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Section 1: S-3ASR (S-3ASR)

S-3ASR

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 10, 2021.

Registration Statement No. 333-                    

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

TERRENO REALTY CORPORATION

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

Maryland   27-1262675

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

101 Montgomery Street, Suite 200

San Francisco, CA 94104

(415) 655-4580

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

W. Blake Baird

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

101 Montgomery Street, Suite 200

San Francisco, CA 94104

(415) 655-4580

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent For Service)

 

 

With copies to:

Scott C. Chase

Goodwin Procter LLP

100 Northern Avenue

Boston, Massachusetts 02210

(617) 570-1000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large Accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be
Registered

  Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit
 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee

Common stock, $0.01 par value per share

               

Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share

               
    (1)   $(1)   $(1)   $(1)

 

 

(1)

The amount to be registered consists of an unspecified amount of the securities of each identified class as may from time to time be offered at indeterminate prices. In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the Registrant is deferring payment of all of the registration fee, except for the fee in the amount of $10,191.72 that has already been paid with respect to a total of $84,090,094 of unsold securities that were previously registered pursuant to the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-222960) filed on February 9, 2018, which Registration Statement has expired, and were not sold thereunder. Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, such unutilized registration fee may be used to offset the registration fees payable pursuant to this Registration Statement.

 

 

 


PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

TERRENO REALTY CORPORATION

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

 

 

We may offer, issue and sell from time to time, in one or more series or classes, together or separately, and in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more prospectus supplements to this prospectus, the securities described in this prospectus.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that apply to the securities. We will provide the specific terms of any securities we may offer in supplements to this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with the offering. The prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus also may add, update or change information contained or incorporated in this prospectus.

We may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers or agents, or directly to purchasers on a continuous or delayed basis. The prospectus supplement for each offering of securities will describe the plan of distribution for that offering. For general information about the distribution of securities offered, see “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will also set forth the price to the public of the securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from the sale of such securities.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “TRNO”. On February 9, 2021, the closing price of our common stock on the NYSE was $59.29 per share.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully read and consider “Risk Factors” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and on page 3 of this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement before investing in our securities.

We impose certain restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our capital stock. You should read the information under the section entitled “Description of Capital Stock—Restrictions on Transfer” in this prospectus for a description of these restrictions.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is February 10, 2021.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     3  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     3  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     3  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     7  

GLOBAL SECURITIES

     13  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     14  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     20  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     37  

LEGAL MATTERS

     40  

EXPERTS

     40  

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, any securities in any jurisdiction to or from any person to whom or from whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, any applicable free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of their respective dates or on the date or dates which are specified in these documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell, at any time and from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. The exhibits to our registration statement and documents incorporated by reference contain the full text of certain contracts and other important documents that we have summarized in this prospectus or that we may summarize in a prospectus supplement. Since these summaries may not contain all the information that you may find important in deciding whether to purchase the securities we offer, you should review the full text of these documents. The registration statement and the exhibits and other documents can be obtained from the SEC as indicated under the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference.”

This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer, which is not meant to be a complete description of each security. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that contains specific information about the terms of those securities. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement. You should read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference.”

Unless otherwise indicated or the context requires otherwise, in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement hereto, references to “our company,” “we,” “us” and “our” mean Terreno Realty Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

Our Company

We acquire, own and operate industrial real estate in six major coastal U.S. markets: Los Angeles, Northern New Jersey/New York City, San Francisco Bay Area, Seattle, Miami, and Washington, D.C. We invest in several types of industrial real estate, including warehouse/distribution buildings, flex buildings (including light industrial and research and development, or R&D), transshipment buildings and improved land parcels. We target functional properties in infill locations that may be shared by multiple tenants and that cater to customer demand within the various submarkets in which we operate. Infill locations are geographic locations surrounded by high concentrations of already developed land and existing buildings. As of December 31, 2020, we owned a total of 222 buildings aggregating approximately 13.2 million square feet, 25 improved land parcels consisting of approximately 91.5 acres and one property under redevelopment expected to contain approximately 0.2 million square feet upon completion. As of December 31, 2020, our buildings and improved land parcels were approximately 97.8% and 98.6% leased, respectively, to 488 customers, the largest of which accounted for approximately 5.4% of our total annualized base rent.

We were formed in November 2009 as a Maryland corporation, are internally managed and have elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2010.

Corporate Information

Our headquarters are located at 101 Montgomery Street, Suite 200, San Francisco, California 94104. Our telephone number is (415) 655-4580. We maintain an Internet site, www.terreno.com, which contains additional information concerning Terreno Realty Corporation. Information on our Internet site is neither part of nor incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any other report or document we file with or furnish to the SEC.



 

2


RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves risks. Before purchasing any securities offered by this prospectus, you should carefully consider the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any accompanying prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the risk factors incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on February 10, 2021, as well as the risks, uncertainties and additional information (i) set forth in our SEC reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K and in the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus that we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and which are deemed incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and (ii) the information contained in any applicable prospectus supplement. For a description of these reports and documents, and information about where you can find them, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference.” The risks and uncertainties we discuss in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus are those that we currently believe may materially affect our company. Additional risks not presently known or that are currently deemed immaterial could also materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or a part of your investment in the offered securities. Please also refer to the section below entitled “Forward-Looking Statements.”

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

SEC rules allow us to incorporate by reference information into this prospectus. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document. Any information referred to in this way is considered part of this prospectus from the date we file that document. Any reports filed by us with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and before the date that the offering of securities by means of this prospectus is terminated will automatically update and, where applicable, supersede any information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus the following documents or information filed with the SEC (other than, in each case, documents or information deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on February 10, 2021;

 

   

the description of our shares of common stock included in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on January 14, 2010, as updated by Exhibit 4.2 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed on February 6, 2020, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

   

all documents filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of any of the securities covered under this prospectus, except as to any portion of any future document that is deemed furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules.

We will provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon his or her written or oral request, a copy of any or all documents referred to above that have been or may be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, excluding exhibits to those documents unless they are specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. Requests for those documents should be directed to us as follows: Terreno Realty Corporation, 101 Montgomery Street, Suite 200, San Francisco, California, 94104 Attn: Chief Financial Officer, Telephone: (415) 655-4580.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and, in accordance with those requirements, file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC.

 

3


The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding registrants, including us, that file such information electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov. Copies of these documents may be available on our website at www.terreno.com. Our internet website and the information contained therein or connected thereto are not incorporated into this prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto.

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus, which forms a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules, certain parts of which are omitted in accordance with the SEC’s rules and regulations. For further information about us and the securities, we refer you to the registration statement and to such exhibits and schedules. You may review a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website. Please be aware that statements in this prospectus referring to a contract or other document are summaries and you should refer to the exhibits that are part of the registration statement for a copy of the contract or document.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. We caution investors that forward-looking statements are based on management’s beliefs and on assumptions made by, and information currently available to, management. When used, the words “anticipate”, “believe”, “estimate”, “expect”, “intend”, “may”, “might”, “plan”, “project”, “result”, “should”, “will”, “seek”, “target”, “see”, “likely”, “position”, “opportunity”, “outlook”, “potential”, “enthusiastic”, “future” and similar expressions which do not relate solely to historical matters are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are subject to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions and are not guarantees of future performance, which may be affected by known and unknown risks, trends, uncertainties, and factors that are beyond our control. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated, or projected. We expressly disclaim any responsibility to update our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by law. Accordingly, investors should use caution in relying on past forward-looking statements, which are based on results and trends at the time they are made, to anticipate future results or trends.

Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:

 

   

the risks described under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which was filed with the SEC on February 10, 2021 and in our other public filings, which risks you should interpret as being heightened as a result of the numerous and ongoing adverse impacts of the novel coronavirus, or COVID-19;

 

   

our ability to identify and acquire industrial properties on terms favorable to us;

 

   

general volatility of the capital markets and the market price of our common stock;

 

   

adverse economic or real estate conditions or developments in the industrial real estate sector and/or in the markets in which we acquire properties;

 

   

our dependence on key personnel and our reliance on third-party property managers;

 

   

our inability to comply with the laws, rules and regulations applicable to companies, and in particular, public companies;

 

   

our ability to manage our growth effectively;

 

4


   

tenant bankruptcies and defaults on, or non-renewal of, leases by tenants;

 

   

decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates;

 

   

increased interest rates and operating costs;

 

   

the potential discontinuation of London Interbank Offered Rate;

 

   

declining real estate valuations and impairment charges;

 

   

our expected leverage, our failure to obtain necessary outside financing, and existing and future debt service obligations;

 

   

our ability to make distributions to our stockholders;

 

   

our failure to successfully hedge against interest rate increases;

 

   

our failure to successfully operate acquired properties;

 

   

risks relating to our real estate redevelopment, renovation and expansion strategies and activities;

 

   

the ongoing impact of COVID-19 on the U.S., regional and global economies and the business, financial condition and results of operations of our Company and our tenants;

 

   

our failure to qualify or maintain our status as a REIT and possible adverse changes to tax laws;

 

   

uninsured or underinsured losses and costs relating to our properties or that otherwise result from future litigation;

 

   

environmental uncertainties and risks related to natural disasters;

 

   

financial market fluctuations; and

 

   

changes in real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates.

 

5


USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the offering of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including funding our investment activity, the repayment of outstanding indebtedness, working capital and other general purposes. Further details relating to the use of the net proceeds from the offering of securities under this prospectus will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Pending such uses, we anticipate that we will invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing short-term U.S. government and government agency securities, which are consistent with our intention to maintain our qualification as a REIT.

 

6


DESCRIPTION OF THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of our shares of common stock and shares of preferred stock that we may offer from time to time. As further described in this prospectus, these summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement and other offering material. The accompanying prospectus supplement may add, update or change the terms and conditions of the securities as described in this prospectus.

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following summary of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and to our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

General

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 400,000,000 shares of common stock and 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock, both having par value $0.01 per share. As of February 8, 2021, 68,646,910 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.

Our board of directors, without any action on the part of our stockholders, may establish the terms of any stock to be issued and, with the approval of a majority of the entire board, may amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts and obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

Common Stock

All shares of our common stock have equal rights as to earnings, assets, dividends and voting.

Dividend Rights. Dividends may be paid to the holders of our common stock if, as and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us out of funds legally available therefor, subject to the restrictions on the transfer and ownership of our stock contained in our charter and the preferential rights of holders of any other class or series of our stock.

Voting Rights. Subject to the restrictions on the transfer and ownership of our stock contained in our charter and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of common stock, each share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws—Board of Directors; Vacancies; Removals” for more information.

Distributions on Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, each share of our common stock would be entitled to share ratably in all of our assets that are legally available for distribution after payment of, or adequate provision for, all of our known debts and other liabilities and subject to any preferential rights of holders of our preferred stock, if any preferred stock is outstanding at such time, and the restrictions on the transfer and ownership of our stock contained in our charter.

Other Rights. Shares of our common stock generally have no preemptive, appraisal, preferential exchange, conversion, sinking fund or redemption rights and are freely transferable, except where their transfer is restricted by federal and state securities laws, by contract or by the restrictions in our charter.

Preferred Stock

The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series. The description of preferred stock set forth below and the description of

 

7


the terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the articles supplementary relating to that class or series.

Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of shares of our preferred stock in one or more series and may determine, with respect to any such series, the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the shares of preferred stock of that series, including:

 

   

distribution rights;

 

   

conversion rights;

 

   

voting rights;

 

   

redemption rights and terms of redemptions; and

 

   

liquidation preferences.

The preferred stock we may offer from time to time under this prospectus, when issued, will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable, and holders of shares of our preferred stock will not have any preemptive rights.

The issuance of shares of our preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders. In addition, any shares of our preferred stock that we issue could rank senior to shares of our common stock with respect to the payment of distributions, in which case we could not pay any distributions on shares of our common stock until full distributions have been paid with respect to such shares of our preferred stock.

The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of each series of shares of our preferred stock will be fixed by articles supplementary relating to the series. We will describe the specific terms of the particular series of shares of our preferred stock in the prospectus supplement relating to that series, which terms will include:

 

   

the designation and par value of the shares of our preferred stock;

 

   

the voting rights, if any, of the shares of our preferred stock;

 

   

the number of shares of our preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share of our preferred stock and the offering price of the shares of our preferred stock;

 

   

the distribution rate(s), period(s) and payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation applicable to the shares of our preferred stock;

 

   

whether distributions will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date(s) from which distributions on the shares of our preferred stock will cumulate;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing for the shares of our preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the shares of our preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for, and any restriction on, redemption, if applicable, of the shares of our preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for, and any restriction on, repurchase, if applicable, of the shares of our preferred stock;

 

8


   

the terms and provisions, if any, upon which the shares of our preferred stock will be convertible into common shares, including the conversion price (or manner or calculation) and conversion period;

 

   

the terms under which the rights of the shares of our preferred stock may be modified, if applicable;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the shares of our preferred stock as to distribution rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

any limitation on issuance of any other series of shares of our preferred stock, including any series of shares of our preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of shares of our preferred stock as to distribution rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

any listing of the shares of our preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

   

if appropriate, a discussion of any additional material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the shares of our preferred stock;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if applicable;

 

   

in addition to those restrictions described below, any other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of the shares of our preferred stock; and

 

   

any additional rights, preferences, privileges or restrictions of the shares of our preferred stock.

Restrictions on Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made). Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, commencing with the last day of the first half of the second taxable year for which we have elected to be classified as REIT, no individual (as defined under the Code to include certain entities) may actually or constructively own more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of stock or more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock. In addition, the applicable articles supplementary for any series of preferred stock will generally prohibit any individual (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) from actually or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of the applicable series of preferred stock. Subject to the exceptions described below, our charter further prohibits any person or entity from beneficially or constructively owning shares in excess of these limits. We refer to these restrictions as the “ownership limits” and we sometimes refer to the restrictions on ownership by a person or entity separately as the “related party tenant limit.” We refer to a person or entity that would, but for the restrictions in our charter, have beneficially or constructively owned shares of our stock in violation of the applicable ownership limit or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described below and, if appropriate in the context, any person or entity that would have been the record owner of such shares as a “prohibited owner.”

The beneficial and constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% in value of our outstanding stock or less than 9.8% in value or number of our common shares or preferred shares (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our stock) by an individual or entity could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 9.8% in value of our outstanding stock or 9.8% in value or number of our outstanding common shares or preferred shares and thereby violate the applicable ownership limit.

 

9


Our charter provides that, subject to our directors’ duties under applicable law, upon request, our board of directors will, prospectively or retroactively, waive the related party tenant limit with respect to a particular stockholder, and establish a different ownership limitation for the stockholder, unless such stockholder’s increased ownership of our stock would result in us failing to qualify as a REIT or our board of directors determines in its sole judgment that such stockholder’s increased ownership could result in any of our rental income failing to qualify as such for REIT testing purposes as a result of the “related party tenant” rules that apply to REITs. As a condition of such waiver, our board of directors may require certain representations and undertakings from the stockholder and/or an opinion of counsel or IRS ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to preserving our REIT status.

Our board of directors may from time to time increase the ownership limits for one or more persons or entities and decrease the ownership limits for all other persons and entities unless, after giving effect to such modification of the ownership limits, five or fewer individuals could beneficially own more than 49.9% in value of our outstanding stock or we would otherwise fail to qualify as a REIT. Any such decrease in the ownership limits will not apply to any person or entity whose ownership of our stock exceeds the decreased ownership limits until the person’s or entity’s ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limits, but any further acquisition of our stock by such a person or entity will violate the decreased ownership limits.

Our charter provisions further prohibit:

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution); and

 

   

any person from owning shares of our stock if such ownership would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes.

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the other foregoing limitations on transferability and ownership will be required to give notice immediately to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT. The foregoing provisions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance with any or all of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT, but only to the extent thereof.

If any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limit or such other limit as established by our board of directors or would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares in excess of the ownership limit or causing us to fail to qualify as a REIT (rounded up to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for distribution to the beneficiary of the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limit or our failing to qualify as a REIT, then our charter provides that the transfer of the shares resulting in such violation will be void. If any transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect.

Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed to be offered for sale to us or our designee at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in such transfer to the trust

 

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(or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of such devise or gift) and (ii) the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We may reduce the amount so payable to the trustee by the amount of any dividends or other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee as described above and pay such amount to the trustee for distribution to the beneficiary of the trust. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust as discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such stock to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. After that, the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares or, if the prohibited owner did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in trust (e.g., in the cause of a gift, devise or other such transaction), the market price of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the trust, and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of any dividends or other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee as described above. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if prior to discovery by us that shares of our stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for, or in respect of, such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount shall be paid to the trustee upon demand. The prohibited owner has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.

The trustee shall be designated by us and shall be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares, and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee shall have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

   

to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

In addition, if our board of directors determines in good faith that a proposed transfer or other event has occurred that would result in a violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors will take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer or other event, including, but not limited to, causing the company to redeem shares of common stock or preferred stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of our stock, upon request following the end of each of our taxable years, must give us written notice stating the person’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the person beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner must also provide us with any additional information that we request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such beneficial ownership on our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the

 

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ownership limits. In addition, any person or entity that is a beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person or entity (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner shall, on request, disclose to us in writing such information as we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT and to comply with requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.

All certificates representing shares of our common stock and preferred stock bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

Stock Exchange Listing

Our shares of common stock are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “TRNO”.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

Our transfer agent and registrar for our shares of common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

 

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GLOBAL SECURITIES

We may issue some or all of our securities of any series as global securities. We will register each global security in the name of a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The global securities will be deposited with a depositary or nominee or custodian for the depositary and will bear a legend regarding restrictions on exchanges and registration of transfer as discussed below.

As long as the depositary or its nominee is the registered holder of a global security, that person will be considered the sole owner and holder of the global security and the securities represented by it for all purposes under the securities. Except in limited circumstances, owners of a beneficial interest in a global security:

 

   

will not be entitled to have the global security or any securities represented by it registered in their names;

 

   

will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of certificated securities in exchange for the global security; and

 

   

will not be considered to be the owners or holders of the global security or any securities represented by it for any purposes under the securities.

The laws of some jurisdictions require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. These laws may impair the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a global security.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to institutions having accounts with the depositary or its nominee, called “participants” for purposes of this discussion, and to persons that hold beneficial interests through participants. When a global security is issued, the depositary will credit on its book-entry, registration and transfer system the principal amounts of securities represented by the global security to the accounts of its participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown only on, and the transfer of those ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by:

 

   

the depositary, with respect to participants’ interests; or

 

   

any participant, with respect to interests of persons held by the participants on their behalf.

Payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests held through the participants will be the responsibility of the participants. The depositary may from time to time adopt various policies and procedures governing payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to beneficial interests in a global security. None of the following will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the depositary’s or any participant’s records relating to, or for payments made on account of, beneficial interests in a global security, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial interests:

 

   

us or our affiliates; or

 

   

any agent of any of the above.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and to our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

The Maryland General Corporation Law, or the MGCL, and our charter and bylaws contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a potential acquirer to acquire us by means of a tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. These provisions are expected to discourage certain coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of these provisions outweigh the potential disadvantages of discouraging any such acquisition proposals because, among other things, the negotiation of such proposals may improve their terms.

Power to Reclassify Shares of Our Stock

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of stock into other classes or series of stock, including preferred stock. Prior to the issuance of shares of each class or series, the board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on the transfer and ownership of our stock and the terms of any outstanding class or series of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series. Thus, the board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common stock or preferred stock with terms and conditions which could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that stockholders may believe is in their best interests.

Power to Increase Authorized Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Common Stock and Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to increase the number of authorized shares of stock, issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. Shares of any additional classes or series of stock, as well as of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder consent is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded.

Board of Directors; Vacancies; Removals

Our charter provides that the number of directors will be set only by a majority of our entire board of directors within specified limits set forth in our bylaws. Our bylaws provide that a majority of our entire board of directors may at any time increase or decrease the number of directors. However, the number of directors may never be less than the minimum number required by the MGCL, which is one, nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 11. Because our board of directors and our stockholders have the power to amend this provision of our bylaws, either our board of directors or our stockholders, by a vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of our common stock, could modify this provision of our bylaws to change that range. Our bylaws also provide that, in an uncontested election, a director is elected if he or she receives more “for” votes than “against” or “withheld” votes to serve until our next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors.

Under our corporate governance guidelines, any director who fails to be elected by a majority vote is required to tender his or her resignation to our board of directors, subject to acceptance. Our nominating and corporate governance committee will make a recommendation to our board of directors on whether to accept or reject the resignation, or whether other action should be taken. Our board of directors will then act on our nominating and corporate governance committee’s recommendation and publicly disclose its decision and the

 

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rationale behind it within 90 days from the date of the certification of election results. If the resignation is not accepted, the director will continue to serve until the next annual meeting and until the director’s successor is duly elected and qualifies. The director who tenders his or her resignation will not participate in our board’s decision.

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights, if any, of holders of any class or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause, as defined in our charter, and then only by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision precludes stockholders from removing incumbent directors without cause and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Our bylaws empower our stockholders to fill vacancies on our board of directors that are caused by the removal of a director. Our board of directors may also fill vacancies that are caused by an increase in the number of directors, the death, resignation or removal of a director. Any director appointed by our board of directors to fill a vacancy on the board will hold office until the next annual meeting of our stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. However, our corporate governance guidelines will require an individual elected by our board of directors to fill a vacancy created by the removal of a director by our stockholders to tender his or her resignation if a special meeting to approve such election is requested by our stockholders and held in accordance with the provisions of our bylaws prior to the next annual meeting of stockholders and the director’s election is not approved by our stockholders at the special meeting.

Action by Stockholders

Under the MGCL, stockholder action can be taken only at an annual or special meeting of stockholders or by unanimous written consent in lieu of a meeting unless the charter provides for a lesser percentage (which our charter currently does not). These provisions, combined with the requirements in our bylaws regarding advance notice of nominations and other business to be considered at a meeting of stockholders and the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders discussed below, may have the effect of delaying consideration of a stockholder proposal.

Advance Notice Provisions for Stockholder Nominations and Stockholder Proposals

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by or at the direction of the board of directors or (iii) by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice by such stockholder as provided for in our bylaws and at the time of the annual meeting and who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on any such other business and who has complied with the advance notice procedures and provided the information required by our bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in the notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors at a special meeting may be made only (i) by or at the direction of the board of directors (ii) by the stockholder that has requested that the special meeting be called for the purpose of electing directors and has complied with the procedures and provided the information required by our bylaws in connection with such request or (iii) provided that the special meeting has been called for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice by such stockholder as provided for in our bylaws and at the time of the special meeting, and who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions and provided the information required by our bylaws.

The purpose of requiring stockholders to give us advance notice of nominations and other business is to afford our board of directors a meaningful opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees and the advisability of any other proposed business and, to the extent deemed necessary or desirable by our board of directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations about such qualifications or business, as well as to provide a more orderly procedure for conducting meetings of stockholders. Although our bylaws do not give our board of directors any power to disapprove stockholder nominations for the election of directors or proposals recommending certain action, they may have the effect of precluding a contest for the election of directors or the consideration of stockholder proposals if proper procedures are not followed and of discouraging or deterring a third

 

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party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or to approve its own proposal without regard to whether consideration of such nominees or proposals might be harmful or beneficial to us and our stockholders.

Calling of Special Meetings of Stockholders

Our bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called by our board of directors and certain of our officers. Additionally, our bylaws provide that, subject to the satisfaction of certain procedural and informational requirements by the stockholders requesting the meeting, a special meeting of stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders shall be called by the secretary of the corporation upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting.

Approval of Extraordinary Corporate Action; Amendment of Charter and Bylaws

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, consolidate, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a share exchange, unless recommended by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter provides, as permitted by Maryland law, that any of these actions may be approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Our bylaws may be amended by our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by holders of outstanding shares of our common stock, except the following bylaw provisions, each of which may be amended only with the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on such an amendment by holders of outstanding shares of common stock:

 

   

provisions relating to the amendment of the bylaws;

 

   

provisions opting out of the control share acquisition statute; and

 

   

provisions prohibiting our board of directors without the approval of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of our common stock, from revoking, altering or amending any resolution, or adopting any resolution inconsistent with any previously-adopted resolution of our board of directors, that exempts any business combination between us and any other person or entity from the business combination provisions of the MGCL.

No Stockholder Rights Plan

We have no stockholder rights plan. In the future, we do not intend to adopt a stockholder rights plan unless our stockholders approve in advance the adoption of a plan or, if adopted by our board of directors, we submit the stockholder rights plan to our stockholders for a ratification vote within 12 months of adoption or the plan will terminate.

No Appraisal Rights

As permitted by the MGCL, our charter provides that stockholders will not be entitled to exercise appraisal rights unless a majority of our board of directors determines that appraisal rights will apply, with respect to all or any classes and series of stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which holders of such shares would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. This is in addition to Maryland law provisions that generally eliminate appraisal rights for exchange-listed securities.

 

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Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (defined as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s shares or an affiliate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then-outstanding voting stock of the corporation), or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. Our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.

Any such business combination entered into after the five-year prohibition must be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (i) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation and (ii) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has adopted a resolution exempting any business combination between us and any other person or entity from the business combination provisions of the MGCL. Our bylaws provide that this resolution or any other resolution of our board of directors exempting any business combination from the business combination provisions of the MGCL may only be revoked, altered or amended, and our board of directors may only adopt any resolution inconsistent with any such resolution, with the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by holders of outstanding shares of common stock.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved at a special meeting by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock of a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of shares of stock of the corporation in the election of directors: (i) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (ii) an officer of the corporation or (iii) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (i) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (ii) one-third or more but less than a majority, or (iii) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares

 

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are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply (i) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (ii) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws exempt any and all acquisitions of shares of our stock from the control share acquisition statute, and this provision of our bylaws may not be amended without the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by holders of outstanding shares of our common stock.

Certain Elective Provisions of Maryland Law

Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any of (i) a classified board, (ii) a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director, (iii) a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors, (iv) a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred, or (v) a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders. We have not elected to be governed by the specific provisions set forth above but, subject to certain conditions and the exception described below, we could elect to provide for any of the foregoing provisions in the future. Our board of directors adopted a resolution prohibiting us from electing to be subject to the provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL that would permit us to classify our board of directors without stockholder approval. By adopting this resolution, we are prohibited from classifying our board of directors without first obtaining stockholder approval.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Our charter authorizes us, to the maximum extent that Maryland law in effect from time to time permits, to indemnify any present or former director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of such corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

 

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Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding; and

 

   

was committed in bad faith; or

 

   

was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty; or

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct, was adjudged liable to the corporation or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his good faith belief that he has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

We have entered into an indemnification agreement with each of our executive officers and directors whereby we indemnify such executive officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law against all expenses and liabilities, subject to limited exceptions. These indemnification agreements also provide that upon an application for indemnity by an executive officer or director to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, such court may order us to indemnify such executive officer or director.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

General

The following is a general summary of material United States federal income tax considerations associated with an investment in our capital stock that may be relevant to you as a stockholder. Goodwin Procter LLP has acted as our counsel, has reviewed this summary, and is of the opinion that the discussion contained herein is accurate in all material respects. The statements made in this section of the prospectus are based upon current provisions of the Code and Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, published administrative positions of the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, and judicial decisions, all of which are subject to change, either prospectively or retroactively. We cannot assure you that any changes will not modify the conclusions expressed in counsel’s opinions described herein. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. We have not sought and will not seek an advance ruling from the IRS regarding any matter discussed in this section. This summary does not address all possible tax considerations that may be material to an investor and does not constitute legal or tax advice. Moreover, this summary does not deal with all tax aspects that might be relevant to you, as a prospective holder of capital stock in light of your personal circumstances, nor does it deal with particular types of stockholders that are subject to special treatment under federal income tax laws, such as insurance companies, holders whose shares are acquired through the exercise of stock options or otherwise as compensation, tax-exempt organizations except as provided below, financial institutions or broker-dealers, regulated investment companies, partnerships or other pass-through entities or investors in such entities, traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their security holdings, persons liable for the alternative minimum tax, persons that hold securities as part of a straddle or a hedging or conversion transaction, a U.S. stockholder (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar, foreign corporations or persons who are not citizens or residents of the United States except as provided below, or others who are subject to special treatment under the Code. The Code provisions governing the federal income tax treatment of REITs and their stockholders are highly technical and complex, and this summary is qualified in its entirety by the express language of applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof.

This discussion is not intended to be, and should not be construed as, legal or tax advice. We urge you, as a prospective stockholder, to consult your tax advisor regarding the specific tax consequences to you of a purchase of shares, ownership and sale of the shares and of our election to be taxed as a REIT, including the federal, state, local, foreign and other tax consequences of such purchase, ownership, sale and election and of potential changes in applicable tax laws.

REIT Qualification

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2010. A REIT generally is not subject to United States federal income tax on the income that it distributes to stockholders if it meets the applicable REIT distribution requirements and other requirements for qualification.

We believe that we have been organized and operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2010, and that our intended manner of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. In the opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2010, we have been organized and operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT, and our current and proposed methods of operation will enable us to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code for subsequent taxable years. It must be emphasized that this opinion is based on various assumptions, representations and covenants as to factual matters, including representations and covenants made by us in a factual certificate provided by one of our officers. Goodwin Procter LLP will have no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to its date. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code discussed below, including through actual annual (or in some cases quarterly) operating results, requirements relating to income, asset ownership, distribution levels and diversity of share ownership and the various other REIT qualification requirements imposed under the Code, the results of which will not be monitored by Goodwin Procter LLP.

 

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Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operation for any particular taxable year will satisfy those requirements. Given the complex nature of the REIT qualification requirements, the ongoing importance of factual determinations and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances, we cannot provide any assurance that our actual operating results will satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT under the Code for any particular taxable year.

Taxation as a REIT

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal corporate income tax on our net income that is distributed currently to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates “double taxation” (that is, taxation at both the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from an investment in a corporation. However, we will be subject to federal income tax as follows:

 

   

We will be taxed at regular corporate rates on any undistributed “REIT taxable income”. REIT taxable income is the taxable income of the REIT, subject to specified adjustments, including a deduction for dividends paid.

 

   

If we have net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” that is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, or other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be subject to tax at the highest corporate rate on this income.

 

   

Our net income from “prohibited transactions” will be subject to a 100% tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy either the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a tax equal to the greater of (1) the amount by which 75% of our gross income exceeds the amount of our income qualifying under the 75% test for the taxable year or (2) the amount by which 95% of our gross income exceeds the amount of our income qualifying for the 95% income test for the taxable year, multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a failure by a de minimis amount of the 5% or 10% asset tests) and we qualify for and satisfy certain cure provisions, then we will have to pay an excise tax equal to the greater of (1) $50,000 and (2) an amount determined by multiplying (x) the net income generated during a specified period by the assets that caused the failure by (y) the highest federal income tax rate applicable to corporations.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy any REIT requirements other than the income test or asset test requirements and we qualify for a reasonable cause exception, then we may retain our REIT qualification, but we will have to pay a penalty equal to $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

We will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of amounts actually distributed and amounts retained for which federal income tax was paid, if we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of:

 

  (1)

85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year;

 

  (2)

95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year; and

 

  (3)

any undistributed taxable income from prior taxable years.

 

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We will be subject to a 100% penalty tax on some payments we receive (or on certain expenses deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary) if arrangements among us, our tenants and our taxable REIT subsidiaries are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

 

   

If we acquire any asset from a “C” corporation in a carry-over basis transaction and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of such asset during the five-year recognition period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then, to the extent of any built-in gain, such gain will be subject to tax at the highest regular corporate rate. Built-in gain means the excess of (a) the fair market value of the asset as of the beginning of the applicable recognition period over (b) the adjusted basis in such asset as of the beginning of such recognition period.

 

   

Income earned by our taxable REIT subsidiaries, if any, will be subject to tax at regular corporate income tax rates.

 

   

We may be required to pay penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet recordkeeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of our stockholders.

 

   

No assurance can be given that the amount of any such U.S. federal income taxes will not be substantial. In addition, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state, local and foreign income, franchise, property and other taxes on assets and operations. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2010 and do not intend to revoke such election for any subsequent taxable years. In order to qualify as a REIT, we must meet the requirements discussed below, relating to our organization, sources of income, nature of assets and distributions of income to stockholders.

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to applicable provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares of which is owned directly or indirectly by five or fewer individuals, as defined in the Code to include specified entities;

 

  (7)

that makes an election to be taxable as a REIT, or has made this election for a previous taxable year which has not been revoked or terminated, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT status;

 

  (8)

that uses a calendar year for federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the Code and regulations promulgated thereunder; and

 

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  (9)

that meets other applicable tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

Conditions (1), (2), (3) and (4) above must be met during the entire taxable year and condition (5) above must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. For purposes of determining stock ownership under condition (6) above, a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation and a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes generally are each considered an individual. A trust that is a qualified trust under Code Section 401(a) generally is not considered an individual, and beneficiaries of a qualified trust are treated as holding shares of a REIT in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of condition (6) above.

We believe that we have satisfied and will continue to satisfy the above ownership requirements. In addition, our charter restricts ownership and transfers of our stock that would violate these requirements, although these restrictions may not be effective in all circumstances to prevent a violation. To monitor its compliance with condition (6) above, a REIT is required to send annual letters to its stockholders requesting information regarding the actual ownership of its shares. If we comply with the annual letters requirement and we do not know or, exercising reasonable diligence, would not have known of our failure to meet condition (6) above, then we will be treated as having met condition (6) above.

To qualify as a REIT, we cannot have at the end of any taxable year any undistributed earnings and profits that are attributable to a non-REIT taxable year. We believe that we have not had any non-REIT earnings and profits at the end of any taxable year and we intend to distribute any non-REIT earnings and profits that we accumulate before the end of any taxable year in which we accumulate such earnings and profits.

Qualified REIT Subsidiaries and Disregarded Entities. We hold our assets through a limited liability company, which is a disregarded entity for federal income tax purposes because we own 100% of the interests in it, directly or through other disregarded entities. If we own a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary”, or if we own 100% of the membership interests in a limited liability company or other unincorporated entity that does not elect to be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, the separate existence of that subsidiary, limited liability company or other unincorporated entity generally will be disregarded for federal income tax purposes. Generally, a qualified REIT subsidiary is a corporation, other than a taxable REIT subsidiary (discussed below), all of the stock of which is owned by the REIT. A limited liability company or other unincorporated entity 100% owned by a single member that does not elect to be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes generally is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner for federal income tax purposes. All assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the qualified REIT subsidiary or disregarded entity will be treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of its owner. Thus, in applying the requirements in this section, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and disregarded entities will be ignored and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of these subsidiaries will be treated as ours for federal income tax purposes. Neither a qualified REIT subsidiary nor a disregarded entity will be subject to federal corporate income taxation, although such entities may be subject to state and local taxation in some states.

Ownership of Partnership Interests by a REIT. A REIT that is a partner in a partnership (or a member in a limited liability company or other entity that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes) will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership and will be deemed to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s income. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of the gross income and asset tests applicable to REITs as described below. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of any entity taxable as a partnership for federal income tax purposes in which we hold an interest will be treated as our assets and liabilities and our items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this prospectus. The assets, liabilities and items of income of any partnership in which we own an interest include such entity’s share of the assets and liabilities and items of income with respect to any partnership in which it holds an interest.

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. In the future we may own subsidiaries that have elected to be treated as “taxable REIT subsidiaries” for federal income tax purposes, although we do not currently own any taxable REIT subsidiaries. A taxable REIT subsidiary of a REIT is a corporation in which the REIT directly or indirectly owns stock and that elects, together with the REIT, to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary under Section 856(l) of the

 

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Code. The election can be revoked at any time as long as the REIT and the taxable REIT subsidiary revoke such election jointly. In addition, if a taxable REIT subsidiary owns, directly or indirectly, securities representing more than 35% of the vote or value of a subsidiary corporation (other than a REIT), that subsidiary will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation subject to federal income tax, and state and local income tax where applicable, as a regular “C” corporation.

Generally, a taxable REIT subsidiary can perform some impermissible tenant services without causing us to receive impermissible tenant services income under the REIT income tests. Other than certain activities related to operating or managing a lodging or health care facility, a taxable REIT subsidiary also can recognize income that would be subject to the 100% prohibited transaction tax, or income that would be nonqualifying income under the gross income tests, if earned by a REIT. However, several provisions regarding the arrangements between a REIT and its taxable REIT subsidiaries ensure that a taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to an appropriate level of federal income taxation. For example, a taxable REIT subsidiary is limited in its ability to deduct interest payments made to us in excess of a certain amount. In addition, we will be obligated to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that we receive or on certain expenses deducted by the taxable REIT subsidiary if the economic arrangements among us, our tenants and the taxable REIT subsidiary are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

Income Tests Applicable to REITs. To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy two gross income tests. First, at least 75% of our gross income, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain other income and gains described below, for each taxable year must be derived directly or indirectly from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property” (which includes certain of our expenses that are paid or reimbursed by tenants), gains on the disposition of real estate assets, dividends paid by another REIT and interest on obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, or from temporary investments of “new capital” in stock or debt securities during the one-year period following our receipt of such new capital that we raise through equity offerings or issuance of debt obligations with at least a five-year term. Second, at least 95% of our gross income, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain other income and gains described below, for each taxable year must be derived from any combination of income qualifying under the 75% test and dividends, interest, and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities.

Rents received by us will qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if several conditions are met. First, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Second, rents received from a “related party tenant” will not qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income tests unless the tenant is a taxable REIT subsidiary and at least 90% of the leased space of the property is leased to unrelated tenants and the rent paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space. A tenant is a related party tenant if the REIT, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of the REIT, actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the tenant. Third, if rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to the personal property will not qualify as rents from real property.

Generally, for rents to qualify as rents from real property for the purpose of satisfying the gross income tests, we may provide directly only a de minimis amount of services, unless those services are “customarily furnished or rendered” in connection with the rental of real property and not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant”. Accordingly, we may not provide “impermissible services” to tenants (except through an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue and that meets other requirements or through a taxable REIT subsidiary) without giving rise to “impermissible tenant service income”. Impermissible tenant service income is deemed to be at least 150% of our direct cost of providing the service. If the impermissible tenant service income exceeds 1% of our total income from a property, then all of the income from that property will fail to qualify as rents from real property. If the total amount of impermissible tenant service income from a property does not exceed 1% of our total income from the property, the services will not “taint” the other income from the property (that is, it will not cause the rent paid by tenants of that property to fail to qualify as rents from real property), but the impermissible tenant service income will not qualify as rents from real property.

 

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Any gain we realize on the sale of any property held as inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless such property has been held by us for at least two years and certain other requirements are satisfied or the gain is realized in a taxable REIT subsidiary. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances of a particular transaction. We generally intend to hold our properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing, owning and operating properties, and to make occasional sales of properties, consistent with our investment objectives. We cannot provide any assurance, however, that the IRS might not contend that one or more of these sales are subject to the 100% penalty tax.

For purposes of the gross income tests, qualified temporary investment income generally constitutes qualifying income if such income is earned as a result of investing new capital raised through the issuance of our common stock or certain long-term debt obligations in stock and debt obligations, but only during the one-year period beginning on the date we receive the new capital. If we are unable to invest a sufficient amount of the net proceeds of any offering of our stock or debt securities in real estate assets, as detailed below, within such one-year period, we could fail the 75% gross income test.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for that year if we are entitled to relief under the Code. These relief provisions generally will be available if our failure to meet the tests is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and, following our identification of such failure for any taxable year, we file a schedule describing each item of our gross income described in the gross income tests in accordance with the applicable Treasury Regulations. It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally incur exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that the failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances involving us, we will fail to qualify as a REIT. As discussed under “— Taxation as a REIT”, even if these relief provisions apply, a tax would be imposed based on the amount of nonqualifying income.

Asset Tests Applicable to REITs. At the close of each quarter of our taxable year, we must satisfy five tests relating to the nature of our assets:

 

  (1)

at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and government securities. Real estate assets include, for this purpose, interests in real property (such as land, buildings, leasehold interest in real property and personal property leased with real property if the rents attributable to the personal property would be rents from real property under the income tests discussed above), interests in mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, shares in other qualifying REITs, and stock or debt instruments held for less than one year purchased with the proceeds from an offering of shares of our stock or certain debt and debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs;

 

  (2)

not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by securities other than those in the 75% asset class;

 

  (3)

except for investments in qualified REIT subsidiaries, taxable REIT subsidiaries, equity interests in REITs or other securities that qualify as “real estate assets” for purposes of the test described in clause (1), the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets; we may not own more than 10% of the total voting power of any one issuer’s outstanding securities; and we may not own more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer;

 

  (4)

not more than 20% of our total assets may be represented by securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries; and

 

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  (5)

not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property.

Securities for purposes of the asset tests may include debt securities. However, the 10% value test does not apply to certain “straight debt” and other excluded securities, as described in the Code including, but not limited to, any loan to an individual or estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, (a) a REIT’s interest as a partner in a partnership is not considered a security for purposes of applying the 10% value test to securities issued by the partnership; (b) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or another excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income is derived from sources that would qualify for the 75% gross income test; and (c) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or another excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership to the extent of the REIT’s interest as a partner in the partnership. In general, straight debt is defined as a written, unconditional promise to pay on demand or at a specific date a fixed principal amount, and the interest rate and payment dates on the debt must not be contingent on profits or the discretion of the debtor. In addition, straight debt may not contain a convertibility feature.

As provided above, stock or debt securities attributable to the temporary investment of new capital that we raise through the issuance of our stock or certain long-term debt securities constitute qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, but only during the one-year period beginning on the date we receive the new capital. As a result of limitations relating to the “new capital” rules, we could be limited to investing all or a portion of any proceeds from sales of securities covered by this prospectus in cash or cash equivalents.

After initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than the 10% voting limitation) at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in the relative values of our assets. If the failure to satisfy any such asset tests results from an acquisition of securities or other property during a quarter, the failure can be cured by disposition of sufficient non-qualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter.

Moreover, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter during a taxable year, and such failure is not cured within 30 days as described above, we will not lose our REIT status if one of the following additional exceptions applies: (A) the failure is due to a violation of the 5% or 10% asset tests and is “de minimis” (for this purpose, a “de minimis” failure is one that arises from our ownership of assets the total value of which does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the quarter in which the failure occurred and $10 million) and we either dispose of the assets that caused the failure or otherwise satisfy the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure occurred; or (B) the failure is due to a violation of any of the asset tests (other than a “de minimis” violations of the 5% or 10% asset tests) and all of the following requirements are satisfied: (i) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (ii) we file a schedule in accordance with Treasury Regulations providing a description of each asset that caused the failure, (iii) we either dispose of the assets that caused the failure or otherwise satisfy the asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure occurred, and (iv) we pay an excise tax equal to the greater of (x) $50,000 and (y) an amount determined by multiplying the net income generated during a specified period by the assets that caused the failure by the highest federal income tax applicable to corporations.

Foreclosure Property. Foreclosure property is real property (including interests in real property) and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was made, entered into or acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes an election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate (currently 21%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.

 

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Hedging Transactions. We may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swaps or cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent as may be provided by future Treasury Regulations, any income from a hedging transaction which is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into, including gain from the disposition or termination of such a transaction, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 95% and 75% income tests if such hedging transaction is entered into (i) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to indebtedness incurred or to be incurred by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, (ii) primarily to manage the risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests (or any property which generates such income or gain) or (iii) that hedges against transactions described in clause (i) or (ii) and is entered into in connection with the extinguishment of debt or sale of property that is being hedged against by the transaction described in clause (i) or (ii). To the extent we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our ability to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs. To qualify as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders each year in an amount at least equal to (1) the sum of (a) 90% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain, and (b) 90% of the net income, after tax, from foreclosure property, minus (2) the sum of certain specified items of noncash income. In addition, if we recognize any built-in gain, we will be required, under Treasury Regulations, to distribute at least 90% of the built-in gain, after tax, recognized on the disposition of the applicable asset. See “— Taxation as a REIT” for a discussion of the possible recognition of built-in gain. These distributions must be paid either in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if declared before we timely file our tax return for the prior year and if paid with or before the first regular dividend payment date after the declaration is made.

We believe that we have made and we intend to continue to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the annual distribution requirements.

It is possible that we, from time to time, may choose to retain cash to fund capital projects or future operations or may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet this distribution requirement or to distribute such greater amount as may be necessary to avoid income and excise taxation, in part due to timing differences between (a) the actual receipt of income and the actual payment of deductible expenses and (b) the inclusion of such income and the deduction of such expenses in arriving at our taxable income, or as a result of nondeductible expenses such as principal amortization or capital expenditures in excess of noncash deductions. In such event, we may find it necessary to arrange for borrowings or pay taxable stock dividends in order to meet the distribution requirement.

Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying dividends to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. We will refer to such dividends as “deficiency dividends”. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. We will, however, be required to pay interest based upon the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

To the extent that we do not distribute (and are not deemed to have distributed, as described below) all of our net capital gain or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be subject to tax on these retained amounts at regular corporate tax rates.

In addition, we will be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of amounts actually distributed and amounts retained for which federal income tax was paid, if we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of:

 

  (1)

85% of our REIT ordinary income for the year;

 

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  (2)

95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the year; and

 

  (3)

any undistributed taxable income from prior taxable years.

A REIT may elect to retain rather than distribute all or a portion of its net capital gains and pay the tax on the gains. In that case, a REIT may elect to have its stockholders include their proportionate share of the undistributed net capital gains in income as long-term capital gains and receive a credit for their share of the tax paid by the REIT. For purposes of the 4% excise tax described above, any such retained amounts would be treated as having been distributed.

Record-Keeping Requirements. We are required to comply with applicable record-keeping requirements. Failure to comply could result in monetary fines.

Failure to Qualify as a REIT. If we fail to satisfy any REIT requirements (other than the income test or asset test requirements, with respect to which specific cure provisions apply), we generally will be eligible for relief from REIT disqualification if the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 with respect to such failure. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to such statutory relief. If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and a relief provision does not apply, we will be subject to tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us nor will they be required to be made. In such event, to the extent of current or accumulated earnings and profits, all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as dividend income. Subject to limitations of the Code, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends received deduction and non-corporate stockholders may be eligible to treat the dividends received from us as qualified dividend income taxable at preferential rates. Unless we are entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we also will be disqualified from electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost.

Taxation of U.S. Stockholders

When we refer to a U.S. stockholder, we mean a beneficial owner of a share of our capital stock that is, for United States federal income tax purposes:

 

  (1)

a citizen or resident, as defined in Code Section 7701(b), of the United States;

 

  (2)

a corporation, or other entity treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state or the District of Columbia;

 

  (3)

an estate the income of which is subject to federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

  (4)

a trust that is subject to the primary supervision of a United States court and the control of one or more United States persons or that has a valid election in effect under the applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a United States person under the Code.

Generally, in the case of a partnership (or other entity treated as such for federal income tax purposes) that holds our capital stock, any partner that would be a U.S. stockholder if it held the capital stock directly is also a U.S. stockholder. A “non-U.S. stockholder” is a holder, including any partner in a partnership that holds our capital stock, that is not a U.S. stockholder.

Distributions by Us. So long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions to U.S. stockholders out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that are not designated as capital gain dividends (i) will be taxable as dividend income, (ii) will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction generally available for corporations and generally will not be eligible for treatment as qualified dividend income by non-corporate stockholders except with respect to the portion of any distribution (a) that represents income from dividends we receive from a taxable REIT subsidiary or a corporation in which we own shares (but only if such dividends would be eligible for the lower rate on dividends if paid by the corporation to its individual stockholders), or (b) that is equal to the sum of our real

 

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estate investment trust taxable income (taking into account the dividends paid deduction available to us) for our previous taxable year and certain net built-in gain with respect to property acquired from a “C” corporation in certain transactions in which we must adopt the basis of the asset in the hands of the “C” corporation for such previous taxable year and less any taxes imposed on us for such previous taxable year and (iii) to the extent not so treated as qualified dividend income, will constitute dividends with respect to which non-corporate stockholders will be permitted to take a deduction equal to 20% of such dividends for tax years beginning before January 1, 2026, subject to certain limitations. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. stockholder to the extent that the distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the stockholder’s shares. Rather, such distributions will reduce the adjusted basis of such shares, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits that exceed the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in its shares will be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of such shares taxable as capital gains in the amount of such excess if the shares are held as a capital asset. If we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend, and the stockholder will be treated as having received the dividend, on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared. This discussion applies equally to distributions payable in cash and taxable stock distributions.

We may elect to designate distributions of our net capital gain as “capital gain dividends”. Capital gain dividends are taxed to stockholders as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year, without regard to how long the U.S. stockholder has held its shares. If we designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, a U.S. stockholder will receive an IRS Form 1099-DIV indicating the amount that will be taxable to the stockholder as capital gain. Corporate stockholders, however, may be required to treat up to 20% of capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

Instead of paying capital gain dividends, we may choose to retain all or part of our net capital gain and designate such amount as “undistributed capital gain”. We will be subject to tax at regular corporate rates on any undistributed capital gains. A U.S. stockholder:

 

  (1)

will include in its income as long-term capital gains its proportionate share of such undistributed capital gains; and

 

  (2)

will be deemed to have paid its proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such undistributed capital gains and receive a credit or a refund to the extent that the tax paid by us exceeds the U.S. stockholder’s tax liability on the undistributed capital gains.

A U.S. stockholder will increase the basis in its capital stock by the difference between the amount of capital gain included in its income with respect to such stock and the amount of tax it is deemed to have paid. Our earnings and profits will be adjusted appropriately.

We will classify portions of any designated capital gain dividend or undistributed capital gains as either:

 

  (1)

a long-term capital gain rate gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. stockholders at the tax rate applicable to long-term capital gain; or

 

  (2)

an “unrecaptured Section 1250 gain” distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. stockholders at a maximum rate of 25%.

We must determine the maximum amounts that we may designate as long-term and 25% rate capital gain dividends by performing the computation required by the Code as if the REIT were an individual whose ordinary income were subject to a marginal tax rate in excess of 25%.

Distributions made by us and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. stockholder of shares of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income, and as a result, U.S. stockholders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. In addition, taxable distributions from our company

 

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generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitations. A U.S. stockholder may elect to treat capital gain dividends and capital gains from the disposition of shares of our capital stock as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitation, in which case the applicable capital gains will be taxed at ordinary income rates. We will notify stockholders regarding the portions of distributions for each year that constitute ordinary income, return of capital and capital gain. U.S. stockholders may not include in their own income tax returns any net operating losses or capital losses of our company. Our operating or capital losses would be carried over for potential offset against our future income, subject to applicable limitations.

We may make distributions to U.S. stockholders that are paid in common stock or preferred stock and are intended to be treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In that event, our U.S. stockholders would generally have taxable income with respect to such distributions of our common stock or preferred stock and may have tax liability on account of such distributions in excess of cash (if any) that is received.

Sales of Shares. Upon any taxable sale or other disposition of shares, a U.S. stockholder will recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between:

 

  (1)

the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition; and

 

  (2)

the holder’s adjusted basis in the shares for tax purposes.

This gain or loss will be a capital gain or loss if the shares have been held by the U.S. stockholder as a capital asset. The applicable tax rate will depend on the stockholder’s holding period in the shares (generally, if an asset has been held for more than one year it will produce long-term capital gain) and the stockholder’s tax bracket. A U.S. person that is an individual will generally be subject to tax on long term capital gain (which generally includes any capital gain dividends he or she receives, his or her proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain, and capital gain realized from the disposition of our capital stock, in each case, if the applicable holding periods are satisfied) at a maximum rate of 20%. The IRS has the authority to prescribe, but has not yet prescribed, regulations that would apply a capital gain tax rate of 25% (which is generally higher than the long-term capital gain tax rates for non-corporate stockholders) to a portion of capital gain realized by a non-corporate stockholder on the sale of REIT shares that would correspond to the REIT’s “unrecaptured Section 1250 gain”. Stockholders are urged to consult with their own tax advisors with respect to their capital gain tax liability. A corporate U.S. stockholder will be subject to tax at a maximum rate of 21% on capital gain from the sale of our capital stock. In general, any loss recognized by a U.S. stockholder upon the sale or other disposition of shares that have been held for six months or less, after applying the holding period rules, will be treated as a long-term capital loss, to the extent of distributions received by the U.S. stockholder from us that were required to be treated as long-term capital gains. All or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares may be disallowed if other shares are purchased within 30 days before or after the date of disposition.

Medicare Tax. A U.S. person that is an individual or estate, or a trust that does not fall into a special class of trusts that is exempt from such tax, is subject to a 3.8% tax on the lesser of (1) the U.S. person’s “net investment income” for the relevant taxable year and (2) the excess of the U.S. person’s modified gross income for the taxable year over a certain threshold (which in the case of individuals will be between $125,000 and $250,000, depending on the individual’s circumstances). Estates and trusts that do not fall into a special class of trusts that is exempt from such tax are subject to the same 3.8% tax on the lesser of their undistributed net investment income and the excess of their adjusted gross income over a certain threshold. Net investment income generally would include dividends on our stock and gain from the sale of our stock. If you are a U.S. person that is an individual, estate or trust, you are urged to consult your tax advisors regarding the applicability of this tax to your income and gains in respect of your investment in our common or preferred stock.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders

U.S. tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from U.S. federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI. Except as provided below, if a U.S. tax-exempt stockholder has not held its capital stock as “debt financed property” within the meaning of the Code, dividend income from our

 

30


company will not be UBTI. Similarly, gain from the sale of shares will not constitute UBTI unless the U.S. tax-exempt stockholder has held its shares as debt financed property within the meaning of the Code or is a dealer with respect to our shares.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, for U.S. tax-exempt stockholders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from federal income taxation under Section 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI; however, an organization exempt under Section 501(c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code may reduce UBTI if it properly sets aside or reserves such amounts for certain purposes specified in the Code. These tax-exempt stockholders should consult their own tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

In addition, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” are treated as UBTI if received by any trust which is described in Section 401(a) of the Code, is tax-exempt under Section 501(a) of the Code and holds more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the pension-held REIT. Tax-exempt pension funds that are described in Section 401(a) of the Code are referred to below as “pension trusts”.

A REIT is a pension-held REIT if the following conditions apply:

 

  (1)

it qualified as a REIT only by reason of Section 856(h)(3) of the Code, which provides that stock owned by a pension trust will be treated, for purposes of determining if the REIT is closely held, as owned by the beneficiaries of the trust rather than by the trust itself; and

 

  (2)

either (a) at least one pension trust holds more than 25% of the value of the REIT’s stock, or (b) a group of pension trusts each individually holding more than 10% of the value of the REIT’s stock, collectively owns more than 50% of the value of the REIT’s stock.

The percentage of any pension-held REIT dividend treated as UBTI is equal to the ratio of the UBTI earned by the REIT, treating the REIT as if it were a pension trust and therefore subject to tax on UBTI, to the total gross income of the REIT. An exception applies where such percentage is less than 5% for any taxable year.

The rules described above under the heading “— Taxation of U.S. Stockholders — Distributions by Us” concerning the inclusion of our designated undistributed capital gain in the income of our stockholders will apply to U.S. tax-exempt stockholders. Thus, U.S. tax-exempt stockholders will be allowed a credit or refund of the tax deemed paid by them in respect of the includible gain.

U.S. Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

Distributions by Us. Distributions by us to a non-U.S. stockholder that are neither attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of “U.S. real property interests” nor designated by us as capital gains dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. These distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of federal income tax on a gross basis at a rate of 30%, or a lower rate as permitted under an applicable income tax treaty, unless the dividends are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. stockholder of a U.S. trade or business or are attributable to a permanent establishment that the non-U.S. stockholder maintains in the United States if that is required by an applicable income tax treaty as a condition for subjecting the non-U.S. stockholder to U.S. taxation on a net income basis. Under some treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. Dividends that are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business or are attributable to a permanent establishment that the non-U.S. stockholder maintains in the United States if that is required by an applicable income tax treaty, will be subject to tax on a net basis, that is, after allowance for deductions, at graduated rates, in the same manner as such dividends are taxable to U.S. stockholders, and are generally not subject to withholding. Applicable certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied to obtain a reduced rate of withholding under an applicable income tax treaty or to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Any dividends received by a corporate non-U.S. stockholder that is engaged in a U.S. trade or business also may be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate, or lower applicable treaty rate.

 

31


Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits that exceed the non-U.S. stockholder’s basis in its capital stock will be taxable to a non-U.S. stockholder as gain from the sale of our stock, which is discussed below. Distributions in excess of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that do not exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. stockholder in its capital stock will reduce the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted basis in its capital stock, but not below zero, and will not be subject to federal income tax, but will be subject to U.S. withholding tax as described below.

We expect to withhold U.S. income tax at the rate of 30% on any dividend distributions (including distributions that later may be determined to have been in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits) made to a non-U.S. stockholder unless:

 

  (1)

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. stockholder files with us an IRS Form W-8BEN or Form W-8BEN-E evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

  (2)

the non-U.S. stockholder files with us an IRS Form W-8ECI claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with such non-U.S. stockholder’s trade or business within the U.S.

We may be required to withhold at least 15% of any distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, even if a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. stockholder is not liable for tax on the receipt of that distribution. However, a non-U.S. stockholder may seek a refund of these amounts from the IRS if the non-U.S. stockholder’s U.S. tax liability with respect to the distribution is less than the amount withheld.

Distributions to a non-U.S. stockholder that are designated by us at the time of the distribution as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest, generally should not be subject to federal income taxation unless:

 

  (1)

the investment in our capital stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s U.S. trade or business or is attributable to a permanent establishment that the non-U.S. stockholder maintains in the United States if that is required by an applicable income tax treaty, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to any gain, except that a stockholder that is a foreign corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax; or

 

  (2)

the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S., in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gains.

Under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” subject to the exception discussed below for 10% or smaller holders of regularly traded classes of stock, “qualified shareholders,” “qualified foreign pension funds” and “qualified controlled entities,” distributions to a non-U.S. stockholder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of U.S. real property interests, whether or not designated as a capital gain dividend, will cause the non-U.S. stockholder to be treated as recognizing gain that is income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. stockholders will be taxed on this gain at the same rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, subject to a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Also, this gain may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation.

We will be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 21% of any distributions to non-U.S. stockholders that are designated as capital gain dividends, including any distributions that could have been designated as capital gain dividends. Distributions can be designated as capital gains to the extent of our net capital gain for the taxable year of the distribution. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. stockholder’s federal income tax liability. A non-U.S. stockholder who receives distributions attributable to gain from a sale or exchange by us of U.S. real property interests will be required to file a federal income tax return for the taxable year.

Any distribution by a REIT to a non-U.S. stockholder with respect to a class of stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States will not be subject to FIRPTA (or the 21% FIRPTA

 

32


withholding tax) if such non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class at any time during the one year period ending on the date of the distribution. However, such a distribution will be subject to the general withholding rules discussed above which generally impose a withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of each dividend distribution (unless reduced by treaty). Our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States. Any preferred stock we issue may or may not be regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States.

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts designated by us as undistributed capital gains generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S. stockholders in the same manner as actual distributions by us of capital gain dividends. Under that approach, non-U.S. stockholders would be able to offset as a credit against their federal income tax liability resulting therefrom an amount equal to their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on the undistributed capital gains, and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of this tax paid by us exceeds their actual federal income tax liability.

As described above, we may make distributions that are paid in common stock or preferred stock and are intended to be treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Such distributions, accordingly, would be treated in a manner consistent with the discussion under this heading “U.S. Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders — Distributions by Us.” If we are required to withhold an amount in excess of any cash distributed along with the common or preferred shares, we may retain and sell some of the common or preferred shares that would otherwise be distributed in order to satisfy our withholding obligations.

Sale of Stock. Gain recognized by a non-U.S. stockholder upon the sale or exchange of our capital stock generally would not be subject to U.S. taxation unless:

 

  (1)

the investment in our capital stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to any gain;

 

  (2)

the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a tax home in the U.S., in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gains for the taxable year; or

 

  (3)

our capital stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest within the meaning of FIRPTA, as described below.

Our capital stock will not constitute a U.S. real property interest if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity. We will be a domestically controlled qualified investment entity if, at all times during a specified testing period, we are a REIT and less than 50% in value of our stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. stockholders. We cannot guarantee that we will be a domestically controlled qualified investment entity.

Additionally, to the extent our stock is held directly (or indirectly through one or more partnerships) by a “qualified shareholder,” it will not be treated as a U.S. real property interest for such qualified shareholder. Therefore, gain treated as gain from the sale or exchange of our stock will not be subject to tax under FIRPTA but would be subject to tax if such gain is treated as effectively connected with the qualified shareholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business. Further, to the extent such treatment applies, any distribution to such shareholder will not be treated as gain recognized from the sale or exchange of a U.S. real property interest (and capital gain dividends and non-dividend distributions to such shareholder may be treated as ordinary dividends). For these purposes, a qualified shareholder is generally a non-U.S. stockholder that (i)(A) is eligible for treaty benefits under an income tax treaty with the United States that includes an exchange of information program, and the principal class of interests of which is listed and regularly traded on one or more stock exchanges as defined by the treaty, or (B) is a foreign limited partnership organized in a jurisdiction with an exchange of information agreement with the United States and that has a class of regularly traded limited partnership units (having a value greater than 50% of the value of all partnership units) on the New York Stock Exchange or Nasdaq, (ii) is a “qualified collective investment vehicle” (within the meaning of section 897(k)(3)(B) of the Code) and (iii) maintains records of persons holding 5% or more of the class of interests described in clauses (i)(A) or (i)(B) above. However, in the case of a qualified shareholder having one or more “applicable investors,” the exception described in the first sentence of this paragraph will not

 

33


apply to the applicable percentage of the qualified shareholder’s stock (where “applicable percentage” generally means the percentage of the value of the interests in the qualified shareholder held by applicable investors after applying certain constructive ownership rules). The applicable percentage of the amount realized by a qualified shareholder on the disposition of our stock or with respect to a distribution from us attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a U.S. real property interest will be treated as amounts realized from the disposition of U.S. real property interest. Such treatment shall also apply to applicable investors in respect of distributions treated as a sale or exchange of stock with respect to a qualified shareholder. For these purposes, an “applicable investor” is a person (other than a qualified shareholder) who holds an interest in the qualified shareholder and holds more than 10% of our stock applying certain constructive ownership rules.

For periods on or after December 18, 2015, for FIRPTA purposes neither a “qualified foreign pension fund” nor a “qualified controlled entity” (each as defined below) shall be treated as a non-U.S. stockholder. Accordingly, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of ordinary dividends received by qualified foreign pension funds and qualified controlled entities will be determined without regard to the FIRPTA rules, and their gain from the sale or exchange of our stock, as well as our capital gain dividends and distributions treated as gain from the sale or exchange, will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such gain is treated as effectively connected with such qualified foreign pension fund’s (or such qualified controlled entity’s) conduct of a U.S. trade or business. A “qualified foreign pension fund” is an organization or arrangement (i) created or organized in a foreign country, (ii) established to provide retirement or pension benefits to current or former employees (including self-employed individuals) or their designees by either (A) a foreign country as a result of services rendered by such employees to their employers, or (B) one or more employers in consideration for services rendered by such employees to such employers, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary that has a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and with respect to which annual information about its beneficiaries is provided, or is otherwise made available, to relevant local tax authorities and (v) with respect to which, under its local laws, (A) contributions that would otherwise be subject to tax are deductible or excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate, or (B) taxation of its investment income is deferred, or such income is excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate. A “qualified controlled entity” for purposes of the above summary means an entity all the interests of which are held by a qualified foreign pension fund. Alternatively, under proposed Treasury Regulations that taxpayers generally may rely on, but which are subject to change, a “qualified controlled entity” is a trust of corporation organized under the laws of a foreign country all of the interests of which are held by one or more qualified foreign pension funds either directly or indirectly through one or more qualified controlled entities or partnerships.

Even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our stock, a non-U.S. stockholder may be treated as having gain from the sale or exchange of a U.S. real property interest if the non-U.S. stockholder (1) disposes of an interest in our stock during the 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from sale or exchange of a U.S. real property interest and (2) directly or indirectly acquires, enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of our stock within 30 days before or after such ex-dividend date. This rule does not apply if the exception for distributions to 5% or smaller holders of regularly traded classes of stock is satisfied.

Even if we do not qualify as a domestically controlled qualified investment entity at the time a non-U.S. stockholder sells its capital stock, our stock sold by such stockholder would not be considered a U.S. real property interest if:

 

  (1)

the class or series of stock sold is considered regularly traded under applicable Treasury Regulations on an established securities market; and

 

  (2)

the selling non-U.S. stockholder owned, actually or constructively, 10% or less in value of the outstanding class or series of stock being sold throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or exchange or the taxpayer’s holding period with respect to such stock.

Our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States. Any preferred stock we issue may or may not be regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States.

 

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If gain on the sale or exchange of our common stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. stockholder would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to any gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. stockholder, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding Tax Applicable to Stockholders

U.S. Stockholders. In general, information reporting requirements will apply to distributions on our capital stock and payments of the proceeds of the sale of our capital stock to some stockholders, unless an exception applies. Further, the payee will be subject to backup withholding on any payments if:

 

  (1)

the payee fails to furnish a taxpayer identification number, or TIN, to the payor or to establish an exemption from backup withholding;

 

  (2)

the IRS notifies the payor that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect;

 

  (3)

there has been a notified payee under-reporting with respect to interest, dividends, or original issue discount described in Section 3406(c) of the Code; or

 

  (4)

the payee fails to certify under the penalty of perjury that the payee is not subject to backup withholding under the Code.

Some stockholders, including corporations and tax exempt organizations, will be exempt from backup withholding. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a stockholder will be allowed as a credit against the stockholder’s federal income tax and may entitle the stockholder to a refund, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS.

Non-U.S. Stockholders. Generally, information reporting will apply to payments of distributions on our capital stock, and backup withholding may apply, unless the payee certifies that it is not a U.S. person or otherwise establishes an exemption.

The payment of the proceeds from the disposition of our capital stock to or through the U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker will be subject to information reporting and, possibly, backup withholding unless the non-U.S. stockholder certifies as to its non-U.S. status or otherwise establishes an exemption, provided that the broker does not have actual knowledge that the stockholder is a U.S. person or that the conditions of any other exemption are not, in fact, satisfied. The proceeds of the disposition by a non-U.S. stockholder of our capital stock to or through a foreign office of a foreign broker-dealer generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, if the proceeds from a disposition of stock are paid to or through a foreign office of a U.S. broker-dealer or a non-U.S. office of a foreign broker-dealer that is (1) a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (2) a foreign person 50% or more of whose gross income from all sources for specified periods is from activities that are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, (3) a foreign partnership with one or more partners who are U.S. persons and who, in the aggregate, hold more than 50% of the income or capital interest in the partnership, or (4) a foreign partnership engaged in the conduct of a trade or business in the U.S., then information reporting and backup withholding generally will apply unless the broker (A) has documentary evidence as to the non-U.S. stockholder’s foreign status and (B) has no actual knowledge to the contrary. Any amount withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a stockholder will be allowed as a credit against such stockholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability (which might entitle such stockholder to a refund), provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS.

Applicable Treasury Regulations provide presumptions regarding the status of stockholders when payments to the stockholders cannot be reliably associated with appropriate documentation provided to the payer. Because the application of these Treasury Regulations varies depending on the stockholder’s particular circumstances, you are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the information reporting requirements applicable to you.

 

35


Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The rules dealing with federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department. No assurance can be given as to whether, when, or in what form, the federal income tax laws applicable to us and our stockholders may be enacted. Changes to the federal tax laws and interpretations of federal tax laws could adversely affect an investment in our capital stock.

Additional U.S. Federal Income Tax Withholding Rules

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, imposes withholding taxes on dividends made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations or (ii) the foreign non-financial entity either certifies it does not have any substantial United States owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner. If the payee is a foreign financial institution, it must enter into an agreement with the United States Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertakes to identify accounts held by certain United States persons or United States-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent them from complying with these reporting and other requirements. Investors in jurisdictions that have entered into “intergovernmental agreements” may, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, be required to report such information to their home jurisdictions. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding this legislation.

Other Tax Consequences

Our company and its stockholders may be subject to state and local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions, including those in which it or they transact business or reside. The state and local tax treatment of our company and its stockholders may not conform to the federal income tax consequences discussed above. Consequently, prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the effect of state and local tax laws on an investment in our securities. To the extent that we and any of our subsidiaries are required to pay federal, state or local taxes, we will have less cash available for distribution to stockholders.

 

36


PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities offered by this prospectus from time to time in one or more transactions, including without limitation:

 

   

through underwriters or dealers;

 

   

directly to investors;

 

   

in “at the market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise;

 

   

to investors through agents;

 

   

in block trades;

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods; or

 

   

through any other method permitted by applicable law and described in a prospectus supplement.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution to our existing stockholders or other securityholders.

The prospectus supplement with respect to any offering of securities will include the following information:

 

   

the terms of the offering;

 

   

the names of any underwriters or agents;

 

   

the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;

 

   

the purchase price or initial public offering price of the securities;

 

   

the net proceeds from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers;

 

   

any commissions paid to agents; and

 

   

any securities exchange on which the securities may be listed.

Sale through Underwriters or Dealers

If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless we inform you otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers.

 

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We will describe the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents and the purchase price of the securities in a prospectus supplement relating to the securities.

In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters may receive compensation from us or from purchasers of the securities, for whom they may act as agents, in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and these dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents, which is not expected to exceed that customary in the types of transactions involved. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts or commissions they receive from us, and any profit on the resale of the securities they realize may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions, under the Securities Act. The prospectus supplement will identify any underwriter or agent and will describe any compensation they receive from us.

Underwriters could make sales in privately negotiated transactions and/or any other method permitted by law, including sales deemed to be an “at-the-market” offering, sales made directly on the NYSE, the existing trading market for our shares of common stock, or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange. The name of any such underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of our shares of common stock, the amounts underwritten, and the nature of its obligations to take our shares of common stock will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of the securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than our shares of common stock, which are currently listed on the NYSE. We currently intend to list any shares of common stock sold pursuant to this prospectus on the NYSE. We may elect to list any series of shares of preferred stock on an exchange, but are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a series of the securities, but underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we can give no assurance about the liquidity of the trading market for any of the securities.

Under agreements we may enter into, we may indemnify underwriters, dealers, and agents who participate in the distribution of the securities against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribute with respect to payments that the underwriters, dealers or agents may be required to make.

To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time. From time to time, we may engage in transactions with these underwriters, dealers, and agents in the ordinary course of business.

If indicated in the prospectus supplement, we may authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to contracts providing for payment and delivery on a future date. Institutions with which we may make these delayed delivery contracts include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and others. The obligations of any purchaser under any such delayed delivery contract will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and other agents will not have any responsibility with regard to the validity or performance of these delayed delivery contracts.

 

38


Direct Sales and Sales through Agents

We may sell the securities directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. We may also sell the securities through agents designated by us from time to time. In the applicable prospectus supplement, we will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities, and we will describe any commissions payable to the agent. Unless we inform you otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.

We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. We will describe the terms of any sales of these securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Remarketing Arrangements

Securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreements, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

General Information

We may have agreements with the underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms to indemnify them against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute with respect to payments that the underwriters, dealers, agents or remarketing firms may be required to make. Underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of their businesses.

 

39


LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered by means of this prospectus and certain U.S. federal income tax matters have been passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Terreno Realty Corporation appearing in Terreno Realty Corporation’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2020 (including the schedule appearing therein), and the effectiveness of Terreno Realty Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

40


 

 

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 


PART II.

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table sets forth the costs and expenses of the sale and distribution of the securities being registered, all of which are being borne by the Registrant.

 

SEC registration fee

   $                 *  

Printing fees and expenses

     **  

Legal fees and expenses

     **  

Accounting fees and expenses

     **  

Listing fees

     **  

Transfer agent or trustee fees

     **  

Miscellaneous

     **  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ **  

 

*

Deferred in accordance with Rules 456(b) and Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act.

**

These fees and expenses depend on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time. Each prospectus supplement will reflect estimated expenses based on the amount of the related offering.

Item 15. Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Our charter contains a provision permitted under the Maryland General Corporation Law that eliminates each director’s and officer’s personal liability to us or our stockholders for monetary damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. In addition, to the maximum extent permitted under the Maryland General Corporation Law, our charter authorizes us to obligate our company and our bylaws require us to indemnify any present or former director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in any of the foregoing capacities, and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification. Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served any predecessor of us in any of the capacities described above and any employee or agent of us or any predecessor of us.

Maryland law requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services or (c) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. A Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer who has been adjudged liable in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to the corporation or on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct, was adjudged liable to the corporation or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit

 

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was improperly received; however, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, Maryland law permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

We entered into indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors whereby we indemnify such executive officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law against all expenses and liabilities, subject to limited exceptions. These indemnification agreements also provide that upon an application for indemnity by an executive or director to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, such court may order us to indemnify such executive officer or director. We also have an insurance policy under which our directors and officers are insured, subject to the limits of the policy, against certain losses arising from claims made against such directors and officers by reason of any acts or omissions covered under such policy in their respective capacities as directors or officers.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

Exhibit

Number

   Exhibit Description
  1.1**    Form of Underwriting Agreement
  4.1    Articles of Amendment and Restatement of Registrant (previously filed as Exhibit 3.1 to Amendment No.  2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 on January 6, 2010 and incorporated herein by reference)
  4.2    Articles Supplementary for Registrant’s 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (previously filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K on July 19, 2012 and incorporated herein by reference).
  4.3    Articles Supplementary of Registrant (previously filed as Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K on February 9, 2017 and incorporated herein by reference).
  4.4    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Registrant (previously filed as Exhibit 3.2 to Amendment No.  2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 on January 6, 2010 and incorporated herein by reference)
  4.5    First Amendment to Amended and Restated Bylaws of Registrant (previously filed as Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K on February 9, 2017 and incorporated herein by reference).
  4.6    Specimen Common Stock Certificate of Registrant (previously filed as Exhibit 4.1 to Amendment No.  3 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 on January 15, 2010 and incorporated herein by reference)
  4.7**    Form of Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate of Registrant with respect to any shares of preferred stock to be issued pursuant to this Registration Statement

 

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  4.8**    Form of Articles Supplementary with respect to any shares of preferred stock to be issued pursuant to this Registration Statement
  5.1*    Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP as to the legality of the securities being registered
  8.1*    Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP as to certain tax matters
23.1*    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
23.2*    Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
23.3*    Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 8.1)
24.1*    Power of Attorney (included on signature page)

 

*

Filed herewith

**

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and incorporated herein by reference.

Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

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(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

(A) each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and (B) each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or

 

  (ii)

each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities: the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

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(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) That, insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of San Francisco, State of California, on February 10, 2021

 

TERRENO REALTY CORPORATION

/s/ W. Blake Baird

W. Blake Baird
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints W. Blake Baird and Michael A. Coke and each of them, his true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement, and any additional related registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (including post-effective amendments to the registration statement and any such related registration statements), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and any other documents in connection therewith, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated on February 10, 2021.

 

Signature        Title

/s/ W. Blake Baird

W. Blake Baird

     Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and Director (principal executive officer)

/s/ Michael A. Coke

Michael A. Coke

     President and Director

/s/ Jaime J. Cannon

Jaime J. Cannon

    

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

(principal financial and accounting officer)`

/s/ Linda Assante

Linda Assante

     Director

/s/ LeRoy E. Carlson

LeRoy E. Carlson

     Director

/s/ David Lee

David Lee

     Director

/s/ Gabriela F. Parcella

Gabriela F. Parcella

     Director

/s/ Douglas M. Pasquale

Douglas M. Pasquale

     Director

/s/ Dennis Polk

Dennis Polk

     Director

 

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Section 2: EX-5.1 (EX-5.1)

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

[Goodwin Procter LLP Letterhead]

February 10, 2021

Terreno Realty Corporation

101 Montgomery Street, Suite 200

San Francisco, California 94104

 

  Re:

Securities Being Registered under Registration Statement on Form S-3

We have acted as counsel to you in connection with your filing of a Registration Statement on Form S-3 (as amended or supplemented, the “Registration Statement”) pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the registration of any combination of (i) common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), of Terreno Realty Corporation, a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and (ii) preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Preferred Stock”), of the Company. The Common Stock and Preferred Stock are sometimes referred to collectively herein as the “Securities.” The Securities may be issued in an unspecified number. The Registration Statement provides that the Securities may be offered separately or together, in separate series, in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more prospectus supplements (each a “Prospectus Supplement”) to the prospectus contained in the Registration Statement.

We have reviewed such documents and made such examination of law as we have deemed appropriate to give the opinions set forth below. We have relied, without independent verification, on certificates of public officials and, as to matters of fact material to the opinions set forth below, on certificates of officers of the Company.

The opinions set forth below are limited to the Maryland General Corporation Law and the federal law of the United States. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, we express no opinion with respect to (i) state securities or “blue sky” laws, or (ii) state or federal antitrust laws.

For purposes of the opinions set forth below, without limiting any other exceptions or qualifications set forth herein, we have assumed that after the issuance of any Securities offered pursuant to the Registration Statement, the total number of issued shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as applicable, together with the total number of shares of such stock issuable upon the exercise, exchange, conversion or settlement, as the case may be, of any exercisable, exchangeable or convertible security, as the case may be, then outstanding, will not exceed the total number of authorized shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as applicable, available for issuance under the Company’s Articles of Amendment and Restatement, as further amended, corrected or supplemented and then in effect (the “Charter”).


Terreno Realty Corporation

February 10, 2021

Page 2

 

For purposes of the opinions set forth below, we refer to the following as the “Future Authorization and Issuance” of Securities:

 

   

with respect to any of the Securities, (a) the authorization by the Company of the amount, terms and issuance of such Securities (the “Authorization”) and (b) the issuance of such Securities in accordance with the Authorization therefor upon the receipt by the Company of the consideration (which, in the case of shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, is not less than the par value of such shares) to be paid therefor in accordance with the Authorization; and

 

   

with respect to Preferred Stock, (a) the establishment of the terms of such Preferred Stock by the Company in conformity with the Charter and applicable law and (b) the execution, acknowledgement and filing with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland, and the effectiveness of, a certificate of designations to the Charter setting forth the terms of such Preferred Stock in accordance with the Charter and applicable law.

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the additional qualifications set forth below, we are of the opinion that:

1. Upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of shares of Common Stock, such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

2. Upon the Future Authorization and Issuance of shares of Preferred Stock, such shares of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

This opinion letter and the opinions it contains shall be interpreted in accordance with the Core Opinion Principles as published in 74 Business Lawyer 815 (Summer 2019).

We hereby consent to the inclusion of this opinion as Exhibit 5.1 to the Registration Statement and to the references to our firm under the caption “Legal Matters” in the Registration Statement. In giving our consent, we do not admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

Very truly yours,

/s/ GOODWIN PROCTER LLP

GOODWIN PROCTER LLP

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Section 3: EX-8.1 (EX-8.1)

EX-8.1

Exhibit 8.1

[Goodwin Procter LLP Letterhead]

As of February 10, 2021

Terreno Realty Corporation

101 Montgomery Street, Suite 200

San Francisco, CA 94104

Ladies and Gentlemen:

This opinion letter is furnished to you in connection with your filing of a Registration Statement on Form S-3 with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 10, 2021 (as amended or supplemented, the “Registration Statement”) pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the registration of (i) common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of Terreno Realty Corporation, a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and (ii) preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company. This opinion letter addresses the Company’s qualification as a real estate investment trust (a “REIT”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), for the taxable years commencing with the Company’s taxable year ended December 31, 2010 and the accuracy of the matters discussed in the Registration Statement under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

In rendering the following opinion, we have reviewed and relied upon the Articles of Amendment and Restatement of the Company as in effect since January 14, 2010 through the date hereof, the Articles Supplementary relating to the Company’s 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock as in effect since January 13, 2012 through the date hereof, the Articles Supplementary as in effect since February 8, 2017 through the date hereof, the Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company, as amended by the First Amendment to the Amended and Restated Bylaws, and the Registration Statement. For purposes of our opinion, we have assumed (i) the genuineness of all signatures on documents we have examined, (ii) the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, (iii) the conformity to the original documents of all documents submitted to us as copies, (iv) the conformity, to the extent relevant to our opinion, of final documents to all documents submitted to us as drafts, (v) the authority and capacity of the individual or individuals who executed any such documents on behalf of any person, (vi) due execution and delivery of all such documents by all the parties thereto, (vii) the compliance of each party with all material provisions of such documents, and (viii) the accuracy and completeness of all records made available to us.


We also have reviewed and relied upon the representations and covenants of the Company contained in a letter that it provided to us in connection with the preparation of this opinion (the “REIT Certificate”) regarding the formation, organization, ownership, and operation of the Company and other matters affecting the Company’s ability to qualify as a REIT. We have neither independently investigated nor verified such representations and the Company’s ability to comply with such covenants, and we assume that each such representation and covenant is and will be true, correct and complete, that the Company and any subsidiaries are and will be owned and operated in accordance with the REIT Certificate and that all representations and covenants that speak to the best of the belief and/or knowledge of any person(s) or party(ies), or are subject to similar qualification, are and will continue to be true, correct and complete as if made without such qualification. To the extent such representations and covenants speak to the intended ownership or operations of the Company, we assume that the Company will in fact be owned and operated in accordance with such stated intent.

Based upon the foregoing and subject to the limitations set forth herein, we are of the opinion that (i) commencing with its taxable year ended on December 31, 2010 and through the date hereof, the Company has been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and its proposed ownership and method of operations as described in the REIT Certificate will allow it to continue to satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and (ii) the statements set forth under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the Registration Statement, insofar as such statements describe applicable U.S. federal income tax law, constitute accurate summaries of the matters described therein in all material respects.

* * * * * *

The opinions set forth above represent our conclusions based upon the documents, facts, representations and assumptions referred to above. Any material amendments to such documents, changes in any significant facts or inaccuracy of such representations or assumptions could affect the opinions referred to herein. Moreover, the Company’s continuing qualification as a REIT depends upon the ability of the Company to meet for each taxable year, through actual operating results, requirements under the Code regarding gross income, assets, distributions and diversity of stock ownership. We have not undertaken to review the Company’s compliance with these requirements on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of the Company’s operations for any single taxable year will satisfy the tests necessary to qualify as or be taxed as a REIT under the Code.

We express no opinion other than the opinions expressly set forth herein. Our opinions are not binding on the Internal Revenue Service or a court, and the Internal Revenue Service or a court may disagree with our conclusion. Our opinions are based upon the Code, the Income Tax Regulations and Procedure and Administration Regulations promulgated thereunder and existing administrative and judicial interpretation thereof, all as in effect as of the date of this opinion letter. Changes in applicable law could cause the federal income tax treatment of the Company to differ materially and adversely from the treatment described above and render the tax discussion in the Registration Statement incorrect or incomplete.

 

2


We hereby consent to the inclusion of this opinion as Exhibit 8.1 to the Registration Statement and to the references to our firm under the captions “Legal Matters” and “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the Registration Statement. In giving our consent, we do not admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

Very truly yours,

/s/ GOODWIN PROCTER LLP

Goodwin Procter LLP

 

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Section 4: EX-23.1 (EX-23.1)

EX-23.1

Exhibit 23.1

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

We consent to the reference to our firm under the caption “Experts” in the Registration Statement (Form S-3) and related Prospectus of Terreno Realty Corporation for the registration of common stock and preferred stock and to the incorporation by reference therein of our reports dated February 10, 2021, with respect to the consolidated financial statements and schedule of Terreno Realty Corporation, and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting of Terreno Realty Corporation, included in its Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

San Francisco, California

February 10, 2021

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