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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                    to                   
Brandywine Realty Trust
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Maryland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Brandywine Realty Trust)
 
 
 
001-9106
 
 
 
23-2413352
Delaware
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.)
 
 
 
000-24407
 
 
 
23-2862640
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation
or Organization)
 
 
 
(Commission file number)
 
 
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
2929 Walnut Street
Suite 1700
Philadelphia, PA 19104
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(610) 325-5600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares of Beneficial Interest
 
BDN
 
NYSE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Brandywine Realty Trust
Yes
  No 
 
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.
Yes
  No 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Brandywine Realty Trust
Yes
No
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.
Yes 
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Brandywine Realty Trust
Yes
  No 
 
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.
Yes
  No 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Brandywine Realty Trust
Yes
  No 
 
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.
Yes
  No 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Brandywine Realty Trust:
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark whether the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of Exchange Act.

Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.:
Large accelerated filer 
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer
 
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Brandywine Realty Trust
Yes   
 No
Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P.
Yes   
 No
As of June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of the Common Shares of Beneficial Interest held by non-affiliates of Brandywine Realty Trust was $2,466,793,544 based upon the last reported sale price of $14.32 per share on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2019. An aggregate of 176,602,359 Common Shares of Beneficial Interest was outstanding as of February 26, 2020.
As of June 30, 2019 the aggregate market value of the 981,626 common units of limited partnership (“Units”) held by non-affiliates of Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P. was $14,056,884 based upon the last reported sale price of $14.32 per share on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2019 of the Common Shares of Beneficial Interest of Brandywine Realty Trust, the sole general partner of Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P. (For this computation, the Registrant has excluded the market value of all Units beneficially owned by Brandywine Realty Trust.)
Documents Incorporated By Reference
Portions of the proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of Brandywine Realty Trust are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.




EXPLANATORY NOTE
This report combines the annual reports on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 of Brandywine Realty Trust (the “Parent Company”) and Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P. (the “Operating Partnership”). The Parent Company is a Maryland real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns its assets and conducts its operations through the Operating Partnership, a Delaware limited partnership, and subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership. The Parent Company, the Operating Partnership and their consolidated subsidiaries are collectively referred to in this report as the “Company.” In addition, terms such as “we”, “us”, or “our” used in this report may refer to the Company, the Parent Company, or the Operating Partnership.
The Parent Company is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and as of December 31, 2019, owned a 99.4% interest in the Operating Partnership. The remaining 0.6% interest consists of common units of limited partnership interest issued by the Operating Partnership to third parties in exchange for contributions of properties to the Operating Partnership. As the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, the Parent Company has full and complete authority over the Operating Partnership’s day-to-day operations and management.
As general partner with control of the Operating Partnership, the Parent Company consolidates the Operating Partnership for financial reporting purposes, and the Parent Company does not have significant assets other than its investment in the Operating Partnership. Therefore, the assets and liabilities of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership are the same in their respective financial statements. The separate discussions of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership in this report should be read in conjunction with each other to understand the results of the Company’s operations on a consolidated basis and how management operates the Company.
Management operates the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership as one enterprise. The management of the Parent Company consists of the same members as the management of the Operating Partnership. These members are officers of both the Parent Company and of the Operating Partnership.
The Company believes that combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership into a single report will result in the following benefits:
facilitate a better understanding by the investors of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership by enabling them to view the business as a whole in the same manner as management views and operates the business;
remove duplicative disclosures and provide a more straightforward presentation in light of the fact that a substantial portion of the disclosure applies to both the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership; and
create time and cost efficiencies through the preparation of one combined report instead of two separate reports.
There are few differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership, which are reflected in the footnote disclosures in this report. The Company believes it is important to understand the differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership in the context of how these entities operate as an interrelated consolidated company. The Parent Company is a REIT, whose only material asset is its ownership of the partnership interests of the Operating Partnership. As a result, the Parent Company does not conduct business itself, other than acting as the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, issuing public equity from time to time and guaranteeing the debt obligations of the Operating Partnership. The Operating Partnership holds substantially all the assets of the Company and directly or indirectly holds the ownership interests in the Company’s real estate ventures. The Operating Partnership conducts the operations of the Company’s business and is structured as a partnership with no publicly traded equity. Except for net proceeds from equity issuances by the Parent Company, which are contributed to the Operating Partnership in exchange for partnership units, the Operating Partnership generates the capital required by the Company’s business through the Operating Partnership’s operations, by the Operating Partnership’s direct or indirect incurrence of indebtedness or through the issuance of partnership units of the Operating Partnership or equity interests in subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership.
The equity and noncontrolling interests in the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership’s equity are the main areas of difference between the consolidated financial statements of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership. The common units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership are accounted for as partners’ equity in the Operating Partnership’s financial statements while the common units of limited partnership interests held by parties other than the Parent Company are presented as noncontrolling interests in the Parent Company’s financial statements. The differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership’s equity relate to the differences in the equity issued at the Parent Company and Operating Partnership levels.

2



To help investors understand the significant differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership, this report presents the following as separate notes or sections for each of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership:
Consolidated Financial Statements;
Parent Company’s and Operating Partnership’s Equity
This report also includes separate Item 9A. (Controls and Procedures) disclosures and separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications for each of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership in order to establish that the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of each entity have made the requisite certifications and that the Parent Company and Operating Partnership are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and 18 U.S.C. § 1350.
In order to highlight the differences between the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership, the separate sections in this report for the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership specifically refer to the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership. In the sections that combine disclosures of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership, this report refers to such disclosures as those of the Company. Although the Operating Partnership is generally the entity that directly or indirectly enters into contracts and real estate ventures and holds assets and debt, reference to the Company is appropriate because the business is one enterprise and the Parent Company operates the business through the Operating Partnership.

3



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4



Filing Format
This combined Form 10-K is being filed separately by Brandywine Realty Trust (the “Parent Company”) and Brandywine Operating Partnership, L.P. (the “Operating Partnership”).
Forward-Looking Statements
The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking statements. This report and other materials filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) (as well as information included in oral or other written statements made by us) contain statements that are forward-looking, including statements relating to business and real estate development activities, acquisitions, dispositions, future capital expenditures, financing sources, governmental regulation (including environmental regulation) and competition. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe-harbor provisions of the 1995 Act. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “will,” “should” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, we can give no assurance that our expectations will be achieved. These forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain, and actual results may differ from expectations. Our actual future results and trends may differ materially from expectations depending on a variety of factors discussed in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). These factors include without limitation:
The continuing impact of modest global economic growth, which may have a negative effect on, among other things, the following:
the fundamentals of our business, including overall market occupancy, demand for office space and rental rates;
the financial condition of our tenants, many of which are financial, legal and other professional firms, our lenders, counterparties to our derivative financial instruments and institutions that hold our cash balances and short-term investments, which may expose us to increased risks of default by these parties;
the availability of financing on attractive terms or at all, which may adversely impact our future interest expense and our ability to pursue acquisition and development opportunities and refinance existing debt; and
real estate asset valuations, a decline in which may limit our ability to dispose of assets at attractive prices or obtain or maintain debt financing secured by our properties or on an unsecured basis.
changes in local real estate conditions (including changes in rental rates and the number of properties that compete with our properties);
our failure to lease unoccupied space in accordance with our projections;
our failure to re-lease occupied space upon expiration of leases;
tenant defaults and the bankruptcy of major tenants;
volatility in capital and credit markets, including changes that reduce availability, and increase costs, of capital;
increasing interest rates, which could increase our borrowing costs and adversely affect the market price of our securities;
failure of interest rate hedging contracts to perform as expected and the effectiveness of such arrangements;
failure of acquisitions, developments and other investments, including projects undertaken through joint ventures, to perform as expected;
unanticipated costs associated with the purchase, integration and operation of our acquisitions;
unanticipated costs to complete, lease-up and operate our developments and redevelopments;
unanticipated costs associated with land development, including building moratoriums and inability to obtain necessary zoning, land-use, building, occupancy and other required governmental approvals, construction cost increases or overruns and construction delays;
lack of liquidity of real estate investments, which could make it difficult for us to respond to changing economic or financial conditions or changes in the operating performance of our properties;
potential damage from natural disasters, including hurricanes and other weather-related events, which could result in substantial costs to us;
impairment charges;
uninsured losses due to insurance deductibles, self-insurance retention, uninsured claims or casualties, or losses in excess of applicable coverage;
increased costs for, or lack of availability of, adequate insurance, including for terrorist acts or environmental liabilities;
actual or threatened terrorist attacks;
security breaches through cyber attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology (IT) networks and related systems, which support our operations and our properties;
the impact on workplace and tenant space demands driven by technology, employee culture and commuting patterns;
demand for tenant services beyond those traditionally provided by landlords;

5



liability and clean-up costs incurred under environmental or other laws;
risks associated with our investments in real estate ventures and unconsolidated entities, including our lack of sole decision-making authority and our reliance on our venture partners’ financial condition;
inability of real estate venture partners to fund venture obligations or perform under our real estate venture development agreements;
failure to manage our growth effectively into new product types within our portfolio and real estate venture arrangements;
failure of dispositions to close in a timely manner;
the impact of climate change and compliance costs relating to laws and regulations governing climate change;
risks associated with federal, state and local tax audits;
complex regulations relating to our status as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, and the adverse consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT;
changes in accounting principles, or their application or interpretation, and our ability to make estimates and the assumptions underlying the estimates, which could have an effect on our earnings; and
our internal control over financial reporting may not be considered effective which could result in a loss of investor confidence in our financial reports, and in turn could have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.
Given these uncertainties, and the other risks identified in the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this report, we caution readers not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to update or supplement forward-looking statements that become untrue because of subsequent events.

6



PART I
Item 1.    Business
Overview
We are a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust ("REIT") engaged in the acquisition, development, redevelopment, ownership, management, and operation of a portfolio of office and mixed-use properties. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, we owned and managed properties within five markets: (1) Philadelphia Central Business District (“Philadelphia CBD”), (2) Pennsylvania Suburbs, (3) Austin, Texas (4) Metropolitan Washington, D.C., and (5) Other. The Philadelphia CBD segment includes properties located in the City of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Suburbs segment includes properties in Chester, Delaware and Montgomery counties in the Philadelphia suburbs. The Austin, Texas segment includes properties in the City of Austin, Texas. The Metropolitan Washington, D.C. segment includes properties in Northern Virginia, Washington, D.C., and southern Maryland. The Other segment includes properties in Camden County in New Jersey and properties in New Castle County in Delaware. In addition to the five markets, our corporate group is responsible for cash and investment management, development of certain real estate properties during the construction period, and certain other general support functions. See Note 1, ''Organization of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership," to our Consolidated Financial Statements for our property portfolio, management services and land holdings. Unless otherwise indicated, all references in this Form 10-K to “square feet” represent the net rentable area.
The Parent Company was organized and commenced its operations in 1986 as a Maryland REIT. The Parent Company owns its assets and conducts its operations through the Operating Partnership and subsidiaries of the Operating Partnership. The Operating Partnership was formed in 1996 as a Delaware limited partnership. The Parent Company controls the Operating Partnership as its sole general partner. See Note 1, ''Organization of the Parent Company and the Operating Partnership," to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the Parent Company's ownership interest in the Operating Partnership. The ownership interests in the Operating Partnership not owned by the Company consist of common units of limited partnership issued to the holders in exchange for contributions of properties to the Operating Partnership. Our structure as an “UPREIT” is designed, in part, to permit persons contributing properties to us to defer some or all of the tax liability they might otherwise incur in a sale of properties.   We have offices in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Radnor, Pennsylvania; McLean, Virginia; Washington, D.C.; Camden, New Jersey; Richmond,Virginia; and Austin, Texas.
As of December 31, 2019, we had 337 full-time employees. Our principal executive offices are located at 2929 Walnut Street, Suite 1700, Philadelphia, PA 19104, our telephone number is (610) 325-5600 and our website is www.brandywinerealty.com. The content on any website referred to in this Form 10-K is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
We file annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is http://www.sec.gov. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and other information filed or furnished by us with the SEC are available, without charge, on our website, http://www.brandywinerealty.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed or furnished with the SEC. Copies are also available, free of charge, upon written request to Investor Relations, Brandywine Realty Trust, 2929 Walnut Street, Suite 1700, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Business Segments
See Note 18, ''Segment Information,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for information on results of operations of our reportable segments for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 and balance sheet amounts as of December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017.
Joint Ventures
From time to time we consider joint venture opportunities with institutional investors or other real estate companies. Joint venture partnerships provide us with additional sources of capital to share investment risk and fund capital requirements. In some instances, joint venture partnerships provide us with additional local market or product type expertise. For information regarding joint ventures, see Note 4, ''Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Ventures,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

7



Developments/Redevelopments
Our regular interaction with tenants and other market participants keep us current on innovations in workplace layout and smart living. We leverage this information to identify properties primed for development or redevelopment to meet these demands and realize value. The expertise and relationships that we have built from managing complex construction projects allow us to add new assets to our portfolio and renovate existing assets in our portfolio.
Business Objective and Strategies for Growth
Our business objective is to deploy capital effectively to maximize our return on investment and thereby maximize our total return to shareholders. To accomplish this objective we seek to:
concentrate on urban town centers and central business districts in selected regions, and be the best of class owner and developer in those markets with a full-service office in each of those markets providing property management, leasing, development, construction and legal expertise;
maximize cash flow through leasing strategies designed to capture rental growth as rental rates increase and as leases are renewed;
attain high tenant retention rates by providing a full array of property management, maintenance services and tenant service amenity programs responsive to the varying needs of our diverse tenant base;
continue to cultivate long-term leasing relationships with a diverse base of high-quality and financially stable tenants;
form joint ventures with high-quality partners having attractive real estate holdings or significant financial resources;
utilize our reputation as a full-service real estate development and management organization to identify acquisition and development opportunities that will expand our business and create long-term value;
increase the economic diversification of our tenant base while maximizing economies of scale; and
selectively dispose of properties that do not support our long-term business objectives and growth strategies.
We also consider the following to be important objectives:
to develop and opportunistically acquire high-quality office properties at attractive yields in markets that we expect will experience economic growth and where we can achieve operating efficiencies;
to monetize or deploy our land inventory for development of high-quality office properties, or rezone from office/industrial to residential, retail and hotel to align with market and demand shifts as appropriate;
to control development sites, including sites under option to acquire, that could support approximately 14.3 million square feet of new office, retail and residential development within our core markets;
to capitalize on our redevelopment expertise to selectively develop, redevelop and reposition properties in desirable locations that other organizations may not have the resources to pursue;
to own and develop high quality office and mixed-use real estate meeting the demands of today’s tenants who require sophisticated telecommunications and related infrastructure, support services, sustainable features and amenities, and to manage those facilities so as to continue to be the landlord of choice for both existing and prospective tenants;
to strategically grow our portfolio through the development and acquisition of new product types that support our strategy of transient-oriented and amenity based mixed-use properties located in the central business district of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania Suburbs; Austin, Texas; and Washington, D.C.; and
to secure third-party development contracts, which can be a significant source of revenue and enable us to utilize and grow our existing development and construction management resources.
We expect to concentrate our real estate activities in markets where we believe that:
current and projected market rents and absorption statistics justify construction activity;
we can maximize market penetration by accumulating a critical mass of properties and thereby enhance operating efficiencies;
barriers to entry (such as zoning restrictions, utility availability, infrastructure limitations, development moratoriums and limited developable land) will create supply constraints on available space; and
there is potential for economic growth, particularly job growth and industry diversification.
Operational Strategy
We currently expect to continue to operate in markets where we have a concentration advantage due to economies of scale. We believe that where possible, it is best to operate with a strong base of properties in order to benefit from the personnel allocation and the market strength associated with managing multiple properties in the same market. We also intend to selectively dispose

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of properties and redeploy capital if we determine a property cannot meet our long term earnings growth expectations. We believe that recycling capital is an important aspect of maintaining the overall quality of our portfolio.
Our broader strategy remains focused on continuing to grow earnings, enhance liquidity and strengthen our balance sheet through capital retention, debt reduction, targeted sales activity and management of our existing and prospective liabilities.
In the long term, we believe that we are well positioned in our current markets and have the expertise to take advantage of both development and acquisition opportunities, as warranted by market and economic conditions, in new markets that have healthy long-term fundamentals and strong growth projections. This capability, combined with what we believe is a conservative financial structure, should allow us to achieve disciplined growth. These abilities are integral to our strategy of having a diverse portfolio of assets, which will meet the needs of our tenants.
We use experienced on-site construction superintendents, operating under the supervision of project managers and senior management, to control the construction process and mitigate the various risks associated with real estate development.
In order to fund developments, redevelopments and acquisitions, as well as refurbish and improve existing properties, we primarily use proceeds from property dispositions, excess cash from operations after satisfying our dividend and other financing requirements, and external sources of debt and equity capital. The availability of funds for new investments and maintenance of existing properties largely depends on capital markets and liquidity factors over which we can exert little control.
Competition
The real estate business is highly competitive. Our properties compete for tenants with similar properties primarily on the basis of location, total occupancy costs (including base rent and operating expenses), services and amenities provided, and the design and condition of the improvements. We also face competition when attempting to acquire or develop real estate, including competition from domestic and foreign financial institutions, other REITs, life insurance companies, pension funds, partnerships and individual investors. Additionally, our ability to compete depends upon trends in the economies of our markets, investment alternatives, financial condition and operating results of current and prospective tenants, availability and cost of capital, construction and renovation costs, land availability, our ability to obtain necessary construction approvals, taxes, governmental regulations, legislation and population trends.
Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance
As one of the largest, publicly traded real estate companies in the United States, we seek to provide exceptional work environments for our tenants. Our current and recent developments and redevelopments reflect our commitment to energy efficient buildings with sustainable operating practices, as we seek to encourage the health and productivity of our tenants, while lowering operating costs and identifying revenue opportunities.
We are an industry leader in all areas of sustainability with a company-wide pledge to all three pillars of environmental, social, and corporate governance. Our environmental programs include over 5.4 million square feet of Fitwell Certified buildings including our FMC Tower which is the very first WELL Core certified project at the Platinum level globally as well as the first WELL V2 project in the United States. In addition, our year over year reductions of all key indices includes a reduction of water, energy, and greenhouse gas by 11%, 0.06%, and 1.98%, respectively, and our waste diversion program prevented nearly 38% of our gross trash production from reaching a landfill in 2019. Our social programming garnered a perfect score in our 2019 GRESB filing and demonstrates our commitment to stewardship and direct corporate involvement in the communities and neighborhoods we serve. One of the many highlights of our social vision is our Construction Apprentice Preparatory Program or CAPP which sponsors a 15-week class-based program to prepare minority candidates from the local area for entrance exams and jobs with Philadelphia union construction firms; as of December 31, 2019, 48 individuals have graduated the CAPP and been placed. Our corporate governance platform is the bedrock for sound decision making and promotes transparency coupled with a focus on the long-term interests of our shareholders. This led to an industry leading ISS Governance Quality Score of 1, in 2019, representing the lowest shareholder risk and the highest score that ISS awards.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
You should carefully consider these risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto, before you decide whether to make an investment in our securities. The risks set out below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, cash flows, liquidity, funds from operations, results of operations, share price, ability to service our indebtedness, and/or ability to make cash distributions to our security holders (including those necessary to maintain our REIT qualification).  In such case, the value of our common shares and the trading price of our securities could decline, and you may lose all or a significant part of your investment. Some statements in the following risk factors constitute forward looking statements. Please refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements under “Forward-Looking Statements” of this Form 10-K.
Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.
Our business is affected by global, national and local economic conditions. Our portfolio consists primarily of office buildings (as compared to real estate companies with portfolios of multiple asset classes). Our financial performance and the value of our real estate assets, and consequently the value of our securities, are subject to the risk that if our properties do not generate revenues sufficient to meet our operating expenses, including debt service and capital expenditures, our cash flow, results of operations, financial condition and ability to make distributions to our security holders will be adversely affected. The following factors, among others, may materially and adversely affect the income generated by our properties and our performance generally:
adverse changes in international, national or local economic and demographic conditions;
increased vacancies or our inability to rent space on favorable terms, including market pressures to offer tenants rent abatements, increased tenant improvement packages, early termination rights, below market rental rates or below-market renewal options;
significant job losses in the financial and professional services industries may occur, which may decrease demand for office space, causing market rental rates and property values to be negatively impacted;
changes in space utilization by our tenants due to technology, economic conditions and business culture may decrease demand for office space, causing market rental rates and property values to be negatively impacted;
deterioration in the financial condition of our tenants may result in tenant defaults under leases, including due to bankruptcy, and adversely impact our ability to collect rents from our tenants;
competition from other office and mixed-use properties, and increased supply of such properties;
increases in non-discretionary operating costs, including insurance expense, utilities, real estate taxes, state and local taxes, labor shortages and heightened security costs may not be offset by increased market rental rates;
reduced values of our properties would limit our ability to dispose of assets at attractive prices, limit our access to debt financing secured by our properties and reduce the availability of unsecured loans;
increases in interest rates, reduced availability of financing and reduced liquidity in the capital markets may adversely affect our ability or the ability of potential buyers of properties and tenants of properties to obtain financing on favorable terms, or at all;
one or more lenders under our unsecured revolving credit facility could refuse or be unable to fund their financing commitment to us and we may not be able to replace the financing commitment of any such lenders on favorable terms, or at all; and
civil disturbances, earthquakes and other natural disasters, or terrorist acts or acts of war may result in uninsured or underinsured losses.
Our performance is dependent upon the economic conditions of the markets in which our properties are located.
Our results of operations will be significantly influenced by the economies and other conditions of the real estate markets in which we operate, particularly in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the suburbs of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Austin, Texas, the District of Columbia, Northern Virginia and Southern Maryland. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in any of these economies or real estate markets could negatively affect cash available for distribution and debt service. Our financial performance and ability to make distributions to our shareholders and pay debt service is particularly sensitive to the economic conditions in these markets. The local economic climate, which may be adversely impacted by business layoffs or downsizing, industry

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slowdowns, changing demographics and other factors, and local real estate conditions, such as demand for office space, operating expenses and real estate taxes, may affect revenues and the value of properties, including properties to be acquired or developed.
We face risks associated with the development of mixed-use commercial properties.
We operate, are currently developing, and may in the future develop, properties either alone or through real estate ventures that are known as “mixed-use” developments. In addition to the development of office space, mixed-use projects may also include space for residential, retail, hotel or other commercial purposes. As a result, if a development project consists of a non-office or non-retail use, we may seek to develop that component ourselves, sell the rights to that component to a third-party developer with experience in that use, or we may seek to partner with such a developer. If we do not sell the rights or partner with such a developer, or if we choose to develop the other component ourselves, we would be exposed not only to those risks typically associated with the development of commercial real estate generally, but also to specific risks associated with the development and ownership of non-office real estate. In addition, even if we sell the rights to develop certain components or elect to participate in the development through a real estate venture, we may be exposed to the risks associated with the failure of the other party to complete the development as expected. These include the risk that the other party would default on its obligations, necessitating that we complete the other component ourselves (including providing any necessary financing). In the case of residential properties, these risks also include competition for prospective residents from other operators whose properties may be perceived to offer a better location or better amenities or whose rent may be perceived as a better value given the quality, location and amenities that the resident seeks. Because we have limited experience with residential properties, we expect to retain third parties to manage our residential properties. In the case of hotel properties, the risks also include increases in inflation and utilities that may not be offset by increases in room rates. We are also dependent on business and commercial travelers and tourism.  If we decide not to sell or participate in a real estate venture and instead hire a third party manager, we would be dependent on their key personnel to provide services on our behalf and we may not find a suitable replacement if the management agreement is terminated, or if key personnel leave or otherwise become unavailable to us.
We may suffer adverse consequences due to the financial difficulties, bankruptcy or insolvency of our tenants.
Periodically, our tenants experience financial difficulties, including bankruptcy, insolvency or a general downturn in their business, and these difficulties may have an adverse effect on our cash flow, results of operations, financial condition and ability to make distributions to our shareholders. We cannot assure you that any tenant that files for bankruptcy protection will continue to pay us rent. A bankruptcy filing by or relating to one of our tenants or a lease guarantor would bar efforts by us to collect pre-bankruptcy debts from that tenant or lease guarantor, or its property, unless we receive an order permitting us to do so from the bankruptcy court. In addition, we cannot evict a tenant solely because of bankruptcy. The bankruptcy of a tenant or lease guarantor could delay our efforts to collect past due balances under the relevant leases, and could ultimately preclude collection of these sums. If a lease is assumed by the tenant in bankruptcy, all pre-bankruptcy balances due under the lease must be paid to us in full. If, however, a lease is rejected by a tenant in bankruptcy, we would have only a general, unsecured claim for damages. Any such unsecured claim would only be paid to the extent that funds are available and only in the same percentage as is paid to all other holders of general, unsecured claims. Restrictions under the bankruptcy laws further limit the amount of any other claims that we can make if a lease is rejected. As a result, it is likely that we would recover substantially less than the full value of the remaining rent during the term. See Item 7., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Factors that May Influence Future Results of Operations - Tenant Credit Risk.”
An increase in interest rates would increase our interest costs on variable rate debt and could adversely impact our ability to refinance existing debt or sell assets on favorable terms or at all.
Rising interest rates could limit our ability to refinance existing debt when it matures or significantly increase our future interest expense. From time to time, we enter into interest rate swap agreements and other interest rate hedging contracts. While these agreements are intended to lessen the impact of rising interest rates on us, they also expose us to the risk that the other parties to the agreements will not perform, we could incur significant costs associated with the settlement or termination of the agreements, the agreements will be unenforceable and the underlying transactions will fail to qualify as highly-effective cash flow hedges under the applicable accounting guidance. In addition, an increase in interest rates could decrease the amounts third parties are willing or able to pay for our assets, thereby limiting our ability to recycle capital and change our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions.

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Our degree of leverage could limit our ability to obtain additional financing or affect the market price of our equity shares or debt securities.
Our organizational documents do not contain any limitation on the amount of indebtedness we may incur. We are subject to risks associated with debt financing, such as the insufficiency of cash flow to meet required debt service payment obligations and the inability to refinance existing indebtedness. If our debt cannot be paid, refinanced or extended at maturity, we may not be able to make distributions to shareholders at expected levels or at all. Furthermore, an increase in our interest expense could adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make distributions to shareholders. If we do not meet our debt service obligations, any properties securing such indebtedness could be foreclosed on, which would have a material adverse effect on our cash flow and ability to make distributions and, depending on the number of properties foreclosed on, could threaten our continued viability. Our degree of leverage could also make us more vulnerable to a downturn in business or the economy in general.
The terms and covenants relating to our indebtedness could adversely impact our economic performance.
Our credit facilities, term loans and the indenture governing our unsecured public debt securities contain (and any new or amended facility and term loans will contain) restrictions, requirements and other limitations on our ability to incur indebtedness, including total debt to asset ratios, secured debt to total asset ratios, debt service coverage ratios and minimum ratios of unencumbered assets to unsecured debt which we must maintain. Our ability to borrow under our credit facilities is subject to compliance with such financial and other covenants. In the event that we fail to satisfy these covenants, we would be in default under the credit facilities, the term loans and the indenture and may be required to repay such debt with capital from other sources. Under such circumstances, other sources of capital may not be available to us, or may be available only at unattractive terms. In addition, the mortgages on our properties, including mortgages encumbering our unconsolidated real estate ventures, contain customary covenants such as those that limit our ability, without the prior consent of the lender, to further mortgage the applicable property or to discontinue insurance coverage. If we breach covenants in our secured debt agreements, the lenders can declare a default and take possession of the property securing the defaulted loan.
A downgrading of our debt could subject us to higher borrowing costs.
In the event that our unsecured debt is downgraded by Moody’s Investor Services or Standard & Poor’s from the current ratings, we would likely incur higher borrowing costs and the market prices of our common shares and debt securities might decline.
We may experience increased operating costs, which might reduce our profitability.
Our properties are subject to increases in operating expenses such as for insurance, real estate taxes, cleaning, electricity, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, administrative costs and other costs associated with security, landscaping and repairs and maintenance of our properties. In general, our tenant leases allow us to pass through all or a portion of these costs to them. We cannot assure you, however, that tenants will actually bear the full burden of these increased costs, or that such increased costs will not lead them, or other prospective tenants, to seek office space elsewhere. If operating expenses increase, the availability of other comparable office space in our core geographic markets might limit our ability to increase rents; if operating expenses increase without a corresponding increase in revenues, our profitability could diminish and limit our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
Our investment in property development or redevelopment may be more costly or difficult to complete than we anticipate.
We intend to continue to develop properties where market conditions warrant such investment. Once made, these investments may not produce results in accordance with our expectations. Risks associated with our development and construction activities include:
unavailability of favorable financing alternatives in the private and public debt markets;
insufficient capital to pay development costs;
limited experience in developing or redeveloping properties in certain of our geographic markets may lead us to incorrectly project development costs and returns on our investments;
dependence on the financial, technology and professional services sector as part of our tenant base;
construction costs exceeding original estimates due to rising interest rates, diminished availability of materials and labor, and increases in the costs of materials and labor;
construction and lease-up delays resulting in increased debt service, fixed expenses and construction or renovation costs;
expenditure of funds and devotion of management’s time to projects that we do not complete;

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the unavailability or scarcity of utilities;
occupancy rates and rents at newly completed properties may fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including market and economic conditions, resulting in lower than projected rental rates and a corresponding lower return on our investment;
complications (including building moratoriums and anti-growth legislation) in obtaining necessary zoning, occupancy and other governmental permits; and
increased use restrictions by local zoning or planning authorities limiting our ability to develop and impacting the size of developments.
See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Factors that May Influence Future Results of Operations - Development Risk.”
Our development projects and third party property management business may subject us to certain liabilities.
We may hire and supervise third party contractors to provide construction, engineering and various other services for wholly owned development projects, development projects undertaken by real estate ventures in which we hold an equity interest and manage or properties we are managing on behalf of unaffiliated third parties.  Certain of these contracts may be structured such that we are the principal rather than the agent.  As a result, we may assume liabilities in the course of the project and be subjected to, or become liable for, claims for construction defects, negligent performance of work or other similar actions by third parties we have engaged. Adverse outcomes of disputes or litigation could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, particularly if we have not limited the extent of the damages to which we may be liable, or if our liabilities exceed the amounts of the insurance that we carry. Moreover, our tenants and third party customers may seek to hold us accountable for the actions of contractors because of our role even if we have technically disclaimed liability as a legal matter, in which case we may determine it necessary to participate in a financial settlement for purposes of preserving the tenant or customer relationship.
Acting as a principal may also mean that we pay a contractor before we have been reimbursed, which exposes us to additional risks of collection in the event of a bankruptcy or insolvency. Similarly, a contractor may file for bankruptcy or commit fraud before completing a project that we have funded in part or in full. As part of our project management business, we are responsible for managing various contractors required for a project, including general contractors, in order to ensure that the cost of a project does not exceed the contract amount and that the project is completed on time. In the event that one or more of the contractors involved does not, or cannot, perform as a result of bankruptcy or for another reason, we may be responsible for cost overruns, as well as the consequences of late delivery. In the event that we have not accurately estimated our own costs of providing services under guaranteed cost contracts, we may be exposed to losses on such contracts.
Our development projects may be dependent on strategic alliances with unaffiliated third parties.
We face challenges in managing our strategic alliances. As our development projects become more complex, the need for trust, collaboration, and equitable risk-sharing is essential to the success of these projects. The alliances we engage in are driven by the complementary skills and capabilities of our partners. Despite the diligence performed establishing these alliances, our objectives may not fully align with those of our partners throughout the development project or projects. Disagreements with one or more third parties with whom we partner in the development of one or more of the development components may restrict our ability to act exclusively in our own interests. In addition, failure of one or more third parties with whom we partner to fulfill obligations to us could result in delays and increased costs to us associated with finding a suitable replacement partner. Increased costs could require us to revise or abandon our activities entirely with respect to one or more components of the project and, in such event, we would not recover, and would be required to write-off, costs we had capitalized in development.
We face risks associated with property acquisitions.
We have acquired in the past and intend to continue to pursue the acquisition of properties, including large portfolios that would increase our size and potentially alter our capital structure. The success of such transactions is subject to a number of factors, including the risks that:
we may not be able to obtain financing for such acquisitions on favorable terms;
acquired properties may fail to perform as expected;
even if we enter into an acquisition agreement for a property, we may be unable to complete that acquisition after making a non-refundable deposit and incurring certain other acquisition-related costs;
the actual costs of repositioning, redeveloping or maintaining acquired properties may be higher than our estimates;

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the acquired properties may be located in new markets where we may have limited knowledge and understanding of the local economy, an absence of business relationships in the area or unfamiliarity with local governmental and permitting procedures; and
we may not be able to efficiently integrate acquired properties, particularly portfolios of properties, into our organization and manage new properties in a way that allows us to realize anticipated cost savings and synergies.
Acquired properties may subject us to known and unknown liabilities.
Properties that we acquire may be subject to known and unknown liabilities for which we would have no recourse, or only limited recourse, to the former owners of such properties or otherwise. As a result, if a liability were asserted against us based upon ownership of acquired property, we might be required to pay significant sums to settle it, which could adversely affect our financial results and cash flow. Unknown liabilities relating to acquired properties could include:
liabilities for clean-up of pre-existing disclosed or undisclosed environmental contamination;
claims by tenants, vendors, municipalities or other persons arising on account of actions or omissions of the former owners or occupants of the properties; and
liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business.
We may incur impairment charges.
We evaluate on a quarterly basis our real estate portfolios for indicators of impairment. Impairment charges reflect management's judgment of the probability and severity of the decline in the value of real estate assets and investments we own. These charges and provisions may be required in the future as a result of factors beyond our control, including, among other things, changes in our expected holding periods, changes in the economic environment and market conditions affecting the value of real property assets or natural or man-made disasters. If we are required to take impairment charges, our results of operations could be adversely impacted.
We have agreed not to sell certain of our properties and to maintain indebtedness subject to guarantees.
We acquired in the past and in the future may acquire properties or portfolios of properties through tax deferred contribution transactions in exchange for partnership interests in our Operating Partnership. This acquisition structure has the effect, among other factors, of reducing the amount of tax depreciation we can deduct over the tax life of the acquired properties, and typically requires that we agree to protect the contributors’ ability to defer recognition of taxable gain through restrictions on our ability to dispose of the acquired properties and/or the allocation of partnership debt to the contributors to maintain their tax bases. We have agreed not to sell some of our properties for varying periods of time, in transactions that would trigger taxable income to the former owners, and we may enter into similar arrangements as a part of future property acquisitions. These agreements generally provide that we may dispose of the subject properties only in transactions that qualify as tax-free exchanges under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code or in other tax deferred transactions. Such transactions can be difficult to complete and can result in the property acquired in exchange for the disposed of property inheriting the tax attributes (including tax protection covenants) of the sold property. Violation of such tax protection agreements may impose significant costs on us. As a result, we are restricted with respect to decisions related to financing, encumbering, expanding or selling these properties. These restrictions on dispositions could limit our ability to sell an asset or pay down partnership debt during a specified time, or on terms, that would be favorable absent such restrictions.
We have also entered into agreements that provide prior owners of properties with the right to guarantee specific amounts of indebtedness and, in the event that the specific indebtedness that they guarantee is repaid or reduced, we would be required to provide substitute indebtedness for them to guarantee. These agreements may hinder actions that we may otherwise desire to take to repay or refinance guaranteed indebtedness because we would be required to make payments to the beneficiaries of such agreements if we violate these agreements.
We may be unable to renew leases or re-lease space as leases expire; certain leases may expire early.
If tenants do not renew their leases upon expiration, we may be unable to re-lease the space. Even if the tenants do renew their leases or if we can re-lease the space, the terms of renewal or re-leasing (including the cost of required renovations) may be less favorable than the current lease terms. Certain leases grant the tenants an early termination right upon payment of a termination penalty or if we fail to comply with certain material lease terms. Our inability to renew or release spaces and the early termination of certain leases could adversely affect our ability to make distributions to shareholders. See Item 7., “Management’s Discussion

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and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Factors that May Influence Future Results of Operations - Tenant Rollover Risk.”
We face significant competition from other real estate developers.
We compete with real estate developers, operators and institutions for tenants and acquisition and development opportunities. Some of these competitors may have significantly greater financial resources than we have. Such competition may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities available to us, may interfere with our ability to attract and retain tenants and may increase vacancies, which could result in increased supply and lower market rental rates, reducing our bargaining leverage and adversely affect our ability to improve our operating leverage. In addition, some of our competitors may be willing (e.g., because their properties may have vacancy rates higher than those for our properties) to make space available at lower rental rates or with higher tenant concession percentages than available space in our properties. We cannot assure you that this competition will not adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
Property ownership through unconsolidated real estate ventures may limit our ability to act exclusively in our interest.
We develop, acquire, and contribute properties in unconsolidated real estate ventures with other persons or entities when we believe circumstances warrant the use of such structures. For information regarding our unconsolidated real estate ventures, see Note 4, ''Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Ventures,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements. We could become engaged in a dispute with one or more of our venture partners that might affect our ability to operate a jointly-owned property. Moreover, our venture partners may, at any time, have business, economic or other objectives that are inconsistent with our objectives, including objectives that relate to the appropriate timing and terms of any sale or refinancing of a property. In some instances, our venture partners may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflicts of interest. If the objectives of our venture partners or the lenders to our unconsolidated real estate ventures are inconsistent with our own objectives, we may not be able to act exclusively in our interests and the value of our investment in the unconsolidated real estate ventures may be affected.
Because real estate is illiquid, we may be unable to sell properties when in our best interest.
Real estate investments generally, and in particular large office and mixed use properties like those that we own, often cannot be sold quickly. The capitalization rates at which properties may be sold could be higher than historical rates, thereby reducing our potential proceeds from sale. Consequently, we may not be able to alter our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions. In addition, the Internal Revenue Code limits our ability, as a REIT, to sell properties that we have held for fewer than two years without potential adverse consequences to us. Furthermore, properties that we have developed and have owned for a significant period of time or that we acquired in exchange for partnership interests in the Operating Partnership often have a low tax basis. If we were to dispose of any of these properties in a taxable transaction, we may be required under provisions of the Internal Revenue Code applicable to REITs to distribute a significant amount of the taxable gain to our shareholders and this could, in turn, impact our cash flow. In some cases, tax protection agreements with third parties will prevent us from selling certain properties in a taxable transaction without incurring substantial costs. In addition, purchase options and rights of first refusal held by tenants or partners in unconsolidated real estate ventures may also limit our ability to sell certain properties. All of these factors reduce our ability to respond to changes in the performance of our investments and could adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make distributions to shareholders as well as the ability of someone to purchase us, even if a purchase were in our shareholders’ best interests.
Some potential losses are not covered by insurance.
We currently carry property insurance against all-risks of physical loss or damage (unless otherwise excluded in the policy) including time element and commercial general liability coverage on all of our properties. There are, however, types of losses, such as lease and other contract claims, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards and acts of war that generally are not insured. We cannot assure you that we will be able to renew insurance coverage in an adequate amount or at reasonable prices. In addition, insurance companies may no longer offer coverage against certain types of losses, such as losses due to earthquakes, terrorist acts and mold, flood, or, if offered, these types of insurance may be prohibitively expensive. Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occur, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. In such an event, we might nevertheless remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations related to the property. We cannot assure you that material losses in excess of insurance proceeds will not occur in the future. If any of our properties were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could seriously disrupt our operations, delay revenue and result in large expenses to repair or rebuild the property. Such events could adversely affect our cash flow

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and ability to make distributions to shareholders. If one or more of our insurance providers were to fail to pay a claim as a result of insolvency, bankruptcy or otherwise, the nonpayment of such claims could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if one or more of our insurance providers were to become subject to insolvency, bankruptcy or other proceedings and our insurance policies with the provider were terminated or cancelled as a result of those proceedings, we cannot guarantee that we would be able to find alternative coverage in adequate amounts or at reasonable prices. In such case, we could experience a lapse in any or adequate insurance coverage with respect to one or more properties and be exposed to potential losses relating to any claims that may arise during such period of lapsed or inadequate coverage.
In addition to property and casualty insurance, we use a combination of insurance products, some of which include deductibles and self-insured retention amounts, to provide risk mitigation for the potential liabilities associated with various liabilities, including workers’ compensation, general contractors, directors and officers and employee health-care benefits. Liabilities associated with the risks that are retained by us are estimated, in part, by considering historical claims experience and actuarial assumptions. While we carry general liability and umbrella policies to mitigate such losses on our general liability risks, our results could be materially impacted by claims and other expenses related to such insurance plans if future occurrences and claims differ from these assumptions and historical trends or if employee health-care claims which we self-insure up to a set limit per employee (and which are insured above such self-insured retention amount) exceed our expectations or historical trends.
Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence or war may adversely impact our performance and may affect the markets on which our securities are traded.
Terrorist attacks against our properties, or against the United States or our interests, may negatively impact our operations and the value of our securities. Attacks or armed conflicts could result in increased operating costs; for example, it might cost more in the future for building security, property and casualty insurance, and property maintenance. As a result of terrorist activities and other market conditions, the cost of insurance coverage for our properties could also increase. In addition, our insurance policies may not recover all of our property replacement costs and lost revenue resulting from an attack. We might not be able to pass through the increased costs associated with such increased security measures and insurance to our tenants, which could reduce our profitability and cash flow. Furthermore, any terrorist attacks or armed conflicts could result in increased volatility in or damage to the United States and worldwide financial markets and economy. Such adverse economic conditions could affect the ability of our tenants to pay rent and our cost of capital, which could have a negative impact on our results.
Our ability to make distributions is subject to various risks.
Historically, we have paid quarterly distributions to our shareholders. Our ability to make distributions in the future will depend upon:
the operational and financial performance of our properties;
capital expenditures with respect to existing, developed and newly acquired properties;
general and administrative costs associated with our operation as a publicly-held REIT;
the amount of, and the interest rates on, our debt;
capital needs of our unconsolidated real estate ventures; and
the absence of significant expenditures relating to environmental and other regulatory matters.
Certain of these matters are beyond our control and any adverse changes could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow and our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
Changes in tax rates and regulatory requirements may adversely affect our cash flow and results of operations.
Because increases in income and service taxes are generally not passed through to tenants under leases, such increases may adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make expected distributions to shareholders. Our properties are also subject to various regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment, fire and safety. Our failure to comply with these requirements could result in the imposition of fines and damage awards and could result in a default under some of our tenant leases. Moreover, the costs to comply with any new or different regulations could adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to make distributions to shareholders. We cannot assure you that these requirements will not change or that newly imposed conditions will not require significant expenditures in order to be compliant.

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Potential liability for environmental contamination could result in substantial costs.
Under various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, we may be liable for the costs to investigate and remove or remediate hazardous or toxic substances on or in our properties, often regardless of whether we know of or are responsible for the presence of these substances. These costs may be substantial. While we do maintain environmental insurance, we cannot be assured that our insurance coverage will be sufficient to protect us from all of the aforesaid remediation costs. Also, if hazardous or toxic substances are present on a property, or if we fail to adequately remediate such substances, our ability to sell or rent the property or to borrow using that property as collateral may be adversely affected.
Other laws and regulations govern indoor and outdoor air quality including those that can require the abatement or removal of asbestos-containing materials in the event of damage, demolition, renovation or remodeling and also govern emissions of and exposure to asbestos fibers in the air. The maintenance and removal of lead paint and certain electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and underground storage tanks are also regulated by federal and state laws. We are also subject to risks associated with human exposure to chemical or biological contaminants such as molds, pollens, viruses and bacteria which, above certain levels, can be alleged to be connected to allergic or other health effects and symptoms in susceptible individuals. We could incur fines for environmental compliance and be held liable for the costs of remedial action with respect to the foregoing regulated substances or tanks or related claims arising out of environmental contamination or human exposure to contamination at or from our properties.
Additionally, we develop, manage, lease and/or operate various properties for third parties. Consequently, we may be considered to have been or to be an operator of these properties and, therefore, potentially liable for removal or remediation costs or other potential costs that could relate to hazardous or toxic substances.
We face possible risks associated with the physical effects of climate change. 
The physical effects of climate change could have a material adverse effect on our properties, operations and business. For example, many of our properties are located along the East coast, particularly those in the central business districts of Philadelphia and Washington, DC. To the extent climate change causes variations in weather patterns, our markets could experience increases in storm intensity and rising sea-levels. Over time, these conditions could result in declining demand for office space in our buildings or our inability to operate the buildings at all. Climate change may also have indirect effects on our business by increasing the cost of (or making unavailable) property insurance on terms we find acceptable, increasing the cost of energy and increasing the cost of snow removal at our properties. While we maintain insurance coverage for flooding, we may not have adequate insurance to cover the associated costs of repair or reconstruction of sites for a major future event, lost revenue, including from new tenants that could have been added to our properties but for the event, or other costs to remediate the impact of a significant event. There can be no assurance that climate change will not have a material adverse effect on our properties, operations or business.
Data security breaches may cause damage to our business and reputation.
In the ordinary course of our business, we maintain sensitive data, including our proprietary business information and the information of our tenants and business partners, in our data centers and on our networks. The risk of a security breach or disruption, mainly through cyber-attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased in number, intensity and sophistication. Notwithstanding the security measures undertaken, our information technology may be vulnerable to attacks or breaches resulting in proprietary information being publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. There can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and may not be recognized or detected until launched against a target. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures.
Data and security breaches could:
disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations and/or those of our client tenants;
result in misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants, missed reporting deadlines, and/or missed permitting deadlines;
result in our inability to properly monitor our compliance with the rules and regulations regarding our qualification as a REIT;

17



result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation, or release of proprietary, confidential, sensitive, or otherwise valuable information of ours or others, which others could use to compete against us or for disruptive, destructive, or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes;
result in our inability to maintain the building systems relied upon by our client tenants for the efficient use of their leased space;
require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result;
subject us to claims and lawsuits for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties, or termination of leases or other agreements; and/or
damage our reputation among our client tenants and investors generally.
While we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions including deductibles, cover specific aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses.
Third parties to whom we outsource certain of our functions are also subject to the risks outlined above. We review and assess the cybersecurity controls of our third party service providers and vendors, as appropriate, and make changes to our business processes to manage these risks. Data breaches and/or the insolvency of such third parties and vendors may result in us incurring costs and may have other negative consequences.
Our use of social media presents risks. 
The use of social media could cause us to suffer brand damage or unintended information disclosure. Negative posts or communications about us on a social networking website could damage our reputation. Further, employees or others may disclose non-public information regarding us or our business or otherwise make negative comments regarding us on social networking or other websites, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. As social media evolves, we will be presented with new risks and challenges.
We may become subject to litigation, which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, cash flow and our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.
In the future we may become subject to material litigation, including claims relating to our operations, offerings, and otherwise in the ordinary course of business. Some of these claims may result in significant defense costs and potentially significant judgments against us, some of which are not, or cannot be, insured against. We generally intend to defend ourselves vigorously; however, we cannot be certain of the ultimate outcomes of any claims that may arise in the future. Resolution of these types of matters against us may result in our having to pay significant fines, judgments, or settlements, which, if uninsured, or if the fines, judgments, and settlements exceed insured levels, could materially and adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.
Americans with Disabilities Act compliance could be costly.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, or the ADA, requires that all public accommodations and commercial facilities, including office buildings, meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Compliance with ADA requirements could involve the removal of structural barriers from certain disabled persons’ entrances which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Other federal, state and local laws may require modifications to or restrict further renovations of our properties with respect to such accesses. Noncompliance by us with the ADA or similar or related laws or regulations could result in the imposition on us of governmental fines or in awards of damages against us in favor of private litigants. In addition, changes to existing requirements or enactments of new requirements could require significant expenditures. Such costs may adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make distributions to shareholders.
Failure to qualify as a REIT would subject us to U.S. federal income tax which would reduce the cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
We operate our business to qualify to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. We have not requested and do not plan to request a ruling from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this Report are not binding on the IRS or any court. As a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal income tax on the income that we distribute currently to our shareholders. Many of the REIT requirements, however, are highly technical and complex. The determination that we are a REIT requires an analysis of various factual matters and circumstances that may not be entirely within our control. For example, to qualify as a REIT, at least 95% of our gross income must come from specific passive sources, such as rent, that are itemized

18



in the REIT tax laws. In addition, to qualify as a REIT, we cannot own specified amounts of debt and equity securities of some issuers. We also are required to distribute to our shareholders with respect to each year at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (excluding net capital gains). The fact that we hold substantially all of our assets through the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries and unconsolidated real estate ventures further complicates the application of the REIT requirements for us. Even a technical or inadvertent mistake could jeopardize our REIT status and, given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs and the ongoing importance of factual determinations, we cannot provide any assurance that we will continue to qualify as a REIT. Changes to rules governing corporate taxation, including REITs, were made by legislation commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”) and the Protecting Americans From Tax Hikes Act of 2015, signed into law on December 22, 2017 and December 18, 2015, respectively. Congress and the IRS might make further changes to the tax laws and regulations, and the courts might issue new rulings or interpretations of tax law, that make it more difficult, or impossible, for us to remain qualified as a REIT. If we fail to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes and are able to avail ourselves of one or more of the statutory savings provisions in order to maintain our REIT status, we would nevertheless be required to pay penalty taxes of $50,000 or more for each such failure.
If we fail to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, and are unable to avail ourselves of certain savings provisions set forth in the Internal Revenue Code, we would be subject to federal income tax at regular corporate rates on all of our income. As a taxable corporation, we would not be allowed to take a deduction for distributions to shareholders in computing our taxable income or pass through long term capital gains to individual shareholders at favorable rates. For tax years beginning before January 1, 2018, we also could be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax and possibly increased state and local taxes. We would not be able to elect to be taxed as a REIT for four years following the year we first failed to qualify unless the IRS were to grant us relief under certain statutory provisions. If we failed to qualify as a REIT, we would have to pay significant income taxes, which would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to our shareholders. This likely would have a significant adverse effect on our earnings and likely would adversely affect the value of our securities. In addition, we would no longer be required to pay any distributions to shareholders.
Failure of the Operating Partnership (or a subsidiary partnership or unconsolidated real estate venture) to be treated as a partnership would have serious adverse consequences to our shareholders.
If the IRS were to successfully challenge the tax status of the Operating Partnership or any of its subsidiary partnerships or unconsolidated real estate ventures for federal income tax purposes, the Operating Partnership or the affected subsidiary partnership or unconsolidated real estate venture would be taxable as a corporation. In such event, we would cease to qualify as a REIT and the imposition of a corporate tax on the Operating Partnership, subsidiary partnership or unconsolidated real estate venture would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution from the Operating Partnership to us and ultimately to our shareholders.
To maintain our REIT status, we may be forced to borrow funds on a short term basis during unfavorable market conditions.
As a REIT, we are subject to certain distribution requirements, including the requirement to distribute 90% of our REIT taxable income. These requirements may result in our having to make distributions at a disadvantageous time or to borrow funds at unfavorable rates. Compliance with this requirement may hinder our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits.
We will pay some taxes even if we qualify as a REIT, which will reduce the cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
Even if we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we will be required to pay certain federal, state and local taxes on our income and properties. For example, we will be subject to income tax to the extent we distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, including capital gains. Additionally, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which dividends paid by us in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income and 100% of our undistributed income from prior years. Moreover, if we have net income from “prohibited transactions,” that income will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. The determination as to whether a particular sale or series of sales is/are a prohibited transaction depends on the facts and circumstances related to that sale. We cannot guarantee that sales of our properties would not be prohibited transactions unless we comply with certain statutory safe-harbor provisions.

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In addition, any net taxable income earned directly by our taxable REIT subsidiaries, or through entities that are disregarded for federal income tax purposes as entities separate from our taxable REIT subsidiaries, will be subject to federal and possibly state corporate income tax. In this regard, several provisions of the laws applicable to REITs and their subsidiaries ensure that a taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to an appropriate level of federal income taxation. For example, a taxable REIT subsidiary is limited in its ability to deduct certain interest payments made to an affiliated REIT. In addition, the REIT has to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that it receives or on some deductions taken by a taxable REIT subsidiary if the economic arrangements between the REIT, the REIT’s customers, and the taxable REIT subsidiary are not comparable to similar arrangements between unrelated parties. Finally, some state and local jurisdictions may tax some of our income even though as a REIT we are not subject to federal income tax on that income because not all states and localities follow the federal income tax treatment of REITs. To the extent that we and our affiliates are required to pay federal, state and local taxes, we will have less cash available for distributions to our shareholders.
We face possible federal, state and local tax audits.
Because we are organized and qualify as a REIT, we are generally not subject to federal income taxes, but are subject to certain state and local taxes. Certain entities through which we own real estate have undergone tax audits. There can be no assurance that future audits will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Legislation that modifies the rules applicable to partnership tax audits may affect us.
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, requires our operating partnership and any subsidiary partnership to pay the hypothetical increase in partner-level taxes (including interest and penalties) resulting from an adjustment of partnership tax items on audit or in other tax proceedings, unless the partnership elects an alternative method under which the taxes resulting from the adjustment (and interest and penalties) are assessed at the partner level. Many uncertainties remain as to the application of these rules, including the application of the alternative method to partners that are REITs, and the impact they will have on us. However, it is possible, that partnerships in which we invest may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, interest and penalties in the event of a U.S. federal income tax audit as a result of these law changes.
Legislative or regulatory tax changes related to REIT’s could materially and adversely affect our business.
At any time, the federal income tax laws or regulations governing REITs or the other administrative interpretations of those laws or regulations may be changed, possibly with retroactive effect. We cannot predict if or when any new federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective or whether any such law, regulation or interpretation may take effect retroactively. We and our shareholders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 may adversely affect our business.
The TCJA significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax by, among other things, lowering corporate income tax rates and implementing a partial limitation on the deduction for business interest expense. The enactment of the TCJA has not significantly impacted our current tax position and/or REIT status and we estimate, based on currently available information, that it will not result in a significant impact in the future. The impact of the TCJA may differ from our initial assessment, due to, among other things, changes in interpretations, assumptions made and guidance that may be issued and actions we may take as a result of the TCJA. Further, certain changes in law pursuant to the TCJA could reduce the relative competitive advantage of operating as a REIT as compared with operating as a C corporation, including by:
reducing the rate of tax applicable to individuals and C corporations, which could reduce the relative attractiveness of the generally single level of taxation on REIT distributions;
permitting immediate expensing of capital expenditures, which could likewise reduce the relative attractiveness of the REIT taxation regime; and
limiting the deductibility of interest expense, which could increase the distribution requirement of REITs.
Most of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. The TCJA makes numerous large and small changes to the tax rules that do not affect REITs directly but may affect our shareholders and may indirectly affect us.

20



Shareholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors with respect to the TCJA and any other regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on investment in our capital stock.
If a transaction intended to qualify as a Section 1031 Exchange is later determined to be taxable, or if we are unable to identify and complete the acquisition of suitable replacement property to effect a Section 1031 Exchange, we may face adverse consequences.
From time to time we seek to dispose of properties in transactions that are intended to qualify as tax-deferred “like kind exchanges” under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (a “Section 1031 Exchange”).  It is possible that the qualification of a transaction as a Section 1031 Exchange could be successfully challenged and determined to be currently taxable.  It is also possible that we are unable to identify and complete the acquisition of suitable replacement property to effect a Section 1031 Exchange.  In any such case, our taxable income and earnings and profits would increase.  This could increase the dividend income to our shareholders by reducing any return of capital they received.  In some circumstances, we may be required to pay additional dividends or, in lieu of that, corporate income tax, possibly including interest and penalties.  As a result, we may be required to borrow funds in order to pay additional dividends or taxes, and the payment of such taxes could cause us to have less cash available to distribute to our shareholders.  In addition, if a Section 1031 Exchange were later to be determined to be taxable, we may be required to amend our tax returns for the applicable year in question, including any information reports we sent our shareholders.  Moreover, it is possible that legislation could be enacted that could modify or repeal the laws with respect to Section 1031 Exchanges, which could make it more difficult or not possible for us to dispose of properties on a tax deferred basis.
Failure to obtain the tax benefits and remain compliant within Qualified Opportunity Zones and Keystone Opportunity Zones may have adverse consequences.
Certain of our Properties have the benefit of governmental tax incentives for development in areas and neighborhoods which have not historically seen robust commercial development. These incentives typically have specific sunset provisions and may be subject to governmental discretion in the eligibility or award of the applicable incentives. We invest and plan to continue to heavily invest in Qualified Opportunity Zones as part of the federal program and Keystone Opportunity Zones in Pennsylvania due to the related tax benefits. The expiration of these incentive programs or the inability of potential tenants or users to be eligible for or to obtain governmental approval of the incentives may have an adverse effect on the value of our Properties and on our cash flow and net income, and may result in impairment charges. In addition, the failure to remain compliant with such programs may result in significant tax burdens.
Competition for skilled personnel could increase labor costs.
We compete with various other companies in attracting and retaining qualified and skilled personnel. We depend on our ability to attract and retain skilled management personnel who are responsible for the day-to-day operations of our company. Competitive pressures may require that we enhance our pay and benefits package to compete effectively for such personnel. We may not be able to offset such added costs by increasing the rates we charge our tenants. If there is an increase in these costs or if we fail to attract and retain qualified and skilled personnel, our business and operating results could be harmed.
We are dependent upon our key personnel.
We are dependent upon our key personnel, particularly Gerard H. Sweeney - President and Chief Executive Officer, Thomas Wirth - Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Jeffrey DeVuono - Executive Vice President and Senior Managing Director, William Redd – Executive Vice President and Senior Managing Director and George Johnstone - Executive Vice President, Operations. Among the reasons that Messrs. Sweeney, Wirth, DeVuono, Redd and Johnstone are important to our success is that each has a favorable reputation, which attracts business and investment opportunities and assists us in negotiations with lenders, unconsolidated real estate venture partners and other investors.  If we lost their services, our relationships with lenders, potential tenants and industry personnel could be affected. We are dependent on our other executive officers for strategic business direction and real estate experience. Loss of their services could adversely affect our operations.
Certain limitations will exist with respect to a third party’s ability to acquire us or effectuate a change in control.
Limitations imposed to protect our REIT status. In order to protect us against the loss of our REIT status, our Declaration of Trust limits any shareholder from owning more than 9.8% in value of our outstanding shares, although we have granted in the past, and may continue to grant in the future certain waivers of this limitation to certain shareholders under certain conditions.

21



The ownership limit may have the effect of precluding acquisition of control of us. If anyone acquires shares in excess of the ownership limit, we may:
consider the transfer to be null and void;
not reflect the transaction on our books;
institute legal action to stop the transaction;
not pay dividends or other distributions with respect to those shares;
not recognize any voting rights for those shares; and
consider the shares held in trust for the benefit of a person to whom such shares may be transferred.
Limitation due to our ability to issue preferred shares. Our Declaration of Trust authorizes our Board of Trustees to cause us to issue preferred shares, without limitation as to amount and without shareholder consent. Our Board of Trustees is able to establish the preferences and rights of any preferred shares issued and these shares could have the effect of delaying or preventing someone from taking control of us, even if a change in control were in our shareholders’ best interests.
Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act. Maryland law provides that “control shares” of a REIT acquired in a “control share acquisition” shall have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the vote eligible to be cast on the matter under the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act. Shares construed as “control shares” means that, if aggregated with all other shares previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing trustees within one of the following ranges of voting power: one-tenth or more but less than one-third, one-third or more but less than a majority or a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained shareholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of control shares, subject to certain exceptions. If voting rights or control shares acquired in a control share acquisition are not approved at a shareholder’s meeting, then subject to certain conditions and limitations the issuer may redeem any or all of the control shares for fair value. If voting rights of such control shares are approved at a shareholder’s meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other shareholders may exercise appraisal rights. Any control shares acquired in a control share acquisition that are not exempt under our Bylaws are subject to the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act. Our Bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our shares. We cannot assure you that this provision will not be repealed, amended or eliminated by us at any time in the future.
Advance Notice Provisions for Shareholder Nominations and Proposals. Our bylaws require advance notice for shareholders to nominate persons for election as trustees at, or to bring other business before, any meeting of our shareholders. This bylaw provision limits the ability of shareholders to make nominations of persons for election as trustees or to introduce other proposals unless we are notified in a timely manner prior to the meeting.
Many factors can have an adverse effect on the market value of our securities.
A number of factors might adversely affect the price of our securities, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
increases in market interest rates, relative to the dividend yield on our securities. If market interest rates go up, prospective purchasers of our securities may require a higher yield. Higher market interest rates would not, however, result in more funds for us to distribute and, to the contrary, would likely increase our borrowing costs and potentially decrease funds available for distribution. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our common shares to go down;
anticipated benefit of an investment in our securities as compared to investment in securities of companies in other industries (including benefits associated with the tax treatment of dividends and distributions);
perception by market professionals of REITs generally and REITs comparable to us in particular;
level of institutional investor interest in our securities;
relatively low trading volumes in securities of REITs;
our results of operations and financial condition; and
investor confidence in the stock market generally.
The market value of our common shares is based primarily upon the market’s perception of our growth potential and our current and potential future earnings and cash distributions. Consequently, our common shares may trade at prices that are higher or lower than our net asset value per common share. If our future earnings or cash distributions are less than expected, it is likely that the market price of our common shares will diminish.

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Additional issuances of equity securities may be dilutive to shareholders.
The interests of our shareholders could be diluted if we issue additional equity securities to finance future developments or acquisitions or to repay indebtedness. Our Board of Trustees may authorize the issuance of additional equity securities without shareholder approval. In addition, we generally maintain a continuous offering program, which allows us to issue shares in at the market offerings. Our ability to execute our business strategy depends upon our access to an appropriate blend of debt financing, including unsecured lines of credit and other forms of secured and unsecured debt, and equity financing, including the issuance of common and preferred equity.
The issuance of preferred securities may adversely affect the rights of holders of our common shares.
Because our Board of Trustees has the power to establish the preferences and rights of each class or series of preferred shares, we may afford the holders in any series or class of preferred shares preferences, distributions, powers and rights, voting or otherwise, senior to the rights of holders of common shares. Our Board of Trustees also has the power to establish the preferences and rights of each class or series of units in the Operating Partnership, and may afford the holders in any series or class of preferred units preferences, distributions, powers and rights, voting or otherwise, senior to the rights of holders of common units.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of integrated internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results.
An effective system of internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports, prevent fraud and operate successfully as a public company. As part of our ongoing monitoring of internal controls, we may discover material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls that require remediation. If we discover such weaknesses, we will make efforts to improve our internal controls in a timely manner. Any system of internal controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can only provide reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure to maintain effective internal controls, or implement any necessary improvements in a timely manner, could have a materially adverse effect on our business and operating results, or cause us not to meet our reporting obligations, which could affect our ability to remain listed with the New York Stock Exchange. Ineffective internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our securities.
Changes in accounting pronouncements could adversely affect our operating results, in addition to the reported financial performance of our tenants.
Accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. Uncertainties posed by various initiatives of accounting standard-setting by the Financial Accounting Standards Board and the Securities and Exchange Commission, which create and interpret applicable accounting standards for U.S. companies, may change the financial accounting and reporting standards or their interpretation and application of these standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements.  
These changes could have a material effect on our reported financial condition and results of operations.  In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in potentially material restatements of prior period financial statements. Similarly, these changes could have a material impact on our tenants’ reported financial condition or results of operations or could affect our tenants’ preferences regarding leasing real estate.
Discontinuation of the London interbank offered rate and transition to an alternative benchmark could adversely affect our operating results
On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates the London interbank offered rate (“LIBOR”), announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of the LIBOR benchmark after 2021. This announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot be guaranteed after 2021, and there is a substantial risk that LIBOR will be discontinued or modified by 2021. Our variable rate debt and derivative financial instruments are indexed to LIBOR and failure by market participants and regulators to successfully replace LIBOR could result in disruption in the financial markets which could have a negative impact on our results of operations and our variable rate debt.

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Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.    Properties
Overview
As of December 31, 2019, we owned 95 properties that contain an aggregate of approximately 16.7 million net rentable square feet and consist of 86 office properties and four mixed-use properties (collectively, the "Core Properties"), one development property and four redevelopment properties (collectively, the "Properties"). The properties are located in or near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Austin, Texas; Metropolitan Washington, D.C.; Southern New Jersey; and Wilmington, Delaware. As of December 31, 2019, the properties, excluding properties under development and redevelopment, were approximately 93.0% occupied. As of December 31, 2019, we also owned economic interests in seven unconsolidated real estate ventures (collectively, the “Real Estate Ventures”) See Note 4, ''Investment in Unconsolidated Real Estate Ventures,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.
Property Statistics
The following table shows lease expirations for the Core Properties as of December 31, 2019, during each of the next 10 years and thereafter. This table assumes no exercise of renewal options or termination rights:
Year of Lease Expiration December 31,
 
Rentable Square Feet (in thousands)
 
Final Annualized Base Rent Under Expiring Leases (a) (in thousands)
 
Percentage of Total Final Annualized Base Rent Under Expiring Leases
2020
 
1,146

 
38,452

 
6.9
%
2021
 
1,899

 
61,709

 
11.0
%
2022
 
2,115

 
73,240

 
13.0
%
2022
 
842

 
29,666

 
5.3
%
2024
 
1,393

 
52,171

 
9.3
%
2025
 
1,151

 
45,128

 
8.0
%
2026
 
1,189

 
43,959

 
7.8
%
2027
 
867

 
34,955

 
6.2
%
2028
 
790

 
27,980

 
5.0
%
2029
 
1,292

 
55,248

 
9.8
%
2030 and thereafter
 
2,298

 
99,693

 
17.7
%
 
 
14,982

 
$
562,201

 
100.0
%
(a)
Represents the annualized cash rental rate of base rents, including tenant reimbursements, in the final month prior to expiration. Tenant reimbursements generally include payment of a portion of real estate taxes, operating expenses, and common area maintenance and utility charges.
The following table shows the geographic locations for the Core Properties as of December 31, 2019. For more information about our geographic locations, see Note 18, ''Segment Information" to our Consolidated Financial Statements:
Location
 
Number of Properties
 
Net Rentable Square Feet (in thousands)
 
Percentage Leased as of December 31, 2019
 
Leased Square Feet (in thousands)
 
Total Base Rent (a) (in thousands)
 
Percentage of Base Rent
Philadelphia
 
11

 
6,249

 
98.6
%
 
6,164

 
$
163,907

 
41.4
%
Pennsylvania Suburbs
 
43

 
4,806

 
96.2
%
 
4,625

 
126,151

 
31.8
%
Austin
 
21

 
2,968

 
96.7
%
 
2,870

 
62,481

 
15.8
%
Metropolitan Washington, D.C.
 
8

 
1,467

 
83.1
%
 
1,220

 
35,842

 
9.0
%
Other
 
7

 
620

 
81.7
%
 
507

 
7,806

 
2.0
%
 
 
90

 
16,110

 
95.5
%
 
15,386

 
$
396,187

 
100.0
%
(a)
Represents base rents earned during the year, including tenant reimbursements, and excludes parking income, tenant inducements, and deferred market rent adjustments.

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The following table shows the major tenants of the Core Properties as of December 31, 2019 and assumes that none of the tenants exercise renewal options or termination rights, if any, at or prior to scheduled expirations:
Tenant Name
 
Annualized Base Rents (a) (in thousands)
 
Percentage of Aggregate Annualized Base Rents
IBM, Inc.
 
$
23,993

 
4.8
%
Comcast Corporation
 
14,055

 
2.8
%
FMC Corporation
 
10,579

 
2.1
%
Pepper Hamilton LLC
 
10,106

 
2.0
%
CSL Behring, LLC
 
9,749

 
2.0
%
Lincoln National Management Co.
 
9,238

 
1.8
%
Dechert LLP
 
8,167

 
1.6
%
Northrop Grumman Corporation
 
8,161

 
1.6
%
Macquarie US
 
8,005

 
1.6
%
Independence Blue Cross, LLC
 
7,405

 
1.5
%
Other
 
390,366

 
78.2
%
 
 
$
499,824

 
100.0
%
(a)
Represents the annualized base rent, including tenant reimbursements, for each lease in effect at December 31, 2019. Tenant reimbursements generally include payment of a portion of real estate taxes, operating expenses, and common area maintenance and utility charges.
Developments/Redevelopments
As of December 31, 2019, we were developing/redeveloping 0.6 million rentable square feet of office properties.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
We are involved from time to time in legal proceedings, including tenant disputes, vendor disputes, employee disputes and disputes arising out of agreements to purchase or sell properties or unconsolidated real estate ventures and disputes relating to state and local taxes. We generally consider these disputes to be routine to the conduct of our business and management believes that the final outcome of such proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The common shares of Brandywine Realty Trust are traded on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “BDN.” There is no established trading market for units of partnership interests in the Operating Partnership. On February 26, 2020, there were 570 holders of record of our common shares and 22 holders of record (in addition to Brandywine Realty Trust) of Class A units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership. On February 26, 2020, the last reported sales price of the common shares on the NYSE was $14.93.
For each quarter in 2019 and 2018, the Operating Partnership paid a cash distribution per Class A unit in an amount equal to the dividend paid on a common share for each such quarter.
In order to maintain the status of Brandywine Realty Trust as a REIT, we must make annual distributions to shareholders of at least 90% of our taxable income (not including net capital gains). Future distributions will be declared at the discretion of our Board of Trustees and will depend on our actual cash flow, financial condition and capital requirements, the annual distribution

25



requirements under the REIT provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and such other factors as our Board of Trustees deem relevant. Our credit facilities contain certain restrictions on the payment of dividends.  Those restrictions permit us to pay dividends to the greater of (i) an aggregate amount required by us to retain our qualification as a REIT for Federal income tax purposes and (ii) 95% of our funds from operations (FFO). See Item 7., “Selected Financial Date – Liquidity,” and Note 8, ''Debt Obligations,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
Our Board of Trustees has adopted a dividend policy designed such that our quarterly distributions are consistent with our normalized annualized taxable income. We expect to make future quarterly distributions to shareholders; however, the timing and amount of future distributions will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend on our actual funds from operations, financial condition and capital requirements and the annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code.
See Note 14, ''Share Based Compensation, 401(k) Plan and Deferred Compensation," to our Consolidated Financial Statements for information related to compensation plans under which our common shares are authorized for issuance. See Note 12, ''Beneficiaries' Equity of the Parent Company,” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further information related to our share repurchase program during the year ended December 31, 2019.
In 2019, we redeemed 1,245 Class A units of limited partnership interest held by unaffiliated third parties for shares of common stock.

26



SHARE PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The SEC requires us to present a chart comparing the cumulative total shareholder return on the common shares with the cumulative total shareholder return of (i) a broad equity index and (ii) a published industry or peer group index. The following chart compares the cumulative total shareholder return for the common shares with the cumulative shareholder return of companies on (i) the S&P 500, (ii) the NAREIT All Equity REIT Index, (iii) the Russell 2000 and (iv) the NAREIT Equity Office Index for the period beginning December 31, 2014 and ending December 31, 2019 and assumes an investment of $100, with reinvestment of all dividends, has been made in the common shares and in each index on December 31, 2014.
403093217_totalreturnperformancea02.jpg
 
 
 
 
Period Ending
 
 
Index
 
12/31/2014

 
12/31/2015

 
12/31/2016

 
12/31/2017

 
12/31/2018

 
12/31/2019

S&P 500 Index
 
100.00

 
101.38

 
113.51

 
138.29

 
132.23

 
173.86

NAREIT All Equity REIT Index
 
100.00

 
102.83

 
111.70

 
121.39

 
116.48

 
149.86

Russell 2000 Index
 
100.00

 
95.59

 
115.95

 
132.94

 
118.30

 
148.49

NAREIT Equity Office Index
 
100.00

 
100.29

 
113.49

 
119.45

 
102.13

 
134.22

Brandywine Realty Trust
 
100.00

 
89.17

 
112.37

 
128.59

 
95.08

 
122.58


27



Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
The following table sets forth selected financial and operating data and should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in this report.
Brandywine Realty Trust
(in thousands, except per common share data and number of properties)
Years Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Operating Results
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenue
 
$
580,417

 
$
544,345

 
$
520,493

 
$
525,463

 
$
602,631

Net income (loss)
 
34,529

 
135,472

 
121,177

 
39,449

 
(29,662
)
Income (loss) allocated to Common Shares
 
33,871

 
134,149

 
114,633

 
31,907

 
(36,562
)
Income (loss) per Common Share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
0.19

 
$
0.75

 
$
0.65

 
$
0.18

 
$
(0.21
)
Diluted
 
$
0.19

 
$
0.75

 
$