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Section 1: 8-K (8-K)

maa-8k_20200220.htm
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 8-K

 

CURRENT REPORT

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported):  February 20, 2020

 

MID-AMERICA APARTMENT COMMUNITIES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Tennessee

001-12762

62-1543819

(State or Other Jurisdiction of incorporation)

(Commission File Number)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 

6815 Poplar Avenue, Suite 500

 

Germantown, Tennessee

38138

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

 

(901) 682-6600

(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

 

N/A

(Former name or former address, if changed since last report)

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions (see General Instruction A.2. below):

 

 

Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

 

 

 

Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

 

 

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

 

 

 

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13 e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading

Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $.01 per share (Mid-America Apartment Communities, Inc.)

MAA

New York Stock Exchange

8.50% Series I Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $.01 par value per share (Mid-America Apartment Communities, Inc.)

MAA*I

New York Stock Exchange

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (17 CFR §230.405) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (17 CFR §240.12b-2).

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 


 

ITEM 8.01Other Events.

 

Mid-America Apartment Communities, Inc., or the Company, is filing as Exhibit 99.1 (incorporated by reference herein) a description of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations related to the taxation of the Company as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, and the ownership and disposition of shares of the Company’s stock. The description contained in Exhibit 99.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K replaces and supersedes all prior descriptions of the U.S. federal income tax considerations related to the taxation of the Company as a REIT and the ownership and disposition of shares of the Company’s stock, to the extent such prior descriptions are inconsistent with the description contained in this Current Report on Form 8-K. Without limiting the generality of the preceding sentence, the description contained in this Current Report on Form 8-K supersedes and replaces in its entirety the information in the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (including, without limitation, the information in Exhibit 99.1 thereto) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 21, 2019.

 

ITEM 9.01Financial Statements and Exhibits.

 

(d)Exhibits.

 

Exhibit Number

 

Description

99.1

 

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

104

 

Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document)

 

 

 

 


 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

 

 

 

 

MID-AMERICA APARTMENT COMMUNITIES, INC.

 

 

 

 

Date:

February 20, 2020

 

/s/Albert M. Campbell, III

 

 

 

Albert M. Campbell, III

 

 

 

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

 

 

 

(Principal Financial Officer)

 

 

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Section 2: EX-99.1 (EX-99.1)

maa-ex991_6.htm

Exhibit 99.1

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

This section summarizes the current material U.S. federal income tax consequences generally resulting from our election to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, and the current material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership and disposition of our common stock and preferred stock. As used in this section, the terms “we” and “our” refer solely to Mid-America Apartment Communities, Inc. and not to our subsidiaries and affiliates.

Bass, Berry & Sims PLC has reviewed this section and is of the opinion that the statements contained in this summary insofar as such statements constitute matters of law, summaries of legal matters, or legal conclusions, fairly present and summarize, in all material respects, the matters referred to herein. This discussion is not exhaustive of all possible tax considerations and does not provide a detailed discussion of any state, local or non-U.S. tax considerations. This discussion does not address all aspects of taxation that may be relevant to particular investors in light of their personal investment or tax circumstances, or to certain types of investors that are subject to special treatment under the U.S. federal income tax laws, such as insurance companies, tax-exempt organizations (except to the limited extent discussed below under “— Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders”), financial institutions or broker-dealers, non-U.S. individuals and foreign corporations (except to the limited extent discussed below under “— Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders”), regulated investment companies and other persons subject to special tax rules. Moreover, this summary assumes that our stockholders hold our stock as a capital asset for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which generally means property held for investment. The statements in this section are based on the current U.S. federal income tax laws, including the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Treasury Department, or the Treasury Regulations, rulings and other administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS, and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect, and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect.  This discussion is for general purposes only and is not tax advice. We cannot assure you that new laws, interpretations of law, or court decisions, any of which may take effect retroactively, will not cause any statement in this section to be inaccurate.

We urge you to consult your own tax advisor regarding the specific tax consequences to you of acquisition, ownership and disposition of our securities and of our election to be taxed as a REIT. Specifically, you should consult your own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences of such acquisition, ownership, disposition and election, and regarding potential changes in applicable tax laws.

Taxation of Our Company

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the federal income tax laws beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We believe that, beginning with such taxable year, we have been organized and have operated in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code, and we intend to continue to operate in such a manner. No assurances can be given that our beliefs or expectations will be fulfilled, however, since qualification as a REIT depends on our ability to satisfy numerous asset, income, stock ownership and distribution tests described below, the satisfaction of which depends, in part, on our operating results.

The sections of the Code relating to qualification, operation and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth only the material aspects of those sections. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions and the related Treasury Regulations and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof.

If we qualify as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on the taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders because we will be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay. The benefit of that tax treatment is that it avoids the “double taxation,” or taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels, that generally results from owning stock in a corporation. In general, income earned by a REIT is taxed only at the stockholder level if such income is distributed by the REIT to its stockholders. We will be subject to federal tax, however, in the following circumstances:

 

We are subject to the corporate federal income tax on any REIT taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to our stockholders during, or within a specified time period after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

 


 

 

We are subject to tax, at the highest corporate rate, on:

 

net income from the sale or other disposition of property acquired through foreclosure (“foreclosure property”), as described below under “— Gross Income Tests — Foreclosure Property,” that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, and

 

other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property.

 

We are subject to a 100% tax on net income from sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below under “— Gross Income Tests,” but nonetheless qualify as a REIT because we meet certain other requirements, we will be subject to a 100% tax on:

 

the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, in either case, multiplied by

 

a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

If we fail to distribute during a calendar year at least the sum of: (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income required to be distributed from earlier periods, then we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amount we actually distributed.

 

If we fail any of the asset tests, other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or the 10% value test, as described below under “— Asset Tests,” as long as (1) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, (2) we file a description of each asset that caused such failure with the IRS, and (3) we dispose of the assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest federal corporate income tax rate (currently 21%) multiplied by the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

 

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, and such failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on transactions with a taxable REIT subsidiary, including the provision of services to us by a taxable REIT subsidiary, that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis.

 

If we acquire any asset from a C corporation, or a corporation that generally is subject to full corporate-level tax, in a merger or other transaction in which we acquire a tax basis in the asset that is determined by reference either to the C corporation’s tax basis in the asset or to another asset, we will pay tax at the highest federal corporate income tax rate applicable if we recognize gain on the sale or disposition of the asset during the five-year period after we acquire the asset. The amount of gain on which we will pay tax generally is the lesser of:

 

the amount of gain that we recognize at the time of the sale or disposition, and

 

the amount of gain that we would have recognized if we had sold the asset at the time we acquired it.

 

The earnings of taxable REIT subsidiaries are subject to federal corporate income tax.

In addition, we may be subject to a variety of taxes, including payroll taxes and state, local and non-U.S. income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations. We also could be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

On October 1, 2013, Colonial Properties Trust, an Alabama real estate investment trust that had made an election to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes (“Colonial”), merged with and into us (the “Colonial Merger”) in a transaction that was intended to qualify as a “reorganization” under Section 368(a)(1)(A) of the Code

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(a “368(a)(1)(A) Reorganization”). In connection with the Colonial Merger, we received a tax opinion that the Colonial Merger qualified as a 368(a)(1)(A) Reorganization.  If the Colonial Merger failed to qualify as a 368(a)(1)(A) Reorganization, however, and Colonial did not qualify as a REIT at the time of the Colonial Merger, Colonial would recognize gain or loss on the deemed transfer of its assets in the Colonial Merger, and we would be liable for a substantial tax liability and may be unable to qualify as a REIT.

On December 1, 2016, Post Properties, Inc., a Georgia corporation that had made an election to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes (“Post”), merged with and into us in a transaction that was intended to qualify as a 368(a)(1)(A) Reorganization. In connection with the Post Merger, we received a tax opinion that the Post Merger qualified as a 368(a)(1)(A) Reorganization.  If the Post Merger failed to qualify as a 368(a)(1)(A) Reorganization, however, and Post did not qualify as a REIT at the time of the Merger, Post would recognize gain or loss on the deemed transfer of its assets in the Post Merger, and we would be liable for a substantial tax liability and may be unable to qualify as a REIT.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

A REIT is a corporation, trust or association that satisfies each of the following requirements:

(1)

It is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

(2)

Its beneficial ownership is evidenced by transferable shares of stock, or by transferable shares or certificates of beneficial interest;

(3)

It would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, i.e. the REIT provisions;

(4)

It is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to special provisions of the federal income tax laws;

(5)

At least 100 persons are beneficial owners of its stock or ownership shares or certificates (determined without reference to any rules of attribution);

(6)

During the last half of any taxable year, not more than 50% in value of its outstanding stock or shares of beneficial interest are owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals, which the federal income tax laws define to include certain entities;

(7)

It elects to be a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes;

(8)

It uses a calendar year for federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the federal income tax laws; and

(9)

It meets certain other requirements described below, regarding the sources of its gross income, the nature and diversification of its assets and the distribution of its income.

We must satisfy requirements 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 during our entire taxable year and must satisfy requirement 5 during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. If we comply with certain requirements for ascertaining the beneficial ownership of our outstanding stock in a taxable year and have no reason to know that we violated requirement 6, we will be deemed to have satisfied requirement 6 for that taxable year. For purposes of determining stock ownership under requirement 6, an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes. An “individual,” however, generally does not include a trust that is a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust under the federal income tax laws, and beneficiaries of such a trust will be treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of requirement 6.

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Our charter provides for restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of our capital stock, in part, for the purpose of ensuring our compliance with requirements 5 and 6 set forth above. We believe we have issued sufficient stock with enough diversity of ownership to satisfy requirements 5 and 6 set forth above. For purposes of requirement 8, we have adopted December 31 as our year end for federal income tax purposes, and thereby satisfy this requirement.

Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. A “qualified REIT subsidiary” generally is a corporation, all of the stock of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by a REIT and that is not treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A corporation that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary” is treated as a division of the REIT that owns, directly or indirectly, all of its stock and not as a separate entity for federal income tax purposes. Thus, all assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of a “qualified REIT subsidiary” are treated as assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of the REIT that directly or indirectly owns the qualified REIT subsidiary. Consequently, in applying the REIT requirements described herein, the separate existence of any “qualified REIT subsidiary” that we own will be ignored, and all assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit of such subsidiary will be treated as our assets, liabilities, and items of income, deduction, and credit.

Other Disregarded Entities and Partnerships. An unincorporated domestic entity, such as a partnership or limited liability company, that has a single owner, as determined under the federal income tax laws, generally is not treated as an entity separate from its owner for federal income tax purposes. We own various direct and indirect interests in entities that are classified as partnerships and limited liability companies for state law purposes. Nevertheless, many of these entities currently are not treated as entities separate from their owners for federal income tax purposes because each such entity is treated as having a single owner for federal income tax purposes. Consequently, the assets and items of gross income of such entities will be treated as assets and items of gross income of their owners for federal income tax purposes, including the application of the various REIT qualification requirements.

An unincorporated domestic entity with two or more owners, as determined under the federal income tax laws, generally is taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is an owner of an entity that is taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, the REIT is treated as owning its proportionate share of the assets of the entity and as earning its allocable share of the gross income of the entity for purposes of the applicable REIT qualification tests. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of gross income of our operating partnership, Mid-America Apartments, L.P. (the “Operating Partnership”), and each other partnership, joint venture, or limited liability company that is taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and in which we own a direct or indirect equity interest is treated as our assets and items of gross income for purposes of applying the various REIT qualification tests. For purposes of the 10% value test (described in “— Asset Tests”), our proportionate share would be based on our proportionate interest in the equity interests and certain debt securities issued by the entity. For all of the other asset and income tests, our proportionate share would be based on our proportionate interest in the capital of the entity.

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. A REIT is permitted to own, directly or indirectly, up to 100% of the stock of one or more “taxable REIT subsidiaries.” The subsidiary and the REIT generally must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A corporation of which a taxable REIT subsidiary directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the securities, however, is automatically treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary without an election. Unlike a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” the separate existence of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not ignored for federal income tax purposes. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a fully taxable corporation that may earn income that would not be qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests, as described below, if earned directly by the parent REIT. Accordingly, a taxable REIT subsidiary generally is subject to corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow generated by us and our subsidiaries in the aggregate, and may reduce our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We are not treated as holding the assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary or as receiving any income that a taxable REIT subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by a taxable REIT subsidiary to us is an asset in our hands, and we will treat the distributions paid to us from such taxable REIT subsidiary, if any, as income. This treatment may affect our compliance with the gross income tests and asset tests. Because a REIT does not include the assets and income of taxable REIT subsidiaries in determining the REIT’s compliance with REIT requirements, such entities may be used by the REIT to undertake activities indirectly that the REIT requirements may otherwise preclude the REIT from doing directly or through a pass-through subsidiary (e.g., a partnership). If dividends are paid to us by

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one or more of our domestic taxable REIT subsidiaries that we may own, then a portion of such dividends that we distribute to our stockholders who are taxed at individual rates generally will be subject to federal income tax at the rates applicable to qualified dividend income rather than at the rates applicable to ordinary income. See “— Annual Distribution Requirements” and “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders — Distributions.”

A taxable REIT subsidiary pays federal income tax at the applicable corporate rate on its taxable income for each taxable year. Restrictions imposed on REITs and their taxable REIT subsidiaries are intended to ensure that taxable REIT subsidiaries will be subject to appropriate levels of federal income taxation. These restrictions limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a taxable REIT subsidiary to its parent REIT and impose a 100% excise tax on transactions between a taxable REIT subsidiary and its parent REIT, including services provided by a taxable REIT subsidiary to its parent REIT, or the REIT’s tenants that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We may engage in certain activities, such as the provision of noncustomary tenant services or third-party management services, indirectly through a taxable REIT subsidiary to the extent that we determine that such activities could jeopardize our REIT status if we engaged in the activities directly.  We also may dispose of an unwanted asset through a taxable REIT subsidiary as necessary or convenient to avoid the potential imposition of the 100% tax on income from prohibited transactions. See “— Gross Income Tests — Rents from Real Property” and “— Gross Income Tests — Prohibited Transactions.”

Gross Income Tests

We must satisfy two gross income tests annually to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of defined types of income that we derive, directly or indirectly, from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property or qualified temporary investment income. Qualifying income for purposes of that 75% gross income test generally includes:

 

rents from real property;

 

interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property;

 

dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, stock or shares of beneficial interest in other REITs;

 

gain from the sale of real estate assets;

 

income and gain derived from foreclosure property; and

 

income derived from the temporary investment of new capital that is attributable to the issuance of our stock or a public offering of our debt with a maturity date of at least five years and that we receive during the one-year period beginning on the date on which we receive such new capital.

Second, in general, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must consist of income that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, other types of interest and dividends, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or any combination of these.

Cancellation of indebtedness income and gross income from a sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. In addition, any gains from “hedging transactions,” as defined in “— Hedging Transactions,” that are clearly and timely identified as such will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Finally, certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests.

The following paragraphs discuss the specific application of the gross income tests to us.

Rents from Real Property. Rent that we receive for the use of our real property will qualify as “rents from real property,” which is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, only if the following conditions are met:

First, the rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. Participating or percentage rent, however, will qualify as “rents from real property” if it is based on percentages of receipts or sales and the percentages:

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are fixed at the time the leases are entered into;

 

are not renegotiated during the term of the leases in a manner that has the effect of basing percentage rent on income or profits; and

 

conform with normal business practice.

More generally, the rent will not qualify as “rents from real property” if, considering the relevant lease and all the surrounding circumstances, the arrangement does not conform with normal business practice, but is in reality used as a means of basing the rent on income or profits.    

Second, we generally must not own, actually or constructively, 10% or more of the stock or the assets or net profits of any tenant, referred to as a “related-party tenant,” other than a taxable REIT subsidiary. The constructive ownership rules generally provide that, if 10% or more in value of our stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for any person, we are considered as owning the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for such person. Because the constructive ownership rules are broad and it is not possible to monitor direct and indirect transfers of our stock continually, no absolute assurance can be given that such transfers or other events of which we have no knowledge will not cause us to own constructively 10% or more of a tenant (or a subtenant, in which case only rent attributable to the subtenant is disqualified), other than a taxable REIT subsidiary.

Under an exception to the related-party tenant rule described in the preceding paragraph, rent that we receive from a taxable REIT subsidiary will qualify as “rents from real property” as long as (1) at least 90% of the leased space in the property is leased to persons other than taxable REIT subsidiaries and related-party tenants, and (2) the amount paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary to rent space at the property is substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants of the property for comparable space. The “substantially comparable” requirement must be satisfied when the lease is entered into, when it is extended, and when the lease is modified, if the modification increases the rent paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary. If the requirement that at least 90% of the leased space in the related property is rented to unrelated tenants is met when a lease is entered into, extended, or modified, such requirement will continue to be met as long as there is no increase in the space leased to any taxable REIT subsidiary or related-party tenant. Any increased rent attributable to a modification of a lease with a taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock (a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary”) will not be treated as “rents from real property.”

Third, we must not furnish or render noncustomary services, other than a de minimis amount of noncustomary services, as described below, to the tenants of our properties other than through an independent contractor from whom we do not derive or receive any income or through a taxable REIT subsidiary. We generally may provide services directly to our tenants, however, to the extent that such services are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not considered to be provided for the tenants’ convenience. In addition, we may provide a minimal amount of noncustomary services to the tenants of a property, other than through an independent contractor from whom we do not derive or receive any income or a taxable REIT subsidiary, as long as the income attributable to the services (valued at not less than 150% of the direct cost of performing such services) does not exceed 1% of our gross income from such property. If the rent from a lease does not qualify as “rents from real property” because we furnish noncustomary services to the tenants of the property having a value in excess of 1% of our gross income from the related property, other than through a qualifying independent contractor or through a taxable REIT subsidiary, none of the rent from the property will qualify as “rents from real property.”  We do not intend to provide any noncustomary services to our tenants, unless such services are provided through independent contractors from whom we do not derive or receive any income or through taxable REIT subsidiaries.

If the rent from a lease does not qualify as “rents from real property” because (1) the rent is based on the net income or profits of the tenant, (2) the lessee is a related-party tenant or fails to qualify for the exception to the related-party tenant rule for qualifying taxable REIT subsidiaries, or (3) we furnish noncustomary services to the tenants of the property having a value in excess of 1% of our gross income from the related property, other than through a qualifying independent contractor or a taxable REIT subsidiary, we could lose our REIT status, unless we qualified for certain statutory relief provisions, because we may be unable to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income test.

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Tenants may be required to pay, in addition to base rent, reimbursements for certain amounts we are obligated to pay to third parties (such as a lessee’s proportionate share of a property’s operational or capital expenses), penalties for nonpayment or late payment of rent or additions to rent. These and other similar payments should qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent they do not, they should be treated as interest that qualifies for the 95% gross income test.

In addition, rent attributable to any personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property will not qualify as “rents from real property” if the rent attributable to such personal property exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease. The rent attributable to personal property under a lease is the amount that bears the same ratio to total rent under the lease for the taxable year as the average of the fair market values of the leased personal property at the beginning and at the end of the taxable year bears to the average of the aggregate fair market values of both the real and personal property covered by the lease at the beginning and at the end of such taxable year, or the “personal property ratio”. If a portion of the rent that we receive from a property does not qualify as “rents from real property” because the rent attributable to personal property exceeds 15% of the total rent for a taxable year, the portion of the rent that is attributable to personal property will not be qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Thus, if such rent attributable to personal property, plus any other income that is nonqualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, during a taxable year exceeds 5% of our gross income during the year, we would fail to qualify as a REIT, unless we were able to utilize certain statutory relief provisions. We believe that any income attributable to personal property will not jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT. There can be no assurance, however, that the IRS would not challenge our calculation of the personal property ratio for each of our leases, or that a court would agree with our calculation. If such a challenge were successful, we could fail to satisfy the 75% or 95% gross income test and thus potentially fail to qualify as a REIT.

Interest. For purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of such amount depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. An amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest”, however, solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Furthermore, to the extent that interest from a loan that is based on the profit or net cash proceeds from the sale of the property securing the loan constitutes a “shared appreciation provision,” income attributable to such participation feature will be treated as gain from the sale of the secured property.

We may invest opportunistically from time to time in mortgage debt and mezzanine loans.  Interest on debt secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property, including, for this purpose, discount points, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees, and late payment charges that are not compensation for services, generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In general, if a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan, determined as of (i) the date we agreed to acquire or originate the loan or (ii) in the event of a “significant modification,” the date we modified the loan, then a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. The portion of the interest income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test will be equal to the interest income attributable to the portion of the principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property. The principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property is the amount by which the loan exceeds the value of the real estate that is security for the loan.

Mezzanine loans are loans secured by equity interests in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than by a direct mortgage of the real property. IRS Revenue Procedure 2003-65 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan, if it meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests described below, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. We anticipate that any mezzanine loans that we originate or acquire typically will not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. Nevertheless, we intend to invest in any mezzanine loans in a manner that will enable us to continue to satisfy the gross income tests and asset tests.

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Dividends. Dividends received by us from a taxable REIT subsidiary will qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Our share of any dividends received from any other REIT in which we own an equity interest will be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests.  Any dividends received by us from a qualified REIT subsidiary will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

Prohibited Transactions. A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business, and net income derived from such prohibited transactions is excluded from gross income solely for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Whether a REIT holds an asset “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends, however, on the facts and circumstances that exist from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. A safe harbor to the characterization of the sale of property by a REIT as a prohibited transaction and the resulting imposition of the 100% prohibited transactions tax is available, however, if the following requirements are met:

 

the REIT has held the property for not less than two years;

 

the aggregate expenditures made by the REIT, or any partner of the REIT, during the two-year period preceding the date of the sale that are includable in the tax basis of the property do not exceed 30% of the selling price of the property;

 

either (1) during the taxable year in question, the REIT did not make more than seven property sales other than sales of foreclosure property or sales to which Section 1033 of the Code applies, (2) the aggregate adjusted tax bases of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 10% of the aggregate tax bases of all of the assets of the REIT at the beginning of the year, (3) the aggregate fair market value of all such properties sold by the REIT during the year did not exceed 10% of the aggregate fair market value of all of the assets of the REIT at the beginning of the year, (4) the ratio of (i) the aggregate adjusted tax bases of property (other than sales of foreclosure property or sales to which Section 1033 of the Code applies) sold during the three taxable year period ending with the taxable year in question, divided by (ii) the sum of the aggregate adjusted tax bases of all of the assets of the REIT as of the beginning of each of the three taxable years which are part of such applicable three taxable year period, did not exceed 20%, or (5) the ratio of (i) the fair market value of property (other than sales of foreclosure property or sales to which Section 1033 of the Code applies) sold during the three taxable year period ending with the taxable year in question, divided by (ii) the sum of the fair market value of all of the assets of the REIT as of the beginning of each of the three taxable years which are part of such applicable three taxable year period, did not exceed 20%;

 

in the case of property not acquired through foreclosure or lease termination, the REIT has held the property for at least two years for the production of rental income; and

 

if the REIT has made more than seven property sales (excluding sales of foreclosure property) during the taxable year, substantially all of the marketing and development expenditures with respect to the property were made through an independent contractor from whom the REIT derives no income.

We will attempt to comply with the terms of the safe-harbor provisions in the federal income tax laws prescribing when an asset sale will not be characterized as a prohibited transaction. We cannot assure you, however, that we will be able to comply with the safe-harbor provisions or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property held “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.” We may hold and dispose of certain properties through a taxable REIT subsidiary if we conclude that the sale or other disposition of such property may not fall within the safe-harbor provisions. The 100% prohibited transaction tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a taxable REIT subsidiary although such gains will be taxed to the taxable REIT subsidiary at federal corporate income tax rates.  

Foreclosure Property. We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, which includes certain foreign currency gains and related deductions, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. Gross income from foreclosure property, however, will qualify under the 75% and 95% gross income tests. “Foreclosure property” is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

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that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;

 

for which the related loan or leased property was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and

 

for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.

A REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property, however, where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor. Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property (or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury). This period (as extended, if applicable) terminates, and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

 

on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

 

on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement, where more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent; or

 

which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business which is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or a taxable REIT subsidiary.

Hedging Transactions. From time to time, we or our subsidiaries may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our or our subsidiaries’ assets or liabilities. Our or our subsidiaries’ hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase such items, and futures and forward contracts. Income and gain from “hedging transactions” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. A “hedging transaction” means either (1) any transaction entered into in the normal course of our or our subsidiaries’ trade or business primarily to manage the risk of interest rate, price changes, or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, (2) any transaction entered into primarily to manage the risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test (or any property which generates such income or gain) or (3) transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions with respect to which the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was disposed of or extinguished. We are required to clearly identify any such hedging transaction before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into and to satisfy other identification requirements. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT; however, no assurance can be given that our hedging activities will give rise to income that qualifies for purposes of either or both of the gross income tests.

Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests. We intend to monitor our sources of income, including any non-qualifying income received by us, and manage our assets so as to ensure our compliance with the gross income tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the gross income tests for any taxable year, we nevertheless may qualify as a REIT for that year if we are able to utilize certain relief provisions of the federal income tax laws. Those relief provisions are available if:

 

our failure to meet the applicable test is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect; and

 

following such failure for any taxable year, we file a schedule of the sources of our income with the IRS in accordance with the Treasury Regulations.

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We cannot predict, however, whether any failure to meet these tests will enable us to utilize the relief provisions. In addition, as discussed above in “— Taxation of Our Company,” even if the relief provisions apply, we would incur a 100% tax on the gross income attributable to the greater of (1) the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test, or (2) the amount by which we fail the 95% gross income test, multiplied, in either case, by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

Asset Tests

To qualify as a REIT, we also must satisfy the following asset tests at the end of each quarter of each taxable year.

First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets, or the “75% asset test,” must consist of:

 

cash or cash items, including certain receivables;

 

government securities;

 

interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds and personal property leased in connection with such real property, provided that the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under such lease;

 

interests in mortgage loans secured by real property;

 

stock or shares of beneficial interest in other REITs;

 

debt instruments of publicly-offered REITs; and

 

investments in stock or debt instruments during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt with at least a five-year term.

Second, of our assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test described above, the value of our interest in any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, or the “5% asset test.”

Third, of our assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test described above, we may not own more than 10% of the voting power of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, or the “10% vote test,” or more than 10% of the value of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, or the “10% value test.”

Fourth, no more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Fifth, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries and other taxable subsidiaries and other assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test.

Sixth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of debt instruments of publicly-offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly-offered REITs as assets that qualify for the 75% test solely because such debt instruments were issued by a publicly-offered REIT;

For purposes of the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test and the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include stock in another REIT, equity or debt securities of a qualified REIT subsidiary or taxable REIT subsidiary, mortgage loans that constitute real estate assets, or equity interests in an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. The term “securities,” however, generally includes debt securities issued by an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes or another REIT, except that for purposes of the 10% value test, the term “securities” does not include:

 

“Straight debt” securities, which is defined as a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (1) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into equity, and (2) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors. “Straight debt” securities do not include any securities issued by an entity taxed as a partnership or a corporation in which we or any controlled taxable REIT subsidiary hold

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non-“straight debt” securities that have an aggregate value of more than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities. “Straight debt” securities include, however, debt subject to the following contingencies:

 

a contingency relating to the time of payment of interest or principal, as long as either (1) there is no change to the effective yield of the debt obligation, other than a change to the annual yield that does not exceed the greater of 0.25% or 5% of the annual yield, or (2) neither the aggregate issue price nor the aggregate face amount of the issuer’s debt obligations held by us exceeds $1 million and no more than 12 months of unaccrued interest on the debt obligations can be required to be prepaid; and

 

a contingency relating to the time or amount of payment on a default or prepayment of a debt obligation, as long as the contingency is consistent with customary commercial practice.

 

Any loan to an individual or an estate.

 

Any “section 467 rental agreement,” other than an agreement with a related-party tenant.

 

Any obligation to pay “rents from real property.”

 

Certain securities issued by governmental entities.

 

Any security issued by a REIT.

 

Any debt instrument issued by an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we are an owner to the extent of our proportionate interest in the debt and equity securities of the entity.

 

Any debt instrument issued by an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes not described in the preceding bullet points if at least 75% of the entity’s gross income, excluding income from prohibited transactions, is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test described above in “— Gross Income Tests.”

For purposes of the 10% value test, our proportionate share of the assets of an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes is our proportionate interest in any securities issued by such entity, without regard to the securities described in the preceding two bullet points above.

We believe that the assets that we hold satisfy the foregoing asset test requirements. We will not obtain, however, nor are we required to obtain under the federal income tax laws, independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the value of our assets and securities or the real estate collateral for any mortgage or mezzanine loans that we may originate or acquire. Moreover, the values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination. As a result, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our ownership of securities and other assets violates one or more of the asset tests applicable to REITs.

As noted above, we may invest opportunistically in loans secured by interests in real property. If the outstanding principal balance of a loan at the end of a calendar quarter exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing such loan as of the date we agreed to originate or acquire the loan, a portion of such loan likely will not constitute a qualifying real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. Although the law on the matter is not entirely clear, it appears that the nonqualifying portion of such loan will be equal to the portion of the loan amount that exceeds the value of the associated real property that serves as security for that loan.

Failure to Satisfy Asset Tests. We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will manage our portfolio in order to comply at all times with such tests. Nevertheless, if we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, we will not lose our REIT status if:

 

we satisfied the asset tests at the end of the preceding calendar quarter; and

 

the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset test requirements arose from changes in the market values of our assets and was not caused, in part or in whole, by the acquisition of one or more non-qualifying assets.

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If we did not satisfy the condition described in the second bullet point immediately above, we still could avoid REIT disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which the discrepancy arose.

In the event that we violate the 5% asset test, the 10% vote test or the 10% value test described above, we will not lose our REIT status if (1) the failure is de minimis (i.e., up to the lesser of 1% of our assets or $10 million) and (2) we dispose of assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure. In the event of a failure of any of such asset tests other than a de minimis failure, as described in the preceding sentence, we will not lose our REIT status if (1) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, (2) we file a description of each asset causing the failure with the IRS, (3) we dispose of assets causing the failure or otherwise comply with the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify the failure, and (4) we pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest federal corporate income tax rate (currently 21%) multiplied by the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

Annual Distribution Requirements

Each taxable year, we must make distributions, other than capital gain dividend distributions and deemed distributions of retained capital gain, to our stockholders in an aggregate amount at least equal to:

 

the sum of:

 

90% of our “REIT taxable income,” computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain, and

 

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property, minus

 

the sum of certain items of non-cash income.

Generally, we must pay such distributions in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if either (1) we declare the distribution before we timely file our federal income tax return for the year and pay the distribution on or before the first regular dividend payment date after such declaration or (2) we declare the distribution in October, November, or December of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified day in any such month, and we actually pay the dividend before the end of January of the following year. In both instances, these distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the annual distribution requirement.

We will pay federal income tax on any taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to our stockholders. Furthermore, if we fail to distribute during a calendar year, or by the end of January of the following calendar year in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, at least the sum of:

 

85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year,

 

95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year, and

 

any undistributed taxable income from prior years,

we will incur a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the amounts we actually distributed.

We may elect to retain and pay federal income tax on the net long-term capital gain that we recognize in a taxable year. If we so elect, we will be treated as having distributed any such retained amount for purposes of the 4% nondeductible excise tax described above. We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the annual distribution requirement and to minimize corporate income tax and avoid the 4% nondeductible excise tax.

In addition, if we were to recognize “built-in gain” on the disposition of any assets acquired from an entity treated as a C corporation for federal income tax purposes in a transaction in which our tax basis in the assets was determined by reference to such entity’s tax basis (for instance, if the assets were acquired in a tax-free reorganization), we would be required to distribute at least 90% of the built-in-gain net of the tax we would pay on

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such gain. “Built-in gain” is the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset (measured at the time of acquisition) over (2) the tax basis of the asset (measured at the time of acquisition).

It is possible that, from time to time, we may experience timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses and the inclusion of that income and deduction of such expenses in arriving at our REIT taxable income. Further, it is possible that, from time to time, we may be allocated a share of net capital gain from an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we own an interest that is attributable to the sale of depreciated property that exceeds our allocable share of cash attributable to that sale. As a result of the foregoing, we may have less cash than is necessary to make distributions to our stockholders that are sufficient to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income or even to meet the annual distribution requirement. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or issue additional stock or, if possible, pay dividends consisting, in whole or in part, of our stock or debt securities.

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to correct a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year. We may include such deficiency dividends in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Although we may be able to avoid income tax on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based on the amount of any deduction we take for deficiency dividends.

Recordkeeping Requirements

We must maintain certain records in order to qualify as a REIT. To avoid paying monetary penalties, we must demand, on an annual basis, information from certain of our stockholders designed to disclose the actual ownership of our outstanding stock, and we must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with such demand as part of our records. A stockholder that fails or refuses to comply with such demand is required by the Treasury Regulations to submit a statement with its tax return disclosing the actual ownership of our stock and other information. We intend to comply with these recordkeeping requirements.

Failure to Qualify as a REIT

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, we could avoid disqualification if our failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.  In addition, as discussed above, there are relief provisions available under the Code for a failure of the gross income tests and asset tests, as described in “— Gross Income Tests” and “— Asset Tests.”

If we were to fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, and no relief provision were available, we would be subject to (i) federal income tax on our taxable income at the applicable federal corporate income tax rate and (ii) with respect to taxable years ended on or before December 31, 2017, any applicable federal alternative minimum tax.  In calculating our taxable income for a year in which we failed to qualify as a REIT, we would not be able to deduct from our taxable income amounts distributed to our stockholders, and we would not be required under the Code to distribute any amounts to our stockholders for that year.  In such event, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, distributions to our stockholders generally would be taxable to our stockholders as ordinary income.  Subject to certain limitations of the federal income tax laws, our corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends received deduction, and stockholders taxed at individual rates may be eligible for a maximum federal income tax rate of 20% on such dividends.  Unless we qualified for relief under the statutory relief provisions described in the preceding paragraph, we also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to qualify as a REIT.  We cannot predict whether in all circumstances we would qualify for such statutory relief.

If Colonial failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, and no relief provision applied, we would be liable for corporate federal income tax and any applicable federal corporate alternative minimum tax on Colonial’s taxable income, but only to the extent that Colonial would have owed such tax in the event that the Colonial Merger had not occurred. In calculating its taxable income for a year in which it failed to qualify as a REIT, Colonial would not be able to deduct any amounts that it distributed to its stockholders. We cannot predict whether in all circumstances Colonial would qualify for such statutory relief. In addition, if Colonial failed to qualify as a REIT for a prior taxable year, then with respect to any assets of Colonial that we acquired through the

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Colonial Merger, we would be required to pay tax at the highest corporate rate applicable on any built-in gain on a taxable disposition of any such assets prior to October 1, 2018.

If Post failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, and no relief provision applied, we would be liable for corporate federal income tax and any applicable federal corporate alternative minimum tax on Post’s taxable income, but only to the extent that Post would have owed such tax in the event that the Post Merger had not occurred. In calculating its taxable income for a year in which it failed to qualify as a REIT, Post would not be able to deduct any amounts that it distributed to its stockholders. We cannot predict whether in all circumstances Post would qualify for such statutory relief. In addition, if Post failed to qualify as a REIT for a prior taxable year, then with respect to any assets of Post that we acquired through the Post Merger, we would be required to pay tax at the highest corporate rate applicable on any built-in gain on a taxable disposition of any such assets prior to December 1, 2021.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

For purposes of our discussion, the term “U.S. stockholder” means a holder of our common stock or preferred stock that, for federal income tax purposes, is:

 

a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes) created or organized under the laws of the United States, any of its states or the District of Columbia;

 

an estate whose income is subject to federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

any trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.

If a partnership, entity or arrangement taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes (a “partnership”) holds our stock, the federal income tax treatment of an owner of the partnership generally will depend on the status of the owner and the activities of the partnership. If you are an owner of a partnership that may acquire our stock, you should consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of our stock by the partnership.

Distributions. If we qualify as a REIT, distributions made out of our current and accumulated earnings and profits that we do not designate as capital gain dividends or retained long-term capital gains will be treated as dividends to taxable U.S. stockholders. In determining the extent to which a distribution with respect to our stock constitutes a dividend for federal income tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock and then to distributions with respect to our common stock. If we qualify as a REIT, a corporate U.S. stockholder will not qualify for the dividends-received deduction, which generally is available to corporations, upon the receipt of dividends from us. Dividends paid to a U.S. stockholder generally will not qualify for the tax rates applicable to “qualified dividend income.” Qualified dividend income generally includes dividends paid by domestic C corporations and certain qualified foreign corporations to U.S. stockholders that are taxed at individual rates. Because we generally are not subject to federal income tax on the portion of our REIT taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders, our dividends generally will not constitute qualified dividend income.

The highest marginal individual income tax rate on ordinary income currently is 37% (which rate will apply for taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025). For taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025, certain U.S. holders, including individuals, estates and certain trusts, generally may deduct an amount equal to 20% of the dividends received from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income.  As a result of such 20% deduction, the maximum effective rate for such U.S. holders with respect to dividends paid by us, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income,  is 29.6% for taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025.

The federal income tax rates applicable to qualified dividend income generally will apply, however, to our ordinary REIT dividends, if any, that are (1) attributable to qualified dividends received by us from non-REIT corporations, such as any taxable REIT subsidiaries, or (2) attributable to income recognized by us and on which we

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have paid federal corporate income tax (e.g., to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our taxable income). In general, to qualify for the reduced federal income tax rate on qualified dividend income under such circumstances, a U.S. stockholder must hold our stock for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which our stock becomes ex-dividend.

Any distribution we declare in October, November, or December of any year that is payable to a U.S. stockholder of record on a specified date in any of those months and is attributable to our current and accumulated earnings and profits for such year of declaration will be treated as paid by us and received by the U.S. stockholder on December 31 of that year, provided that we actually pay the distribution during January of the following calendar year.

Distributions to a U.S. stockholder which we designate as capital gain dividends generally will be treated as long-term capital gain, without regard to the period for which the U.S. stockholder has held our stock. See “— Capital Gains and Losses” below. A corporate U.S. stockholder may be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

We may elect to retain and pay federal corporate income tax on the net long-term capital gain that we receive in a taxable year. In that case, to the extent that we designate such amount in a timely notice to our stockholders, a U.S. stockholder would be taxed on its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain. In addition, the U.S. stockholder would receive a credit or refund for its proportionate share of the federal corporate income tax we paid, and the U.S. stockholder would increase its tax basis in our stock by the amount of its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain, minus its share of the federal corporate income tax we paid.

A U.S. stockholder will not incur federal income tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the distribution does not exceed the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our stock. Instead, the distribution will reduce the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our stock, and any amount in excess of both its share of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and its adjusted tax basis will be treated as capital gain, long-term if the stock has been held for more than one year, provided the stock is a capital asset in the hands of the U.S. stockholder.

U.S. stockholders may not include in their individual federal income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses. Instead, these losses are generally carried over by us, subject to certain limitations, for potential offset against our future income. Taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our stock will not be treated as passive activity income, and, therefore, U.S. stockholders generally will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses,” such as, for example, losses from certain types of entities in which the U.S. stockholder is treated as a limited partner for federal income tax purposes, against such income. In addition, taxable distributions from us and gain from the disposition of our stock generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitations. We will notify U.S. stockholders after the close of our taxable year as to the portions of the distributions attributable to that taxable year that constitute ordinary income, return of capital and capital gain.

Dispositions.  A U.S. stockholder who is not a dealer in securities generally must treat any gain or loss realized on a taxable disposition of our stock as long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder has held such stock for more than one year, and otherwise as short-term capital gain or loss. In general, a U.S. stockholder will realize gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between (1) the sum of the fair market value of any property and the amount of cash received in such disposition and (2) the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in such stock. A U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our stock generally will equal the U.S. stockholder’s acquisition cost, increased by the excess of undistributed net capital gains deemed distributed by us to the U.S. stockholder over the federal corporate income tax deemed paid by the U.S. stockholder on such gains and reduced by any returns of capital. However, a U.S. stockholder must treat any loss on a sale or exchange of our stock held by such stockholder for six months or less as a long-term capital loss to the extent of capital gain dividends and any other actual or deemed distributions from us that such U.S. stockholder treats as long-term capital gain. All or a portion of any loss that a U.S. stockholder realizes on a taxable disposition of shares of our stock may be disallowed if the U.S. stockholder purchases other shares of our stock within 30 days before or after the disposition.

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Capital Gains and Losses. The federal income tax rate differential between long-term capital gain and ordinary income for non-corporate taxpayers may be significant. A taxpayer generally must hold a capital asset for more than one year for gain or loss derived from its sale or exchange to be treated as long-term capital gain or loss. The maximum federal income tax rate on ordinary income applicable to U.S. stockholders that are taxed at individual rates currently is 37% (which rate will apply for our taxable years beginning in 2018 through our taxable year ending in 2025). For taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025, certain U.S. holders, including individuals, estates  and certain trusts, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income.  As a result of such 20% deduction, the maximum effective rate for such U.S. holders with respect to dividends paid by us that are taxable as ordinary income is 29.6% for taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2025. The maximum federal income tax rate on long-term capital gain applicable to U.S. stockholders that are taxed at individual rates currently is 20%. The maximum tax rate on long-term capital gain from the sale or exchange of “section 1250 property” (i.e., generally, depreciable real property) is 25% to the extent the gain would have been treated as ordinary income if the property were “section 1245 property” (i.e., generally, depreciable personal property). We generally will designate whether a distribution that we designate as capital gain dividends (and any retained capital gain that we are deemed to distribute) is attributable to the sale or exchange of “section 1250 property.” The characterization of income as capital gain or ordinary income may affect the deductibility of capital losses. A non-corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses not offset by capital gains against its ordinary income only up to a maximum annual amount of $3,000. A non-corporate taxpayer may carry forward unused capital losses indefinitely. A corporate taxpayer must pay tax on its net capital gain at federal corporate income tax rates, whether or not such gains are classified as long-term capital gains. A corporate taxpayer may deduct capital losses only to the extent of capital gains, with unused losses carried back three years and forward five years.

Additional Medicare Tax.  A taxable U.S. stockholder that is an individual, an estate or an enumerated trust and that has taxable income in excess of certain thresholds (currently $250,000 for married couples filing jointly, $125,000 for married couples filing separately, $200,000 for single filers and heads of household and $12,500 for estates and trusts) generally is subject to a 3.8% Medicare tax on dividends received from us and on gain from the sale of our stock.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders

Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts (“qualified trusts”) and individual retirement accounts and annuities, generally are exempt from federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their “unrelated business taxable income,” or UBTI. Amounts that we distribute to tax-exempt stockholders generally should not constitute UBTI. If a tax-exempt stockholder were to finance its acquisition of our stock with debt, however, a portion of the distribution that it received from us would constitute UBTI pursuant to the “debt-financed property” rules. Furthermore, social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, and qualified group legal services plans that are exempt from taxation under special provisions of the federal income tax laws are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions that they receive from us as UBTI.

Finally, in certain circumstances, a qualified trust that owns more than 10% of the value of our stock must treat a percentage of the dividends that it receives from us as UBTI. Such percentage is equal to the gross income that we derive from unrelated trades or businesses, determined as if we were a qualified trust, divided by our total gross income for the year in which we pay the dividends. Such rule applies to a qualified trust holding more than 10% of the value of our stock only if:

 

 

we are classified as a “pension-held REIT”; and

 

 

the amount of gross income that we derive from unrelated trades or businesses for the year in which we pay the dividends, determined as if we were a qualified trust, is at least 5% of our total gross income for such year.

We will be classified as a “pension-held REIT” if:

 

 

we qualify as a REIT by reason of the modification of the rule requiring that no more than 50% of our

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stock be owned by five or fewer individuals that allows the beneficiaries of the qualified trust to be treated as holding our stock in proportion to their actuarial interests in the qualified trust; and

 

 

either:

 

 

one qualified trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock; or

 

 

a group of qualified trusts, of which each qualified trust holds more than 10% of the value of our stock, collectively owns more than 50% of the value of our stock.

 

As a result of limitations included in our charter on the transfer and ownership of our stock, we do not expect to be treated as a “pension-held REIT”.  Because shares of our common stock are publicly traded, however, we cannot guarantee that we will not be treated as a “pension-held REIT”.  

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

For purposes of our discussion, the term “non-U.S. stockholder” means a holder of our stock that is not a U.S. stockholder, an entity or arrangement taxed as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes or a tax-exempt stockholder.  Special rules may apply to non-U.S. stockholders that are subject to special treatment under the Code, including controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies, U.S. expatriates and foreign persons eligible for benefits under an applicable income tax treaty with the United States.

We urge non-U.S. stockholders to consult their own tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state, local and non-U.S. income tax laws on the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions.  A non-U.S. stockholder that receives a distribution that is not attributable to gain from our sale or exchange of a “United States real property interest,” or a USRPI (discussed below), and that we do not designate as a capital gain dividend or retained long-term capital gain will recognize ordinary income to the extent that we pay such distribution out of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. A withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of the distribution ordinarily will apply unless an applicable tax treaty reduces or eliminates the tax. A non-U.S. stockholder generally will be subject to federal income tax at graduated rates, however, on any distribution treated as effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, in the same manner as U.S. stockholders are taxed on distributions. A corporate non-U.S. stockholder may, in addition, be subject to the 30% branch profits tax with respect to any such distribution. We plan to withhold federal income tax at the rate of 30% on the gross amount of any distribution paid to a non-U.S. stockholder unless either:

 

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. stockholder submits an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E to us evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate;

 

the non-U.S. stockholder submits an IRS Form W-8ECI to us claiming that the distribution is effectively connected income; or

 

the distribution is treated as attributable to a sale of a USRPI under FIRPTA (discussed below).

A non-U.S. stockholder will not incur tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the excess portion of such distribution does not exceed such non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our stock. Instead, the excess portion of such distribution will reduce the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our stock. A non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to tax on a distribution that exceeds both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our stock, if the non-U.S. stockholder otherwise would be subject to tax on gain from the sale or disposition of our stock, as described below. See “— Dispositions” below. Under FIRPTA (discussed below), we may be required to withhold 15% of any distribution that exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits. Although we intend to withhold at a rate of 30% on the entire amount of any distribution (other than a distribution attributable to a sale of a USRPI), to the extent that we do not do so, we may withhold at a rate of 15% on any portion of a distribution not subject to withholding at a rate of 30%. Because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we may withhold tax on the

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entire amount of any distribution. A non-U.S. stockholder may obtain a refund of amounts that we withhold, however, if we later determine that a distribution in fact exceeded our current and accumulated earnings and profits.

For any year in which we qualify as a REIT, the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, may apply to our sale or exchange of a USRPI. A USRPI includes certain interests in real property and stock in corporations at least 50% of whose assets consist of interests in real property. Under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. stockholder is taxed on distributions attributable to gain from sales of USRPIs as if such gain were effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder. A non-U.S. stockholder thus would be taxed on such a distribution at the normal capital gains rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of a nonresident alien individual. A non-U.S. corporate stockholder not entitled to treaty relief or exemption also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such a distribution.

If a class of our stock is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States (any such class of our stock referred to as a “publicly traded class”), capital gain distributions to a non-U.S. stockholder in respect of stock of such publicly traded class that is attributable to our sale of real property will be treated as ordinary dividends rather than as gain from the sale of a USRPI, as long as such non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of the outstanding stock of such publicly traded class at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution. As a result, non-U.S. stockholders owning 10% or less of the outstanding stock of such publicly traded class generally would be subject to withholding tax on such capital gain distributions in the same manner as they are subject to withholding tax on other distributions. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly-traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of the outstanding stock of a publicly traded class. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules. Except as described in the immediately preceding two sentences, if a non-U.S. stockholder owned more than 10% of the outstanding stock of a publicly traded class at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution, capital gain distributions to such non-U.S. stockholder in respect of the stock of such publicly traded class that are attributable to our sale of USRPIs would be subject to tax under FIRPTA, as described above.  

If a distribution is subject to FIRPTA, we must withhold a percentage of such distribution that we could designate as a capital gain dividend equal to the federal corporate income tax rate (currently 21%).  A non-U.S. stockholder may receive a credit against its tax liability for the amount that we withhold. Moreover, if a non-U.S. stockholder disposes of our stock during the 30-day period preceding a dividend payment, and such non-U.S. stockholder (or a person related to such non-U.S. stockholder) acquires or enters into a contract or option to acquire our stock within 61 days of the first day of the 30-day period described above, and any portion of such dividend payment would, but for the disposition, be treated as a USRPI capital gain to such non-U.S. stockholder, then such non-U.S. stockholder will be treated as having USRPI capital gain in an amount that, but for the disposition, would have been treated as USRPI capital gain.

Dispositions.  Non-U.S. stockholders may incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain realized on a disposition of our stock since our stock will constitute a USRPI unless one of the applicable exceptions, as described below, applies. Any gain subject to tax under FIRPTA will be treated in the same manner as it would be in the hands of U.S. stockholders subject to alternative minimum tax, but under a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals.

Non-U.S. stockholders generally will not incur tax under FIRPTA with respect to gain on a sale of our stock, however, as long as, at all times during a specified testing period, we are domestically controlled, i.e., non-U.S. persons hold, directly or indirectly, less than 50% in value of our outstanding stock. We cannot assure you that we will be domestically controlled. In addition, even if we are not domestically controlled, a non-U.S. stockholder that owned, actually or constructively, 10% or less of the outstanding stock of a publicly traded class at all times during a specified testing period will not incur tax under FIRPTA on gain from a sale of such stock. In addition, dispositions of our stock by qualified shareholders are not subject to FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of the outstanding stock of a publicly traded class. An actual or deemed disposition of our stock by such shareholders may

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also be treated as a dividend. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified foreign pension funds or entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

A non-U.S. stockholder generally will incur tax on gain from a disposition of our stock that is not subject to FIRPTA if:

 

the gain is effectively connected with the conduct of the non-U.S. stockholder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax; or

 

the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are satisfied, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will incur a 30% tax on its capital gains.

Information Reporting Requirements and Backup Withholding

We will report to our stockholders and to the IRS the amount of distributions that we pay during each calendar year, and the amount of tax that we withhold, if any.  Under the backup withholding rules, a stockholder may be subject to backup withholding (at a rate of 24% for our taxable years beginning in 2018 through our taxable year ending in 2025) with respect to distributions unless the stockholder:

 

is a corporation or qualifies for certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact; or

 

provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise complies with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules.

A stockholder who does not provide us with its correct taxpayer identification number also may be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS.  Any amount paid as backup withholding will be creditable against the stockholder’s federal income tax liability.  In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any stockholders who fail to certify their non-foreign status to us.

Backup withholding generally will not apply to payments of dividends made by us or our paying agents, in their capacities as such, to a non-U.S. stockholder provided that such non-U.S. stockholder furnishes to us or our paying agent the required certification as to its non-U.S. status, such as providing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8ECI, or certain other requirements are met.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding may apply if either we or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that the holder is a “U.S. person” that is not an exempt recipient.  Payments of the proceeds from a disposition or redemption of our stock that occurs outside the U.S. by a non-U.S. stockholder made by or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding.  Information reporting (but not backup withholding) generally will apply to such a payment, however, if the broker has certain connections with the U.S. unless the broker has documentary evidence in its records that demonstrates that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. stockholder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established.  Payment of the proceeds from a disposition of our stock by a non-U.S. stockholder made by or through the U.S. office of a broker generally is subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless the non-U.S. stockholder certifies under penalties of perjury that it is not a U.S. person and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption from information reporting and backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax.  Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be refunded or credited against the stockholder’s federal income tax liability if certain required information is furnished to the IRS.  Stockholders should consult their own tax advisors regarding application of backup withholding to them and the availability of, and procedure for obtaining an exemption from, backup withholding.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act Requirements

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) imposes a federal withholding tax on certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities unless certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligation requirements are satisfied.  FATCA generally imposes a federal

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withholding tax at a rate of 30% on dividends on our stock if paid to a foreign entity unless either (i) the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution” that undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, or in the case of a foreign financial institution that is a resident in a jurisdiction that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement to implement FATCA, the entity complies with the diligence and reporting requirements of such agreement, (ii) the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution” and identifies certain of its U.S. investors, or (iii) the foreign entity otherwise is excepted under FATCA.

If withholding is required under FATCA with respect to dividends on our stock, holders of our stock that otherwise would not be subject to withholding (or that otherwise would be entitled to a reduced rate of withholding) generally will be required to seek a refund or credit from the IRS to obtain the benefit of such exemption or reduction (provided that such benefit is available). You should consult your own tax advisor regarding the effect of FATCA on an investment in our stock.

Tax Aspects of Our Investments in the Operating Partnership and Subsidiary Partnerships.

The following discussion summarizes the material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to our investment in the Operating Partnership and our other subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for federal income tax purposes, each individually referred to as a “Partnership” and, collectively, as the “Partnerships.” The following discussion does not address state or local tax laws or any federal tax laws other than income tax laws.

Classification as Partnerships

We are required to include in our income our distributive share of each Partnership’s income and to deduct our distributive share of each Partnership’s losses but only if such Partnership is classified for federal income tax purposes as a partnership, rather than as a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation. An unincorporated entity with at least two owners, as determined for federal income tax purposes, will be classified as a partnership, rather than as a corporation, for federal income tax purposes if it:

 

is treated as a partnership under the Treasury Regulations relating to entity classification, or the “check-the-box regulations;” and

 

is not a “publicly traded partnership.”

Under the check-the-box regulations, an unincorporated entity with at least two owners for federal income tax purposes may elect to be classified either as an association taxable as a corporation or as a partnership. If such an entity does not make an election, it generally will be taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes.

A publicly traded partnership is a partnership whose interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof. A publicly traded partnership generally is treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, but will not be so treated if, for each taxable year beginning after December 31, 1987 in which it was classified as a publicly traded partnership, at least 90% of the partnership’s gross income consisted of specified passive income, including real property rents, gains from the sale or other disposition of real property, interest, and dividends, or the “90% passive income exception.” The Treasury Regulations provide limited safe harbors from treatment as a publicly traded partnership.  Pursuant to one of those safe harbors, interests in a partnership will not be treated as readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if (1) all interests in the partnership were issued in a transaction or transactions that were not required to be registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and (2) the partnership does not have more than 100 partners at any time during the partnership’s taxable year.  In determining the number of partners in a partnership, a person owning an interest in a partnership, grantor trust, or S corporation that owns an interest in the partnership is treated as a partner in such partnership only if (1) substantially all of the value of the owner’s interest in the entity is attributable to the entity’s direct or indirect interest in the partnership and (2) a principal purpose of the use of the entity is to permit the partnership to satisfy the 100-partner limitation.  If any Partnership does not qualify for any safe harbor and is treated as a publicly traded partnership, we believe that such Partnership would have sufficient qualifying income to satisfy the 90% passive income exception and, therefore, would not be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes.

We have not requested, and do not intend to request, a ruling from the IRS that any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries is or will be classified as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. If, for any reason, any such subsidiary were taxable as a corporation, rather than as a partnership, for federal income tax purposes, we may not

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be able to qualify as a REIT, unless we qualify for certain statutory relief provisions. See “— Gross Income Tests” and “— Asset Tests.” In addition, any change in a Partnership’s status for federal income tax purposes may be treated as a taxable event, in which case we may incur tax liability without any related cash distribution. See “— Annual Distribution Requirements.” Further, items of income and deduction of such Partnership would not pass through to us, and we would be treated as a stockholder of such entity for federal income tax purposes. Consequently, such Partnership would be required to pay income tax at corporate rates on its net income, and distributions to us would constitute dividends that would not be deductible in computing such Partnership’s taxable income.

Income Taxation of the Partnerships and Their Partners

Partners, Not the Partnerships, Subject to Tax. A Partnership is not a taxable entity for federal income tax purposes. Rather, we are required to take into account our distributive share of each Partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits for each taxable year of the Partnership ending with or within our taxable year, even if we receive no distribution from the Partnership for that year or a distribution that is less than our share of taxable income. Similarly, even if we receive a distribution, it may not be taxable if the distribution does not exceed our adjusted tax basis in our interest in the Partnership.

Partnership Allocations. Although an agreement among the owners of an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes generally will determine the allocation of income and losses among the owners, such allocations will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of the federal income tax laws governing partnership allocations. If an allocation is not recognized for federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the “partners’ interests in the partnership,” which will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the owners with respect to such item.

Tax Allocations With Respect to Contributed Properties. Income, gain, loss, and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to an entity taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in exchange for an interest in such entity must be allocated for federal income tax purposes in a manner such that the contributing owner is charged with, or benefits from, respectively, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution (the “704(c) Allocations”). The amount of such unrealized gain or unrealized loss, referred to as “built-in gain” or “built-in loss,” at the time of contribution is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value of the contributed property at the time of contribution and the adjusted tax basis of such property at that time, referred to as a book-tax difference. A book-tax difference attributable to depreciable property generally is decreased on an annual basis as a result of the allocation of depreciation deductions to the contributing owner for book purposes, but not for tax purposes. The 704(c) Allocations are solely for federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the owners. The Treasury Regulations require entities taxed as partnerships for federal income tax purposes to use a “reasonable method” for allocating items with respect to which there is a book-tax difference and outline several reasonable allocation methods.

The carryover tax basis of any properties actually contributed to the Operating Partnership or another Partnership in which we own an interest by an additional owner, under certain reasonable methods available to us, including the “traditional method,” (1) may cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if all contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to their fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) in the event of a sale of such properties, may cause us to be allocated taxable gain in excess of the economic or book gain allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding tax benefit to the contributing partners. An allocation described in clause (2) of the immediately preceding sentence may cause us to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which may adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements and may result in a greater portion of our distributions being taxed as dividends.

Tax Basis in Partnership Interest. Our adjusted tax basis in any Partnership interest we own generally will be:

 

the amount of cash and the tax basis of any other property we contribute to the Partnership;

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increased by our distributive share of the Partnership’s income (including tax-exempt income) and any increase in our allocable share of indebtedness of the Partnership; and

 

reduced, but not below zero, by our distributive share of the Partnership’s loss (including any non-deductible items), the amount of cash and the tax basis of property distributed to us, and any reduction in our allocable share of indebtedness of the Partnership.

Loss allocated to us in excess of our tax basis in a Partnership interest will not be taken into account for federal income tax purposes until we again have tax basis sufficient to absorb the loss. A reduction of our allocable share of indebtedness of the Partnership will be treated as a constructive cash distribution to us, and will reduce our adjusted tax basis in the Partnership interest. Distributions, including constructive distributions, in excess of the tax basis of our partnership interest will constitute taxable income to us. Such distributions and constructive distributions normally will be characterized as long-term capital gain.

Sale of a Partnership’s Property. Generally, any gain realized by a Partnership on the sale of property held for more than one year will be long-term capital gain, except for any portion of the gain treated as depreciation or cost recovery recapture. Our share of any Partnership’s gain from the sale of inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the Partnership’s trade or business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction subject to a 100% tax. Income from a prohibited transaction may have an adverse effect on our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for REIT status. See “— Gross Income Tests.” We presently do not intend to acquire or hold, or to allow any Partnership to acquire or hold, any property that is likely to be treated as inventory or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our, or any Partnership’s, trade or business.

Partnership Audit Rules. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. You should consult your own tax advisors regarding these changes and their potential impact on an investment in our securities.

State and Local Taxes

We and you may be subject to taxation by various states and localities, including those in which we or a holder of our securities transacts business, owns property or resides.  The state and local tax treatment may differ from the federal income tax treatment described above.  Consequently, you should consult your own tax advisors regarding the effect of state and local tax laws on an investment in our securities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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