding securities) (for purposes of this, the amount of indebtedness (other than non-recourse indebtedness) shall be measured not by the underlying debt amount, but only by that portion of the underlying debt amount which is recourse to the operating partnership or such guarantor);

(e)    our operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their significant subsidiaries pursuant to or within the meaning of any bankruptcy law, (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property, (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or (v) generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

(f)    a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any bankruptcy law that: (i) is for relief against our operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their significant subsidiaries in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a custodian of our operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their significant subsidiaries or for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of our operating partnership, any guarantor or any of their significant subsidiaries, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

(g)    any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series, which is specified in a resolution of the board of directors, a supplemental indenture to the indenture or an officer’s certificate, in accordance with the applicable provisions of the indenture.

“Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our or our subsidiaries’ indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in provisions (d) or (e) above), then in every such case the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the principal amount (or, if any securities of that series are discount securities, such portion of the

 

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principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such debt securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to our operating partnership (and to the trustee if given by holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, will become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in provisions (d) or (e) above will occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by a notice in writing to our operating partnership and the trustee, may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

The indenture provides that the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense that might be incurred by it in exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

No holder of any debt security shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

(a)    such holder has previously given written notice to the trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the debt securities;

(b)    the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee;

(c)    such holder or holders have offered to the trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by the trustee in compliance with such request;

(d)    the trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(e)    no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such 60-day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities.

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the debt securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee

 

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shall mail to each holder of the debt securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, money and/or Foreign Government Obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest on, if any, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

   

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Merger, Consolidation or Sale” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and

 

   

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series, or covenant defeasance.

The conditions include:

 

   

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, money and/or Foreign Government Obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities, and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.

 

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Covenant Defeasance and Events of Default. In the event we exercise our option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to any series of debt securities and the debt securities of that series are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of money and/or U.S. government obligations or money and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee will be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of the acceleration resulting from the Event of Default. In such a case, we would remain liable for those payments.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

Satisfaction and Discharge

The indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect (except as to surviving rights or registration of transfer or exchange of the debt securities, as expressly provided for in the indenture) as to all outstanding debt securities when:

 

   

either:

 

   

all the debt securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (except lost, stolen or destroyed debt securities which have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation; or

 

   

all debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable or will become due and payable at their maturity within one year, have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year, or are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to the legal defeasance provisions of the indenture, and our operating partnership has irrevocably deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited with the trustee as trust funds in trust cash or noncallable U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of debt securities which have become due and payable) or to the maturity date or redemption date, as the case may be;

 

   

our operating partnership has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable under the indenture by our operating partnership; and

 

   

our operating partnership has delivered to the trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.

Modification and Waiver

Our operating partnership and the trustee may modify and amend the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency,

 

   

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Merger, Consolidation or Sale,”

 

   

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities; provided that the uncertificated debt securities are issued in registered form for purposes of Section 163(f) of the Code,

 

   

to surrender any of our operating partnership’s rights or powers under the indenture,

 

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to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series,

 

   

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary,

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities,

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture,

 

   

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee,

 

   

to comply with requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act,

 

   

to reflect the release of a guarantor of the debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture, or

 

   

to add guarantors with respect to any or all of the debt securities or to secure any or all of the debt securities or the guarantees.

Our operating partnership may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. Our operating partnership may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

   

reduce the principal amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver,

 

   

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security,

 

   

reduce the principal or change the fixed maturity of, any debt security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities,

 

   

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity,

 

   

waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration),

 

   

make the principal of or interest, if any, on any debt security payable in any currency other than that stated in the debt security,

 

   

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments,

 

   

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security, provided that such redemption is made at our operating partnership’s option, or

 

   

if the debt securities of that series are entitled to the benefit of a guarantee, release any guarantor of such series other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders.

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive

 

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our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all of the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

Regarding the Trustee

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, U.S. Bank National Association will initially act as the trustee, registrar and paying agent for the debt securities, subject to replacement at our operating partnership’s option as provided in the indenture.

If an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be required to use the same degree of care and skill a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee will become obligated to exercise any of its powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the required percentage under the indenture only after those holders have offered, and, if requested, provided the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it.

If the trustee becomes one of our creditors, it will be subject to limitations on its rights to obtain payment of claims or to realize on some property received for any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with our operating partnership. If, however, it acquires any conflicting interest, it must eliminate that conflict or resign.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders

No director, officer, employee, or stockholder will have any liability for any of our obligations or those of our operating partnership under the debt securities, the indenture, any guarantees or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder of debt securities by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the debt securities. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.

Governing Law

The indenture, the debt securities and the guarantees will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement a description of any depositary shares, warrants, rights or units issued by us that may be offered and sold pursuant to this prospectus.

 

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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

The following summary with respect to restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock sets forth certain general terms and provisions of our charter documents to which any prospectus supplement may relate. This summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter, as amended and supplemented from time to time, including any articles supplementary relating to any class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus. A copy of our existing charter is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Any amendment or supplement to our charter relating to a class or series of securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the applicable prospectus supplement. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock (after taking into account options to acquire shares of stock) may be owned, directly, indirectly or through application of certain attribution rules by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) at any time during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and continuing to qualify as a REIT. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock, our series A preferred stock, our series B preferred stock or our series C preferred stock, excluding, in each case, any shares of such class of stock that are not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes, or more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock, excluding any shares of any class and series of our stock that are not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes. We refer to each of these restrictions as an “ownership limit” and collectively as the “ownership limits.” A person or entity that would have acquired actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock but for the application of the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below is referred to as a “prohibited owner.”

The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our common stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 9.8% of our outstanding common stock and thereby violate the applicable ownership limit.

Our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, may exempt (prospectively or retroactively) a person from any or all of the ownership limits if doing so would not result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT and our board of directors determines that:

 

   

such exemption will not cause or permit any individual to actually or beneficially own more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock; and

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, the person does not and will not own, actually or constructively, an interest in a tenant of ours (or a tenant of any entity owned in whole or in part by us) that would cause us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.9% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in such tenant.

 

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As a condition of the exception, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, ruling, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT and representations and undertakings from the person seeking the exemption or excepted holder limit in order to make the determinations above. Our board of directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with such an exception.

Our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion, increase or decrease any or all of the ownership limits for one or more persons, except that a decreased ownership limit will not be effective for any person whose actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock exceeds the decreased ownership limit at the time of the decrease until the person’s actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, although any further acquisition of shares of our stock or beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock will violate the decreased ownership limit. Our board of directors may not increase or decrease any ownership limit if, among other limitations, the new ownership limit would allow five or fewer persons to actually or beneficially own more than 49% in value of our outstanding stock, could cause us to be “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or could otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Our charter further prohibits:

 

   

any person from actually, beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that could result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including, but not limited to, actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that could result in us owning (actually or constructively) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income we derive from such tenant, taking into account our other income that would not qualify under the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code, would cause us to fail to satisfy any such gross income requirements imposed on REITs); and

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code).

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above must immediately give written notice to us or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, provide us at least 15 days’ prior written notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT.

The ownership limits and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

Pursuant to our charter, if any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit established by our board of directors, or could result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us. The prohibited owner will have no rights in shares of our stock held by the trustee. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid

 

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by the prohibited owner to the trustee upon demand. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable restriction on ownership and transfer of our stock, then that transfer of the number of shares that otherwise would cause any person to violate the above restrictions will be void. If any transfer of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code), then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares.

Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer of the shares to the trust (or, in the event of a gift, devise or other such transaction, the last reported sale price on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (ii) the last reported sale price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We must reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee and pay the amount of such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such shares must be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or persons designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. Upon such sale, the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the prohibited owner did not give value in connection with the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer to the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the last reported sale price on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee must reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if prior to our discovery that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trustee, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount must be paid to the trustee upon demand.

The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the charitable beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to such shares, and may exercise all voting rights with respect to such shares for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee may, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

   

rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

 

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If our board of directors or a committee thereof determines that a proposed transfer or other event has taken place that violates the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors or such committee may take such action as it deems advisable in its sole and absolute discretion to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give written notice to us stating the name and address of such owner, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the owner beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner also must provide us with any additional information that we request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the person’s actual or beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, any person that is an actual owner, beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for an actual owner, beneficial owner or constructive owner must, on request, disclose to us such information as we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT and comply with requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits.

Any certificates representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock that our stockholders believe to be in their best interest.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF REXFORD INDUSTRIAL REALTY, L.P.

A summary of the material terms and provisions of the Seventh Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P., which we refer to as the “partnership agreement,” is set forth below. This summary is not complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of Maryland law and the partnership agreement. For more detail, please refer to the partnership agreement itself, a copy of which is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. For purposes of this section, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “our company” and the “general partner” refer to Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

General

Substantially all of our assets are held by, and substantially all of our operations are conducted through, our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiaries. We are the sole general partner of our operating partnership, and, as of September 30, 2020, 127,455,361 common units of partnership interests in our operating partnership, or common units, were outstanding and we owned 96.9% of the outstanding common units, in each case, including common units issuable upon conversion of vested performance units and vested LTIP units of our operating partnership. In connection with the formation transactions completed in connection with our initial public offering, we became the general partner of our operating partnership and the prior investors in our portfolio prior to the formation transactions who elected to receive common units in our formation transactions and concurrent private placement were admitted as limited partners of our operating partnership. Our operating partnership is also authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as LTIP Units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as Performance Units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as 4.43937% Cumulative Redeemable Convertible Preferred Units, which we refer to as series 1 CPOP units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as 4.00% Cumulative Redeemable Convertible Preferred Units, which we refer to as series 2 CPOP units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as 5.875% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Units, which we refer to as series A preferred units, a class of units of partnership interest designated as 5.875% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Units, which we refer to as series B preferred units, and a class of units of partnership interest designated as 5.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Units, which we refer to as series C preferred units, each having the terms described below. We refer to the series 1 CPOP units and the series 2 CPOP units as the CPOP units for purposes of the describing the two series together. We refer to the series A preferred units, the series B preferred units and the series C preferred units as the series A/B/C preferred units for purposes of describing the three series together. The common units are not listed on any exchange nor are they quoted on any national market system.

Provisions in the partnership agreement may delay or make more difficult unsolicited acquisitions of us or changes in our control. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an unsolicited acquisition of us or change of our control, although some stockholders might consider such proposals, if made, desirable. These provisions also make it more difficult for third parties to alter the management structure of our operating partnership without the concurrence of our board of directors. These provisions include, among others:

 

   

redemption rights of limited partners and certain assignees of common units;

 

   

transfer restrictions on common units and other partnership interests;

 

   

a requirement that we may not be removed as the general partner of our operating partnership without our consent;

 

   

our ability in some cases to amend the partnership agreement and to cause our operating partnership to issue preferred partnership interests in our operating partnership with terms that we may determine, in either case, without the approval or consent of any limited partner; and

 

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the right of the limited partners to consent to certain transfers of our general partnership interest (whether by sale, disposition, statutory merger or consolidation, liquidation or otherwise).

Purpose, Business and Management

Our operating partnership was formed for the purpose of conducting any business, enterprise or activity permitted by or under the Maryland Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (the “Act”). Our operating partnership may enter into any partnership, joint venture, business trust arrangement, limited liability company or other similar arrangement and may own interests in any other entity engaged in any business permitted by or under the Act, subject to any consent rights set forth in our partnership agreement.

In general, our board of directors manages the business and affairs of our operating partnership by directing our business and affairs, in our capacity as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. Except as otherwise expressly provided in the partnership agreement and subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest, all management powers over the business and affairs of our operating partnership are exclusively vested in us, in our capacity as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. We may not be removed as the general partner of our operating partnership, with or without cause, without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion.

Restrictions on General Partner’s Authority

The partnership agreement prohibits us, in our capacity as general partner, from taking any action that would make it impossible to carry out the ordinary business of our operating partnership or performing any act that would subject a limited partner to liability as a general partner in any jurisdiction or any other liability except as provided under the partnership agreement or under the Act. We generally may not, without the prior consent of the partners of our operating partnership (including us), amend, modify or terminate the partnership agreement, except for certain amendments described below that require the approval of each affected partner. We may not, in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership, without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us):

 

   

take any action in contravention of an express provision or limitation of the partnership agreement;

 

   

transfer all or any portion of our general partnership interest in our operating partnership or admit any person as a successor general partner, subject to the exceptions described in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner”; or

 

   

voluntarily withdraw as the general partner.

Without the consent of each affected limited partner or in connection with a transfer of all of our interests in our partnership in connection with a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a reclassification, recapitalization or change in our outstanding stock permitted without the consent of the limited partners as described in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner,” or a permitted termination transaction, we may not enter into any contract, mortgage, loan or other agreement that expressly prohibits or restricts us or our operating partnership from performing our or its specific obligations in connection with a redemption of units or expressly prohibits or restricts a limited partner from exercising its redemption rights in full. In addition to any approval or consent required by any other provision of the partnership agreement, we may not, without the consent of each affected partner, amend the partnership agreement or take any other action that would:

 

   

convert a limited partner interest into a general partner interest (other than as a result of our acquisition of that interest);

 

   

adversely modify in any material respect the limited liability of a limited partner;

 

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alter the rights of any partner to receive the distributions to which such partner is entitled, or alter the allocations specified in the partnership agreement, except to the extent permitted by the partnership agreement including in connection with the creation or issuance of any new class or series of partnership interest or to effect or facilitate a permitted termination transaction;

 

   

alter or modify the redemption rights of holders of common units (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a permitted termination transaction);

 

   

alter or modify the provisions governing the transfer of our general partnership interest in our operating partnership (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a permitted termination transaction);

 

   

remove certain provisions of the partnership agreement relating to the requirements for us to qualify as a REIT or permitting us to avoid paying tax under Sections 857 or 4981 of the Code; or

 

   

amend the provisions of the partnership agreement requiring the consent of each affected partner before taking any of the actions described above or the related definitions specified in the partnership agreement (except as permitted under the partnership agreement to effect or facilitate a permitted termination transaction).

Additional Limited Partners

We may cause our operating partnership to issue additional units in one or more classes or series or other partnership interests and to admit additional limited partners to our operating partnership from time to time, on such terms and conditions and for such capital contributions as we may establish in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval or consent of any limited partner.

The partnership agreement authorizes our operating partnership to issue common units, LTIP Units, Performance Units, CPOP units and series A/B/C preferred units and our operating partnership may issue additional partnership interests in one or more additional classes, or one or more series of any of such classes, with such designations, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption (including, without limitation, terms that may be senior or otherwise entitled to preference over existing units) as we may determine, in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval of any limited partner or any other person. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, we may specify, as to any such class or series of partnership interest, the allocations of items of partnership income, gain, loss, deduction and credit to each such class or series of partnership interest.

Ability to Engage in Other Businesses; Conflicts of Interest

The partnership agreement provides that we may not conduct any business other than in connection with the ownership, acquisition and disposition of partnership interests, the management of the business and affairs of our operating partnership, our operation as a reporting company with a class (or classes) of securities registered under the Exchange Act, our operations as a REIT, the offering, sale, syndication, private placement or public offering of stock, bonds, securities or other interests, financing or refinancing of any type related to our operating partnership or its assets or activities and such activities as are incidental to those activities discussed above. In general, we must contribute any assets or funds that we acquire to our operating partnership whether as capital contributions, loans or otherwise, as appropriate, in exchange for additional partnership interests. We may, however, in our sole and absolute discretion, from time to time hold or acquire assets in our own name or otherwise other than through our operating partnership so long as we take commercially reasonable measures to ensure that the economic benefits and burdens of such property are otherwise vested in our operating partnership.

 

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Distributions

Our operating partnership will distribute such amounts, at such times, as we may in our sole and absolute discretion determine:

 

   

first, with respect to any partnership interests that are entitled to any preference in distribution, including the series A/B/C preferred units and the CPOP units, in accordance with the rights of the holders of such class(es) of partnership interest, and, within each such class, among the holders of such class pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests of such class; and

 

   

second, with respect to any partnership interests that are not entitled to any preference in distribution, including the common units and, except as described below with respect to liquidating distributions and as may be provided in any incentive award plan or any applicable award agreement, the LTIP Units and Performance Units, in accordance with the rights of the holders of such class(es) of partnership interest, and, within each such class, among the holders of each such class, pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests of such class.

Exculpation and Indemnification of General Partner

The partnership agreement provides that we are not liable to our operating partnership or any partner for any action or omission taken in our capacity as general partner, for the debts or liabilities of our operating partnership or for the obligations of our operating partnership under the partnership agreement, except for liability for our fraud, willful misconduct or gross negligence, pursuant to any express indemnity we may give to our operating partnership or in connection with a redemption as described in “—Redemption Rights of Qualifying Parties.” The partnership agreement also provides that any obligation or liability in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership that may arise at any time under the partnership agreement or any other instrument, transaction or undertaking contemplated by the partnership agreement will be satisfied, if at all, out of our assets or the assets of our operating partnership only, and no such obligation or liability will be personally binding upon any of our directors, stockholders, officers, employees or agents.

In addition, the partnership agreement requires our operating partnership to indemnify us, our directors and officers, officers of our operating partnership and any other person designated by us against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities (whether joint or several), expenses (including, without limitation, attorneys’ fees and other legal fees and expenses), judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts arising from any and all claims, demands, actions, suits or proceedings, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, that relate to the operations of our operating partnership, unless (i) an act or omission of the person was material to the matter giving rise to the action and either was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (ii) in the case of a criminal proceeding, the person had reasonable cause to believe the act or omission was unlawful or (iii) such person actually received an improper personal benefit in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement. Our operating partnership must also pay or reimburse the reasonable expenses of any such person in advance of a final disposition of the proceeding upon its receipt of a written affirmation of the person’s good faith belief that the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification has been met and a written undertaking by or on behalf of the person to repay any amounts paid or advanced if it is ultimately determined that the person did not meet the standard of conduct for indemnification. Our operating partnership is not required to indemnify or advance funds to any person with respect to any action initiated by the person seeking indemnification without our approval (except for any proceeding brought to enforce such person’s right to indemnification under the partnership agreement) or if the person is found to be liable to our operating partnership on any portion of any claim in the action.

Business Combinations and Dissolution of our Operating Partnership

Subject to the limitations on the transfer of our interest in our operating partnership described in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner,” we generally have the

 

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exclusive power to cause our operating partnership to merge, reorganize, consolidate, sell all or substantially all of its assets or otherwise combine its assets with another entity. We may also elect to dissolve our operating partnership without the consent of any limited partner. However, in connection with the acquisition of properties from persons to whom our operating partnership issues common units or other partnership interests as part of the purchase price, in order to preserve such persons’ tax deferral, our operating partnership may contractually agree, in general, not to sell or otherwise transfer the properties for a specified period of time, or in some instances, not to sell or otherwise transfer the properties without compensating the sellers of the properties for their loss of the tax deferral.

Redemption Rights of Qualifying Parties

Beginning 14 months after first acquiring such common units, each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners will have the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of the common units held by such limited partner or assignee in exchange for a cash amount per common unit equal to the value of one share of our common stock, determined in accordance with and subject to adjustment under the partnership agreement. Our operating partnership’s obligation to redeem common units does not arise and is not binding against our operating partnership until the sixth business day after we receive the holder’s notice of redemption or, if earlier, the day we notify the holder seeking redemption that we have declined to acquire some or all of the common units tendered for redemption. If we do not elect to acquire the common units tendered for redemption in exchange for shares of our common stock (as described below), our operating partnership must deliver the cash redemption amount, subject to certain exceptions, on or before the seventh calendar day after we receive the holder’s notice of redemption. Among other limitations, a limited partner or qualifying assignee may not require our operating partnership to redeem its common units if the exchange of such units for shares of our common stock would cause any person to violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock or violate certain limitations intended to prevent our operating partnership from being treated as a “publicly traded partnership” under the Code.

On or before the close of business on the fifth business day after a holder of common units gives notice of redemption to us, we may, in our sole and absolute discretion but subject to the restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter and described in “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” elect to acquire some or all of the common units tendered for redemption from the tendering party in exchange for shares of our common stock, based on an exchange ratio of one share of common stock for each common unit, subject to adjustment as provided in the partnership agreement. The partnership agreement does not require us to register, qualify or list any shares of common stock issued in exchange for common units with the Securities and Exchange Commission, with any state securities commissioner, department or agency, under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or with any stock exchange.

Transfers of Partnership Interests

Restrictions on Transfers by Limited Partners

Until the expiration of 14 months (or six months for holders of CPOP units) after the date on which a limited partner acquires a partnership interest, the limited partner generally may not directly or indirectly transfer all or any portion of such partnership interest without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, except for certain permitted transfers to certain affiliates, family members and charities, and certain pledges of partnership interests to lending institutions in connection with bona fide loans. After the expiration of such initial holding period, the limited partner will have the right to transfer all or any portion of its partnership interest without our consent to any person that is an “accredited investor,” within meaning set forth in Rule 501 promulgated under the Securities Act, upon ten business days prior notice to us, subject to the satisfaction of conditions specified in the partnership agreement, including minimum transfer requirements and our right of first refusal.

 

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Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner

Except as described below, any transfer of all or any portion of our interest in our operating partnership, whether by sale, disposition, statutory merger or consolidation, liquidation or otherwise, must be approved by the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us). Subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest, we may transfer all (but not less than all) of our general partnership interest without the consent of the limited partners in connection with a permitted termination transaction, which is a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a reclassification, recapitalization or change in any outstanding shares of our stock or other outstanding equity interests, if:

 

   

in connection with such event, all of the limited partners will receive or have the right to elect to receive, for each common unit, the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property paid to a holder of one share of our common stock (subject to adjustment in accordance with the partnership agreement) in the transaction and, if a purchase, tender or exchange offer is made and accepted by holders of our common stock in connection with the event, each holder of common units receives, or has the right to elect to receive, the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property that the holder would have received if it had exercised its redemption right and received shares of our common stock in exchange for its common units immediately before the expiration of the purchase, tender or exchange offer and had accepted the purchase, tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

substantially all of the assets of our operating partnership will be owned by a surviving entity (which may be our operating partnership, another limited partnership or a limited liability company) in which the limited partners of our operating partnership holding common units immediately before the event will hold a percentage interest based on the relative fair market value of the net assets of our operating partnership and the other net assets of the surviving entity immediately before the event, which interest will be on terms that are at least as favorable as the terms of the common units in effect immediately before the event and as those applicable to any other limited partners or non-managing members of the surviving entity and will include a right to redeem interests in the surviving entity for the consideration described in the preceding bullet or cash on similar terms as those in effect with respect to the common units immediately before the event, or, if common equity securities of the person controlling the surviving entity are publicly traded, such common equity securities.

We may also transfer all (but not less than all) of our interest in our operating partnership to an affiliate of us without the consent of any limited partner, subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest.

In addition, any transferee of our interest in our operating partnership must be admitted as a general partner of our operating partnership, assume, by operation of law or express agreement, all of our obligations as general partner under the partnership agreement, accept all of the terms and conditions of the partnership agreement and execute such instruments as may be necessary to effectuate the transferee’s admission as a general partner.

We may not voluntarily withdraw as the general partner of our operating partnership without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us) other than upon the transfer of our entire interest in our operating partnership and the admission of our successor as a general partner of our operating partnership.

LTIP Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as “LTIP Units.” We may cause our operating partnership to issue LTIP Units to persons who provide services to or for the benefit of our operating partnership, for such consideration or for no consideration as we may determine to be

 

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appropriate, and we may admit such persons as limited partners of our operating partnership, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. Further, we may cause our operating partnership to issue LTIP Units in one or more classes or series, with such terms as we may determine, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. LTIP Units may be subject to vesting, forfeiture and restrictions on transfer and receipt of distributions pursuant to the terms of any applicable equity-based plan and the terms of any award agreement relating to the issuance of the LTIP Units.

Conversion Rights

Vested LTIP Units are convertible at the option of each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners (in each case, that hold vested LTIP Units) into common units, upon notice to us and our operating partnership, to the extent that the capital account balance of the LTIP unitholder with respect to all of his or her LTIP Units is at least equal to our capital account balance with respect to an equal number of common units. We may cause our operating partnership to convert vested LTIP Units eligible for conversion into an equal number of common units at any time, upon at least 10 and not more than 60 days’ notice to the holder of the LTIP Units.

If we or our operating partnership is party to a transaction, including a merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other business combination, as a result of which common units are exchanged for or converted into the right, or holders of common units are otherwise entitled, to receive cash, securities or other property (or any combination thereof), we must cause our operating partnership to convert any vested LTIP Units then eligible for conversion into common units immediately before the transaction, taking into account any special allocations of income that would be made as a result of the transaction. Our operating partnership must use commercially reasonable efforts to cause each limited partner (other than a party to such a transaction or an affiliate of such a party) holding LTIP Units that will be converted into common units in such a transaction to be afforded the right to receive the same kind and amount of cash, securities and other property (or any combination thereof) for such common units that each holder of common units receives in the transaction.

Transfer

Unless an applicable equity-based plan or the terms of an award agreement specify additional restrictions on transfer of LTIP Units, LTIP Units are transferable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests.”

Voting Rights

Limited partners holding LTIP Units are entitled to vote together as a class with limited partners holding common units and Performance Units on all matters on which limited partners holding common units are entitled to vote or consent, and may cast one vote for each LTIP Unit so held.

Adjustment of LTIP Units

If our operating partnership takes certain actions, including making a distribution of units on all outstanding common units, combining or subdividing the outstanding common units into a different number of common units or reclassifying the outstanding common units, we must adjust the number of outstanding LTIP Units or subdivide or combine outstanding LTIP Units to maintain a one-for-one conversion ratio and economic equivalence between common units and LTIP Units.

Performance Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as “Performance Units.” We may cause our operating partnership to issue Performance Units to persons who provide services to or for the benefit of our operating partnership, for such consideration or for no consideration

 

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as we may determine to be appropriate, and we may admit such persons as limited partners of our operating partnership, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. Further, we may cause our operating partnership to issue Performance Units in one or more classes or series, with such terms as we may determine, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. Performance Units may be subject to vesting, forfeiture and restrictions on transfer and receipt of distributions pursuant to the terms of any applicable equity-based plan and the terms of any award agreement relating to the issuance of the Performance Units.

Conversion Rights

Vested Performance Units are convertible at the option of each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners (in each case, that hold vested Performance Units) into common units, upon notice to us and our operating partnership, to the extent that the capital account balance of the Performance Unit unitholder with respect to all of his or her Performance Units is at least equal to our capital account balance with respect to an equal number of common units. We may cause our operating partnership to convert vested Performance Units eligible for conversion into an equal number of common units at any time, upon at least 10 and not more than 60 days’ notice to the holder of the Performance Units.

If we or our operating partnership is party to a transaction, including a merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other business combination, as a result of which common units are exchanged for or converted into the right, or holders of common units are otherwise entitled, to receive cash, securities or other property (or any combination thereof), we must cause our operating partnership to convert any vested Performance Units then eligible for conversion into common units immediately before the transaction, taking into account any special allocations of income that would be made as a result of the transaction. Our operating partnership must use commercially reasonable efforts to cause each limited partner (other than a party to such a transaction or an affiliate of such a party) holding Performance Units that will be converted into common units in such a transaction to be afforded the right to receive the same kind and amount of cash, securities and other property (or any combination thereof) for such common units that each holder of common units receives in the transaction.

Transfer

Unless an applicable equity-based plan or the terms of an award agreement specify additional restrictions on transfer of Performance Units, Performance Units are transferable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests.”

Voting Rights

Limited partners holding Performance Units are entitled to vote together as a class with limited partners holding common units and LTIP Units on all matters on which limited partners holding common units are entitled to vote or consent, and may cast one vote for each Performance Unit so held.

Adjustment of Performance Units

If our operating partnership takes certain actions, including making a distribution of units on all outstanding common units, combining or subdividing the outstanding common units into a different number of common units or reclassifying the outstanding common units, we must adjust the number of outstanding Performance Units or subdivide or combine outstanding Performance Units to maintain a one-for-one conversion ratio and economic equivalence between common units and Performance Units.

CPOP Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue 593,960 series 1 CPOP units and 906,374 series 2 CPOP units. As of September 30, 2020, there are 593,960 series 1 CPOP units and 906,374 series 2 CPOP units issued

 

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and outstanding. CPOP units rank senior to the common units, LTIP Units and Performance Units and on parity with the series A/B/C preferred units. When and as authorized by us in our capacity as general partner, holders of series 1 CPOP units are entitled to receive cumulative cash distributions at the rate of 4.43937% per annum of the $45.50952 per series 1 CPOP unit liquidation preference, and holders of series 2 CPOP units are entitled to cumulative cash distributions at the rate of 4.00% per annum of the $45.00 liquidation preference per series 2 CPOP unit, in each case, payable quarterly in arrears on or about the last day of March, June, September and December of each year. Holders of CPOP units are also entitled to receive a liquidation preference equal to $45.50952 per series 1 CPOP unit or $45.00 per series 2 CPOP unit, in each case plus any accumulated and unpaid distributions thereon (whether or not authorized or declared), before the holders of the operating partnership’s common units, LTIP Units, Performance Units or other junior securities receive any distributions in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our operating partnership (but, in the case of distributions upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our operating partnership, only to the extent consistent with a liquidation in accordance with positive capital account balances). The CPOP units are not listed on any exchange nor are they quoted on any national market system.

Conversion Rights

The series 1 CPOP units are convertible (i) at the option of the holder anytime from time to time, or (ii) at the option of the operating partnership, at any time on or after April 10, 2024, in each case, into common units on a one-for-one basis, subject to adjustment to eliminate fractional units or to the extent that there are any accrued and unpaid distributions on the series 1 CPOP units. The series 2 CPOP units are convertible (i) at the option of the holder anytime from time to time, or (ii) at the option of the operating partnership, at any time on or after March 5, 2025, in each case, into 0.7722 common units per series 2 CPOP unit, subject to adjustment to eliminate fractional units or to the extent that there are any accrued and unpaid distributions on the series 2 CPOP units.

Transfer

CPOP units are transferrable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner.”

Voting Rights

Generally, the CPOP units are entitled to limited voting rights and in most cases vote on an as-converted basis with the holders of common units on matters on which all limited partners are entitled to vote. So long as any series 1 CPOP units remain outstanding, the consent of the limited partners holding a majority in interest of the series 1 CPOP units, other than any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company will be required to amend, alter or repeal the terms of the series 1 CPOP units so as to materially and adversely affect any right, preference or privilege of the series 1 CPOP units. So long as any series 2 CPOP units remain outstanding, the consent of the limited partners holding a majority in interest of the series 2 CPOP units, other than any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company will be required to (i) amend, alter or repeal the terms of the series 2 CPOP units so as to materially and adversely affect any right, preference or privilege of the series 2 CPOP units and (ii) subject to certain exceptions, complete certain of the following termination transactions (a) a merger, consolidation or other combination of the Company or the operating partnership’s assets with another entity, (b) a sale of all or substantially all of the Company or the operating partnership’s assets not in the ordinary course of the operating partnership’s business or (c) a reclassification, recapitalization or change of any outstanding shares of the Company’s stock or other outstanding equity interests.

Series A/B/C Preferred Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue 3,600,000 series A preferred units, 3,000,000 series B preferred units and 3,450,000 series C preferred units. As of September 30, 2020, there are 3,600,000 series A

 

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preferred units, 3,000,000 series B preferred units and 3,450,000 series C preferred units issued and outstanding and we owned 100% of the outstanding series A/B/C preferred units. Series A/B/C preferred units rank senior to the common units, LTIP Units and Performance Units and on parity with the CPOP units. Holders of series A preferred units and series B preferred units are entitled to receive preferential cash distributions in an amount equal to 5.875% per annum on the stated value of $25.00 per series A preferred unit or series B preferred unit, of $1.46875 per annum per series A preferred unit or series B preferred unit, and holders of series C preferred units are entitled to receive preferential cash distributions in an amount equal to 5.625% per annum on the stated value of $25.00 per series C preferred unit, of $1.40625 per annum per series C preferred unit. Holders of series A/B/C preferred units are also entitled to receive a liquidation preference in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our operating partnership that are substantially similar to those of the series A/B/C preferred stock (but, in the case of distributions upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our operating partnership, only to the extent consistent with a liquidation in accordance with positive capital account balances). Series A/B/C preferred units are also subject to redemption by our operating partnership in connection with our reacquisition of shares of series A/B/C preferred stock. See “Description of Preferred Stock—Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock.” The Series A/B/C preferred units are not listed on any exchange nor are they quoted on any national market system.

Conversion Rights

Series A/B/C preferred units will be converted into common units in the event of a conversion of series A/B/C preferred stock, as applicable, at the option of holders of shares of series A/B/C preferred stock pursuant to the articles supplementary designating the terms of the series A/B/C preferred stock, as described above in “Description of Preferred Stock—Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock.”

Transfer

Series A/B/C preferred units are transferrable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests—Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner.”

Voting Rights

The general partner will not have any voting or consent rights in respect of its partnership interest represented by the series A/B/C preferred units.

 

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MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Our Board of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of our entire board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required by the MGCL nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 15.

We have elected by a provision of our charter to be subject to a provision of Maryland law requiring that, except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of stock, any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum. Any director so elected will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies.

Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Holders of shares of our common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Directors are elected by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes cast “for” and “against” the election of a nominee at any meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present; provided, however, that directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors if there is a contested election. Our corporate governance guidelines provide that a nominee for director in an uncontested election not elected by the vote required in the bylaws and who is an incumbent director shall promptly tender his or her resignation to the board of directors for consideration.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and then only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, may preclude stockholders from removing incumbent directors except for cause and by a substantial affirmative vote and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in certain circumstances specified under the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and any interested stockholder, or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:

 

   

any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

   

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. In approving a transaction, however, a board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of the approval, with any terms and conditions determined by it.

 

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After such five-year period, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

   

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

   

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

These supermajority approval requirements do not apply if, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a corporation’s board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has, by resolution, elected to opt out of the business combination provisions of the MGCL. We cannot provide you any assurance, however, that our board of directors will not opt to be subject to such business combination provision at any time in the future. Notwithstanding the foregoing, an alteration or repeal of this resolution will not have any effect on any business combinations that have been consummated or upon any agreements existing at the time of such modification or repeal.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to their control shares except to the extent approved by the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors, generally, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power in the election of directors: (1) the person who made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) an officer of the corporation or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock that, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would cause the acquirer to be entitled to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

   

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

 

   

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

 

   

a majority or more of all voting power.

Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the control shares. If no request for a special meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights of control shares are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the

 

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corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control acquisition by the acquirer. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to: (1) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. We cannot provide you any assurance, however, that either our board of directors or stockholders will not amend or eliminate this provision at any time in the future.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of the following five provisions:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by the board of directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

We have elected by a provision in our charter to be subject to the provisions of Subtitle 8 relating to the filling of vacancies on our board of directors. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director from the board, which removal will be allowed only for cause, (2) vest in the board the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships, subject to limitations set forth in our charter and bylaws, and (3) require, unless called by the chairman of our board of directors, either of our presidents, either of our chief executive officers or our board of directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast on a matter at such meeting to call a special meeting to consider and vote on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders. We have not elected to create a classified board. In the future, our board of directors may elect, without stockholder approval, to create a classified board or elect to be subject to one or more of the other provisions of Subtitle 8.

Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws

Other than amendments to certain provisions of our charter described below and amendments permitted to be made without stockholder approval under Maryland law or by a specific provision in the charter, our charter may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. The provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors or the vote required to amend such provisions may

 

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be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our board of directors has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws or to make new bylaws. Our bylaws permit our common stockholders to amend the bylaws by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock pursuant to a proposal submitted by a stockholder that satisfies the ownership and other eligibility requirements of Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act for the periods and as of the dates specified therein. A stockholder proposal submitted under our bylaws may not (i) alter, amend or repeal provisions relating to indemnification of directors and officers of the Company, (ii) alter, amend, or repeal the amendment section of our bylaws or (iii) adopt, alter, amend or repeal any provision of the bylaws in a manner that would be inconsistent with (i) or (ii), in each case, without the approval of our board of directors.

Exclusive Forum

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any Internal Corporate Claim, as such term is defined in Section 1-101(q) of the MGCL, (b) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (c) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by us or by any director or officer or other employee to us or to our stockholders, other than actions arising under federal securities laws, (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (e) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that Court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Northern Division.

Meetings of Stockholders

Under our bylaws, annual meetings of stockholders must be held each year at a date, time and place determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by the chairman of our board of directors, either of our chief executive officers, either of our presidents and our board of directors. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures specified in our bylaws and provided the information and certifications required by our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of a special meeting of stockholders may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that:

 

   

with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:

 

   

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

 

   

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

   

by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has provided the information and certifications required by the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.

 

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with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders, and nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only:

 

   

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

   

provided that the meeting has been called for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has provided the information and certifications required by the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.

The purpose of requiring stockholders to give advance notice of nominations and other proposals is to afford our board of directors the opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees or the advisability of the other proposals and, to the extent considered necessary by our board of directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations regarding the nominations or other proposals. The advance notice procedures also permit a more orderly procedure for conducting our stockholder meetings.

Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the provisions of our charter regarding the removal of directors, the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on the board and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our common stockholders. Likewise, if our board of directors were to opt in to the business combination provisions of the MGCL or the provisions of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL providing for a classified board of directors, or if the provision in our bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were amended or rescinded, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:

 

   

was committed in bad faith; or

 

   

was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

 

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However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer for an adverse judgment in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate our company and our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, to:

 

   

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while serving as our director or officer and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

The partnership agreement also provides that we, as general partner, and our directors, officers, employees, agents and designees are indemnified to the extent provided therein. See “Description of the Partnership Agreement of Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.—Exculpation and Indemnification of General Partner.”

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

Subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate outstanding shares of our stock. For a fuller description of this and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to be qualified as a REIT. Our charter also provides that our board of directors may determine that compliance with one or more of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

 

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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our election to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) and the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the ownership of certain securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

   

the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”);

 

   

current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”);

 

   

the legislative history of the Code;

 

   

administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”); and

 

   

court decisions;

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and holders of its capital stock and holders of our operating partnership’s debt securities. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested and do not intend to request any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

   

the acquisition, ownership and sale or other disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

   

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

   

potential changes in applicable tax laws.

 

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Taxation of Our Company

General

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with our filing this prospectus and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

   

First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

 

   

Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.

 

   

Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

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Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

   

Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

   

Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax. See “—Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited in Connection with Acquisitions.”

 

   

Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

   

Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “—Income Tests-Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

   

Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

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Twelfth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined by Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

  (4)

that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

  (7)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

 

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Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries

In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership, including our operating partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”

We have control of our operating partnership and its subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Asset Tests.”

Ownership of Interests in Subsidiary REITs

From April 2016 through the end of December 2017, we owned an indirect interest in REXR REIT, Inc. (“REXR REIT”), which had elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code. Provided that REXR REIT qualified as a REIT during the time we owned REXR REIT, our interest in REXR REIT during such time would be treated as a qualifying real estate asset for purposes of the asset tests and any dividend income or gains derived by us from REXR REIT during such time would generally be treated as income that qualifies for purposes of the gross income tests. To qualify as a REIT during such time, REXR REIT must have independently satisfied the various REIT qualification requirements described in this summary. If REXR REIT failed to qualify as a REIT, and certain relief provisions did not apply, it would have been treated as a regular taxable corporation and its income would have been subject to United States federal corporate income tax. In addition, a failure of REXR REIT to have qualified as a REIT would have had an adverse effect on our ability to

 

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comply with the gross income and asset tests, and thus our ability to qualify as a REIT. We believe that REXR REIT qualified as a REIT under the Code at all times during which we owned its stock.

Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries

We currently own an interest in one taxable REIT subsidiary and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than certain activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary or as receiving any income that the taxable REIT subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the taxable REIT subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the taxable REIT subsidiary. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “—Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. For any taxable year beginning in 2019 or 2020, the 30% limitation was increased to a 50% limitation, provided that for partnerships the 50% limitation applies for any taxable year beginning in 2020 only. Taxpayers may elect to use their 2019 adjusted taxable income for purposes of computing their 2020 limitation. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

Income Tests

We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

   

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;

 

   

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive

 

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from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;

 

   

Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

 

   

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

We generally do not intend, and as the general partner of our operating partnership, we do not intend to permit our operating partnership, to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Income we receive that is attributable to the rental of parking spaces at the properties generally will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests if certain services provided with respect to the parking spaces are performed by independent contractors from whom we derive no revenue, either directly or indirectly, or by a taxable REIT subsidiary, and certain other conditions are met. We believe that the income we receive that is attributable to parking spaces will meet these tests and, accordingly, will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests.

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to

 

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borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends or interest, we generally will derive our allocable share of such dividend or interest income through our interest in our operating partnership. Such dividend or interest income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test (except that our allocable share of such interest would also qualify under the 75% gross income test to the extent the interest is paid on a loan that is adequately secured by real property).

We will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

   

following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

   

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

Prohibited Transaction Income

Any gain that we realize on the sale of property (other than any foreclosure property) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. As the general partner of our operating partnership, we intend to cause our operating partnership to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objectives. We do not intend, and do not intend to

 

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permit our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a taxable REIT subsidiary, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

Penalty Tax

Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.

Currently, our taxable REIT subsidiary does not provide any services to our tenants or conduct other material activities. However, a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours may in the future provide services to certain of our tenants and pay rent to us. We intend to set any fees paid to our taxable REIT subsidiaries for such services, and any rent payable to us by our taxable REIT subsidiaries, at arm’s length rates, although the amounts paid may not satisfy the safe harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Asset Tests

At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a

 

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partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

Fourth, not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. Our operating partnership owns 100% of the securities of a corporation that has elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiary. So long as this corporation qualifies as our taxable REIT subsidiary, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of its securities. We may acquire securities in other taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any partnership or qualified REIT subsidiary) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer will increase as a result of our capital contributions to our operating partnership or as limited partners exercise any redemption/exchange rights. Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

 

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Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our operating partnership’s overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

   

90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

   

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

   

the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “—General.”

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. For any taxable year beginning in 2019 or 2020, the 30% limitation was increased to a 50% limitation, provided that for partnerships the 50% limitation applies for any taxable year beginning in 2020 only. Taxpayers may elect to use their 2019 adjusted taxable income for purposes of computing their 2020 limitation. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years, subject to special rules applicable to partnerships. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships (including our operating partnership) are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships that are subject to this interest expense limitation will be eligible to make this election. If such election is made, although we or such subsidiary partnership, as applicable, would not be subject to the interest expense limitation described above, depreciation deductions may be reduced and, as a result, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased.

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential—i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential dividend limitation will not apply to distributions made by us,

 

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provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. However, Subsidiary REITs we may own from time to time may not be publicly offered REITs. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount. We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes us, as the general partner of our operating partnership, to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.

We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which U.S. federal corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

Like-Kind Exchanges

We may dispose of real property that is not held primarily for sale in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, or deficiency dividends, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited in Connection with Acquisitions

From time to time, we or our operating partnership may acquire other corporations or entities and, in connection with such acquisitions, we may succeed to the historical tax attributes and liabilities of such entities.

 

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For example, if we acquire a C corporation and subsequently dispose of its assets within five years of the acquisition, we could be required to pay the built-in gain tax described above under “—General.” In addition, in order to qualify as a REIT, at the end of any taxable year, we must not have any earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year. As a result, if we acquire a C corporation, we must distribute the corporation’s earnings and profits accumulated prior to the acquisition before the end of the taxable year in which we acquire the corporation. We also could be required to pay the acquired entity’s unpaid taxes even though such liabilities arose prior to the time we acquired the entity.

Moreover, we may from time to time acquire other REITs through a merger or acquisition. If any such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, such REIT would be liable for (and we, as the surviving corporation in the merger or acquisition, would be obligated to pay) regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on its taxable income for such taxable years. In addition, if such REIT was a C corporation at the time of the merger or acquisition, the tax consequences described in the preceding paragraph generally would apply. If such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, but qualified as a REIT at the time of such merger or acquisition, and we acquired such REIT’s assets in a transaction in which our tax basis in the assets of such REIT is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to such REIT’s tax basis in such assets, we generally would be subject to tax on the built-in gain on each asset of such REIT as described above if we were to dispose of the asset in a taxable transaction during the five-year period following such REIT’s requalification as a REIT, subject to certain exceptions. Moreover, even if such REIT qualified as a REIT at all relevant times, we would similarly be liable for other unpaid taxes (if any) of such REIT (such as the 100% tax on gains from any sales treated as “prohibited transactions” as described above under “—Prohibited Transaction Income”).

Furthermore, after our acquisition of another corporation or entity, the asset and income tests will apply to all of our assets, including the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity, and to all of our income, including the income derived from the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity. As a result, the nature of the assets that we acquire from such corporation or entity and the income we derive from those assets may have an effect on our tax status as a REIT.

Failure to Qualify

If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

 

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Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies

General

All of our investments are held indirectly through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership holds certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that we believe are and will continue to be treated as disregarded entities or partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners of such partnerships are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership. We will include in our income our share of these partnership items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of the assets of its subsidiary partnerships, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries.” A disregarded entity is not treated as a separate entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a disregarded entity are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of its parent that is not a disregarded entity (e.g., our operating partnership) for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests.”

Entity Classification

Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as disregarded entities or partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. Interests in a partnership are not treated as readily tradable on a secondary market, or the substantial equivalent thereof, if the partnership satisfies one or more safe harbors set forth in Treasury Regulations under the Code. One such safe harbor relates to the amount of trading of interests in the partnership. Interests in a partnership would not be viewed as readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if the sum of the percentage interests in capital or profits of the partnership transferred during any taxable year of the partnership does not exceed 2% of the total interests in the partnership’s capital or profits, subject to certain exceptions. For purpose of this 2% trading safe harbor, our interests in our operating partnership are excluded from the determination of the percentage interests in capital or profits of our operating partnership. In addition, this 2% trading safe harbor does not apply to transfers by a limited partner in one or more transactions during any 30-day period representing in the aggregate more than 2% of the total interests in our operating partnership’s capital or profits. We, as the general partner of our operating partnership, have the authority to take any steps we determine to prevent any trading of interests in our operating partnership that would cause our operating partnership to become a publicly traded partnership, including any steps necessary to ensure compliance with this 2% trading safe harbor. While we expect to satisfy this 2% trading safe harbor for certain of our taxable years, we have not satisfied this safe harbor (or any other safe harbor) for all of our prior years, and may fail to satisfy it (and the other safe harbors) in the future.

If our operating partnership or any of our other partnerships were to be treated as a publicly traded partnership, it would be taxable as a corporation unless it qualified for the statutory “90% qualifying income exception.” Under that exception, a publicly traded partnership is not subject to corporate-level tax if 90% or more of its gross income consists of dividends, interest, “rents from real property” (as that term is defined for purposes of the rules applicable to REITs, with certain modifications), gain from the sale or other disposition of

 

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real property, and certain other types of qualifying income. We believe our operating partnership has satisfied the 90% qualifying income exception in every taxable year, and expect it to continue to satisfy that exception in the future. However, if our operating partnership (or to the extent applicable any of our other partnerships) did not qualify for this exception or was otherwise taxable as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary treated as a partnership or disregarded entity to a corporation might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment.

We believe our operating partnership and each of the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies will be classified as partnerships or disregarded entities for federal income tax purposes, and we do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation.

Allocations of Items of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction

A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) generally will determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss of our operating partnership and any subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.

Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties

Under Section 704(c) of the Code, items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

Our operating partnership may, from time to time, acquire interests in property in exchange for interests in our operating partnership. In that case, the tax basis of these property interests generally will carry over to our operating partnership, notwithstanding their different book (i.e., fair market) value. The partnership agreement requires that, if our operating partnership is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, income and loss allocations with respect to these properties be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method we choose in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands

 

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of our operating partnership (1) could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in our operating partnership. An allocation described in clause (2) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of Our Company—General—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.

Partnership Audit Rules

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it remains uncertain how certain aspects of these new rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest, including our operating partnership, being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock and Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances, including the alternative minimum tax. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

   

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

   

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

   

persons holding our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

   

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

   

REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

   

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

   

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

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S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

   

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

   

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock being taken into account in an applicable financial statement;

 

   

persons deemed to sell our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

   

persons who hold or receive our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACQUISITION, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR OUR OPERATING PARTNERSHIP’S DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

Distributions Generally

Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the

 

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extent described in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

To the extent that we make distributions on a class of our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder to the extent of the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. holder that receives capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such common stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

Capital Gain Dividends

Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year, and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

 

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Retention of Net Capital Gains

We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:

 

   

include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

   

be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

   

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

   

increase the adjusted tax basis of its capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

   

in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations

Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, described in “—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock

Except as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

   

is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder;

 

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results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us; or

 

   

is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

Tax Rates

The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” is generally 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of our shares generally should not be unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or

 

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(c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the acquisition, ownership and disposition of shares of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions Generally

Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests (“USRPIs”), nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

   

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

 

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Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the stockholder’s capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such capital stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests

Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

   

the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business (within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to non-U.S. holders to the extent attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

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Retention of Net Capital Gains

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

Sale of Our Capital Stock

Except as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain recognized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a United States real property holding corporation (“USRPHC”), will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our capital stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such class of stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

(1)    such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the NYSE; and

(2)    such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.

In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (1) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a

 

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corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (2) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of the stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

Taxation of Holders of Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of debt securities issued by our operating partnership. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).

 

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U.S. Holders

Payments of Interest. Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. holder’s method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition. A U.S. holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will be equal to the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

Non-U.S. Holders

Payments of Interest. Interest paid on a debt security to a non-U.S. holder that is not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding, provided that:

 

   

the non-U.S. holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of our operating partnership’s capital or profits;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to our operating partnership through actual or constructive stock ownership; and

 

   

either (1) the non-U.S. holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the non-U.S. holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the non-U.S. holder, has received from the non-U.S. holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and provides the applicable withholding agent with a copy of such statement; or (3) the non-U.S. holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” (within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.

If a non-U.S. holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such non-U.S. holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the non-U.S. holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

If interest paid to a non-U.S. holder is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the non-U.S. holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the non-U.S. holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that

 

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interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States.

Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular graduated rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.

The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition. A non-U.S. holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “—Taxation of Holders of Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities—Non-U.S. Holders—Payments of Interest”) unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.

Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

Gain described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

U.S. Holders

A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

   

the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

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the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

   

the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

   

the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

Non-U.S. Holders

Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any distributions on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether such distributions constitute a dividend or whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations, subject to certain limitations. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) on certain types of payments made to “non-U.S. financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities, or (subject

 

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to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or to a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

Other Tax Consequences

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.

 

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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

Information about selling securityholders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We or any of the selling securityholders may sell the offered securities from time to time:

 

   

through underwriters or dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

We will identify the specific plan of distribution and terms, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers, the amount underwritten and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California. Certain legal matters with respect to the validity of shares of our capital stock and certain other legal matters relating to Maryland law will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us, the selling securityholders or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc. appearing in Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2019, including the schedule appearing therein, and the effectiveness of Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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LOGO

Rexford Industrial Realty, L.P.

$400,000,000

2.125% Senior Notes due 2030

guaranteed by

Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc.

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

J.P. Morgan

BofA Securities

US Bancorp

Citigroup

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

Capital One Securities

PNC Capital Markets LLC

Truist Securities

Regions Securities LLC

Stifel

Roberts & Ryan

November 10, 2020

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