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Section 1: 10-K (CFFN FISCAL YEAR 2020 FORM 10-K)

cffn-20200930
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
      ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020
                                                                                 or
        TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
        OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __ to __ 
Commission file number: 001-34814
Capitol Federal Financial, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland27-2631712
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
700 South Kansas Avenue,Topeka,Kansas66603
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code:
(785) 235-1341
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock,
par value $0.01 per share
CFFNThe NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒      No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒     No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒     No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer            Accelerated filer ☐        Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company         Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No ☒
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the average of the closing bid and asked price of such stock on the NASDAQ Stock Market as of March 31, 2020, was $1.61 billion.
As of November 19, 2020, there were issued and outstanding 138,792,496 shares of the Registrant's common stock.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III of Form 10-K - Portions of the proxy statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders for the year ended September 30, 2020.



Page No.
PART IItem 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART IIItem 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
PART IIIItem 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IVItem 15.
Item 16.




Private Securities Litigation Reform Act-Safe Harbor Statement

Capitol Federal Financial, Inc. (the "Company"), and Capitol Federal Savings Bank ("Capitol Federal Savings" or the "Bank"), may from time to time make written or oral "forward-looking statements," including statements contained in documents filed or furnished by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). These forward-looking statements may be included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the exhibits attached to it, in the Company's reports to stockholders, in the Company's press releases, and in other communications by the Company, which are made in good faith pursuant to the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.

These forward-looking statements include statements about our beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, expectations, anticipations, estimates and intentions, which are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, and are subject to change based on various factors, some of which are beyond our control. The words "may," "could," "should," "would," "believe," "anticipate," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "plan" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. The following factors, among others, could cause our future results to differ materially from the beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, expectations, anticipations, estimates and intentions expressed in the forward-looking statements:

our ability to maintain overhead costs at reasonable levels;
our ability to originate and purchase a sufficient volume of one- to four-family loans in order to maintain the balance of that portfolio at a level desired by management;
our ability to invest funds in wholesale or secondary markets at favorable yields compared to the related funding source;
our ability to access cost-effective funding;
the expected synergies and other benefits from our acquisition activities, including our acquisition of Capital City Bancshares, Inc. ("CCB"), might not be realized within the anticipated time frames or at all;
our ability to extend the commercial banking and trust asset management expertise acquired from CCB through our existing branch footprint;
fluctuations in deposit flows;
the future earnings and capital levels of the Bank and the continued non-objection by our primary federal banking regulators, to the extent required, to distribute capital from the Bank to the Company, which could affect the ability of the Company to pay dividends in accordance with its dividend policy;
the strength of the U.S. economy in general and the strength of the local economies in which we conduct operations, including areas where we have purchased large amounts of correspondent loans;
changes in real estate values, unemployment levels, and the level and direction of loan delinquencies and charge-offs may require changes in the estimates of the adequacy of the allowance for credit losses ("ACL"), which may adversely affect our business;
potential adverse impacts of the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 ("COVID-19") pandemic and any governmental or societal responses thereto on the economic conditions in the Company's local market areas and other market areas where the Bank has lending relationships, on other aspects of the Company's business operations and on financial markets;
increases in classified and/or non-performing assets, which may require the Bank to increase the ACL, charge-off loans and incur elevated collection and carrying costs related to such non-performing assets;
results of examinations of the Bank and the Company by their respective primary federal banking regulators, including the possibility that the regulators may, among other things, require us to increase our ACL;
changes in accounting principles, policies, or guidelines;
the effects of, and changes in, monetary and interest rate policies of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System ("FRB");
the effects of, and changes in, trade and fiscal policies and laws of the United States government;
the effects of, and changes in, foreign and military policies of the United States government;
inflation, interest rate, market, monetary, and currency fluctuations;
the timely development and acceptance of new products and services and the perceived overall value of these products and services by users, including the features, pricing, and quality compared to competitors' products and services;
the willingness of users to substitute competitors' products and services for our products and services;
our success in gaining regulatory approval of our products and services and branching locations, when required;
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the impact of interpretations of, and changes in, financial services laws and regulations, including laws concerning taxes, banking, securities, consumer protection, trust and insurance and the impact of other governmental initiatives affecting the financial services industry;
implementing business initiatives may be more difficult or expensive than anticipated;
significant litigation;
technological changes;
our ability to maintain the security of our financial, accounting, technology, and other operating systems and facilities, including the ability to withstand cyber-attacks;
acquisitions and dispositions;
changes in consumer spending, borrowing and saving habits; and
our success at managing the risks involved in our business.

This list of important factors is not all inclusive. See "Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors" for a discussion of risks and uncertainties related to our business that could adversely impact our operations and/or financial results. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time by or on behalf of the Company or the Bank.

PART I
As used in this Form 10-K, unless we specify or the context indicates otherwise, "the Company," "we," "us," and "our" refer to Capitol Federal Financial, Inc. a Maryland corporation, and its subsidiaries. "Capitol Federal Savings," and "the Bank," refer to Capitol Federal Savings Bank, a federal savings bank and the wholly-owned subsidiary of Capitol Federal Financial, Inc.

Item 1. Business
General
The Company is a Maryland corporation that was incorporated in 2010 to be the successor corporation upon completion of the second step mutual-to-stock conversion of Capitol Federal Savings Bank MHC in December 2010. The Company's common stock is traded on the Global Select tier of the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol "CFFN."

The Bank is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company and is a federally chartered and insured savings bank headquartered in Topeka, Kansas. The Bank is examined and regulated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the "OCC"), its primary regulator, and its deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF"), which is administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"). The Company, as a savings and loan holding company, is examined and regulated by the FRB.

In August 2018, the Company completed the acquisition of CCB and its wholly-owned subsidiary Capital City Bank, a commercial bank with $450 million in assets that was headquartered in Topeka, Kansas. During April 2019, the Bank completed the integration of the operations of Capital City Bank into the Bank's operations. The acquisition of Capital City Bank has allowed us to advance our commercial banking strategy while staying under $10 billion in assets, and allowed us to offer trust and brokerage services. The Bank competes for commercial banking business through a wide variety of commercial deposit and expanded lending products.

We have been, and intend to continue to be, a community-oriented financial institution offering a variety of financial services to meet the needs of the communities we serve. We attract deposits primarily from the general public and from businesses, and invest those funds primarily in permanent loans secured by first mortgages on owner-occupied, one- to four-family residences. We also originate and participate with other lenders in commercial loans, originate consumer loans primarily secured by mortgages on one- to four-family residences, and invest in certain investment securities and mortgage-backed securities ("MBS") using funding from deposits, repurchase agreements, and Federal Home Loan Bank Topeka ("FHLB") borrowings. We offer a variety of deposit accounts having a wide range of interest rates and terms, which generally include savings accounts, money market accounts, interest-bearing and non-interest-bearing checking accounts, and certificates of deposit with terms ranging from 91 days to 120 months.

The Company's results of operations are primarily dependent on net interest income, which is the difference between the interest earned on loans, securities, and cash, and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings. On a weekly basis, management reviews deposit flows, loan demand, cash levels, and changes in several market rates to assess all pricing
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strategies. The Bank's pricing strategy for first mortgage loan products includes setting interest rates based on secondary market prices and competitor pricing for our local lending markets, and secondary market prices and competitor pricing for our correspondent lending markets. Pricing for commercial loans is generally based on competitor pricing and the credit risk of the borrower with consideration given to the overall relationship of the borrower. Generally, deposit pricing is based upon a survey of competitors in the Bank's market areas, and the need to attract funding and retain maturing deposits. The majority of our loans are fixed-rate products with maturities up to 30 years, while the majority of our retail deposits are either non-maturity deposits or have stated maturities of less than two years.
The Company is significantly affected by prevailing economic conditions, including federal monetary and fiscal policies and federal regulation of financial institutions. Deposit balances are influenced by a number of factors, including interest rates paid on competing investment products, the level of personal income, and the personal rate of savings within our market areas. Lending activities are influenced by the demand for housing and business activity levels, our loan underwriting guidelines compared to those of our competitors, as well as interest rate pricing competition from other lending institutions.

Local economic conditions have a significant impact on the ability of borrowers to repay loans and the value of the collateral securing these loans. The industries in the Bank's local market areas, which are listed below under "Market Area and Competition" and where the properties securing approximately 69% of the Bank's one- to four-family loans are located, are diversified. This is especially true in the Kansas City metropolitan statistical area, which comprises the largest segment of our one- to four-family loan portfolio and deposit base. Management also monitors broad industry and economic indicators and trends in the states and/or metropolitan statistical areas with the highest concentrations of correspondent one- to four-family purchased loans and commercial loans. The Kansas City market area has an average household income of approximately $97 thousand per annum, based on 2020 estimates from Claritas Pop-Facts Premier. The average household income in our combined local market areas is approximately $95 thousand per annum, with 93% of the population at or above the poverty level, based on 2020 estimates from Claritas Pop-Facts Premier.

In addition to our local market areas, the properties securing approximately 33% of the Bank's correspondent purchased one- to four-family loans are located in the state of Texas. The average household income in the Texas region where the majority of our correspondent one- to four-family loans are located is approximately $104 thousand per annum, with 90% of the population at or above the poverty level, based on 2020 estimates from Claritas Pop-Facts Premier. As of October 2020, the unemployment rate was 5.3% for Kansas, 4.6% for Missouri, and 6.9% for Texas, compared to the national average of 6.9%, based on information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Our executive offices are located at 700 South Kansas Avenue, Topeka, Kansas 66603, and our telephone number at that address is (785) 235-1341.
Available Information
Our website address is www.capfed.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports can be obtained free of charge from our website. These reports are available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. These reports are also available on the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov.

Market Area and Competition
Our corporate office is located in Topeka, Kansas. We currently have a network of 54 branches (45 traditional branches and 9 in-store branches) located in nine counties throughout Kansas and three counties in Missouri. We primarily serve the metropolitan areas of Topeka, Wichita, Lawrence, Manhattan, Emporia, and Salina, Kansas and a portion of the metropolitan area of greater Kansas City. In addition to our full service banking offices, we provide services through our call center, which operates on extended hours, mobile banking, telephone banking, and online banking and bill payment services.

The Bank ranked first in deposit market share, at 6.90%, in the state of Kansas as reported in the June 30, 2020 FDIC "Summary of Deposits - Market Share Report." Management considers our well-established banking network together with our reputation for financial strength and customer service to be major factors in our success at attracting and retaining customers in our market areas.

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The Bank consistently has been one of the top one- to four-family lenders with regard to mortgage loan origination volume in the state of Kansas. Through our strong relationships with real estate agents and marketing efforts, which reflect our reputation, and pricing, we attract mortgage loan business from walk-in customers, customers that apply online, and existing customers. Competition in originating one- to four-family loans primarily comes from other savings institutions, commercial banks, credit unions, and mortgage bankers.

Lending Practices and Underwriting Standards
General. Originating and purchasing loans secured by one- to four-family residential properties is the Bank's primary lending business, resulting in a loan concentration in residential first mortgage loans secured by properties located in Kansas and Missouri. The Bank also originates and participates in commercial loans, and originates consumer loans and construction loans.
One- to Four-Family Residential Real Estate Lending. The Bank originates and services one- to four-family loans that are not guaranteed or insured by the federal government, and purchases one- to four-family loans, on a loan-by-loan basis, from a select group of correspondent lenders.

Originated Loans
While the Bank originates both fixed- and adjustable-rate loans, our origination volume is dependent upon customer demand for loans in our market areas. Demand is affected by the local housing market, competition, and the interest rate environment. During fiscal years 2020 and 2019, the Bank originated and refinanced $931.3 million and $581.1 million of one- to four-family loans, respectively.

Correspondent Purchased Loans
The Bank purchases one- to four-family loans, on a loan-by-loan basis, from a select group of correspondent lenders. Loan purchases enable the Bank to attain geographic diversification in the loan portfolio. At September 30, 2020, the Bank had correspondent lending relationships in 28 states and the District of Columbia. During fiscal years 2020 and 2019, the Bank purchased $448.0 million and $166.4 million, respectively, of one- to four-family loans from correspondent lenders. We generally pay a premium of 0.50% to 1.0% of the loan balance to purchase these loans, and we pay 1.0% of the loan balance to purchase the servicing of these loans. The premium paid is amortized against the interest earned over the life of the loan, which reduces the loan yield. If a loan pays off before the scheduled maturity date, the remaining premium is recognized as reduction in interest income.

The Bank has an agreement with a third-party mortgage sub-servicer to service loans originated by the Bank's correspondent lenders in certain states. The sub-servicer has experience servicing loans in the market areas in which the Bank purchases loans and services the loans according to the Bank's servicing standards, which is intended to allow the Bank greater control over servicing and reporting and help maintain a standard of loan performance. 

Bulk Purchased Loans
In the past, the Bank has also purchased one- to four-family loans from correspondent and nationwide lenders in bulk loan packages. See "Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors" for additional information regarding why the Bank no longer purchases bulk loan packages. At September 30, 2020, $158.2 million, or 76% of the Bank's bulk purchased loan portfolio, are loans guaranteed by one seller. Based on the historical performance of these loans and the seller, the Bank believes the seller has the financial ability to repurchase or replace loans if any were to become delinquent. The Bank has not experienced any losses with this group of loans since the loan package was purchased in August 2012.

The servicing rights associated with bulk purchased loans were generally retained by the lender/seller for the loans purchased from nationwide lenders. The servicing by nationwide lenders is governed by a servicing agreement, which outlines collection policies and procedures, as well as oversight requirements, such as servicer certifications attesting to and providing proof of compliance with the servicing agreement.

Underwriting
Full documentation to support an applicant's credit and income, and sufficient funds to cover all applicable fees and reserves at closing, are required on all loans. Generally, loans are underwritten according to the "ability to repay" and "qualified mortgage" standards, as issued by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"). Information pertaining to the creditworthiness of the borrower generally consists of a summary of the borrower's credit history, employment stability, sources of income, assets, net worth, and debt ratios. The value of the subject property must be supported by an appraisal
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report prepared in accordance with our appraisal policy by either a staff appraiser or a fee appraiser, both of which are independent of the loan origination function.
The underwriting standards for loans purchased from correspondent and nationwide lenders are generally similar to the Bank's internal underwriting standards. The underwriting of correspondent loans is performed by the Bank's underwriters. Our standard contractual agreement with the lender/seller includes recourse options for any breach of representation or warranty with respect to the loans purchased. The Bank requested the repurchase of one loan from a lender for breach of representation during fiscal year 2020.

Adjustable-rate Mortgage ("ARM") Loans
ARM loans are offered with a three-year, five-year, or seven-year term to the initial repricing date. After the initial period, the interest rate for each ARM loan adjusts annually for the remainder of the term of the loan. Currently, the repricing index for loan originations and correspondent purchases is tied to the one-year Constant Maturity Treasury ("CMT") index; however, other indices have been used in the past, including LIBOR. See "Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to Lending Activities" for information regarding the upcoming discontinuation of LIBOR. Current adjustable-rate one- to four-family loans originated by the Bank generally provide for a specified rate limit or cap on the periodic adjustment to the interest rate, as well as a specified maximum lifetime cap and minimum rate, or floor. As a consequence of using caps, the interest rates on these loans may not be as rate sensitive as our cost of funds. Negative amortization of principal is not allowed. For three- and five-year ARM loans, borrowers are qualified based on the principal, interest, tax, and insurance payments at the initial interest rate plus the life of loan cap and the initial interest rate plus the first period cap, respectively. For seven-year ARM loans, borrowers are qualified based on the principal, interest, tax, and insurance payments at the initial rate. After the initial three-, five-, or seven-year period, the interest rate resets annually and the new principal and interest payment is based on the new interest rate, remaining unpaid principal balance, and remaining term of the ARM loan. Our ARM loans are not automatically convertible into fixed-rate loans; however, we do allow borrowers to pay an endorsement fee to convert an ARM loan into a fixed-rate loan. ARM loans can pose greater credit risks than fixed-rate loans, primarily because if interest rates rise, the borrower's payment also rises, increasing the potential for default. This specific type of risk is known as repricing risk.

Pricing
Our pricing strategy for one- to four-family loan products includes setting interest rates based on secondary market prices and local competitor pricing for our local lending markets, and secondary market prices and national competitor pricing for our correspondent markets.

Mortgage Insurance
For a one- to four-family loan with a loan-to-value ("LTV") ratio in excess of 80% at the time of origination, private mortgage insurance ("PMI") is required in order to reduce the Bank's loss exposure. The Bank will lend up to 97% of the lesser of the appraised value or purchase price for one- to four-family loans, provided PMI is obtained. Management continuously monitors the claim-paying ability of our PMI counterparties. We believe our PMI counterparties have the ability to meet potential claim obligations we may file in the foreseeable future.

Repayment
The Bank's one- to four-family loans are primarily fully amortizing fixed-rate or ARM loans. The contractual maturities for fixed-rate loans and ARM loans can be up to 30 years; however, there are certain bulk purchased ARM loans that had original contractual maturities of 40 years. Our one- to four-family loans are generally not assumable and do not contain prepayment penalties. A "due on sale" clause, allowing the Bank to declare the unpaid principal balance due and payable upon the sale of the secured property, is generally included in the security instrument.

Construction Lending
The Bank originates owner-occupied construction-to-permanent loans secured by one- to four-family residential real estate. The majority of these loans are secured by property located within the Bank's Kansas City market area. At September 30, 2020, we had $34.6 million in one- to four-family construction loans outstanding, representing 0.5% of our total loan portfolio.

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The application process for a construction loan includes submission of complete plans, specifications, and costs of the project to be constructed. Construction draw requests and the supporting documentation are reviewed and approved by authorized management or experienced construction loan personnel. The Bank also performs regular documented inspections of the construction project to ensure the funds are being used for the intended purpose. Interest is not capitalized during the construction period; it is billed and collected monthly based on the amount of funds disbursed.

The Bank's owner-occupied construction-to-permanent loan program combines the construction loan and the permanent loan into one loan, allowing the borrower to secure the same interest rate structure throughout the construction period and the permanent loan term. Once the construction period is complete, the payment method is changed from interest-only to an amortized principal and interest payment for the remaining term of the loan.

Loan Endorsement Program
In an effort to offset the impact of repayments and to retain our customers, existing loan customers, including customers whose loans were purchased from a correspondent lender, have the opportunity, for a fee, to endorse their original loan terms to current loan terms being offered. Customers whose loans have been sold to third parties, have been delinquent on their contractual loan payments during the previous 12 months, have an active charge-off, or are currently in bankruptcy, are not eligible to participate in this program. The Bank does not solicit customers for this program, but considers it a valuable opportunity to retain customers who, based on our initial underwriting criteria, could likely obtain similar financing elsewhere. During fiscal years 2020 and 2019, the Bank endorsed $695.4 million and $121.5 million of one- to four-family loans, respectively.

Loan Sales
One- to four-family loans may be sold on a bulk basis or on a flow basis as loans are originated. Loans originated by the Bank and purchased from correspondent lenders are generally eligible for sale in the secondary market. Loans are generally sold for portfolio restructuring purposes, to reduce interest rate risk and/or to maintain a certain liquidity position. The Bank generally retains the servicing on these loans. The Bank's Asset and Liability Management Committee ("ALCO") determines the criteria upon which one- to four-family loans are to be classified as held-for-sale or held-for-investment. One- to four-family loans classified as held-for-sale are to be sold in accordance with policies set forth by ALCO. During fiscal years 2020 and 2019, the Bank did not sell any loans.

Consumer Lending. The Bank offers a variety of secured consumer loans, including home equity loans and lines of credit, home improvement loans, vehicle loans, and loans secured by savings deposits. The Bank also originates a very limited amount of unsecured loans. Generally, consumer loans are originated in the Bank's market areas. The majority of our consumer loan portfolio is comprised of home equity lines of credit which have adjustable interest rates. For a majority of the home equity lines of credit, the Bank has the first mortgage or the Bank is in the first lien position. At September 30, 2020, our consumer loan portfolio totaled $113.9 million, or approximately 2% of our total loan portfolio.

The underwriting standards for consumer loans include a determination of the applicant's payment history on other debts and an assessment of the applicant's ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. Although creditworthiness of the applicant is a primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the security in relation to the proposed loan amount. For consumer loans secured by one- to four-family property, an appraisal is required if the loan is over a certain dollar threshold; otherwise, a property inspection along with county tax assessment valuations and other supporting documentation is required.

Consumer loans generally have shorter terms-to-maturity or reprice more frequently, usually without periodic caps, which reduces our exposure to credit risk and changes in interest rates, and usually carry higher rates of interest than do one- to four-family loans. Management believes that offering consumer loan products helps to expand and create stronger ties to our existing customer base by increasing the number of customer relationships and providing cross-marketing opportunities.

Commercial Lending. At September 30, 2020, the Bank's commercial loans totaled $829.7 million, or approximately 12% of our total loan portfolio. Of this amount, $372.5 million were participation loans. Total undisbursed loan amounts related to commercial loans were $154.2 million, resulting in a total commercial loan concentration of $983.9 million at September 30, 2020.

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At September 30, 2020, the Bank's commercial real estate loan portfolio totaled $732.0 million or approximately 88% of our commercial loan portfolio. Our commercial real estate loans include a variety of property types, including hotels, office and retail buildings, senior housing facilities, and multi-family dwellings located in Kansas, Missouri, and 13 other states. Our largest commercial lending relationship was $68.0 million at September 30, 2020, all of which was disbursed, including $64.9 million in commercial real estate loans and $3.1 million in commercial and industrial loans. These loans were current according to their terms at September 30, 2020.

At September 30, 2020, the Bank's commercial and industrial loan portfolio totaled $97.6 million, or approximately 12% of our commercial loan portfolio. Included in this amount was $43.9 million of Small Business Administration ("SBA") Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") loans. Excluding PPP loans, the Bank's commercial and industrial loan portfolio consists largely of loans secured by accounts receivable, inventory and equipment.

Underwriting
The Bank performs more extensive due diligence in underwriting commercial loans than loans secured by one- to four-family residential properties due to the larger loan amounts, the more complex sources of repayment and the riskier nature of such loans. When participating in a commercial loan, the Bank performs the same underwriting procedures as if the loan was being originated by the Bank.

When underwriting a commercial real estate loan, several factors are considered, such as the income producing potential of the property to support the debt service, cash equity provided by the borrower, the financial strength of the borrower, tenant and/or guarantor(s), managerial expertise of the borrower or tenant, feasibility studies from the borrower or an independent third party, the marketability of the property and our lending experience with the borrower. For non-owner occupied properties, the Bank has a pre-lease requirement, depending on the property type, and overall strength of the credit.

For non-construction properties, the historical net operating income, which is the income derived from the operation of the property less all operating expenses, generally must be at least 1.15 times the required payments related to the outstanding debt (debt service coverage ratio) at the time of origination. For construction projects, the minimum debt service coverage ratio of 1.15 applies to the projected cash flows, and the borrower must have successful experience with the construction and operation of properties similar to the subject property. As part of the underwriting process, the historical or projected cash flows are stressed under various scenarios to measure the viability of the project under adverse conditions.

Generally, our maximum LTV ratios conform to supervisory limits, including 65% for raw land, 75% for land development and 85% for commercial real estate loans. The Bank requires full independent appraisals for commercial real estate properties. The Bank generally requires at least 15% cash equity from the borrower for land acquisition, land development and commercial real estate construction loans. For non-acquisition, development or construction loans, the equity may be from a combination of cash and the appraised value of the secured property.

Our commercial and industrial loans are primarily made in the Bank's market areas and are underwritten on the basis of the borrower's ability to service the debt from income. Other sources of repayment include the collateral underlying the loans and guarantees from business owners. Working capital loans are primarily collateralized by short-term assets whereas term loans are primarily collateralized by long-term assets.

In general, commercial and industrial loans involve more credit risk than commercial real estate loans. The increased risk in commercial and industrial loans is due to the type of collateral securing these loans as well as the expectation that commercial and industrial loans generally will be serviced principally from the operations of the business, and those operations may not be successful. Significant adverse changes in borrowers' industries and businesses could cause a rapid decline in the values of, and collectability associated with, business assets securing the loans, which could result in inadequate collateral coverage of our commercial and industrial loans. Additionally, commercial and industrial loans secured by accounts receivable may be substantially dependent on the ability of the borrower to collect amounts due from clients and loans secured by inventory and equipment are subject to depreciation over time and may be difficult to appraise. As a result of these additional complexities, variables and risks, commercial and industrial loans require more thorough underwriting and servicing than other types of commercial loans.

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Loan Terms
Commercial loans generally have amortization terms of 15 to 30 years and maturities ranging from 90 days to 20 years, which generally requires balloon payments of the remaining principal balance.

Commercial loans have either fixed or adjustable interest rates based on prevailing market rates. The interest rate on adjustable-rate loans is based on a variety of indices, but is generally determined through negotiation with the borrower or determined by the lead bank in the case of a loan participation.

For a construction loan, generally, the Bank allows interest-only payments during the construction phase of a project and for a stabilization period of 6 to 24 months after occupancy. The Bank requires amortizing payments at the conclusion of the stabilization period.

Additionally, the Bank may include covenants in the loan agreement that allow the Bank to take action when deterioration in the financial strength of the project is detected to potentially prevent the credit from becoming impaired. The covenants are specific to each loan agreement, based on factors such as the purpose of funds, the collateral type, and the financial strength of the project, the borrower and the guarantor, among other factors.

Monitoring of Risk
For the Bank's commercial real estate loan portfolio, borrowers are generally required to provide financial information annually, including borrower financial statements, subject property rental rates and income, maintenance costs, an update of real estate property tax and insurance payments, and personal financial information for the guarantor(s). The annual review process for loans with a principal balance of $1.5 million or more or borrowing relationships with a total exposure of $5 million or more allows the Bank to monitor compliance with loan covenants and review the borrower's performance, including cash flows from operations, debt service coverage, and comparison of performance to projections and year-over-year performance trending. Additionally, the Bank monitors and performs site visits, or in the case of participation loans, obtains updates from the lead bank as needed to determine the condition of the collateral securing the loan. Depending on the financial strength of the project and/or the complexity of the borrower's financials, the Bank may also perform a global analysis of cash flows to account for all other properties owned by the borrower or guarantor. If signs of weakness are identified, the Bank may begin performing more frequent financial and/or collateral reviews or will initiate contact with the borrower, or the lead bank will contact the borrower if the loan is a participation loan, to ensure cash flows from operations are maintained at a satisfactory level to meet the debt requirements. Both macro-level and loan-level stress-test scenarios based on existing and forecasted market conditions are part of the on-going portfolio management process for the commercial real estate portfolio.

Commercial real estate construction lending generally involves a greater degree of risk than commercial real estate lending. Repayment of a construction loan is, to a great degree, dependent upon the successful and timely completion of the construction of the subject property. Construction delays, slower than anticipated stabilization or the financial impairment of the builder may negatively affect the borrower's ability to repay the loan. The Bank takes these risks into consideration during the underwriting process including the requirement of personal guarantees. The Bank mitigates the risk of commercial real estate construction lending during the construction period by monitoring inspection reports from an independent third-party, project budget, percentage of completion, on-site inspections and percentage of advanced funds.

Commercial and industrial loans are monitored through a review of borrower performance as indicated by borrower financial statements, borrowing base reports, accounts receivable aging reports, and inventory aging reports. These reports are required to be provided by the borrowers monthly, quarterly, or annually depending on the nature of the borrowing relationship.

Our commercial loans are generally large dollar loans and involve a greater degree of credit risk than one- to four-family loans. Because payments on these loans are often dependent on the successful operation or management of the properties and/or businesses, repayment of such loans may be subject to adverse conditions in the economy, the borrower's line of business, and/or the real estate market. If the cash flows from the project or business operation are reduced, or if leases are not obtained or renewed, the borrower's ability to repay the loan may become impaired. The Bank regularly monitors the level of risk in the portfolio, including concentrations in such factors as geographic locations, collateral types, tenant brand name, borrowing relationships, and lending relationships in the case of participation loans, among other factors.
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Loan Portfolio. The following table presents the composition of our loan portfolio as of the dates indicated.
September 30,
20202019201820172016
AmountPercentAmountPercentAmountPercentAmountPercentAmountPercent
(Dollars in thousands)
One- to four-family:
Originated$3,937,310 54.5 %$3,873,851 52.2 %$3,965,692 52.8 %$3,959,232 55.1 %$4,005,615 57.6 %
Correspondent purchased2,101,082 29.1 2,349,877 31.7 2,505,987 33.4 2,445,311 34.0 2,206,072 31.7 
Bulk purchased208,427 2.9 252,347 3.4 293,607 3.9 351,705 4.9 416,653 6.0 
Construction34,593 0.5 36,758 0.5 33,149 0.4 30,647 0.4 39,430 0.6 
Total6,281,412 87.0 6,512,833 87.8 6,798,435 90.5 6,786,895 94.4 6,667,770 95.9 
Commercial:
Commercial real estate626,588 8.7 583,617 7.9 426,243 5.7 183,030 2.6 110,768 1.6 
Commercial and industrial 97,614 1.4 61,094 0.8 62,869 0.9 — — — — 
Construction105,458 1.4 123,159 1.7 80,498 1.1 86,952 1.2 43,375 0.6 
Total829,660 11.5 767,870 10.4 569,610 7.7 269,982 3.8 154,143 2.2 
Consumer loans:
Home equity103,838 1.4 120,587 1.6 129,588 1.7 122,066 1.7 123,345 1.8 
Other10,086 0.1 11,183 0.2 10,012 0.1 3,808 0.1 4,264 0.1 
Total 113,924 1.5 131,770 1.8 139,600 1.8 125,874 1.8 127,609 1.9 
Total loans receivable7,224,996 100.0 %7,412,473 100.0 %7,507,645 100.0 %7,182,751 100.0 %6,949,522 100.0 %
Less:
ACL31,527 9,226 8,463 8,398 8,540 
Discounts/unearned loan fees29,190 31,058 33,933 24,962 24,933 
Premiums/deferred costs(38,572)(44,558)(49,236)(45,680)(41,975)
Total loans receivable, net$7,202,851 $7,416,747 $7,514,485 $7,195,071 $6,958,024 

9


The following table presents the contractual maturity of our loan portfolio, along with associated weighted average yields, at September 30, 2020. Loans which have adjustable interest rates are shown as maturing in the period during which the contract is due. The table does not reflect the effects of possible prepayments or enforcement of due on sale clauses.
One- to Four-FamilyCommercial
Construction(2)
Home Equity(3)
Other ConsumerTotal
AmountYieldAmountYieldAmountYieldAmountYieldAmountYieldAmountYield
(Dollars in thousands)
Amounts due:
Within one year(1)
$1,237 4.51 %$117,410 4.03 %$139,667 4.27 %$2,130 5.15 %$1,161 3.36 %$261,605 4.17 %
After one year:
Over one to two2,855 4.23 106,369 3.05 384 3.75 412 5.08 971 5.50 110,991 3.11 
Over two to three10,262 3.85 49,650 4.56 — — 402 5.37 2,220 4.92 62,534 4.46 
Over three to five46,938 3.89 75,892 4.82 — — 1,346 5.43 3,912 3.99 128,088 4.46 
Over five to ten497,411 3.18 267,221 4.57 — — 11,201 5.52 1,383 5.81 777,216 3.70 
Over ten to fifteen1,316,691 3.12 64,802 4.66 — — 42,602 4.41 355 6.06 1,424,450 3.23 
After fifteen years4,371,425 3.57 42,858 4.76 — — 45,745 4.59 84 5.67 4,460,112 3.59 
Total due after one year6,245,582 3.44 606,792 4.36 384 3.75 101,708 4.64 8,925 4.76 6,963,391 3.54 
Totals loans$6,246,819 3.44 $724,202 4.30 $140,051 4.27 $103,838 4.65 $10,086 4.60 7,224,996 3.57 
Less:
ACL31,527 
Discounts/unearned loan fees29,190 
Premiums/deferred costs(38,572)
Total loans receivable, net$7,202,851 


(1)Includes demand loans, loans having no stated maturity, and overdraft loans.
(2)Construction loans are presented based upon the estimated term to complete construction. See "One- to Four-Family Residential Real Estate Lending - Construction Lending" above for more information regarding our construction-to-permanent loan program.
(3)For home equity loans, including those that do not have a stated maturity date, the maturity date calculated assumes the borrower always makes the required minimum payment. The majority of home equity loans assume a maximum term of 240 months.

10


The following table presents, as of September 30, 2020, the amount of loans due after September 30, 2021, and whether these loans have fixed or adjustable interest rates.
FixedAdjustableTotal
(Dollars in thousands)
One- to four-family$5,416,534 $829,048 $6,245,582 
Commercial416,303 190,489 606,792 
Construction — 384 384 
Consumer loans:
Home equity14,682 87,026 101,708 
Other6,504 2,421 8,925 
Total$5,854,023 $1,109,368 $6,963,391 


Asset Quality
The Bank's traditional one- to four-family underwriting guidelines have provided the Bank with generally low delinquencies and low levels of non-performing assets within this loan category compared to national levels. Of particular importance is the complete and full documentation required for each loan the Bank originates, participates in or purchases. This allows the Bank to make an informed credit decision based upon a thorough assessment of the borrower's ability to repay the loan.

For one- to four-family loans and consumer loans, when a borrower fails to make a loan payment within 15 days after the due date, a late charge is assessed and a notice is mailed. Collection personnel review all delinquent loan accounts more than 16 days past due. Attempts to contact the borrower occur, with the purpose of establishing repayment arrangements. For residential mortgage loans serviced by the Bank, beginning at approximately the 31st day of delinquency, and again at approximately the 50th day of delinquency, information notices are mailed to borrowers to inform them of the availability of payment assistance programs. Once a loan becomes 90 days delinquent, assuming a loss mitigation solution is not actively in process, a demand letter is issued requiring the loan be brought current or foreclosure procedures will be implemented. Generally, when a loan becomes 120 days delinquent, and an acceptable repayment plan or loss mitigation solution has neither been established nor is in the process of being negotiated, the loan is forwarded to legal counsel to initiate foreclosure. We also monitor whether borrowers who have filed for bankruptcy are meeting their obligation to pay the mortgage debt in accordance with the terms of the bankruptcy petition.

For purchased one- to four-family loans serviced by a third party, we monitor delinquencies using data received from the servicers. The reports generally provide total principal and interest due and length of delinquency, and are used to prepare monthly management reports and perform delinquent loan trend analysis. The information from the sub-servicer of our correspondent one- to four-family loans is generally received during the first week of the month while the information from the servicers of our one- to-four family bulk loans is received later in the month. Management also utilizes information from the servicers to monitor property valuations and identify the need to charge-off loan balances.

For commercial loans originated by the Bank, when a loan becomes past due, the Bank begins collection efforts, initially by notifying the borrower of the past due payment and attempting to determine if there have been changes in the borrower's financial condition that may affect future loan performance. If it is determined that future loan performance may be adversely affected, the Bank initiates discussions with the borrower regarding plans to ensure cash flow from operations is sufficient to satisfy the debt requirements and meet the loan covenants. Generally, once a loan becomes 90 days delinquent, foreclosure or collection procedures are initiated. For participation loans, the lead bank is responsible for all collection efforts and contact with the borrower. However, if the Bank does not receive an expected payment on a participation loan, the Bank contacts the lead bank to determine the cause of the late payment and to initiate discussions with the lead bank of collection efforts, as necessary. See "Lending Practices and Underwriting Standards – Commercial Lending – Monitoring of Risk" for additional information.

11


In late March 2020, the Bank suspended the initiation of foreclosure proceedings for one- to four-family loans through the end of calendar year 2020. Additionally, the Bank announced loan modification programs to support and provide relief for its borrowers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Generally, loan modifications under these programs ("COVID-19 loan modifications") for one- to four-family loans and consumer loans consist of a three-month payment forbearance of principal, interest and, in some cases, escrow.  COVID-19 loan modifications of commercial loans mainly consist of a six-month interest-only payment period. See "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition - Loans Receivable" for additional discussion regarding COVID-19 loan modifications.
Delinquent and non-performing loans and other real estate owned ("OREO")
The following table presents the Company's 30 to 89 day delinquent loans at the dates indicated. Loans subject to payment forbearance under the Bank's COVID-19 loan modification program are not reported as delinquent during the forbearance time period. The amounts in the table represent the unpaid principal balance of the loans less related charge-offs. Of the loans 30 to 89 days delinquent at September 30, 2020, 2019, and 2018, approximately 70%, 67%, and 74%, respectively, were 59 days or less delinquent.
Loans Delinquent for 30 to 89 Days at September 30,
202020192018
NumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmount
(Dollars in thousands)
One- to four-family:
Originated42 $3,012 90 $7,223 129 $10,647 
Correspondent purchased3,123 2,721 18 3,803 
Bulk purchased12 2,532 16 3,581 15 3,502 
Commercial45 826 322 
Consumer26 398 42 525 38 533 
90 $9,110 165 $14,876 206 $18,807 
Loans 30 to 89 days delinquent
to total loans receivable, net0.13 %0.20 %0.25 %

12


The table below presents the Company's non-performing loans and OREO at the dates indicated. The amounts in the table represent the unpaid principal balance of the loans less related charge-offs. Non-performing loans are loans that are 90 or more days delinquent or in foreclosure and other loans required to be reported as nonaccrual pursuant to accounting and/or regulatory reporting requirements and/or internal policies, even if the loans are current. At all dates presented, there were no loans 90 or more days delinquent that were still accruing interest. Non-performing assets include non-performing loans and OREO. OREO primarily includes assets acquired in settlement of loans. Over the past 12 months, one- to four-family OREO properties acquired in settlement of one- to four-family loans were owned by the Bank, on average, for approximately four months before the properties were sold.
September 30,
20202019201820172016
NumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmount
(Dollars in thousands)
Loans 90 or More Days Delinquent or in Foreclosure:
One- to four-family:
Originated51 $4,362 44 $3,268 67 $5,040 67 $5,515 73 $8,190 
Correspondent purchased2,397 1,008 449 91 985 
Bulk purchased12 2,903 1,465 11 3,045 13 3,371 28 7,323 
Commercial1,360 170 — — — — — — 
Consumer14 304 25 362 30 569 22 410 31 529 
88 11,326 83 6,273 109 9,103 103 9,387 135 17,027 
Loans 90 or more days delinquent or in foreclosure
 as a percentage of total loans0.16 %0.08 %0.12 %0.13 %0.24 %
Nonaccrual loans less than 90 Days Delinquent:(1)
One- to four-family:
Originated$691 16 $1,183 19 $1,482 50 $4,567 70 $8,956 
Correspondent purchased— — — — 396 1,690 2,786 
Bulk purchased— — 65 — — 846 31 
Commercial464 — — — — — — 
Consumer35 113 12 328 
13 1,164 20 1,290 23 1,887 69 7,216 92 12,101 
Total non-performing loans101 12,490 103 7,563 132 10,990 172 16,603 227 29,128 
Non-performing loans as a percentage of total loans0.17 %0.10 %0.15 %0.23 %0.42 %
13


September 30,
20202019201820172016
NumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmount
(Dollars in thousands)
OREO:
One- to four-family:
Originated(2)
$183 $745 $843 $58 12 $692 
Correspondent purchased— — — — — — — — 499 
Bulk purchased— — — — 454 1,279 1,265 
Commercial— — 600 600 — — — — 
Consumer— — — — — — 67 — — 
Other— — — — — — — — 1,278 
183 1,345 10 1,897 10 1,404 18 3,734 
Total non-performing assets105 $12,673 112 $8,908 142 $12,887 182 $18,007 245 $32,862 
Non-performing assets as a percentage of total assets0.13 %0.10 %0.14 %0.20 %0.35 %

(1)Includes loans required to be reported as nonaccrual pursuant to accounting and/or regulatory reporting requirements and/or internal policies, even if the loans are current. The decrease in the balance of these loans at September 30, 2017 compared to September 30, 2016 was due to fewer loans being classified as troubled debt restructurings ("TDRs") as a result of management refining its methodology for assessing whether a loan modification qualifies as a TDR.
(2)Real estate-related consumer loans where we also hold the first mortgage are included in the one- to four-family category as the underlying collateral is one- to four-family property.

The amount of interest income on nonaccrual loans and TDRs as of September 30, 2020 included in interest income was $1.0 million for the year ended September 30, 2020.  The amount of additional interest income that would have been recorded on nonaccrual loans and TDRs as of September 30, 2020, if they had performed in accordance with their original terms, was $123 thousand for the year ended September 30, 2020.

The following table presents the states where the properties securing five percent or more of the total amount of our one- to four-family loans are located and the corresponding balance of loans 30 to 89 days delinquent, 90 or more days delinquent or in foreclosure, and weighted average LTV ratios for loans 90 or more days delinquent or in foreclosure at September 30, 2020. The LTV ratios were based on the current loan balance and either the lesser of the purchase price or original appraisal, or the most recent Bank appraisal, if available. At September 30, 2020, potential losses, after taking into consideration anticipated PMI proceeds and estimated selling costs, have been charged-off.
Loans 30 to 89Loans 90 or More Days Delinquent
One- to Four-FamilyDays Delinquentor in Foreclosure
StateAmount% of TotalAmount% of TotalAmount% of TotalLTV
(Dollars in thousands)
Kansas$3,541,606 56.7 %$2,547 29.4 %$4,457 46.1 %67 %
Missouri1,089,197 17.4 1,683 19.4 210 2.2 40 
Texas698,017 11.2 1,553 17.9 437 4.5 44 
Other states917,999 14.7 2,884 33.3 4,558 47.2 60 
$6,246,819 100.0 %$8,667 100.0 %$9,662 100.0 %62 
14



Classified Assets. In accordance with the Bank's asset classification policy, management regularly reviews the problem assets in the Bank's portfolio to determine whether any assets require classification. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 5. Loans Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses" for asset classification definitions.

The following table sets forth the recorded investment in assets, classified as either special mention or substandard, as of September 30, 2020. At September 30, 2020, there were no loans classified as doubtful, and all loans classified as loss were fully charged-off.
Special MentionSubstandard
NumberAmountNumberAmount
(Dollars in thousands)
One- to four-family:
Originated82 $9,249 196 $15,729 
Correspondent purchased2,076 17 4,512 
Bulk purchased— — 25 5,319 
Commercial:
Commercial real estate50,957 3,541 
Commercial and industrial 1,040 1,368 
Consumer14 331 35 589 
Total loans114 63,653 285 31,058 
OREO:
One- to four-family:
Originated— — 183 
Total OREO— — 183 
Total classified assets114 $63,653 289 $31,241 

Troubled Debt Restructurings. For borrowers experiencing financial difficulties, the Bank may grant a concession to the borrower, resulting in a TDR. Such concessions generally involve extensions of loan maturity dates, the granting of periods during which reduced payment amounts are required, reductions in interest rates, and/or loans that have been discharged under Chapter 7 bankruptcy proceedings where the borrower has not reaffirmed the debt. The Bank does not forgive principal or interest, nor does it commit to lend additional funds, except for situations generally involving the capitalization of delinquent interest and/or escrow on one- to four-family and consumer loans, not to exceed the original loan balance, to these borrowers. For commercial loans, the Bank does not forgive principal or interest or commit to lend additional funds unless the borrower provides additional collateral or other enhancements to improve credit quality. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 5. Loans Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses" for additional information related to TDRs.

As previously noted, in late March 2020, the Bank announced COVID-19 loan modification programs to support and provide relief for its borrowers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company has followed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security ("CARES") Act and interagency guidance from the federal banking agencies when determining if a borrower's modification is subject to TDR classification.

15



The following table presents the Company's TDRs, based on accrual status, at the dates indicated.
September 30,
20202019201820172016
(Dollars in thousands)
Accruing TDRs$13,205 $14,892 $20,216 $27,383 $23,177 
Nonaccrual TDRs(1)
3,394 2,958 4,652 11,742 18,725 
Total TDRs$16,599 $17,850 $24,868 $39,125 $41,902 

(1)Nonaccrual TDRs are included in the non-performing loan table above and are classified as substandard.

Impaired Loans. A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Bank will be unable to collect all amounts due, including principal and interest, according to the original contractual terms of the loan agreement. Interest income on impaired loans is recognized in the period collected unless the ultimate collection of principal is considered doubtful. The unpaid principal balance of loans reported as impaired at September 30, 2020, 2019, and 2018 was $23.1 million, $23.4 million, and $29.9 million, respectively. Included in the impaired loan balance at September 30, 2020 were $22.9 million of loans classified as either special mention or substandard.

See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 5. Loans Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses" for additional information related to impaired loans.

Allowance for credit losses and provision for credit losses. Management maintains an ACL to absorb inherent losses in the loan portfolio based on quarterly assessments of the loan portfolio. The ACL is maintained through provisions for credit losses which are either charged to or credited to income. See "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Policies – Allowance for Credit Losses" and "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" for a full discussion of our ACL methodology. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 5. Loans Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses" for additional information on the ACL.

Each quarter a formula analysis model is prepared which segregates the loan portfolio into categories based on certain risk characteristics. Historical loss and qualitative factors are applied to each loan category in the formula analysis model. The factors are reviewed by management quarterly to assess whether they adequately cover probable and estimable losses inherent in the loan portfolio.

During the current fiscal year, management increased the historical loss and qualitative factors applied in the formula analysis model for all loan categories and added a COVID-19 qualitative factor to the Bank's commercial loan portfolio. The increase in the factors and addition of the new qualitative factor was in response to the deterioration of economic conditions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. When determining the appropriate historical loss and qualitative factors to apply in the formula analysis model, management considered such items as: national and state unemployment and unemployment benefit claim information, amount and timing of governmental financial assistance, the Bank's COVID-19 loan modification programs, consumer spending information, industries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and a loan analysis completed by the commercial lending team.

As of September 30, 2020, unemployment benefit claims continued to be at high levels, but not as high as the late March 2020/early April 2020 timeframe. Individuals that were unemployed benefited from the Federal Pandemic Unemployment Compensation Program ("FPUC") which the CARES Act created. FPUC provided an additional $600 per week to individuals collecting regular unemployment compensation. The FPUC expired in late July 2020. There were other unemployment compensation benefits created under the CARES Act which benefited individuals that exhausted their regular unemployment insurance benefits and that are generally not eligible for regular unemployment compensation, like self-employed individuals. In early August 2020, President Trump signed an executive memorandum authorizing the Federal Emergency Management Agency to provide $300 per week in extra unemployment benefits for six weeks, which started on August 1, 2020. The majority of the financial assistance provided by the federal government, which may be masking the Bank's actual credit exposure, tapered off significantly by September 30, 2020. In late March 2020, the Bank began offering
16



a COVID-19 loan modification program for one- to four-family and consumer loans. While the intention of the COVID-19 loan modification program was to keep customers current on their payments and therefore in their homes during the worst of the economic downturn, the program could also be masking the Bank's actual credit exposure on these loans. See "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Financial Condition" for additional information regarding COVID-19 loan modifications.

Many of the stay-at-home orders issued in March and April 2020 were lifted by September 30, 2020, resulting in some people returning to work, but not at the same level as prior to March 2020. Several companies are still requiring their employees to work from home and limit business travel and several colleges and schools are electing remote and/or hybrid learning. The residents of senior housing facilities continue to be generally disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Consumer spending has continued to gradually rebound, but generally not in the travel, lodging, and entertainment industries. The Bank's commercial lending team analyzed the Bank's largest commercial lending relationships through September 30, 2020. Approximately 91% of all commercial loans, excluding PPP loans, were evaluated. The commercial lending team primarily focused on the lending relationships considered most at risk of short-term operational cash flow issues and/or collateral concerns, which had an aggregate unpaid principal balance of $201.2 million at September 30, 2020, and was primarily in the following categories: senior housing facilities, hotels, retail buildings, office buildings and single use buildings. These loan categories were among the categories with the highest usage of the Bank's COVID-19 loan modification program. We believe the Bank's COVID-19 loan modification program has been very beneficial to the majority of the Bank's commercial borrowers that took advantage of the program; however, as is the case with one- to four-family loans, the modifications may be masking the Bank's actual credit exposure. The commercial lending team also considered the largest credits in the industries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic: senior housing, hotel, retail building, office building and single use buildings. The weighted average LTV ratios based on the aggregate unpaid principal balances of senior housing, hotel, retail building, office building, and single use building loans were 69%, 58%, 67%, 75%, and 69%, respectively, at September 30, 2020. In most cases, the most recent appraisal was obtained at the time of origination.

There was no significant deterioration in credit quality indicators, such as loan delinquencies, asset classification and credit scores, during the current fiscal year; however, as noted above, the financial assistance provided by the federal government and our COVID-19 loan modifications may be masking our actual credit exposure which could result in worsening credit quality indicators in the coming months. Loans 30 to 89 days delinquent were 0.13% of total loans at September 30, 2020 and 0.20% of total loans at September 30, 2019. Loans 90 days or more delinquent or in foreclosure were 0.16% of total loans at September 30, 2020 and 0.08% of total loans at September 30, 2019. Loans classified as special mention were $63.7 million at September 30, 2020 compared to $69.8 million at September 30, 2019. Loans classified as substandard were $31.1 million at September 30, 2020 compared to $30.1 million at September 30, 2019. The weighted average credit score for our one- to four-family loan portfolio was 768 at September 30, 2020 compared to 767 at September 30, 2019. We completed a credit score update from a nationally recognized consumer rating agency during September of 2020 and 2019.

The majority of the provision for credit losses recorded in the current fiscal year was to increase the ACL to account for the increase in the factors and the addition of the new qualitative factor in the formula analysis model as a result of management's assessment of the inherent losses in the loan portfolio due to the deterioration of economic conditions. Management will continue to closely monitor economic conditions and will work with borrowers as necessary to assist them through this challenging economic climate. If economic conditions worsen or do not improve in the near term, and if future government programs, if any, do not provide adequate relief to borrowers, it is possible the Bank's ACL will need to increase in future periods. Management seeks to apply the ACL methodology in a consistent manner; however, the methodology may be modified in response to changing conditions, such as was the case during the current fiscal year. Although management believes the ACL was at a level adequate to absorb inherent losses in the loan portfolio at September 30, 2020, the level of the ACL remains an estimate that is subject to significant judgment and short-term changes.

Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments became effective for the Company on October 1, 2020. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" for additional information.
17



The following table presents ACL activity and related ratios at the dates and for the periods indicated.
Year Ended September 30,
20202019201820172016
(Dollars in thousands)
Balance at beginning of period$9,226 $8,463 $8,398 $8,540 $9,443 
Charge-offs:
One- to four-family:
Originated(64)(75)(136)(72)(200)
Correspondent— — (128)— — 
Bulk purchased— (26)— (216)(342)
Total(64)(101)(264)(288)(542)
Commercial:
Commercial real estate(325)— — — — 
Commercial and industrial (24)(124)— — — 
Total(349)(124)— — — 
Consumer:
Home equity(10)(28)(32)(51)(83)
Other(20)(9)(6)(9)(5)
Total(30)(37)(38)(60)(88)
Total charge-offs(443)(262)(302)(348)(630)
Recoveries:
One- to four-family:
Originated41 22 144 77 
Bulk purchased265 106 196 165 374 
Total306 128 340 169 451 
Commercial:
Commercial real estate110 22 — — — 
Commercial and industrial — — — — 
Construction— 25 — — — 
Total110 49 — — — 
Consumer:
Home equity23 80 22 26 25 
Other18 11 
Total28 98 27 37 26 
Total recoveries444 275 367 206 477 
Net recoveries (charge-offs)13 65 (142)(153)
Provision for credit losses22,300 750 — — (750)
Balance at end of period$31,527 $9,226 $8,463 $8,398 $8,540 
Ratio of net charge-offs during the period to
average loans outstanding during the period — %— %— %— %— %
Ratio of net (recoveries) charge-offs during the
period to average non-performing assets(0.01)(0.12)(0.42)0.56 0.48 
ACL to non-performing loans at end of period252.42 121.99 77.01 50.58 29.32 
ACL to loans receivable, net at end of period0.44 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.12 
ACL to net charge-offs
N/M(1)
N/M(1)
N/M(1)
58.9x55.8x
(1)This ratio is not presented for the time period noted due to loan recoveries exceeding loan charge-offs during the period.
18



The distribution of our ACL at the dates indicated is summarized below.
September 30,
20202019201820172016
% of % of % of % of % of
AmountLoans to AmountLoans to AmountLoans to AmountLoans to AmountLoans to
of ACLTotal Loansof ACLTotal Loansof ACLTotal Loansof ACLTotal Loansof ACLTotal Loans
(Dollars in thousands)
One- to four-family:
Originated$6,044 54.5 %$1,982 52.2 %$2,933 52.8 %$3,149 55.1 %$3,892 57.6 %
Correspondent purchased2,691 29.1 1,203 31.7 1,861 33.4 1,922 34.0 2,102 31.7 
Bulk purchased467 2.9 687 3.4 925 3.9 1,000 4.9 1,065 6.0 
Construction41 0.5 18 0.5 20 0.4 24 0.4 36 0.6 
Total 9,243 87.0 3,890 87.8 5,739 90.5 6,095 94.4 7,095 95.9 
Commercial:
Commercial real estate16,869 8.6 3,448 7.9 1,801 5.7 1,242 2.6 774 1.6 
Commercial and industrial1,451 1.4 472 0.8 21 0.8 — — — — 
Construction3,480 1.5 1,251 1.7 734 1.1 870 1.2 434 0.6 
Total 21,800 11.5 5,171 10.4 2,556 7.6 2,112 3.8 1,208 2.2 
Consumer loans:
Home equity370 1.4 97 1.6 129 1.8 159 1.7 187 1.8 
Other consumer114 0.1 68 0.2 39 0.1 32 0.1 50 0.1 
Total consumer loans484 1.5 165 1.8 168 1.9 191 1.8 237 1.9 
$31,527 100.0 %$9,226 100.0 %$8,463 100.0 %$8,398 100.0 %$8,540 100.0 %

The majority of the loans acquired in the CCB acquisition were not deemed purchased credit impaired ("PCI") as of the acquisition date ("non-PCI loans"). The net purchase discounts associated with non-PCI loans were compared to the amount of hypothetical ACL estimated for these loans at September 30, 2020, 2019, and 2018. See "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Policies – Allowance for Credit Losses" for additional information regarding management's estimation of the hypothetical ACL for non-PCI loans. As a result of this analysis, management determined the net purchase discounts were not sufficient, so ACL was recorded on those loans at September 30, 2020. At September 30, 2019 and 2018, the net purchase discounts were sufficient and no ACL was required on those loans.
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The ratio of ACL to loans receivable, by loan type, at the dates indicated is summarized below. As discussed above, the ACL increased during the current fiscal year resulting in an overall increase in the ACL to loans receivable ratio at September 30, 2020 compared to the other dates presented in the table below. The bulk purchased loan ACL to loans receivable ratio decreased at September 30, 2020 compared to September 30, 2019 due to the portion of the loan portfolio guaranteed by a third party representing more of the overall portfolio balance. Included in the commercial and industrial loan category at September 30, 2020 are PPP loans. PPP loans are 100% guaranteed by the SBA so the Bank did not record ACL on those loans at September 30, 2020.
At September 30,
20202019201820172016
One- to four-family:
Originated0.15 %0.05 %0.07 %0.08 %0.10 %
Correspondent purchased0.13 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.10 
Bulk purchased0.22 0.27 0.32 0.28 0.26 
Construction0.12 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.09 
Total 0.15 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.11 
Commercial:
Commercial real estate2.69 0.59 0.42 0.68 0.70 
Commercial and industrial 1.49 0.77 0.03 — — 
Construction3.30 1.02 0.91 1.00 1.00 
Total 2.63 0.67 0.45 0.78 0.78 
Consumer0.42 0.13 0.12 0.15 0.19 
Total 0.44 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.12 


Investment Activities

Federally chartered savings institutions have the authority to invest in various types of liquid assets, including U.S. Treasury obligations; securities of various federal agencies; government-sponsored enterprises ("GSEs"), including callable agency securities; municipal bonds; certain certificates of deposit of insured banks and savings institutions; certain bankers' acceptances; repurchase agreements; and federal funds. Subject to various restrictions, federally chartered savings institutions may also invest their assets in investment grade commercial paper, corporate debt securities, and mutual funds whose assets conform to the investments that a federally chartered savings institution is otherwise authorized to make directly. As a member of FHLB, the Bank is required to maintain a specified investment in FHLB stock. See "Regulation and Supervision – Federal Home Loan Bank System" and "Office of the Comptroller of the Currency" for a discussion of additional restrictions on our investment activities.

ALCO considers various factors when making investment decisions, including the liquidity, credit, interest rate risk, and tax consequences of the proposed investment options. The composition of the investment portfolio will be affected by various market conditions, including the slope of the yield curve, the level of interest rates, the impact on the Bank's interest rate risk, the trend of net deposit flows, repayments of borrowings, loan originations and purchases, and commercial construction loan funding.

The general objectives of the Bank's investment portfolio are to provide liquidity when loan demand is high, to assist in maintaining earnings when loan demand is low, and to maximize earnings while satisfactorily managing liquidity risk, interest rate risk, reinvestment risk, and credit risk. Liquidity may increase or decrease depending upon the availability of funds and comparative yields on investments in relation to the return on loans. Cash flow projections are reviewed regularly and updated to ensure that adequate liquidity is maintained.

We have the ability to classify securities as either trading, available-for-sale ("AFS"), or held-to-maturity ("HTM") at the date of purchase. Securities that are purchased and held principally for resale in the near future are classified as trading securities and are reported at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported in the consolidated statements of income. AFS securities are reported at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI") within stockholders' equity, net of deferred income taxes. HTM securities are reported at cost, adjusted for amortization of premium and accretion of discount. Effective September 30, 2019, the
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Company adopted ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging: Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities and certain components of ASU 2019-04, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments that are applicable to ASU 2017-12. As part of the adoption, the Company reclassified its entire portfolio of HTM securities, totaling $444.7 million at amortized cost, to AFS securities. 

On a quarterly basis, management reviews securities for the presence of an other-than-temporary impairment. The process involves monitoring market events and other items that could impact issuers. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" for additional information. Management does not believe any other-than-temporary impairments existed at September 30, 2020.

Investment Securities. Our investment securities portfolio consists primarily of debentures issued by GSEs (primarily Federal National Mortgage Association ("FNMA"), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("FHLMC") and the Federal Home Loan Banks) and non-taxable municipal bonds. At September 30, 2020, our investment securities portfolio totaled $380.1 million. The portfolio consisted entirely of securities classified as AFS. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 4. Securities" and "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Financial Condition – Investment Securities" for additional information.

Mortgage-Backed Securities. At September 30, 2020, our MBS portfolio totaled $1.18 billion. The portfolio consisted entirely of securities classified as AFS and were primarily issued by GSEs. The principal and interest payments of MBS issued by GSEs are collateralized by the underlying mortgage assets with principal and interest payments guaranteed by the GSEs. The underlying mortgage assets are conforming mortgages that comply with FNMA and FHLMC underwriting guidelines, as applicable, and are therefore not considered subprime. See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data – Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – Note 4. Securities" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Financial Condition – Mortgage-Backed Securities" for additional information.

MBS generally yield less than the loans that underlie such securities because of the servicing fee retained by the servicer and the cost of payment guarantees or credit enhancements retained by the GSEs that reduce credit risk. However, MBS are generally more liquid than individual mortgage loans and may be used to collateralize certain borrowings and public unit deposits of the Bank.

When securities are purchased for a price other than par value, the difference between the price paid and par is accreted to or amortized against the interest earned over the life of the security, depending on whether a discount or premium to par was paid. Movements in interest rates affect prepayment rates which, in turn, affect the average lives of MBS and the speed at which the discount or premium is accreted to or amortized against earnings.

At September 30, 2020, the MBS portfolio included $70.5 million of collateralized mortgage obligations ("CMOs"). CMOs are special types of MBS in which the stream of principal and interest payments on the underlying mortgages or MBS are used to create investment classes with different maturities and, in some cases, different amortization schedules, as well as a residual interest, with each such class possessing different risk characteristics. We do not purchase residual interest bonds.

While MBS issued by FNMA and FHLMC carry a reduced credit risk compared to whole mortgage loans, these securities remain subject to the risk that a fluctuating interest rate environment, along with other factors such as the geographic distribution of the underlying mortgage loans, may alter the prepayment rate of the underlying mortgage loans and consequently affect both the prepayment speed and value of the securities. As noted above, the Bank, on some transactions, pays a premium over par value on MBS purchased. Large premiums could cause significant negative yield adjustments due to accelerated prepayments on the underlying mortgages. The balance of net premiums on our portfolio of MBS at September 30, 2020 was $11.9 million.

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The following table sets forth the composition of our investment and MBS portfolios as of the dates indicated. At September 30, 2020, our investment securities portfolio did not contain securities of any issuer with an aggregate book value in excess of 10% of our stockholders' equity, excluding those issued by GSEs.
September 30,
202020192018
Carrying% ofFairCarrying% ofFairCarrying% ofFair
ValueTotalValueValueTotalValueValueTotalValue
(Dollars in thousands)
AFS:
MBS$1,180,803 75.7 %$1,180,803 $936,487 77.7 %$936,487 $445,090 62.3 %$445,090 
GSE debentures370,340 23.7 370,340 249,954 20.8 249,954 265,398 37.1 265,398 
Municipal bonds9,807 0.6 9,807 18,422 1.5 18,422 4,126 0.6 4,126 
1,560,950 100.0 %1,560,950 1,204,863 100.0 %1,204,863 714,614 100.0 %714,614 
HTM: