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Section 1: 10-K (10-K)





Washington, D.C. 20549






For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019




Commission file no: 0-22955



(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)






(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)


(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)


1801 Bayberry Court, Suite 101, Richmond, Virginia 23226

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 804-325-3775




Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered





Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Common Stock ($5.00 Par Value)

(Title of Class)


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities

Act.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the

Act.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark whether registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


Large accelerated filer



Accelerated filer






Non-accelerated filer




Smaller reporting company










Emerging growth company



If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    YES      NO  

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant at June 30, 2019, based on the closing sale price of the registrant’s common stock on June 30, 2019, was $96,197,174.

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of February 28, 2020 was 13,346,789.


The information required by Part III of this Form 10-K will be included in the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2020 annual meeting of shareholders and incorporated herein by reference or in an amendment to this Form 10-K filed within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K.
























Item 1:







Item 1A:


Risk Factors





Item 1B:


Unresolved Staff Comments





Item 2:







Item 3:


Legal Proceedings





Item 4:


Mine Safety Disclosures














Item 5:


Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities





Item 6:


Selected Financial Data





Item 7:


Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations





Item 7A:


Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk





Item 8:


Financial Statements and Supplementary Data





Item 9:


Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure





Item 9A:


Controls and Procedures





Item 9B:


Other Information














Item 10:


Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance





Item 11:


Executive Compensation





Item 12:


Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters





Item 13:


Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence





Item 14:


Principal Accounting Fees and Services














Item 15:


Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules





Item 16:


Form 10-K Summary







Bay Banks of Virginia, Inc. (the “Company”) is a Virginia corporation and bank holding company that conducts substantially all of its operations through its subsidiaries, Virginia Commonwealth Bank (the “Bank”) and VCB Financial Group, Inc. (the “Financial Group”). The Bank opened for business in 1930 as Bank of Lancaster and partners with the communities it serves to deliver banking and financial services.

The Bank is a state-chartered bank, headquartered in Richmond, Virginia, and a member of the Federal Reserve System. The Bank has 18 banking offices, including one loan production office, located throughout the greater Richmond region of Virginia, the Northern Neck region of Virginia, Middlesex County, and the Hampton Roads region of Virginia. The Bank serves businesses, professionals, and consumers with a wide variety of financial services, including retail and commercial banking, and mortgage banking. Products include checking accounts, savings accounts, money market accounts, cash management accounts, certificates of deposit, individual retirement accounts, commercial and industrial loans, residential mortgages, commercial mortgages, home equity loans, consumer installment loans, insurance, credit cards, online banking, telephone banking, and mobile banking. A substantial amount of the Bank’s deposits are interest bearing, and the majority of the Bank’s loan portfolio is secured by real estate. Deposits of the Bank are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) up to applicable limits.

On April 1, 2017, the Company completed a merger with Virginia BanCorp Inc. (“Virginia BanCorp”), a bank holding company conducting substantially all of its operations through its subsidiary, Virginia Commonwealth Bank. Immediately following the Company’s merger with Virginia BanCorp, Virginia BanCorp’s subsidiary bank was merged with and into Bank of Lancaster (collectively, the “Merger”). Bank of Lancaster then changed its name to Virginia Commonwealth Bank.

The Financial Group provides management services for personal and corporate trusts, including estate planning, estate settlement, trust administration, and investment and wealth management services. Products and services include estate planning and settlement, revocable and irrevocable living trusts, testamentary trusts, custodial accounts, investment planning, brokerage services, insurance, investment managed accounts, and managed and self-directed individual retirement accounts.

The Bank has one wholly owned subsidiary, Bay Services Company, Inc., a Virginia corporation organized in 1994 (“Bay Services”). Bay Services owns an interest in Infinex Investments, Inc., which provides brokerage services and investment products that are marketed by the Financial Group.

The Company had total assets of $1.13 billion, deposits of $910.4 million, and shareholders’ equity of $126.2 million as of December 31, 2019. The Company’s headquarters are located in Richmond, Virginia, and its telephone number is 804-325-3775. The Company’s website is Information contained on the Company’s website is not a part of or incorporated into this report or any other filing the Company makes with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

Through the Bank and the Financial Group, the Company provides a wide variety of financial services to its customers in its market areas. The primary products and services provided by the Bank are summarized as follows.


Real Estate Loans The Bank’s mortgage loans on real estate comprise the largest type of its loan portfolio. A large portion of the Bank’s real estate loans are mortgages on one-to-four family residential properties, with both fixed and adjustable interest rate terms, and the majority of these are owner-occupied. Owner-occupied residential mortgages are underwritten and documented within the guidelines of the regulations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). Home equity lines of credit are also offered. The Bank also offers secondary market residential loan origination, whereby home mortgages are underwritten in accordance with the guidelines of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) or the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) or other secondary market purchasers. These loans are then sold into the secondary market on a loan-by-loan basis, usually directly to Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, or other secondary market participants. The Bank earns origination fees on sold loans and may retain servicing rights and earn servicing fees from these loans.

The Bank offers construction, land, and land development loans. These loans are to individuals and qualified builders and are generally for the acquisition or improvement of land and/or the construction and/or improvement of personal residences or commercial properties. Underwritten typically at a maximum of 80% loan to value, funds under these loans are disbursed as construction progresses, subject to verification by Bank inspection.

The Bank offers commercial real estate loans that are secured by income-producing or owner-occupied real estate. These mortgages are typically written at a maximum of 80% loan to value. Commercial mortgages on owner-occupied properties represent real estate loans where the business or business owner occupies all or substantially all of the property and the primary source of repayment is the cash flows from the business occupying the property.

Commercial and Industrial Loans The Bank offers commercial and industrial loans, which are typically for the financing of equipment and/or inventory or accounts receivable. Commercial and industrial lending includes small business loans, asset based loans, and other secured and unsecured loans and lines of credit. Commercial and industrial loans may entail greater risk than other loans, and are therefore underwritten with strict risk management standards. Among the criteria for determining the borrower’s ability to repay is a cash flow analysis of the business and business collateral.

Consumer Loans As part of its range of services, the Bank’s consumer lending services include automobile and boat financing, home improvement loans, credit cards, and unsecured personal loans. These consumer loans historically entail greater risk than loans secured by real estate, but generate a higher rate of return.

Consumer Deposit Services Consumer deposit products include checking accounts, savings accounts, money market accounts, and certificates of deposit. The Bank offers numerous services and access to its customers, including telephone banking, online banking, mobile banking, mobile deposit, electronic statements, and identity theft protection.

Commercial Banking Services The Bank offers a variety of services to commercial customers. These services include analysis checking, cash management deposit accounts, wire services, direct deposit payroll service, lockbox service, positive pay, online banking, telephone banking, remote deposit, and a full line of commercial lending options. The Bank also offers Small Business Administration loan products under the 504 Program, which provides long-term funding for commercial real estate and long-lived equipment. This allows commercial customers to obtain favorable rate loans for the development of business opportunities, while providing the Bank with a partial guarantee of the outstanding loan balance.

Purchased Loans The Bank acquired certain purchased loan pools as part of the Merger. From time to time, the Bank purchases whole or partial loans through various reputable institutions and participations from other banks.


The financial services industry is highly competitive. The Company competes for loans, deposits, and other financial services directly with bank, nonbank institutions, credit unions, Internet-based banks and other financial technology firms, along with money market and mutual funds, brokerage houses, mortgage companies, insurance companies, and commercial entities that offer financial services products. These entities may be located within or outside the


Company’s markets. Many of the Company’s competitors have competitive advantages, including greater financial resources, a wider geographic presence, more accessible branch office locations, the ability to offer a broader scope of services, more favorable pricing, and lower operating costs. The Company believes that its personalized service, competitive pricing, and community involvement enable it to effectively compete in the markets in which it operates.


Bank holding companies and banks are highly regulated under both federal and state laws. The following description briefly addresses certain provisions of federal and state laws and certain regulations, proposed regulations, and the potential effects on the Company and the Bank. To the extent statutory or regulatory provisions or proposals are described in this report, the description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory or regulatory provisions or proposals.

The Company

General. As a bank holding company registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (the “BHCA”), the Company is subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by the Federal Reserve. The Company is also registered under the bank holding company laws of Virginia and is subject to supervision, regulation, and examination by the Bureau of Financial Institutions of the Virginia State Corporation Commission (the “Virginia BFI”).

Permitted Activities. A bank holding company is limited to managing or controlling banks, furnishing services to or performing services for its subsidiaries, and engaging in other activities that the Federal Reserve determines by regulation or order to be closely related to banking, managing, or controlling banks. In determining whether a particular activity is permissible, the Federal Reserve must consider whether the performance of such an activity reasonably can be expected to produce benefits to the public that outweigh possible adverse effects. Possible benefits include greater convenience, increased competition, and gains in efficiency. Possible adverse effects include undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest, and unsound banking practices. Despite prior approval, the Federal Reserve may order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate ownership or control of any subsidiary when the Federal Reserve has reasonable cause to believe that a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of any bank subsidiary of that bank holding company may result from such an activity.

Banking Acquisitions, Changes in Control. The BHCA and related regulations require, among other things, the prior approval of the Federal Reserve in any case where a bank holding company proposes to (i) acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the outstanding voting stock of any bank or bank holding company (unless it already owns a majority of such voting shares), (ii) acquire all or substantially all of the assets of another bank or bank holding company, or (iii) merge or consolidate with any other bank holding company. In determining whether to approve a proposed bank acquisition, the Federal Reserve will consider, among other factors, the effect of the acquisition on competition, the public benefits expected to be received from the acquisition, any outstanding regulatory compliance issues of any institution that is a party to the transaction, the projected capital ratios and levels on a post-acquisition basis, the financial condition of each institution that is a party to the transaction and of the combined institution after the transaction, the parties’ managerial resources and risk management and governance processes and systems, the parties’ compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering requirements, and the acquiring institution’s performance under the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 and compliance with fair housing and other consumer protection laws.

Subject to certain exceptions, the BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with the applicable regulations, require Federal Reserve approval (or, depending on the circumstances, no notice of disapproval) prior to any person or company’s acquiring “control” of a bank or bank holding company. A conclusive presumption of control exists if an individual or company acquires the power, directly or indirectly, to direct the management or policies of an insured depository institution or to vote 25% or more of any class of voting securities of any insured depository institution. A rebuttable presumption of control exists if a person or company acquires 10% or more but less than 25% of any class of voting securities of an insured depository institution and either the institution has registered its securities with the SEC under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”)


or no other person will own a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the acquisition. The Company’s common stock is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act.

In addition, Virginia law requires prior approval from the Virginia BFI for (i) the acquisition by a Virginia bank holding company of more than 5% of the voting shares of a Virginia bank or any holding company that controls a Virginia bank, or (ii) the acquisition by a Virginia bank holding company of a bank or its holding company domiciled outside Virginia.

Source of Strength. Federal Reserve policy has historically required bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) codified this policy as a statutory requirement. Under this requirement, the Company is expected to commit resources to support the Bank, including at times when the Company may not be in a financial position to provide such resources. Any capital loans by a bank holding company to any of its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary banks. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.

Safety and Soundness. There are a number of obligations and restrictions imposed on bank holding companies and their subsidiary banks by law and regulatory policy that are designed to minimize potential loss to the depositors of such depository institutions and the FDIC insurance fund in the event of a depository institution insolvency, receivership, or default. For example, under the Federal Deposit Insurance Company Improvement Act of 1991, to avoid receivership of an insured depository institution subsidiary, a bank holding company is required to guarantee the compliance of any subsidiary bank that may become “undercapitalized” with the terms of any capital restoration plan filed by such subsidiary with its appropriate federal bank regulatory agency up to the lesser of (i) an amount equal to 5% of the institution’s total assets at the time the institution became undercapitalized, or (ii) the amount that is necessary (or would have been necessary) to bring the institution into compliance with all applicable capital standards as of the time the institution fails to comply with such capital restoration plan.

Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (“FDIA”), federal bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines prescribing safety and soundness standards. These guidelines establish general standards relating to capital management, internal control and information systems, data security, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, risk management, vendor management, corporate governance, asset growth, and compensation, fees and benefits. In general, the guidelines require, among other things, appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risk and exposures specified in the guidelines.

Capital Requirements. Pursuant to the Federal Reserve’s Small Bank Holding Company and Savings and Loan Holding Company Policy Statement, qualifying bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of less than $3 billion, such as the Company, are not subject to consolidated regulatory capital requirements. Certain capital requirements applicable to the Bank are described below under “The Bank – Capital Requirements.” Subject to capital requirements and certain other restrictions, the Company is able to borrow money to make a capital contribution to the Bank, and such loans may be repaid from dividends paid by the Bank to the Company.


Limits on Dividends and Other Payments. The Company is a legal entity, separate and distinct from its subsidiaries. A significant portion of the revenues of the Company result from dividends paid to it by the Bank. There are various legal limitations applicable to the payment of dividends by the Bank to the Company and to the payment of dividends by the Company to its shareholders. The Bank is subject to various statutory and regulatory restrictions on its ability to pay dividends to the Company. Under current regulations, prior approval from the Federal Reserve is required if cash dividends declared by the Bank in any given year exceed net income for that year plus retained net profits of the two preceding years. The payment of dividends by the Bank or the Company may be limited by other factors, such as requirements to maintain capital above regulatory guidelines. Bank regulatory agencies have the authority to prohibit the Bank and the Company from engaging in unsafe or unsound practices in conducting their respective businesses. The payment of dividends, depending on the financial condition of the Bank or the Company, could be deemed to constitute such an unsafe or unsound practice. In addition, under the current supervisory practices of the Federal Reserve, the Company should inform and consult with its regulators reasonably in advance of declaring or paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period (e.g., quarter) for which the dividend is being paid or that could result in a material adverse change to the Company’s capital structure.

Under the FDIA, insured depository institutions such as the Bank are prohibited from making capital distributions, including the payment of dividends, if after making such distributions the institution would become “undercapitalized” (as such term is used in the statute). The Company’s non-bank subsidiary, the Financial Group, also may pay dividends to the Company, subject to certain statutory restrictions.

The Company may receive fees from or pay fees to its affiliated companies for expenses incurred related to certain activities performed by or for the Company for the benefit of its affiliated companies or for its benefit. (An example of such expenses would be independent audit fees paid by the Company.) These fees are charged to/received from each affiliated company based upon various specific allocation methods measuring the estimated usage of such services by that company. The fees are eliminated from reported financial statements in the consolidation process.

The Bank

General. The Bank is supervised and regularly examined by the Federal Reserve and the Virginia BFI. The various laws and regulations administered by the bank regulatory agencies affect corporate practices, such as the payment of dividends, incurrence of debt, and the acquisition of financial institutions and other companies. These laws and regulations also affect business practices, such as the payment of interest on deposits, the charging of interest on loans, credit policies, the types of business conducted, and the location of offices. Certain of these laws and regulations are referenced above under “The Company.”

Capital Requirements. The Federal Reserve and the other federal banking agencies have issued capital adequacy requirements applicable to U.S. banking organizations. Those regulatory agencies may from time to time require that a banking organization maintain capital above the minimum levels because of its financial condition or actual or anticipated growth.

Effective January 1, 2015, the Bank became subject to capital rules adopted by federal bank regulators implementing the Basel III regulatory capital reforms adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the “Basel Committee”), and certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. These rules require the Bank to comply with the following minimum capital ratios: (i) a Common Equity Tier 1 Capital ratio of 4.5% of risk-weighted assets; (ii) a Tier 1 Capital ratio of 6.0% of risk-weighted assets; (iii) a Total Risked-based Capital ratio of 8.0% of risk-weighted assets; and (iv) a Leverage ratio of 4.0% of total assets. The following additional capital requirements related to the “capital conservation buffer” were phased in ratably over a four-year period, beginning on January 1, 2016. As fully phased in effective January 1, 2019, the rules require the Bank to maintain: (i) a minimum ratio of Common Equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets of 4.5%, plus a 2.5% capital conservation buffer, resulting in a minimum ratio of Common Equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets of 7.0%, (ii) a minimum ratio of Tier 1 Capital to risk-weighted assets of 6.0%, plus the 2.5% capital conservation buffer, resulting in a minimum Tier 1 Capital ratio of 8.5%, (iii) a minimum ratio of Total Risk-based Capital to risk-weighted assets of 8.0%, plus the 2.5% capital conservation buffer, resulting in a minimum Total Risk-based Capital ratio of 10.5%, and (iv) a minimum Leverage ratio of 4.0%, calculated as the ratio of Tier 1 capital to average assets. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Banking institutions with a ratio of Common Equity Tier 1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the conservation buffer will face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases, and discretionary compensation paid to certain officers, based on the amount of the shortfall. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, ratios of the Bank were in excess of the fully phased-in requirements.


In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV”). Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk (including by recalibrating risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as unused credit card lines of credit) and provide a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the proposed framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing-in through January 1, 2027. Under the current capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced approaches institutions, and not to the Company. The impact of Basel IV on the Company and the Bank will depend on the manner in which the standards are implemented by the federal bank regulatory agencies.

As directed by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (the “Economic Growth Act”), on November 4, 2019, the FDIC, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Federal Reserve jointly issued a final rule that permits qualifying banks that have less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets to elect to be subject to a 9% “community bank leverage ratio.” Under this rule, which became effective January 1, 2020, a qualifying bank that has chosen the proposed framework would not be required to calculate the existing risk-based and leverage capital requirements and would be considered to have met the capital ratio requirements to be “well capitalized” under prompt corrective action rules provided it has a community bank leverage ratio greater than 9%. The Bank qualifies for this election and has not yet determined if it will make such election.

Deposit Insurance. The deposits of the Bank are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) of the FDIC. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, a permanent increase in deposit insurance was authorized to $250,000 per depositor, per insured depository institution, for each account ownership category.

The Bank is subject to deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF. Deposit insurance pricing is based on CAMELS composite ratings and certain other financial ratios to determine assessment rates for small-established institutions with less than $10 billion in assets. The CAMELS rating system is a supervisory rating system designed to take into account and reflect all financial and operational risks that a bank may face, including capital adequacy, asset quality, management capability, earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk (“CAMELS”). CAMELS composite ratings set a maximum insurance assessment for CAMELS 1 and 2 rated banks and set minimum assessments for lower rated institutions.

In March 2016, the FDIC implemented by final rule certain Dodd-Frank Act provisions by raising the DIF’s minimum reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35%. The FDIC imposed a 4.5 basis point annual surcharge on insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more. The rule granted credits to smaller banks for the portion of their regular assessments that contributed to increasing the reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35%. The reserve ratio reached 1.35% during the third quarter of 2018, and during 2019, the Bank received $226 thousand of credits. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company recorded expense of $483 thousand and $719 thousand, respectively, for FDIC insurance premiums.

All FDIC insured institutions were required to pay assessments to the FDIC at an annual rate of approximately one basis point of insured deposits to fund interest payments on bonds issued by the Financing Corporation, an agency of the federal government established to recapitalize the predecessor to the Savings Association Insurance Fund. These assessments ceased during 2019 due to the maturity of the bonds in 2019.

Transactions with Affiliates. Pursuant to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation W, the authority of the Bank to engage in transactions with related parties or “affiliates” or to make loans to insiders is limited. Loan transactions with an affiliate generally must be collateralized and certain transactions between the Bank and its affiliates, including the sale of assets or the provision of services, must be on terms and conditions that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those prevailing for comparable nonaffiliated transactions. In addition, the Bank generally may not purchase securities issued or underwritten by affiliates.

Loans to executive officers, directors, or to any person who directly or indirectly, or acting through or in concert with one or more persons, owns, controls, or has the power to vote more than 10% of any class of voting securities of a bank (“10% Shareholders”) are subject to Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act and their corresponding regulations (Regulation O) and Section 13(k) of the Exchange Act, relating to the prohibition on personal loans to executives (which exempts financial institutions in compliance with the insider lending restrictions of Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act). Among other things, these loans must be made on terms substantially


the same as those prevailing on transactions made to unaffiliated individuals, and certain extensions of credit to those persons must first be approved in advance by a disinterested majority of the entire board of directors. Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act prohibits loans to any of those individuals where the aggregate amount exceeds an amount equal to 15% of an institution’s unimpaired capital and surplus plus an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and surplus in the case of loans that are fully secured by readily marketable collateral, or when the aggregate amount on all of the extensions of credit outstanding to all of these persons would exceed the bank’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Section 22(g) of the Federal Reserve Act identifies limited circumstances in which a bank is permitted to extend credit to executive officers.

Prompt Corrective Action. Federal banking regulators are authorized and, under certain circumstances, required to take certain actions against banks that fail to meet their capital requirements. The federal bank regulatory agencies have additional enforcement authority with respect to undercapitalized depository institutions. The final rules to implement the Basel III regulatory capital framework also incorporated new requirements into the prompt corrective action framework. Under the prompt corrective action requirements, insured depository institutions are required to meet the capital level requirements, referenced above in “capital requirements”, in order to qualify as “well capitalized”. “Well capitalized” institutions may generally operate without additional supervisory restriction. With respect to “adequately capitalized” institutions, such banks cannot normally pay dividends or make any capital contributions that would leave it undercapitalized; they cannot pay a management fee to a controlling person, if after paying the fee, it would be undercapitalized, and they cannot accept, renew, or rollover any brokered deposit unless the bank has applied for and been granted a waiver by the FDIC.

Immediately upon becoming “undercapitalized,” a depository institution becomes subject to the provisions of Section 38 of the FDIA, which: (i) restrict payment of capital distributions and management fees; (ii) require that the appropriate federal banking agency monitor the condition of the institution and its efforts to restore its capital; (iii) require submission of a capital restoration plan; (iv) restrict the growth of the institution’s assets; and (v) require prior approval of certain expansion proposals. The appropriate federal banking agency for an undercapitalized institution also may take any number of discretionary supervisory actions if the agency determines that any of these actions is necessary to resolve the problems of the institution at the least possible long-term cost to the DIF, subject in certain cases to specified procedures. These discretionary supervisory actions include: (i) requiring the institution to raise additional capital; (ii) restricting transactions with affiliates; (iii) requiring divestiture of the institution or the sale of the institution to a willing purchaser; and (iv) any other supervisory action that the agency deems appropriate. These and additional mandatory and permissive supervisory actions may be taken with respect to significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized institutions. The Bank met the definition of being “well capitalized” as of December 31, 2019 and 2018.

Community Reinvestment Act. The Bank is subject to the requirements of the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (“CRA”). The CRA imposes on financial institutions an affirmative and ongoing obligation to meet the credit needs of the local communities they serve, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The CRA requires the appropriate federal banking agency, in connection with its examination of a bank, to assess the bank’s record in meeting such credit needs. Furthermore, such assessment is also required of banks that have applied, among other things, to merge or consolidate with or acquire the assets or assume the liabilities of an insured depository institution, or to open or relocate a branch. In the case of a bank holding company applying for approval to acquire a bank or another bank holding company, the record of each subsidiary bank of the applicant bank holding company is subject to assessment in considering the application. Under the CRA, institutions are assigned a rating of “outstanding,” “satisfactory,” “needs to improve,” or “substantial non-compliance.” The Bank received a “satisfactory” CRA rating in its most recent examination.

Privacy Legislation. Several laws, including the Right to Financial Privacy Act, and related regulations issued by the federal bank regulatory agencies, provide protections against the transfer and use of customer information by financial institutions. A financial institution must provide its customers information regarding its policies and procedures with respect to the handling of customers’ personal information. Each institution must conduct an internal risk assessment of its ability to protect customer information. These privacy provisions generally prohibit a financial institution from providing a customer’s personal financial information to unaffiliated parties without prior notice to and approval from the customer.


Bank Secrecy Act. The Bank Secrecy Act (“BSA”), which is intended to require financial institutions to develop policies, procedures, and practices to prevent and deter money laundering, mandates that every bank have a written, board-approved program that is reasonably designed to assure and monitor compliance with the BSA. The program must, at a minimum: (i) provide for a system of internal controls to assure ongoing compliance; (ii) provide for independent testing for compliance; (iii) designate an individual responsible for coordinating and monitoring day-to-day compliance; and (iv) provide training for appropriate personnel. In addition, banks are required to adopt a customer identification program as part of its BSA compliance program. Financial institutions are generally required to report cash transactions involving more than $10,000 to the U.S. Treasury Department. In addition, financial institutions are required to file suspicious activity reports for transactions that involve more than $5,000 and which the financial institution knows, suspects, or has reason to suspect involves illegal funds, is designed to evade the requirements of the BSA or has no lawful purpose. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, enacted in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, requires bank regulators to consider a financial institution’s compliance with the BSA when reviewing applications from a financial institution. In May 2016, the regulations implementing the BSA were amended to explicitly include risk-based procedures for conducting ongoing customer due diligence, to include understanding the nature and purpose of customer relationships for the purpose of developing a customer risk profile. In addition, banks must identify and verify the identity of the beneficial owners of all legal entity customers (other than those that are excluded) at the time a new account is opened (other than accounts that are exempted). The Bank was required to comply with these amendments and new requirements beginning May 11, 2018.

Office of Foreign Assets Control. The U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) is responsible for administering and enforcing economic and trade sanctions against specified foreign parties, including countries and regimes, foreign individuals, and other foreign organizations and entities. OFAC publishes lists of prohibited parties that must be regularly consulted by the banks in the conduct of their business in order to assure compliance. The Bank is responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, prohibited parties identified by OFAC, avoiding unlicensed trade and financial transactions with such parties and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with OFAC requirements could have serious legal, financial, and reputational consequences for the Bank.

Consumer Financial Protection. The Bank is subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws that extensively govern its relationship with its customers. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act, laws governing flood insurance, federal and state laws prohibiting unfair and deceptive business practices, foreclosure laws, and various regulations that implement some or all of the foregoing. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits, making loans, collecting loans, and providing other services. If the Bank fails to comply with these laws and regulations, it may be subject to various penalties. Failure to comply with consumer protection requirements may also result in failure to obtain any required bank regulatory approval for merger or acquisition transactions the Bank may wish to pursue or being prohibited from engaging in such transactions even if approval is not required.

The Dodd-Frank Act centralized responsibility for consumer financial protection by creating a new agency, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”), and giving it responsibility for implementing, examining, and enforcing compliance with federal consumer protection laws. The CFPB focuses on (i) risks to consumers and compliance with the federal consumer financial laws, (ii) the markets in which firms operate and risks to consumers posed by activities in those markets, (iii) depository institutions that offer a wide variety of consumer financial products and services, and (iv) non-depository companies that offer one or more consumer financial products or services. The CFPB is responsible for implementing, examining, and enforcing compliance with federal consumer financial laws for institutions with more than $10 billion of assets. While the Bank, like all banks, is subject to federal consumer protection rules enacted by the CFPB, because the Company and the Bank have total consolidated assets of $10 billion or less, the Federal Reserve oversees most consumer protection aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act and other laws and regulations applicable to the Bank.


The CFPB has broad rulemaking authority for a wide range of consumer financial laws that apply to all banks, including, among other things, the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive” acts and practices. Abusive acts or practices are defined as those that materially interfere with a consumer’s ability to understand a term or condition of a consumer financial product or service or take unreasonable advantage of a consumer’s (i) lack of financial savvy, (ii) inability to protect himself in the selection or use of consumer financial products or services, or (iii) reasonable reliance on a covered entity to act in the consumer’s interests. The CFPB can issue cease-and-desist orders against banks and other entities that violate consumer financial laws. The CFPB may also institute a civil action against an entity in violation of federal consumer financial law in order to impose a civil penalty or injunction. Further regulatory positions taken by the CFPB may influence how other regulatory agencies may apply the subject consumer financial protection laws and regulations.

Cybersecurity. In March 2015, federal regulators issued two related statements regarding cybersecurity. One statement indicates that financial institutions should design multiple layers of security controls to establish lines of defense and to ensure that their risk management processes also address the risk posed by compromised customer credentials, including security measures to reliably authenticate customers accessing Internet-based services of the financial institution. The other statement indicates that a financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient business continuity planning processes to ensure the rapid recovery, resumption, and maintenance of the institution’s operations after a cyber-attack involving destructive malware. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations and address rebuilding network capabilities and restoring data if the institution or its critical service providers fall victim to this type of cyber-attack. If the Company or the Bank fails to observe the regulatory guidance, it could be subject to various regulatory sanctions, including financial penalties. To date, neither the Company nor the Bank has experienced a significant compromise, significant data loss, or material financial losses related to cybersecurity attacks, but its systems and those of its customers and third-party service providers are under constant threat, and it is possible that the Company or the Bank could experience a significant event in the future. Risks and exposures related to cybersecurity attacks are expected to remain high for the foreseeable future due to the rapidly evolving nature and sophistication of these threats, as well as due to the expanding use of Internet banking, mobile banking, and other technology-based products and services by the Company and the Bank and its customers.

Incentive Compensation. In June 2010, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of financial institutions do not undermine the safety and soundness of such institutions by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The Interagency Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of financial institutions, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a financial institution’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that do not encourage risk-taking beyond the institution’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management, and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the financial institution’s board of directors.

The Federal Reserve will review, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of financial institutions, such as the Company and the Bank, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews will be tailored to each financial institution based on the scope and complexity of the institution’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives will be included in reports of examination. Deficiencies will be incorporated into the institution’s supervisory ratings, which can affect the institution’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a financial institution if its incentive compensation arrangements or related risk-management control or governance processes pose a risk to the institution’s safety and soundness, and the financial institution is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies. At December 31, 2019, the Company and the Bank have not been made aware of any instances of noncompliance with this guidance.

Regulatory Reform

In May 2018, the Economic Growth Act was enacted to modify or remove certain regulatory financial reform rules and regulations, including some of those implemented under the Dodd-Frank Act. While the Economic Growth Act maintains most of the regulatory structure established by the Dodd-Frank Act, it amends certain aspects of the regulatory framework for small depository institutions with assets of less than $10 billion, such as the Bank, and for


large banks with assets of more than $50 billion. Among other matters, the Economic Growth Act expands the definition of qualified mortgages, which may be held by a financial institution with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, exempts community banks from the Volcker Rule, and includes additional regulatory relief regarding regulatory examination cycles, call reports, mortgage disclosures and risk weights for certain high-risk commercial real estate loans.


In addition, the Economic Growth Act simplifies the regulatory capital rules for financial institutions and their holding companies with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, as discussed under “The Bank—Capital Requirements.”  


Effect of Governmental Monetary Policies

The Company’s operations are affected not only by general economic conditions but also by the policies of various regulatory authorities. In particular, the Federal Reserve regulates money and credit conditions and interest rates to influence general economic conditions. These policies have a significant effect on overall growth and distribution of loans, investments, and deposits, and they affect interest rates charged on loans or paid for deposits. Federal Reserve monetary policies have had significant effects on the operating results of commercial banks, including the Bank, in the past and are expected to do so in the future. New appointments to the Federal Reserve could affect monetary policy and interest rates, and changes in fiscal policy could affect broader patterns of trade and economic growth.

Future Legislation and Regulation

Congress may enact legislation from time to time that affects the regulation of the financial services industry, and state legislatures may enact legislation from time to time affecting the regulation of financial institutions chartered by or operating in those states. Federal and state regulatory agencies also periodically propose and adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. The substance or effect of pending or future legislation or regulation, or the application thereof, cannot be predicted, although enactment of the proposed legislation could affect the regulatory structure under which the Company and the Bank operate and may significantly increase costs, impede the efficiency of internal business processes, require an increase in regulatory capital, require modifications to business strategies, and limit the ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner. A change in statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies applicable to the Company or the Bank could have a material, adverse effect on the business, financial condition, and results of operations of the Company and the Bank.

Reporting Obligations under Securities Laws

The Company is subject to the periodic and other reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, including the filing of annual, quarterly, and other reports with the SEC. The Company provides access to its SEC filings through the “Regulatory Filings” section of the Company’s website at The Company’s SEC filings are posted and available at no cost on its website as soon as reasonably practicable after the reports are filed electronically with the SEC. The information on the Company’s website is not incorporated into this report or any other filing the Company makes with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at


At December 31, 2019, the Company employed approximately 172 people, resulting in 170 full-time equivalent employees.



An investment in the Company’s common stock involves certain risks, including those described below. In addition to the other information set forth in this Form 10-K, investors in the Company’s securities should carefully consider the factors discussed below. These factors, either alone or taken together, could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, capital position, and prospects. If one or more of these risks materialize, the Company’s actual results could differ materially from its historical results or the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this report, in which case the trading price of the Company’s securities could decline. Unless otherwise indicated or as the context requires, all references in this Item to “we,” “us” and “our” refer to the Company and its subsidiaries as a combined entity.

We may have difficulty managing our growth in our target markets due to competition and our previous limited operations in these markets.

Our primary market area prior to the Merger with Virginia BanCorp was the Northern Neck and Middle Peninsula areas of Virginia and, to a lesser extent, the greater Richmond area of central Virginia. Virginia BanCorp’s primary market area was the Tri-Cities area of Virginia (Petersburg, Hopewell, and Colonial Heights) and, to a lesser extent, the greater Richmond area. In 2018, we opened banking offices in Virginia Beach to serve the Hampton Roads region of eastern Virginia. Our future success is highly dependent on our ability to profitably operate in the greater Richmond and Hampton Roads markets, which are both relatively new markets for us.

The banking business in our markets is extremely competitive, and the level of competition may increase further. Although we have hired a number of lending and business development officers with experience in the greater Richmond and Hampton Roads markets, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully compete in these markets in a sustainable manner, and there may be unexpected challenges and difficulties that could adversely affect our operations.

Changes in economic and market conditions, especially in the areas in which we conduct operations, could materially and negatively affect our business.

Our business is directly impacted by economic and market conditions, legislative and regulatory changes, and changes in government monetary and fiscal policies, all of which are beyond our control. A deterioration in economic conditions, whether caused by global, national, or local concerns, especially within our target markets, could result in the following potentially material consequences: increasing loan delinquencies and/or losses; increasing levels of problem assets and foreclosures; decreasing demand for products and services; decreasing low-cost or noninterest- bearing deposits; and declining values of collateral for loans, especially real estate. Changes in economic and market conditions could reduce our current and future customers’ borrowing power, confidence in financial markets, and ability to pay us. An economic downturn could result in losses that materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of our operations.

Income from our trust and wealth management subsidiary is a major source of noninterest income for us. Trust and investment services fee revenue is largely dependent on the fair market value of assets under management and on trading volumes of managed portfolios. General economic conditions and their subsequent effect on the securities markets tend to act in correlation. If general economic conditions deteriorate, securities markets generally decline in value, and our trust and wealth management service revenues could be adversely affected as asset values and trading volumes decrease.

We may be adversely affected by changes in market conditions.

We are directly and indirectly affected by changes in market conditions. Market risk generally represents the risk that values of assets and liabilities or revenues will be adversely affected by changes in market conditions. As a financial institution, market risk is inherent in the financial instruments associated with our operations and activities, including loans, deposits, securities, short-term and long-term borrowings, and other assets and liabilities. A few of the market conditions that may shift from time to time, thereby exposing us to market risk, include: fluctuations in interest rates, equity and futures prices, and price deterioration or changes in value due to changes in market perception or credit quality of issuers. Our investment securities portfolio, in particular, may be impacted by market conditions beyond our control, including changes in interest rates, rating agency downgrades of the securities, defaults of the issuers of the securities, lack of market pricing of the securities, and inactivity or instability in the


credit markets. Any changes in these conditions or in current accounting principles or interpretations of these principles could affect our assessment of fair value and thus the determination of other-than-temporary impairment of the securities in the investment securities portfolio.

We have a high concentration of loans secured by real estate, and a downturn in real estate markets in which we conduct business could materially and negatively affect our business.

We offer a variety of secured loans, including commercial lines of credit, commercial term loans, commercial and consumer real estate and construction loans, home equity lines of credit, consumer loans, and other loans. Many of these loans are secured by real estate (both residential and commercial) located in our market areas. As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $924.5 million in total loans, of which approximately $730.8 million, or 79%, were secured by real estate. A significant change in the real estate market, such as deterioration in the value of the underlying collateral for these loans or in the local or national economy, could adversely affect our customers’ ability to pay these loans, which in turn could adversely affect us. If there were a decline in real estate values, especially in our markets, the collateral for our loans would deteriorate and provide significantly less security. The ability to recover on defaulted loans by selling the real estate collateral could then be diminished, and we would be more likely to suffer losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We have a significant concentration of credit exposure in commercial real estate, and loans with this type of collateral are viewed as having more risk of default.

As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $279.0 million in loans secured by commercial real estate, representing approximately 30% of total loans outstanding as of at that date. A portion of the real estate consists of non-owner-operated properties and other commercial properties. These types of loans are generally viewed as having more risk of default than residential or owner-occupied commercial real estate loans. They are also typically larger than residential real estate loans and consumer loans and depend on cash flows from the property to service the debt. It may be more difficult for commercial real estate borrowers to repay their loans in a timely manner, as commercial real estate borrowers’ abilities to repay their loans frequently depend on the successful development and management of properties. Cash flows may be affected significantly by general economic conditions, and a downturn in the local economy or in occupancy rates in the local economy where the property is located could increase the likelihood of default. Because our loan portfolio contains a number of commercial real estate loans with relatively large balances, the deterioration of one or a few of these loans could cause a significant increase in our percentage of nonperforming loans. An increase in nonperforming loans could result in losses from these loans, either from an increase in the provision for loan losses or an increase in charge-offs, both of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our banking regulators generally give commercial real estate lending greater scrutiny, and may require banks with higher levels of commercial real estate loans to implement heightened underwriting standards, internal controls, risk management policies, and portfolio stress testing, as well as possibly higher levels of allowances for loan losses and capital levels as a result of commercial real estate lending growth and exposures, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

A portion of our loan portfolio consists of construction and development loans, which are inherently higher risk.  Our ability to evaluate these loans or our borrower’s ability to effectively manage these projects could have an adverse effect on our business.

At December 31, 2019, approximately $126.0 million, or 13.6%, of our loan portfolio consisted of construction and development loans. Construction financing typically involves a higher degree of credit risk than financing improved real estate. Risk of loss on a construction loan is largely dependent upon the accuracy of the initial estimate of the property’s value at completion of construction, the marketability of the property, and the bid price and estimated cost (including interest) of construction. If the estimate of construction costs proves to be inaccurate, we may be required to advance funds beyond the amount originally committed to allow for the completion of the project. If the estimate of the value proves to be inaccurate, we may be confronted, at or prior to the maturity of the loan, with real estate collateral whose value is insufficient to assure full repayment. When lending to builders, the cost of construction breakdown is provided by the builder, as well as supported by the appraisal. Although our underwriting criteria is designed to evaluate and minimize the risks of each construction loan and advances are dependent on construction activity, there can be no guarantee that these practices will have safeguarded us against material delinquencies and losses. In addition, construction and land development loans are dependent on the successful


completion of the projects they finance. Loans on vacant or unimproved land is generally held by the borrower for investment purposes or future use; therefore, payments on loans secured by vacant or unimproved land will typically rank lower in priority to the borrower than a loan the borrower may have on their primary residence or business. These loans are more susceptible to adverse conditions in the real estate market and local economy.

Due to greater risk inherent in construction financing, we could suffer greater losses, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

A portion of our loan portfolio consists of purchased loans and participations, which may have a higher risk of loss than loans we originate.

As of December 31, 2019, our loan portfolio included $109.1 million of purchased wholesale loans and $58.3 million of loan participations. Our purchased loan portfolios include, among other things, unsecured consumer loans and loans secured by real estate both within and outside of our target markets.

In the Merger, we acquired a pool of consumer unsecured loans, which totaled $19.9 million at the time of the Merger. Subsequent to the Merger and during 2017, we purchased an additional $17.4 million of these consumer loan pools. As of December 31, 2019, we held $6.6 million of these consumer loans. These consumer loans generally experience elevated rates of charge-offs, and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had net charge-offs of $1.1 million, related to these purchased consumer loan portfolios. Although we believe we have an appropriate level of reserves in our allowance for loan losses for these loans as of December 31, 2019, the loans could perform worse than we anticipated at the time we determined our allowance for loan losses, and we could be adversely affected.

We have historically underwritten loan purchases and participations consistent with our general underwriting criteria; however, loan purchases and participations may have a higher risk of loss than loans we originate. In the case of purchased loans, we may not have a relationship or access to the borrower, and with respect to secured loans, the property securing the loans may not be located in our target markets. Additionally, even though we underwrite loan purchases and participations consistent with our underwriting practices, these loans may be types of loans or in sectors, in which we generally do not lend. Any of these factors could cause us to experience a higher level of losses compared to loans that we originate.

In addition, purchased loan portfolios include loans that we have purchased from online, or marketplace lenders, including the pool of consumer loans discussed above. The FDIC has published guidance related to the operation of banks’ business relationship with marketplace lenders and other third parties in which banks are required to exercise increased oversight and ongoing monitoring and other responsibility for such third parties’ compliance with applicable regulatory guidance and requirements. As a result, we are subject to enhanced responsibility for and risk related to the business that we do with these marketplace lenders.

With respect to loan participations in which we are not the lead lender, we rely in part on the lead lender to monitor the performance of the loan. Moreover, our decision regarding the classification of a loan participation and loan loss provisions associated with a loan participation is made in part based upon information provided by the lead lender. A lead lender also may not monitor a participation loan in the same manner as we would for loans that we originate. If our underwriting or monitoring of these participation loans is not sufficient, our nonperforming loans may increase and our loan losses may increase, which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our focus on lending to small to mid-sized businesses may increase our credit risk.

Most of our commercial  and commercial real estate loans are made to small or middle-market customers. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities and have a heightened vulnerability to economic conditions. If general economic conditions in the market areas in which we operate negatively affect this important customer sector, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. Moreover, portions of these loans have been made by us in recent years and the borrowers may not have experienced a complete business or economic cycle. The deterioration of our borrowers’ businesses may hinder their ability to repay their loans with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.



Our credit standards and on-going credit assessment processes might not protect us from significant credit losses.

We take credit risk by virtue of making loans and extending loan commitments and letters of credit. We manage credit risk through a program of underwriting standards, the review of certain credit decisions, and an ongoing  assessment of the quality of the credit already extended. In addition, our credit administration function employs risk management techniques intended to promptly identify problem loans. While these procedures are designed to provide us with the information needed to implement policy adjustments where necessary and to take appropriate corrective actions, there can be no assurance that such measures will be effective in avoiding future undue credit risk and credit losses may occur or increase in the future, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about customers and counterparties and our financial condition could be adversely affected if we rely on misleading information.

In deciding whether to extend credit or to enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished to us by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements and other financial information, which we do not independently verify. We also may rely on representations of customers and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. For example, in deciding whether to extend credit to customers, we may assume that a customer’s audited financial statements conform with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows of that customer. Our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively affected to the extent we rely on financial statements that do not comply with GAAP or other information that is not materially accurate or is misleading.

Our allowance for loan losses may not be adequate to cover actual losses, which could materially and adversely affect our operating results.

We maintain an allowance for loan losses that we believe is appropriate to provide for any potential losses in our loan portfolio. The amount of this allowance is determined by management through a periodic review and consideration of several factors, including, not limited to: (i) the quality, size, performance, and diversity of our loan portfolio; (ii) the evaluation of nonperforming loans; (iii) historical loan loss experience; and (iv) the amount and quality of collateral, including guarantees, securing the loans.

The amount of future loan losses will be influenced by changes in economic, operating, and other conditions, including changes in interest rates, which may be beyond our control. As a result, these losses may exceed current estimates. Although we believe the allowance for loan losses is a reasonable estimate of known and inherent losses in the loan portfolio, we cannot precisely predict such losses or be certain that our allowance for loan losses will be adequate in the future. While the risk of nonpayment is inherent in banking, we could experience greater nonpayment levels than we anticipate. Further deterioration in the quality of our loan portfolio could cause our interest income to decrease and our provision for loan losses to increase further, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, federal and state regulators periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses or recognize further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. Any increase in the amount of the allowance for loan losses or loans charged-off as required by these regulatory agencies could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We rely upon independent appraisals to determine the value of the real estate that secures a significant portion of our loans, and the values indicated by such appraisals may not be realizable if we are forced to foreclose upon such loans.

A significant portion of our loan portfolio consists of loans secured by real estate. We rely upon independent appraisers to estimate the value of such real estate. Appraisals are only estimates of value and the independent appraisers may make mistakes of fact or judgment that adversely affects the reliability of their appraisals. In addition, events occurring after the initial appraisal may cause the value of the real estate to increase or decrease. As a result of any of these factors, the real estate securing some of our loans may be more or less valuable than anticipated at the time the loans were made. If a default occurs on a loan secured by real estate that is less valuable


than originally estimated, we may not be able to recover the outstanding balance of the loan and would suffer a loss, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Nonperforming assets take significant time to resolve and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our nonperforming assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. Our nonperforming assets, which include loans past due 90 days or more and still accruing interest, nonaccrual loans, and other real estate owned (“OREO”), were $6.4 million, or 0.56% of total assets, as of December 31, 2019. Loans acquired in the Merger that were deemed purchased credit-impaired loans are not reported as nonperforming loans. We do not record interest income on nonaccrual loans, which adversely affects our income. Our nonaccrual loans totaled $4.5 million as of December 31, 2019.

When we receive collateral through foreclosures and similar proceedings, we are required to mark the related assets to the then fair market value of the collateral less estimated selling costs, which may result in a loss. The resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant commitments of time from management and staff, which can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities, including generation of new loans. Additionally, the resolution of problem loans and the holding of OREO requires us to incur legal and/or carrying costs, such as insurance and taxes.

An increased level of nonperforming assets increases our risk profile and may affect the capital levels regulators believe are appropriate in light of such risks. We utilize various techniques such as workouts, restructurings, and loan sales to manage problem assets. Negative adjustments in the value of these problem assets, the underlying collateral, or in the borrowers’ performance or financial condition could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. There can be no assurance that we will avoid increases in nonperforming loans in the future.

The amount of our OREO may increase, resulting in additional OREO-related losses, and costs and expenses that will negatively affect our operations.

It is possible that the balance of OREO could increase in future years. Our level of OREO is affected by, among other things, the deterioration of the residential and commercial real estate markets and the tightening of the credit market. As the amount of OREO increases, both our losses and the costs to maintain and hold that real estate generally increase. Any additional increase in losses, maintenance, and holding costs due to OREO may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Such effects may be particularly pronounced during times of reduced real estate values and excess inventory, which may make the disposition of OREO properties more difficult and reduce our ultimate realization from any OREO sales. In addition, we are required to reflect the fair market value of our OREO in our financial statements. If OREO declines in value, we are required to recognize a loss in connection with continuing to hold the property. As a result, declines in the value of our OREO have a negative effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to properties to which we take title.

In the course of our business, we may foreclose and take title to real estate potentially becoming subject to environmental liabilities associated with the properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation, and clean-up costs, or we may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. Costs associated with investigation or remediation activities can be substantial. If we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. These costs and claims could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is subject to interest rate risk and variations in interest rates may negatively affect financial performance.

Changes in the interest rate environment may reduce our profits. We earn profits from the differential or “spread” between the interest earned on loans, securities, and other interest-earning assets, and interest paid on deposits, borrowings, and other interest-bearing liabilities. Net interest spreads are affected by the difference between the maturities and repricing characteristics of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. In addition, loan volume and yields are affected by market interest rates on loans, and rising interest rates generally are associated


with a lower volume of loan originations. Management cannot ensure that it can minimize our interest rate risk. While an increase in the general level of interest rates may increase our loan yields and net interest spread, it may adversely affect our cost of funds and the ability of certain borrowers with variable rate loans to pay the interest and principal of their obligations to us. Accordingly, changes in levels of market interest rates could materially and adversely affect our net interest spread, asset quality, loan origination volume, and our overall profitability.

We may be required to transition from the use of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) index in the future.

We have certain variable-rate loans, borrowings, and other financial instruments indexed to LIBOR to calculate the loan interest rate. The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, has announced that the continued availability of the LIBOR on the current basis is not guaranteed after 2021. It is not possible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the administrator of LIBOR or whether any additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. At this time, no consensus exists as to what rate or rates may become acceptable alternatives to LIBOR, and it is impossible to predict the effect of any such alternatives on the value of LIBOR-based variable-rate loans, as well as LIBOR-based securities, subordinated notes, trust preferred securities, or other securities or financial arrangements. The implementation of a substitute index or indices for the calculation of interest rates under our loan agreements with borrowers, subordinated debt, or other financial arrangements may change our market risk profiles, interest spread, and pricing models, and cause us to incur significant expenses in effecting the transition, may result in reduced loan balances if borrowers do not accept the substitute index or indices, and may result in disputes or litigation with customers or other counter-parties over the appropriateness or comparability to LIBOR of the substitute index or indices, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and jeopardize our business and financial condition.

Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities on terms that are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically, or the financial services industry or economy in general. Factors that could negatively affect our access to liquidity sources include, but are not limited to, a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of an economic downturn in the markets we serve, a disruption in the financial markets, negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry, adverse regulatory action against us, and our inability to attract and retain deposits, which is critical to maintaining and growing our business. Although, we believe we have adequate liquidity and access to liquidity sources as of December 31, 2019, there can be no guarantee this liquidity will be available to us in future periods.

We may not be able to raise capital at an acceptable price.

Maintaining appropriate capital levels is essential for the operation and growth of our business. In the future, we may need additional capital to support our business; however, we may not be able to raise additional capital when needed through the issuance of shares of our common stock, other equity or equity-related securities, or debt securities. Furthermore, even if we are able to raise additional capital when it is needed, it may be at a price that is dilutive to current shareholders in the case of equity securities, or at rates that substantially increase our borrowing costs in the case of debt securities.

Our common stock has less liquidity than stocks of larger publicly traded companies.

Our common stock is currently quoted on the OTC market. Companies that are quoted on the OTC generally experience lower trading volume than companies that trade on larger, more active exchanges. Consequently, shareholders may not be able to sell a substantial number of shares without an adverse effect on the share price. There is no assurance that a more active market for our shares will exist in the future. We cannot predict the effect, if any, of future sales of common stock or the availability of common stock will have on the market price of our common stock. Sales of substantial common shares in the market, or potential sales, particular sales by Company insiders, could cause the price of our common stock to decline.


We are dependent on key personnel and the loss of one or more of those key personnel may materially and adversely affect our operations.

We are a relationship-driven organization and currently depend heavily on the services of a number of key management personnel. These senior officers have primary contact with our customers and are extremely important in maintaining relationships with our customer base, which is a key aspect of our business strategy. Additionally, our business relies heavily on certain key executive officers. The Company maintains succession plans for key management positions; however, the loss of key executives could adversely affect the Company’s business or the perception of its business until such time successors have successfully filled roles. The unexpected loss of key personnel could have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations.

The success of our strategy depends on our ability to identify and retain individuals with experience and relationships in our markets.

In implementing our strategy, we must identify and retain experienced key management members. We expect that competition for qualified personnel will be intense and that there will be a limited number of qualified persons with knowledge of and experience in the community banking industry in our target markets. Even if we identify individuals that we believe could assist in building our franchise, we may be unable to recruit these individuals. In addition, the process of identifying and recruiting individuals with the combination of skills and attributes required to carry out our strategy is often lengthy and costly. Our inability to identify, recruit, and retain talented personnel could limit our growth and could adversely affect our business.

We face strong competition from financial services companies and other companies that offer banking and other financial services, which could negatively affect our business.

We encounter substantial competition from other financial institutions located in and outside our market areas. Ultimately, we may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors. Competitors, which offer similar banking services that we offer, include national, regional, and community banks, including banks that offer products and services solely via the Internet. We also face competition from many other types of financial institutions, including finance companies, mutual and money market fund providers, brokerage firms, insurance companies, credit unions, financial subsidiaries of certain industrial corporations and mortgage companies, as well as less traditional sources such as marketplace lenders and financial technology firms. Increased competition may result in reduced business for us.

Additionally, banks and other financial institutions with larger capitalization have larger lending limits and are thereby able to serve the credit needs of larger customers. Many of these institutions also have greater resources than us to invest and develop products to attract and retain customers. Many of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same regulations that govern us and may be able to offer more attractive pricing. Areas of competition include interest rates offered for loans and deposits, terms offered for loans and deposits, and the range and quality of products and services provided, including new technology-driven products and services. If we are unable to attract and retain banking customers, we may be unable to continue to grow loans and deposits, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Consumers may decide not to use banks to complete their financial transactions.

Technology and other changes are allowing parties to complete financial transactions through alternative methods that historically have involved banks. The activity and prominence of so-called marketplace lenders and other technological financial service companies have grown significantly over recent years and are expected to continue to grow. In addition, consumers can now maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts, mutual funds, digital wallets, or general-purpose reloadable prepaid cards. Consumers can also complete transactions, such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. If we are unable to address the competitive pressures that we face from disintermediaries, we could lose market share, which could result in reduced profitability. The loss of these revenue sources and the higher cost of deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


Our ability to operate profitably may be dependent on our ability to implement various technologies into our operations.

The market for financial services, including banking and consumer finance services, is increasingly affected by advances in technology, including developments in telecommunications, data processing, computers, automation, online banking, mobile banking, and tele-banking. Industry-changing, technology-driven products and services are often introduced and adopted, including innovative ways that customers can make payments, access products, and manage accounts. Our ability to compete successfully in our market may depend on the extent to which we are able to adopt such technological changes and address the needs of our customers. We could be required to make substantial expenditures to modify or adapt existing products and services, or develop new products and services, which can entail significant time, resources, and additional risk, and which ultimately may not be successful. If we are not able to adequately invest in such technologies, or properly or timely anticipate or implement such technologies, our business could be adversely affected.

Our exposure to operational, technological, and organizational risk may adversely affect us.

We are exposed to many types of operational risks, including reputational, legal, and compliance risk, the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders, unauthorized transactions by employees or operational errors, clerical or record-keeping errors, and errors resulting from faulty or inadequate computer or telecommunications systems.

Reputational risk, or the risk to our earnings and capital from negative public opinion, could result from our actual or alleged conduct in any number of activities, including lending practices, corporate governance, regulatory compliance, the occurrence of any of the events or instances mentioned below, or from actions taken by government regulators or community organizations in response to that conduct. Negative public opinion could also result from adverse news or publicity that impairs the reputation of the financial services industry in general.

Further, if any of our financial, accounting, or other data processing systems fail or have other significant shortcomings, we could be adversely affected. We depend on internal systems and outsourced technology to support these data storage and processing operations. Our inability to use or access these information systems at critical points in time could unfavorably affect the timeliness and efficiency of our business operations. We could be adversely affected if one of our employees causes a significant operational break-down or failure, either as a result of human error or where an individual purposefully sabotages or fraudulently manipulates our operations or systems. We are also at risk of the impact of natural disasters, terrorism, breaches, and international hostilities on our systems or for the effects of outages or other failures involving power or communications systems operated by others. Certain errors may be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and successfully rectified. Our necessary dependence upon automated systems to record and process transactions may further increase the risk that technical system flaws or employee tampering or manipulation of those systems will result in losses that are difficult to detect. Disruptions of our operating systems arising from events wholly or partially beyond our control (for example, computer viruses or electrical or telecommunications outages) may give rise to disruption of service to customers and to financial loss or liability. We are further exposed to the risk that our external vendors may be unable to fulfill their contractual obligations (or will be subject to the same risk of fraud or operational errors by their respective employees as are we) and to the risk that our (or our vendors’) business continuity and data security systems prove to be inadequate. In addition, there have been instances where financial institutions have been victims of fraudulent activity in which criminals pose as customers or employees to initiate wire and automated clearinghouse transactions out of customer accounts. Although we have policies and procedures in place to verify the authenticity of our customers or employees, we cannot assure that such policies and procedures will prevent all fraudulent transfers. Such activity can result in financial liability and harm to our reputation.

If any of the foregoing risks materialize, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.


We rely on other companies to provide key components of our business infrastructure.

Third parties provide key components of our business operations such as data processing, recording, and monitoring transactions, online banking interfaces and services, internet connections, and network access. While we have selected these third-party vendors carefully and have agreements that provide us some protection, we do not control their actions. Any problem caused by these third parties, including poor performance of services, failure to provide services, disruptions in communication services provided by a vendor, and failure to handle current or higher volumes could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to our customers and otherwise conduct our business. Financial or operational difficulties of a third-party vendor could also negatively affect our operations. Replacing these third-party vendors could create significant delay and greater expense. Accordingly, use of such third parties creates an unavoidable inherent risk to our business operations.

Our information systems may experience an interruption or breach in security.

We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct business. In addition, in the ordinary course of business we collect and store sensitive data, including proprietary business information and personally identifiable information of our customers and employees in systems and on networks. While we have policies and procedures designed to protect our networks, computers, and data from failure, interruption, damage, or unauthorized access, there can be no assurance that a breach will not occur or, if it does, that it will be adequately addressed. The occurrence of any failure, interruption, damage, or security breach of our communications and information systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability, and/or significant costs, any of which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We operate in a highly-regulated industry and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation, and financial accounting, or reporting, including changes in them or our failure to comply with them, may adversely affect us.

We are subject to extensive regulation and supervision that govern almost all aspects of our operations. Intended to protect customers, depositors, consumers, deposit insurance funds, and the stability of the U.S. financial system, these laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on our business activities, limit the dividend or distributions that we can pay, restrict the ability of institutions to guarantee our debt, and impose certain specific accounting requirements that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than GAAP. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations often impose additional compliance costs. Further, our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, even if the failure was inadvertent or reflects a difference in interpretation, could subject us to restrictions on our business activities, fines, and other penalties, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations, required capital levels, and financial condition. Further, any new laws, rules, and regulations could make compliance more difficult or expensive or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We are subject to more stringent capital and liquidity requirements, the short-term and long-term effect of which is uncertain.

We are subject to capital adequacy guidelines and other regulatory requirements specifying minimum amounts and types of capital, which we must maintain. From time to time, regulators implement changes to these regulatory capital adequacy guidelines. If we fail to meet these minimum capital guidelines and/or other regulatory requirements, our business and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

In determining the adequacy of its capital levels, the Bank uses risk-based capital ratios established by regulations. Effective January 1, 2015, the Federal Reserve, FDIC, and Office of the Comptroller of the Currency adopted regulatory capital reforms from the Basel Committee and certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act (which we refer to as the “Basel III Rules”), which established a stricter regulatory capital framework that requires banking organizations to hold more and higher-quality capital to act as a financial cushion to absorb losses and help banking organizations better withstand periods of financial stress. The Basel III Rules increased capital ratios for all banking organizations and introduced a “capital conservation buffer,” which is in addition to each capital ratio. If a banking organization dips into its capital conservation buffer, it is subject to limitations on certain activities, including


payment of dividends, share repurchases, and discretionary compensation to certain officers. The conservation buffer began to be phased in beginning in 2016 and was fully effective on January 1, 2019.

While the recently passed Economic Growth Act requires that federal banking regulators establish a simplified leverage capital framework for smaller banks, the application of these more stringent capital rules require us to maintain higher regulatory capital levels than historically required, which could adversely affect our business and ability to grow.

Our ability to pay dividends is limited, and we may be unable to pay future dividends.

Our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders is limited by regulatory restrictions and our need to maintain sufficient capital levels. The ability of the Bank to pay dividends to the Company is limited by the Bank’s obligations to maintain sufficient capital, earnings, liquidity, and by other general restrictions on its dividends under federal and state bank regulatory requirements. Future financing arrangements that we enter into may also limit our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders. If we do not satisfy these regulatory requirements or arrangements, we will be unable to pay dividends on our common stock. Further, even if we have earnings and available cash in an amount sufficient to pay dividends to our shareholders of common stock, our board of directors, in its sole discretion, may decide to retain capital and therefore not pay dividends in the future.

If we fail to pay interest on or otherwise default on our subordinated notes, we will be prohibited from paying dividends or distributions on our common stock.

As of December 31, 2019, we had $31.0 million of subordinated notes outstanding. The agreements under which the subordinated notes were issued prohibit us from paying any dividends on our common stock or making any other distributions to our shareholders upon our failure to make any required payment of principal or interest on the notes or during the continuance of an event of default under the applicable agreement. Events of default generally consist of, among other things, certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency, or liquidation relating to us. If we were to fail to make a required payment of principal or interest on our subordinated notes, we would be prohibited from paying any dividends or making any other distributions to our shareholders or from redeeming or repurchasing any of our common stock, which could have a material adverse effect on the market value of our common stock.

Changes in the federal, state, or local tax laws may negatively affect our financial performance.

Changes in tax laws could increase our effective tax rates. Such changes may be retroactive to previous periods and as a result could negatively affect our current and future financial performance. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 reduced the maximum federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% beginning in 2018. The new legislation also enacted limitations on certain deductions, which partially offset the anticipated increase in net earnings from the lower tax rate. Similarly, our customers may be affected by changes in the laws, either positively or negatively, which could affect their desire to borrow or ability to pay us. Future changes in tax laws, federal, state, and local, particularly an increase in the federal corporate income tax rate, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our governing documents and Virginia law contain anti-takeover provisions that could negatively affect our shareholders.

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws and the Virginia Stock Corporation Act contain certain provisions designed to enhance the ability of our board of directors to deal with attempts to acquire control of the Company. These provisions and the ability to set the voting rights, preferences, and other terms of any series of preferred stock that may be issued, may be deemed to have an anti-takeover effect and may discourage takeovers (which certain shareholders may deem to be in their best interest). To the extent that such takeover attempts are discouraged, temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock resulting from actual or rumored takeover attempts may be inhibited. These provisions also could discourage or make more difficult a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest, even though such transactions may be favorable to the interests of shareholders, and could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Additionally, takeover attempts can harm the Company’s reputation, possibly resulting in the loss of customers and key personnel, and require us to incur significant costs to protect our business and the interests of our shareholders.


Failure to maintain effective systems of internal and disclosure control could have a material adverse effect on our results of operation and financial condition.

Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and to operate successfully as a public company. Effective internal controls also are a deterent to fraud. Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Section 404”), we are required to include in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results would be harmed. As part of our ongoing monitoring of internal controls, we may discover material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls that require remediation. A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal controls over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of a company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

The Company has disclosed material weaknesses in internal controls over financial reporting in the past, which deficiencies have been remediated; however, we cannot assure we would not identify these or different weaknesses in future years.

Compliance with the requirements of Section 404 is expensive, time-consuming, and includes the requirement of an independent opinion of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. Our inability to maintain operating effectiveness of the internal controls over financial reporting, including the costs of remediation efforts relating to the weaknesses, could result in a material misstatement to our financial statements or other disclosures, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, any failure to remediate and maintain effective controls or to timely effect any necessary improvement of our internal and disclosure controls could, among other things, result in losses from fraud or error, harm our reputation, subject us to regulatory scrutiny, or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in accounting standards could affect reported earnings.

From time to time there are changes in the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can materially affect how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some instances, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in the restatement of prior period financial statements.

In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Loses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, (“CECL”). Pursuant to this ASU, the current incurred loss credit impairment methodology, which we currently employ for determining our allowance for loan losses (“ALL”), will be replaced with the CECL model, a methodology that reflects incurred and expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. During 2019, the FASB voted to delay the effective date of this ASU for smaller reporting companies, such as us, to fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. To implement the new standard, we have and will continue to incur costs related to data collection, documentation, technology, and training. If we are required to materially increase the level of our ALL or additional expenses to determine the appropriate level of our ALL, such changes could adversely affect our capital levels, financial condition, and results of operations. Implementation of new standards or changes to existing standards enacted in the future could similarly adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, and other external events could significantly impact our business.

Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, and other adverse external events could have a significant effect on our ability to conduct business. Such events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue, and/or cause us to incur additional expenses. The fact that we operate in markets that are geographically close in proximity may make us more vulnerable to such events. The occurrence of any such event in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


If we are unable to successfully implement and manage our growth strategy, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We may not be able to successfully implement our growth strategy, if we are unable to identify attractive markets  or opportunities to expand in the future. In addition, the ability to manage growth successfully depends on maintaining adequate capital levels, cost controls, asset quality, and deposits.

In implementing our growth strategy, we may expand into adjacent lines of business, open new branches, or acquire branches or banks. Expanding into adjacent lines of business may be costly and may prove not to be profitable. In the case of opening new branches, we must absorb additional expenses, while we begin to generate new deposits. Growing through branch or bank acquisitions would involve a number of risks including but not limited to:


the time and expense associated with evaluating new markets for expansion, hiring experienced local management, and opening new offices or branches, as there may be a substantial time lag between these activities and when we generate sufficient assets and deposits to support the costs of the expansion;



the time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisitions and merger partners;



investing a significant amount of time negotiating a transaction or working on expansion plans, resulting in management’s time and attention being diverted from the operation of our existing business;



the time and expense associated with integrating the operations and personnel of the combined operations, and the ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the expansion;



creating an adverse short-term effect on our results of operations;



losing key employees and customers as a result of a growth strategy that is poorly received or executed;



inability to obtain additional capital or financing, if necessary, on favorable terms or at all; and



unforeseen adjustments, write-downs, write-offs, or restructuring or other impairment charges.

Our plans to expand could depress earnings in the short run, even if we efficiently execute a strategy leading to long-term financial benefits. All of these strategies divert management’s attention from the Company’s day-to-day operations. We cannot assure that any efforts relating to our growth strategy will be successful.


Not required.


The Company or its subsidiaries, owns or leases buildings and office space used in the normal course of business. The headquarters of the Company and the Bank are located at 1801 Bayberry Court, Suite 101, Richmond, Virginia, in a space leased by the Bank. The Financial Group headquarters is located at 100 South Main Street, Kilmarnock, Virginia, in a building owned by the Bank.

Unless otherwise noted, the properties listed below were owned or leased by the Company and its subsidiaries and were in use as of December 31, 2019.


4600 W. Hundred Road, Chester, Virginia

3209 Boulevard, Colonial Heights, Virginia

1118 Courthouse Road, Richmond, Virginia (closed February 6, 2020)

100 South Main Street, Kilmarnock, Virginia

1965 Wakefield Street, Petersburg, Virginia


1703 A North Main Street, Suffolk, Virginia

900 N. Parham Road, Richmond, Virginia

708 Rappahannock Drive, White Stone, Virginia

4935 Richmond Road, Warsaw, Virginia

15648 Kings Highway, Montross, Virginia

18 Sandy Street, Callao, Virginia

15104 Northumberland Highway, Burgess, Virginia

680 McKinney Boulevard, Colonial Beach, Virginia

11450 Robious Road, Richmond, Virginia

10880 General Puller Highway, Suite R, Hartfield, Virginia (leased)

5711 Patterson Avenue, Richmond, Virginia (leased)

1801 Bayberry Court, Suites 101, 103 & 104, Richmond, Virginia (leased)

300 32nd Street, Suites 101 & 104, Virginia Beach, Virginia (leased)

1129 Gaskins Road, Suite 202, Richmond, Virginia (leased)

5706 Grove Avenue, Suite 202, Richmond, Virginia (leased)

1406 Roseneath Road, Richmond, Virginia (in construction)


In the ordinary course of its operations, the Company is a party to various legal proceedings. Based upon information currently available, management believes that such legal proceedings, in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect on the business, financial condition, or results of operations of the Company.


Not applicable.




The Company’s common stock is quoted on the OTC Markets Group’s OTCQB under the symbol “BAYK.” There were 13,346,789 shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding at the close of business on February 28, 2020, which were held by approximately 723 shareholders of record.

The table below reflects the shares of common stock the Company repurchased during the fourth quarter of 2019.




Total number of shares purchased



Average price paid per share



Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plan (1)



Maximum number of shares that may yet be purchased under the plan (1)


Purchased 10/1 through 10/31














Purchased 11/1 through 11/30

















Purchased 12/1 through 12/31






































Shares were repurchased pursuant to the share repurchase program approved by the Company’s board of directors on October 18, 2019, which authorized the repurchase of 400,000 shares through December 31, 2020.


A discussion of certain restrictions and limitations on the ability of the Bank to pay dividends to the Company, and the ability of the Company to pay dividends to shareholders of its common stock, is set forth in Part I, Item 1, Business, of this Form 10-K under the heading “Supervision and Regulation.”

The dividend type, amount, and timing are established by the Company’s board of directors. In making its decisions regarding the payment of dividends on the Company’s common stock, the board of directors considers operating results, financial condition, capital adequacy, regulatory requirements, shareholder return, and other factors.






As of and for the Year Ended December 31,


(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)





































Net interest income





















Provision for loan losses





















Noninterest income





















Noninterest expense





















Tax expense (benefit)





















Net income (loss)





















Share Data:





















Basic income (loss) per share





















Diluted income (loss) per share





















Cash dividends per common share

















Book value per share





















Weighted average common shares:































































Balance Sheet:










































Average assets





















Loans, net of allowance





















Allowance for loan losses










































Total liabilities





















Total stockholders’ equity





















Average shareholders' equity





















Total equity to assets ratio





















Profitability Measures:





















Return on average assets (1)





















Return on average equity (2)





















Net interest margin (3)





















Yield on interest-earning assets (4)





















Cost of funds (5)





















Asset Quality:





















Nonperforming assets to total assets





















Net charge-offs to average loans





















Allowance for loan losses to gross loans
























Return on average assets is net income divided by average total assets.


Return on average equity is net income divided by average shareholders’ equity.


Net interest margin is net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets.


Yield on interest-earning assets is income on interest-earning assets on a taxable-equivalent basis divided by average interest-earning assets.


Cost of funds is total interest expense divided by total interest-bearing liabilities and noninterest-bearing deposits.




The following discussion provides information about the major components of the results of operations and financial condition, liquidity, and capital resources of Bay Banks of Virginia, Inc. and its subsidiaries. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements presented in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, in this Form 10-K.


This report contains statements concerning the Company’s expectations, plans, objectives, future financial performance and other statements that are not historical facts. These statements may constitute “forward-looking statements” as defined by federal securities laws. These statements may address issues that involve estimates and assumptions made by management, risks and uncertainties, and actual results could differ materially from historical results or those anticipated by such statements. Words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “intends,” “should,” “expects,” “will,” and variations of similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Factors that could have a material adverse effect on the operations and future prospects of the Company include, but are not limited to, changes in interest rates; general economic conditions; the legislative/regulatory climate; monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. Government, including policies of the U.S. Treasury and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; the quality or composition of the loan or investment portfolios; the adequacy of the Company’s allowance for loan losses; demand for loan products; deposit flows; competition; difficulty managing growth; demand for financial services in the Company’s market area; operational risks; the Company’s ability to maintain effective systems of internal and disclosure controls; accounting principles, policies and guidelines, and the other factors detailed in Item 1A, Risk Factors, in this Form 10-K and in the Company’s other documents publicly filed with the SEC. These risks and uncertainties should be considered in evaluating the forward-looking statements contained herein, and readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such statements, which speak only as of the date they are made.




Bay Banks of Virginia, Inc. (the “Company”) is the holding company for Virginia Commonwealth Bank (the “Bank”), for VCB Financial Group, Inc. (the “Financial Group”), and for Steptoes Holdings, LLC (“Steptoes Holdings”). The consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of Bay Banks of Virginia, Inc., the Bank, the Financial Group, and Steptoes Holdings.


The Bank is a state-chartered bank, headquartered in Richmond, Virginia, and a member of the Federal Reserve System. The Bank has 18 banking offices, including one loan production office, located throughout the greater Richmond region of Virginia, the Northern Neck region of Virginia, Middlesex County, and the Hampton Roads region of Virginia. The Bank offers a wide range of deposit and loan products to its retail and commercial customers. A substantial amount of the Bank’s deposits are interest bearing. The majority of the Bank’s loan portfolio is secured by real estate.


The Financial Group provides management services for personal and corporate trusts, including estate planning, estate settlement, and trust administration, and investment and wealth management services from its Richmond and Kilmarnock, Virginia offices. Products and services include revocable and irrevocable living trusts, testamentary trusts, custodial accounts, investment planning, brokerage services, investment managed accounts, and managed and self-directed individual retirement accounts.

On April 1, 2017, the Company and Virginia BanCorp completed a merger (the “Merger”), pursuant to which the Company acquired approximately $329.1 million in assets, including $266.1 million of loans, and assumed approximately $294.5 million in liabilities as of April 1, 2017. Merger-related costs incurred by the Company were $0 and $363 thousand for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.



The Company’s financial statements are prepared in accordance GAAP. The financial information contained within the Company’s financial statements is, to a significant extent, financial information that is based on measures of the financial effects of transactions and events that have already occurred. Our financial position and results of operations are affected by management’s application of accounting policies, including estimates, assumptions, and judgments. A variety of factors could affect the ultimate value that is obtained either when earning income, recognizing an expense, recovering an asset, or settling a liability. For example, historical loss factors are one factor in determining the inherent loss that may be present in the Company’s loan portfolio. Actual losses could differ significantly from the historical factors used. In addition, GAAP itself may change from one previously acceptable method to another method. Although the economics of transactions would be the same, the timing of recording those events that would affect those transactions could change.

We consider an accounting policy critical if (1) the accounting estimate requires assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time of the accounting estimate, and (2) different estimates could reasonably have been used in the current period or changes in the accounting estimate that are reasonably likely to occur from period to period would have a material effect on our financial statements.

For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we consider the following to be critical accounting policies: (1) accounting for the ALL, (2) accounting for loans, including loans acquired in a business combination, (3) accounting for business combinations, (4) accounting for OREO, (5) accounting for income taxes, including deferred income taxes, (6) accounting for goodwill and other intangible assets, and (7) accounting for leases.

Our significant accounting policies, including those accounting policies we deemed critical, are discussed further in Part II, Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, including the Notes thereto.




The national unemployment rate, seasonally adjusted and as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for January 2020 was reported at 3.6%, a 0.4% decline from 4.0% in January 2019. The unemployment rate in Virginia, which includes the Company’s target markets, was 2.6% in December 2019, the lowest unemployment rate since March 2001, and a decline of 0.2% from 2.8% in December 2018. According to the Fifth District of the Federal Reserve Bank, Virginia’s one-year employment industry sector growth for the year ended December 31, 2019 included positive expansion in all industry sectors with the exception of information technology, government, and natural resources and mining.


The Federal Open Market Committee (the "FOMC") stated in a January 29, 2020 press release that the “labor market remains strong and that economic activity has been rising at a moderate rate.” The FOMC indicated that job gains “have been solid, on average, in recent months, the [national] unemployment rate has remained low, [and] household spending has been rising at a moderate pace, while growth of business fixed investment and exports remain weak.” The FOMC also stated, “on a 12-month basis, both overall inflation and inflation for items other than food and energy are running below 2 percent.”  The FOMC maintained its view that the current 1-1/2% to 1-3/4% target range for the Federal Funds Rate remained appropriate and the FOMC “will continue to monitor the implications of incoming information for the economic outlook, including global developments and muted inflation pressures, as it assesses the appropriate path of the target range for the federal funds rate.”


All dollar amounts included in the tables of this discussion are in thousands, except per share data, unless otherwise stated.

The principal source of earnings for the Company is net interest income. Net interest income is the amount by which interest income exceeds interest expense. Net interest margin is net interest income expressed as a percentage of average interest-earning assets. Changes in the volume and/or mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, the associated yields and costs, the level of noninterest-bearing deposits, and the volume of nonperforming assets have an effect on net interest income, net interest margin, and net income.



The following commentary provides information about the major components of our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, and capital resources for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, including the Notes thereto.


Net income for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $7.1 million compared to $3.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $3.2 million. Diluted earnings per share was $0.54 for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $0.30 for the year ended December 31, 2018.


Income before income taxes was $8.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $4.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $4.3 million. Income before income taxes included $0 and $363 thousand of Merger-related costs for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.


Return on average assets increased to 0.64% for the year ended December 31, 2019 from 0.39% for the same period of 2018. Return on average assets is calculated as net income divided by average assets.


Return on average equity increased to 5.79% for the year ended December 31, 2019 from 3.36% for the same period of 2018. Return on average equity is calculated as net income divided by average shareholders’ equity.


Total assets increased $51.3 million to $1.13 billion as of December 31, 2019 from $1.08 billion as of December 31, 2018.


Loans, net of allowance for loan losses, increased by $22.4 million, or 2.5%, to $916.6 million as of December 31, 2019 from $894.2 million as of December 31, 2018. Excluding the pay down in 2019 of approximately $56.5 million of our purchased loan portfolios, including those acquired in the Merger, net annual loan growth was approximately $78.6 million, or 8.8%.


Total deposits increased by $68.2 million, or 8.1%, to $910.4 million as of December 31, 2019 from $842.2 million as of December 31, 2018.


Asset quality improved during 2019 with the ratio of nonperforming assets to total assets declining to 0.56% as of December 31, 2019 compared to 0.81% as of December 31, 2018.


Capital levels and regulatory capital ratios for the Bank were above regulatory minimums for well-capitalized banks as of December 31, 2019 with a total capital ratio and tier 1 leverage ratio of 13.07% and 10.42%, respectively.







The following table presents average interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, tax-equivalent yields on such assets and rates (costs) paid on such liabilities, net interest margin, and net interest spread, as of and for the periods stated.




Average Balances, Income and Expense, Yields and Rates




As of and For the Year Ended December 31,



















































Taxable securities





































Tax-exempt securities (1)





































Total securities





































Gross loans (2)(3)





































Interest-earning deposits and federal funds sold





































Certificates of deposit





































Total interest-earning assets





































Noninterest-earning assets





































Total average assets







































Savings deposits





































Demand deposits





































Time deposits (4)





































Money market deposits





































Total deposits





































Federal funds purchased

































Securities sold under repurchase agreements





































Subordinated notes and ESOP debt





































FHLB advances





































Total interest-bearing liabilities





































Noninterest-bearing deposits





































Other noninterest-bearing liabilities





































Total average liabilities





































Average shareholders' equity





































Total average liabilities and shareholders' equity





































Net interest income and net interest margin (5)





































Total cost of funds (6)





































Net interest spread (7)