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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________________ 
FORM 10-K
______________________________ 
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the year ended December 31, 2019
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission file number 001-32327
______________________________ 
The Mosaic Company
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 ______________________________
Delaware
 
20-1026454
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
101 East Kennedy Blvd
Suite 2500
Tampa, Florida 33602
(800) 918-8270
(Address and zip code of principal executive offices and registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
______________________________ 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
MOS
New York Stock Exchange
______________________________ 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer    Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company   Emerging growth company   
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting common stock held by stockholders, other than directors, executive officers, subsidiaries of the Registrant and any other person known by the Registrant as of the date hereof to beneficially own ten percent or more of any class of Registrant’s outstanding voting common stock, and consisting of shares of Common Stock, was approximately $9.8 billion based upon the closing price of a share of Common Stock on the New York Stock Exchange on that date.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock: 378,764,442 shares of Common Stock as of February 1, 2020.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
1.
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be delivered in conjunction with the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (Part III)


Table of Contents

2019 FORM 10-K CONTENTS
Part I:
 
Page
Item 1.
 
•         Overview
 
•         Business Segment Information
 
 
•         Competition
 
•         Factors Affecting Demand
 
•         Other Matters
 
•         Executive Officers
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II:
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Part III:
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV.
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.



Table of Contents

PART I.
Item 1. Business.
OVERVIEW
The Mosaic Company is the world’s leading producer and marketer of concentrated phosphate and potash crop nutrients. Through our broad product offering, we are a single source supplier of phosphate- and potash-based crop nutrients and animal feed ingredients. We serve customers in approximately 40 countries. We are the second largest integrated phosphate producer in the world and one of the largest producers and marketers of phosphate-based animal feed ingredients in North America and Brazil. Following our January 8, 2018 acquisition (the “Acquisition”) of the global phosphate and potash operations of Vale S.A. conducted through Mosaic Fertilizantes P&K S.A. (formerly Vale Fertilizantes S.A.), we are the leading fertilizer production and distribution company in Brazil.  We mine phosphate rock in Florida and Brazil. We process rock into finished phosphate products at facilities in Florida, Louisiana and Brazil. Upon completion of the Acquisition, we became the majority owner of an entity operating a phosphate rock mine in the Bayovar region in Peru, in which we previously held a minority equity interest. We are one of the four largest potash producers in the world. We mine potash in Saskatchewan, New Mexico and Brazil. We have other production, blending or distribution operations in Brazil, China, India and Paraguay, as well as a strategic equity investment in a joint venture that operates a phosphate rock mine and chemical complexes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Our distribution operations serve the top four nutrient-consuming countries in the world: China, India, the United States and Brazil.
The Mosaic Company is a Delaware corporation that was incorporated in March 2004 and serves as the parent company of the business that was formed through the October 2004 combination of IMC Global Inc. and the fertilizer businesses of Cargill, Incorporated. We are publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “MOS” and are headquartered in Tampa, Florida.
We conduct our business through wholly and majority-owned subsidiaries as well as businesses in which we own less than a majority or a non-controlling interest. We are organized into three reportable business segments: Phosphates, Potash and Mosaic Fertilizantes. Intersegment eliminations, unrealized mark-to-market gains/losses on derivatives, debt expenses, Streamsong Resort® results of operations, and the results of the China and India distribution businesses are included within Corporate, Eliminations and Other. As of January 1, 2019, certain selling, general and administrative costs that are not controllable by the business segments were no longer allocated to segments and are included within Corporate, Eliminations and Other. Our operating results for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, have been recast to reflect this change.
The following charts show the respective contributions to 2019 sales volumes, net sales and gross margin for each of our business segments in effect at December 31, 2019:
402910864_salestonnesa04.jpg402910864_netsalesa04.jpg402910864_grossmargina04.jpg
We account for approximately 13% of estimated global annual phosphate production. We also account for approximately 11% of estimated global annual potash production.

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Phosphates Segment — We sell phosphate-based crop nutrients and animal feed ingredients throughout North America and internationally. We account for approximately 74% of estimated North American annual production of concentrated phosphate crop nutrients.
Potash Segment — We sell potash throughout North America and internationally, principally as fertilizer, but also for use in industrial applications and, to a lesser degree, as animal feed ingredients. We account for approximately 34% of estimated North American annual potash production.
Mosaic Fertilizantes Segment — We produce and sell phosphate and potash-based crop nutrients, and animal feed ingredients, in Brazil. In addition to five phosphate rock mines, four chemical plants and a potash mine in Brazil, this segment consists of sales offices, crop nutrient blending and bagging facilities, port terminals and warehouses in Brazil and Paraguay. The Mosaic Fertilizantes segment also serves as a distribution outlet for our Phosphates and Potash segments. We account for approximately 69% of estimated annual production of concentrated phosphate crop nutrients in Brazil and 100% of estimated annual potash production in Brazil.
As used in this report: 
Mosaic” means The Mosaic Company;
we”, “us”, and “our” refer to Mosaic and its direct and indirect subsidiaries, individually or in any combination;
Cargill” means Cargill, Incorporated and its direct and indirect subsidiaries, individually or in any combination;
Cargill Crop Nutrition” means the crop nutrient business we acquired from Cargill in the Combination;
Combination” means the October 22, 2004 combination of IMC and Cargill Crop Nutrition; and
statements as to our industry position reflect information from the most recent period available.
Business Developments during 2019
In 2019, we realized approximately $330 million of targeted savings and synergies, net of costs to achieve, related to the Acquisition of Vale Fertilizantes S.A. (now known as Mosaic Fertilizantes P&K S.A., which we refer to as Mosaic Fertilizantes) which exceeds our previously announced goal of $275 million by the end of 2019. In addition, we announced that we intend to drive an additional $200 million in annual operating earnings at Mosaic Fertilizantes through ongoing business transformation efforts by the end of 2022.
In 2019, we repurchased 7.1 million shares of our Common Stock for approximately $150 million under our existing share repurchase authorization.
In October 2019, we announced that we plan to accelerate development of the Esterhazy K3 potash mine shaft by an additional year, with expected completion by mid-2022. As production from the K3 shaft ramps up, we plan to cease underground mining at the K1 and K2 mine shafts. Underground operations will be completely transitioned to K3 in 2022, which is expected to eliminate our brine inflow management costs at the K1 and K2 shafts. A total of 1.4 million tonnes of ore was produced from the K3 shaft in 2019.
Early in 2019, Brazil's National Mining Agency implemented new standards regarding tailings dam safety, construction, environmental licenses, and operations. As a result of these new standards, we temporarily idled operations at four tailings dams and the three related phosphate mines at Araxá, Tapira, and Catalão while we implemented changes to comply with the new standards. The Catalão mine returned to full production in June 2019 and the Tapira and Araxá mines returned to full production in September 2019. Until full operations resumed, we processed available rock inventory and imported rock from our mine in Peru to maintain production, albeit at lower rates. We supplemented with finished phosphates from our Florida operations to meet our Brazilian customers’ needs.
In April 2019, we purchased the Pine Bend distribution facility in Rosemount, Minnesota, near the northern end of the Mississippi River, for $55 million. This large facility significantly improves our ability to serve customers in the U.S., allows us to capture time-place premiums, reduces our logistics risk and allows us to avoid capital investment in our older facilities in the same region.
In response to slow market conditions throughout 2019, we took steps to reduce our fertilizer production until market conditions improve. In December, we announced that we plan to decrease phosphate production at our Central Florida facilities by 150,000 tonnes per month, in addition to the 500,000 tonne reduction we implemented

2

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in the second half of 2019, primarily at our Louisiana facility. We also plan to continue to operate at lower rates at our Canadian potash mines. On October 10, 2019, we announced that we would temporarily curtail production at our Esterhazy, Saskatchewan potash mine, bringing our total 2019 potash curtailment to approximately 600,000 tonnes, including the previously announced idling of our Colonsay, Saskatchewan potash mine earlier in 2019. The increased curtailment was based on increasing inventories as a result of a short-term slowdown in global potash markets and increased risks of a delay in the Chinese contract settlement.
During the second quarter of 2019, we announced the permanent closure of the Plant City, Florida phosphate facility that was previously idled in late 2017, reaffirming our commitment to low-cost operations. For 2019, Plant City closure costs were approximately $341 million.
As of October 31, 2019, the date of the annual impairment testing, we concluded that the carrying value of the Phosphates reporting unit exceeded its estimated fair value due to a reduction in our long-term forecast. As a result, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $589 million.
Following the end of our fiscal year, on January 28, 2020, we announced that we intend to keep our Colonsay, Saskatchewan potash mine idled for the foreseeable future. The mine will be placed in care and maintenance mode, employing minimal staff and allowing for resumption of operations when needed to meet customers’ needs. At December 31, 2019, we have recorded expense of approximately $530 million, pretax, primarily related to noncash fixed asset write-offs, and inclusive of severance expense of approximately $27 million. The write-off is principally the carrying value of the 2013 expansion project, which increased Colonsay’s operating capacity to 2.1 million tonnes. Colonsay has been operating with a modified 1.5 million tonnes capacity since 2016, and the company does not expect to use the expansion capacity for the foreseeable future.
We have included additional information about these and other developments in our business during 2019 in our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“Management’s Analysis”) and in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Throughout the discussion below, we measure units of production, sales and raw materials in metric tonnes which are the equivalent of 2,205 pounds, unless we specifically state that we mean short or long ton(s), which are the equivalent of 2,000 pounds and 2,240 pounds, respectively. In addition, we measure natural gas, a raw material used in the production of our products, in MMBTU, which stands for one million British Thermal Units (BTU). One BTU is equivalent to 1.06 Joules.
BUSINESS SEGMENT INFORMATION
The discussion below of our business segment operations should be read in conjunction with the following information that we have included in this report: 
The risk factors discussed in this report in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
Our Management’s Analysis.
The financial statements and supplementary financial information in our Consolidated Financial Statements (“Consolidated Financial Statements”).
This information is incorporated by reference in this report in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” 
Phosphates Segment
Our Phosphates business segment owns and operates mines and production facilities in Florida which produce concentrated phosphate crop nutrients and phosphate-based animal feed ingredients, and processing plants in Louisiana which produce concentrated phosphate crop nutrients. As part of the Acquisition, we acquired an additional 40% economic interest in the Miski Mayo Phosphate Mine in Peru, which increased our aggregate interest to 75%. The results of the Miski Mayo Mine are now included in our Phosphates segment. On June 18, 2019, we permanently closed our Plant City, Florida production facility. On September 24, 2019, Mosaic entered into a long-term lease agreement with Anuvia Plant Nutrition to lease certain assets at that location.
The following map shows the locations of each of our phosphate concentrates plants in the United States and the locations of each of our active, temporarily idled, and planned phosphate mines in Florida. The reserves associated with our Ona location have been allocated to other active mines based on our future mining plans:

3

Table of Contents


402910864_mosphosphatesmapjan2020.jpg

4

Table of Contents

The following map shows the location of the Miski Mayo phosphate mine in Peru:
402910864_miskimayomapa02.jpg
U.S. Phosphate Crop Nutrients and Animal Feed Ingredients
Our U.S. phosphates operations have capacity to produce approximately 4.5 million tonnes of phosphoric acid (“P2O5”) per year, or about 7% of world annual capacity and about 58% of North American annual capacity. Phosphoric acid is produced by reacting finely ground phosphate rock with sulfuric acid. Phosphoric acid is the key building block for the production of high analysis or concentrated phosphate crop nutrients and animal feed products, and is the most comprehensive measure of phosphate capacity and production and a commonly used benchmark in our industry. Our U.S. phosphoric acid production totaled approximately 3.9 million tonnes during 2019. Our U.S. operations account for approximately 9% of estimated global annual production and 60% of estimated North American annual output.
Our phosphate crop nutrient products are marketed worldwide to crop nutrient manufacturers, distributors, retailers and farmers. Our principal phosphate crop nutrient products are: 
Diammonium Phosphate (18-46-0) Diammonium Phosphate (“DAP”) is the most widely used high-analysis phosphate crop nutrient worldwide. DAP is produced by first combining phosphoric acid with anhydrous ammonia in a reaction vessel. This initial reaction creates a slurry that is then pumped into a granulation plant where it is reacted with additional ammonia to produce DAP. DAP is a solid granular product that is applied directly or blended with other solid plant nutrient products such as urea and potash.
Monoammonium Phosphate (11-52-0) Monoammonium Phosphate (“MAP”) is the second most widely used high-analysis phosphate crop nutrient and the fastest growing phosphate product worldwide. MAP is also produced by first combining phosphoric acid with anhydrous ammonia in a reaction vessel. The resulting slurry is then pumped into the granulation plant where it is reacted with additional phosphoric acid to produce MAP. MAP is a solid granular product that is applied directly or blended with other solid plant nutrient products.
MicroEssentials® is a value-added ammoniated phosphate product that is enhanced through a patented process that creates very thin platelets of sulfur and other micronutrients, such as zinc, on the granulated product. The patented process incorporates both the sulfate and elemental forms of sulfur, providing season-long availability to crops.

5

Table of Contents

Production of our animal feed ingredients products is located at our New Wales, Florida facility. We market our feed phosphate primarily under the leading brand names of Biofos® and Nexfos®.
Annual capacity by plant as of December 31, 2019 and production volumes by plant for 2019 are listed below: 
(tonnes in millions)
 
Phosphoric Acid
 
Processed Phosphate(a)/DAP/MAP/ MicroEssentials®/Feed Phosphate
 
 
Operational Capacity(b)
 
 
 
Operational Capacity(b)
 
 
Facility
 
Production(c)
 
Production(c)
Florida:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bartow
 
1.1

 
1.1

 
2.5

 
2.4

New Wales
 
1.7

 
1.5

 
4.0

 
3.1

Riverview
 
0.9

 
0.8

 
1.8

 
1.6

 
 
3.7

 
3.4

 
8.3

 
7.1

Louisiana:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Faustina(d)
 

 

 
1.6

 
1.0

Uncle Sam
 
0.8

 
0.5

 

 

 
 
0.8

 
0.5

 
1.6

 
1.0

Total
 
4.5

 
3.9

 
9.9

 
8.1

______________________________
(a)
Our ability to produce processed phosphates has been less than our annual operational capacity stated in the table above, except to the extent we purchase phosphoric acid. Factors affecting actual production are described in note (c) below.
(b)
Operational capacity is our estimated long-term capacity based on an average amount of scheduled down time, including maintenance and scheduled turnaround time, and product mix, and no significant modifications to operating conditions, equipment or facilities.
(c)
Actual production varies from annual operational capacity shown in the above table due to factors that include among others the level of demand for our products, maintenance and turnaround time, accidents, mechanical failure, product mix, and other operating conditions.
(d)
On October 1, 2019, we temporarily idled our Louisiana phosphates operations to accelerate the reduction of high phosphate fertilizer inventories.
The phosphoric acid produced at Uncle Sam is shipped to Faustina, where it is used to produce DAP, MAP and MicroEssentials®. Our Faustina plant also manufactures ammonia that is mostly consumed in our concentrate plants.
We produced approximately 7.6 million tonnes of concentrated phosphate crop nutrients during 2019 and accounted for approximately 74% of estimated North American annual production.
Phosphate Rock
Phosphate rock is the key mineral used to produce phosphate crop nutrients and feed phosphate. Our Florida phosphate rock mines produced approximately 12.2 million tonnes in 2019 and accounted for approximately 54% of estimated North American annual production. We are the world’s second largest miner of phosphate rock (excluding China) and currently operate four mines in North America with a combined annual capacity of approximately 16.7 million tonnes. Additionally, we own 75% of the Miski Mayo Mine in Peru which has an annual capacity of 4.0 million tonnes. Production of one tonne of DAP requires between 1.6 and 1.7 tonnes of phosphate rock.
All of our wholly owned phosphate mines and related mining operations in North America are located in central Florida. During 2019, we operated three active mines in Florida: Four Corners, South Fort Meade and Wingate. On August 31, 2018, we temporarily idled our South Pasture, Florida phosphates mine. We plan to develop Ona and DeSoto reserves to replace reserves that will be depleted at various times during the next decade. As part of the Acquisition, we acquired an additional 40% economic interest in the Miski Mayo Mine in Peru, which increased our aggregate interest to 75%. Our investment in the Miski Mayo Mine allows us to supplement our other produced rock to meet our overall fertilizer production needs. Effective with the closing of the Acquisition, we have the right to use or sell to third parties 75% of Miski Mayo's annual production.

6

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The phosphate deposits of Florida are of sedimentary origin and are part of a phosphate-bearing province that extends from southern Florida north along the Atlantic coast into southern Virginia. Our active Florida phosphate mines are primarily located in what is known as the Bone Valley Member of the Peace River Formation in the Central Florida Phosphate District. The southern portions of the Four Corners and Wingate mines are in what is referred to as the Undifferentiated Peace River Formation, in which the Ona and DeSoto reserves we plan to develop are also located. Phosphate mining has been conducted in the Central Florida Phosphate District since the late 1800’s. The potentially mineable portion of the district encompasses an area approximately 80 miles in length in a north-south direction and approximately 40 miles in width.
In Florida, we extract phosphate ore using large surface mining machines that we own called “draglines.” Prior to extracting the ore, the draglines must first remove a 10 to 50 foot layer of sandy overburden. At our Wingate mine, we also utilize dredges to remove the overburden and mine the ore. We then process the ore at beneficiation plants that we own at each active mine where the ore goes through washing, screening, sizing and flotation processes designed to separate the phosphate rock from sands, clays and other foreign materials. Prior to commencing operations at any of our planned future mines, we may need to acquire new draglines or move existing draglines to the mines and, unless the beneficiation plant at an existing mine were used, construct a beneficiation plant.
The phosphates deposits of Peru are located within the shallow north-trending Sechura Basin, in the Piura region, hosting successive inter-layered marine sediments of Phosphate. We extract phosphate ore from the Miski Mayo mine using excavators. The ore is then transported by truck to the feeding platform for supply of the feeder-breakers, which feeds the conveyor belt for the beneficiation plant that we own. The ore is then processed with successive stages of washing and gravimetric separations of seawater. The final stage of the process is washing with desalinated water to remove salts from the concentrate. The concentrate is then shipped to North America for use in our own production or sold to third parties.
The following table shows, for each of our phosphate mines, annual capacity as of December 31, 2019 and rock production volume and grade for the years 2019, 2018, and 2017:
(tonnes in
millions)
Annual
Operational
Capacity(a)(b)
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Facility
Production(b)
 
Average
BPL(c)
 
% P2O5(d)
 
Production(b)
 
Average
BPL(c)
 
%
P2O5(d)
 
Production(b)
 
Average
BPL(c)
 
%
P2O5(d)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Four Corners(e)
7.0

 
6.5

 
62.8

 
28.7

 
6.9

 
62.2

 
28.5

 
6.4

 
62.4

 
28.5

South Fort Meade
5.0

 
4.2

 
61.6

 
28.2

 
4.2

 
63.1

 
28.9

 
4.4

 
63.6

 
29.1

South Pasture(f)
3.2

 

 

 

 
1.5

 
62.5

 
28.6

 
2.8

 
62.6

 
28.6

Wingate
1.5

 
1.5

 
63.5

 
29.1

 
1.6

 
61.3

 
28.1

 
1.4

 
62.5

 
28.6

North America
16.7

 
12.2

 
62.5

 
28.6

 
14.2

 
62.4

 
28.6

 
15.0

 
62.8

 
28.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Miski Mayo(g) (h)
4.0

 
4.0

 
64.7

 
29.6

 
4.1

 
64.9

 
29.7

 

 

 

Total
20.7

 
16.2

 
63.0

 
28.8

 
18.3

 
62.9

 
28.8

 
15.0

 
62.8

 
28.7

______________________________
(a)
Annual operational capacity is the expected average long-term annual capacity considering constraints represented by the grade, quality and quantity of the reserves being mined as well as equipment performance and other operational factors.
(b)
Actual production varies from annual operational capacity shown in the above table due to factors that include among others the level of demand for our products, the quality of the reserves, the nature of the geologic formations we are mining at any particular time, maintenance and turnaround time, accidents, mechanical failure, weather conditions, and other operating conditions, as well as the effect of recent initiatives intended to improve operational excellence.
(c)
Bone Phosphate of Lime (“BPL”) is a traditional reference to the amount (by weight percentage) of calcium phosphate contained in phosphate rock or a phosphate ore body. A higher BPL corresponds to a higher percentage of calcium phosphate.
(d)
The percent of P2O5 in the above table represents a measure of the phosphate content in phosphate rock or a phosphate ore body. A higher percentage corresponds to a higher percentage of phosphate content in phosphate rock or a phosphate ore body.

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(e)
Production at the Four Corners mine includes rock mined at the South Pasture Extension Mine in Hardee County from September 2018 to December 2018.
(f)
On August 31, 2018, we temporarily idled our South Pasture, Florida beneficiation plant for an indefinite period of time.
(g)
With the closing of the Acquisition on January 8, 2018, we acquired an additional 40% economic interest in the Miski Mayo phosphate rock mine in the Bayovar region of Peru, bringing our aggregate interest to 75% in 2018. Their results are included in the Phosphates segment from the date of the Acquisition.
(h)
Annual operational capacity and production tonnes for Miski Mayo are presented on a wet tonne basis based on average moisture levels of 3.5% to 4.5% as it exits the drying process and is prepared for shipping. Operational capacity and production on a dry tonne basis would be 3.8 million tonnes and 3.9 million tonnes respectively.
Reserves
We estimate our phosphate rock reserves based upon exploration core drilling as well as technical and economic analyses to determine that reserves can be economically mined. Proven (measured) reserves are those resources of sufficient concentration to meet minimum physical, chemical and economic criteria related to our current product standards and mining and production practices. Our estimates of probable (indicated) reserves are based on information similar to that used for proven reserves, but sites for drilling are farther apart or are otherwise less adequately spaced than for proven reserves, although the degree of assurance is high enough to assume continuity between such sites. Proven reserves are determined using a minimum drill hole spacing in two locations per 40 acre block. Probable reserves have less than two drill holes per 40 acre block, but geological data provides a high degree of assurance that continuity exists between sites.
The following table sets forth our proven and probable phosphate reserves as of December 31, 2019:
(tonnes in millions)
Reserve Tonnes (a)(b)(c)
 
Average
BPL(d)
 
%
P2O5
Active Mines
 
 
 
 
 
Four Corners(f)
86.6

 
64.0

 
29.3

South Fort Meade
7.6

 
61.4

 
28.1

Wingate
26.2

 
62.1

 
28.4

Miski Mayo(g)
90.4

 
65.7

 
30.1

Total Active Mines
210.8

 
64.4

 
29.5

Temporarily Idled
 
 
 
 
 
       South Pasture
137.9

 
63.2

 
28.9

Planned Mining
 
 
 
 
 
East Ona(h)
110.9

 
64.5

 
29.5

DeSoto
149.2

(e) 
63.8

 
29.2

Total Planned Mining
260.1

 
64.1

 
29.3

Total Mining
608.8

 
64.0

 
29.3

______________________________
(a)
Reserves are in areas that are fully accessible for mining; free of surface or subsurface encumbrance, legal setbacks, wetland preserves and other legal restrictions that preclude permittable access for mining; believed by us to be permittable; and meet specified minimum physical, economic and chemical criteria related to current mining and production practices.
(b)
Reserve estimates are generally established by our personnel without a third party review. There has been no third party review of reserve estimates within the last five years. The reserve estimates have been prepared in accordance with the standards set forth in Industry Guide 7 promulgated by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
(c)
Of the reserves shown, 498.3 million tonnes are proven reserves, while probable reserves totaled 20.1 million tonnes.
(d)
Average product BPL ranges from approximately 62% to 66%.
(e)
In connection with the purchase in 1996 of approximately 111.1 million tonnes of the reported DeSoto reserves, we agreed to (i) pay royalties of between $0.50 and $0.90 per ton of rock mined based on future levels of DAP margins, and (ii) pay to the seller lost income from the loss of surface use to the extent we use the property for mining related purposes before January 1, 2021.
(f)
The Four Corners reserves include the Ona West reserve tonnes.

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(g)
We pay royalties to the government of Peru based on a percentage of net sales and final determined price. These royalty payments average approximately $7 million annually.
(h)
The East Ona reserves are expected to be mined through our South Pasture and Four Corners mine locations.
We generally own the reserves shown for active mines in the table above, with the only significant exceptions being further described below: 
We own the above-ground assets of the South Fort Meade mine, including the beneficiation plant, rail track and the initial clay settling areas. A limited partnership, South Ft. Meade Partnership, L.P. (“SFMP”), owns the majority of the mineable acres shown in the table for the South Fort Meade mine.
We currently have a 95% economic interest in the profits and losses of SFMP. SFMP is included as a consolidated subsidiary in our financial statements.
We have a long-term mineral lease with SFMP. This lease expires on the earlier of December 31, 2025 or on the date that we have completed mining and reclamation obligations associated with the leased property. Lease provisions include royalty payments and a commitment to give mining priority to the South Fort Meade phosphate reserves. We pay the partnership a royalty on each BPL short ton mined and shipped from the areas that we lease from it. Royalty payments to SFMP normally average approximately $11 million annually.
Through its arrangements with us, SFMP also earns income from mineral lease payments, agricultural lease payments and interest income, and uses those proceeds primarily to pay dividends to its equity owners.
The surface rights to approximately 942 acres for the South Fort Meade Mine are owned by SFMP, while the U.S. government owns the mineral rights beneath. We control the rights to mine these reserves under a mining lease agreement and pay royalties on the tonnage extracted. Under the lease, we paid an immaterial amount of royalties to the U.S. Government in 2019.
In light of the long-term nature of our rights to our reserves, we expect to be able to mine all reported reserves that are not currently owned prior to termination or expiration of our rights. Additional information regarding permitting is included in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors”, and under “Environmental, Health, Safety and Security Matters—Operating Requirements and Impacts—Permitting” in our Management’s Analysis.
Investments in MWSPC
We own a 25% interest in Ma'aden Wa'ad Al Shamal Phosphate Company ("MWSPC") and, in connection with our equity share, we are entitled to market approximately 25% of MWSPC’s production. MWSPC consists of a mine and two chemical complexes (the “Project”) that produce phosphate fertilizers and other downstream phosphates products in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The greenfield project was built in the northern region of Saudi Arabia at Wa’ad Al Shamal Minerals Industrial City, and includes further expansion of processing plants in Ras Al Khair Minerals Industrial City, which is located on the east coast of Saudi Arabia. Ammonia operations commenced in late 2016 and on December 1, 2018, MWSPC commenced commercial operations of the phospate plant, thereby bringing the entire project to the commercial production phase. Phosphate production will gradually ramp-up until it reaches an expected 3.0 million tonnes in annual production capacity. Actual phosphate production was 2.2 million tonnes in 2019. The Project is expected to benefit from the availability of key raw nutrients from sources within Saudi Arabia.
Our cash investment in the Project was $770 million at December 31, 2019. We did not make any contributions in 2019 and do not expect future contributions will be needed. However, we are contractually obligated to make future cash contributions of approximately $70 million, if needed.
Sulfur
We use molten sulfur at our phosphates concentrates plants to produce sulfuric acid primarily for use in our production of phosphoric acid. We purchased approximately 3.7 million long tons of sulfur during 2019. We purchase the majority of this sulfur from North American oil and natural gas refiners who are required to remove or recover sulfur during the refining process. Production of one tonne of DAP requires approximately 0.40 long tons of sulfur. We procure our sulfur from multiple sources and receive it by truck, rail, barge and vessel, either directly at our phosphate plants or have it sent for gathering to terminals that are located on the U.S. gulf coast. In addition, we use formed sulfur received through Tampa ports, which are delivered by truck to our New Wales facility and melted through our sulfur melter.

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We own and operate a sulfur terminal in Riverview, Florida. We also lease terminal space in Tampa, Florida and Galveston and Beaumont, Texas. We have long-term time charters on two ocean-going tugs/barges and one ocean-going vessel that transports molten sulfur from the Texas terminals to Tampa and then onward by truck to our Florida phosphate plants. In addition, we own a 50% equity interest in Gulf Sulphur Services Ltd., LLLP (“Gulf Sulphur Services”), which is operated by our joint venture partner. Gulf Sulphur Services has a sulfur transportation and terminaling business in the Gulf of Mexico, and handles these functions for a substantial portion of our Florida sulfur volume. Our sulfur logistic assets also include a large fleet of leased railcars that supplement our marine sulfur logistic system. Our Louisiana operations are served by truck from nearby refineries.
Although sulfur is readily available from many different suppliers and can be transported to our phosphate facilities by a variety of means, sulfur is an important raw material used in our business that has in the past been and may in the future be the subject of volatile pricing and availability. Alternative transportation and terminaling facilities might not have sufficient capacity to fully serve all of our facilities in the event of a disruption to current transportation or terminaling facilities. Changes in the price of sulfur or disruptions to sulfur transportation or terminaling facilities could have a material impact on our business. We have included a discussion of sulfur prices in our Management’s Analysis.
Ammonia
We use ammonia together with phosphoric acid to produce DAP, MAP and MicroEssentials®. We consumed approximately 1.2 million tonnes of ammonia during 2019. Production of one tonne of DAP requires approximately 0.23 tonnes of ammonia. We purchase approximately one-third of our ammonia from various suppliers in the spot market with the remaining two-thirds either purchased through our ammonia supply agreement (the “CF Ammonia Supply Agreement”) with an affiliate of CF Industries Inc. (“CF”) or produced internally at our Faustina, Louisiana location.
Our Florida ammonia needs are currently supplied under multi-year contracts with both domestic and offshore producers. Ammonia for our Bartow and Riverview plants is terminaled through owned ammonia facilities at the Port of Tampa and Port Sutton, Florida. Ammonia for our New Wales plant is terminaled through another ammonia facility owned and operated by a third party at Port Sutton, Florida pursuant to an agreement that provides for service through 2022 with automatic renewal for an additional two-year period unless either party terminates as provided in the agreement. Ammonia is transported by pipeline from the terminals to our production facilities. We have service agreements with the operators of the pipelines for Bartow, New Wales, and Riverview, which provide service through June 30, 2020 with an annual auto-renewal provision unless either party objects. We are currently in the process of signing a renegotiated agreement which will run to June 30, 2022, also with an annual auto-renewal option.
Under the CF Ammonia Supply Agreement, Mosaic agreed to purchase approximately 545,000 to 725,000 metric tonnes of ammonia per year during a term that commenced in 2017 and may extend until December 31, 2032, at a price tied to the prevailing price of U.S. natural gas. For 2019, our minimum purchase obligation was approximately 523,000 metric tonnes, and actual purchases were 575,000 metric tonnes. In the second half of 2017, a specialized tug and barge unit began transporting ammonia for us between a load location at Donaldsonville, Louisiana and a discharge location at Tampa, Florida. Additional information about this chartered unit and its financing is provided in Note 25 of our Consolidated Financial Statements. We expect a majority of the ammonia purchased under the CF Ammonia Supply Agreement to be received by barge at the port of Tampa and delivered to our Florida facilities as described in the preceding paragraph. While the market prices of natural gas and ammonia have changed since we executed this agreement in 2013 and will continue to change, we expect that the agreement will provide us a competitive advantage over its term, including by providing a reliable long-term ammonia supply.
We produce ammonia at Faustina, Louisiana primarily for our own consumption. Our annual capacity is approximately 530,000 tonnes. From time to time, we sell surplus ammonia to unrelated parties and/or may transport surplus ammonia to the port of Tampa. In addition, under certain circumstances we are permitted to receive ammonia at Faustina under the CF Ammonia Supply Agreement.
Although ammonia is readily available from many different suppliers and can be transported to our phosphates facilities by a variety of means, ammonia is an important raw material used in our business that has in the past been and may in the future be the subject of volatile pricing, and alternative transportation and terminaling facilities might not have sufficient capacity to fully serve all of our facilities in the event of a disruption to existing transportation or terminaling facilities. Changes in the price of ammonia or disruptions to ammonia transportation or terminaling could have a material impact on our business. We have included a discussion of ammonia prices in our Management’s Analysis.

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Natural Gas for Phosphates
Natural gas is the primary raw material used to manufacture ammonia. At our Faustina facility, ammonia is manufactured on site. The majority of natural gas is purchased through firm delivery contracts based on published index-based prices and is sourced from Texas and Louisiana via pipelines interconnected to the Henry Hub. We use over-the-counter swap and/or option contracts to forward price portions of future gas purchases. We typically purchase approximately 11 million MMbtu of natural gas per year for use in ammonia production at Faustina. Our purchases were lower in 2019, as we curtailed production at our Faustina facility for a portion of the year.
Our ammonia requirements for our Florida operations are purchased rather than manufactured on site, so while we typically purchase approximately two million MMbtu of natural gas per year in Florida, it is only used as a thermal fuel for various phosphate production processes.
Florida Land Holdings
We are a significant landowner in the State of Florida, which has in the past been considered one of the fastest areas of population growth in the United States. We own land comprising over 290,000 acres held in fee simple title in central Florida, and have the right to mine additional properties which contain phosphate rock reserves. Some of our land holdings are needed to operate our Phosphates business, while a portion of our land assets, such as certain reclaimed properties, are no longer required for our ongoing operations. As a general matter, more of our reclaimed property becomes available for uses other than for phosphate operations each year. Our real property assets are generally comprised of concentrates plants, port facilities, phosphate mines and other property which we have acquired through our presence in Florida. Our long-term future land use strategy is to optimize the value of our land assets. For example, we developed Streamsong Resort® (the “Resort”), a destination resort and conference center, in an area of previously mined land as part of our long-term business strategy to maximize the value and utility of our extensive land holdings in Florida. In addition to the two golf courses and clubhouse that were opened in December 2012, the Resort and conference center opened in January 2014. In 2015, in response to market demand, we began construction of a third golf course and ancillary facilities, which were completed and opened in 2017.
Potash Segment
We are one of the leading potash producers in the world. We mine and process potash in Canada and the United States and sell potash in North America and internationally. The term “potash” applies generally to the common salts of potassium. Muriate of potash (“MOP”) is the primary source of potassium for the crop nutrient industry. Red MOP has traces of iron oxide. The granular and standard grade Red MOP products are well suited for direct fertilizer application and bulk blending. White MOP has a higher percent potassium oxide (“K2O”). White MOP, besides being well suited for the agricultural market, is used in many industrial applications. We also produce a double sulfate of potash magnesia product, which we market under our brand name K-Mag®, at our Carlsbad, New Mexico facility.
Our potash products are marketed worldwide to crop nutrient manufacturers, distributors and retailers and are also used in the manufacturing of mixed crop nutrients and, to a lesser extent, in animal feed ingredients. We also sell potash to customers for industrial use. In addition, our potash products are used for de-icing and as a water softener regenerant.
In 2019, we operated three potash mines in Canada, including two shaft mines with a total of four production shafts and one solution mine, as well as one potash shaft mine in the United States. We also own related mills or refineries at our mines. Also, as part of the Acquisition, we acquired a potash project in Kronau, Saskatchewan.
We continue the expansion of capacity in our Potash segment with the K3 shafts at our Esterhazy mine. Following ramp-up, these shafts are expected to add an estimated 0.9 million tonnes to our annual potash operational capacity. This will provide an infrastructure to move ore from K3 to the K1 and K2 mills. In September 2019, the first four rotor mining machine began cutting ore underground at K3. In December 2019, the second four rotor mining machine began cutting and shaft excavation was completed. A total of 1.4 million tonnes of K3 ore was transported from K3 to K2 via the overland conveyor infrastructure in 2019. As K3 production ramps up, we plan to cease underground mining at K1 and K2 by mid-2022. Once mining there ceases, we expect to eliminate our brine inflow costs at these mine shafts.
It is possible that the costs of inflow remedial efforts at Esterhazy may increase in the future, before the shutdown of K1 and K2 mining, and that such an increase could be material, or, in the extreme scenario, that the brine inflows, risk to employees

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or remediation costs may increase to a level which would cause us to change our mining processes or abandon the mines. However, with K3 ramping up, the long term impact of an inflow event is significantly reduced.
See “Key Factors that can Affect Results of Operations and Financial Condition” and “Potash Net Sales and Gross Margin” in our Management’s Analysis and “Our Esterhazy mine has had an inflow of salt saturated brine for more than 30 years” in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this report, which are incorporated herein by reference, for a discussion of costs, risks and other information relating to the brine inflows.
The map below shows the location of each of our potash mines.
402910864_mosaicpotashfootprintjan2020.jpg
 
Our North American potash annualized operational capacity totals 11.2 million tonnes of product per year and accounts for approximately 12% of world annual capacity and 36% of North American annual capacity. Production during 2019 totaled 7.9 million tonnes. We account for approximately 11% of estimated world annual production and 34% of estimated North American annual production.

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The following table shows, for each of our potash mines, annual capacity as of December 31, 2019 and volume of mined ore, average grade and finished product output for years 2019, 2018 and 2017:
(tonnes in millions)
 
 
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Facility
Annualized
Proven
Peaking
Capacity
(a)(c)(d)
 
Annual
Operational
Capacity
(a)(b)(d)(e)
 
Ore
Mined
 
Grade
%
K2O(f)
 
Finished
Product(b)
 
Ore
Mined
 
Grade
%
K2O(f)
 
Finished
Product(b)
 
Ore
Mined
 
Grade
%
K2O(f)
 
Finished
Product
(b)
Canada
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Belle Plaine—MOP
3.9

 
3.0

 
11.9

 
18.0

 
2.7

 
10.6

 
18.0

 
2.8

 
10.2

 
18.0

 
2.7

Colonsay—MOP(g) (h)
2.6

 
1.5

 
1.9

 
26.5

 
0.7

 
3.4

 
26.8

 
1.2

 
3.4

 
24.4

 
1.1

Esterhazy—MOP(i)
6.3

 
6.0

 
11.9

 
23.6

 
3.9

 
13.9

 
23.7

 
4.6

 
13.1

 
24.0

 
4.3

Canadian Total
12.8

 
10.5

 
25.7

 
21.2

 
7.3

 
27.9

 
21.9

 
8.6

 
26.7

 
21.7

 
8.1

United States
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carlsbad—K-Mag®(j)
0.9

 
0.7

 
3.0

 
6.0

 
0.6

 
3.0

 
6.1

 
0.6

 
3.2

 
5.5

 
0.6

United States Total
0.9

 
0.7

 
3.0

 
6.0

 
0.6

 
3.0

 
6.1

 
0.6

 
3.2

 
5.5

 
0.6

Totals
13.7

 
11.2

 
28.7

 
19.6

 
7.9

 
30.9

 
20.4

 
9.2

 
29.9

 
20.0

 
8.7

______________________________
(a)
Finished product.
(b)
Actual production varies from annual operational capacity shown in the above table due to factors that include among others the level of demand for our products, maintenance and turnaround time, the quality of the reserves and the nature of the geologic formations we are mining at any particular time, accidents, mechanical failure, product mix, and other operating conditions.
(c)
Represents full capacity assuming no turnaround or maintenance time.
(d)
The annualized proven peaking capacity shown above is the capacity currently used to determine our share of Canpotex, Limited (“Canpotex”) sales. Canpotex members’ respective shares of Canpotex sales are based upon the members’ respective proven peaking capacities for producing potash. When a Canpotex member expands its production capacity, the new capacity is added to that member’s proven peaking capacity based on a proving run at the maximum production level. Alternatively, after January 2017, Canpotex members may elect to rely on an independent engineering firm and approved protocols to calculate their proven peaking capacity. The annual operational capacity reported in the table above can exceed the annualized proven peaking capacity until the proving run has been completed. Our share of Canpotex was 38.1% in the first half of 2017 and, on July 1, 2017, it decreased to 36.2%. It has remained at that level through December 31, 2019.
(e)
Annual operational capacity is our estimated long term potash capacity based on the quality of reserves and the nature of the geologic formations expected to be mined, milled and/or processed over the long term, average amount of scheduled down time, including maintenance and scheduled turnaround time, and product mix, and no significant modifications to operating conditions, equipment or facilities. Operational capacities will continue to be updated to the extent new production results impact ore grades assumptions.
(f)
Grade % K2O is a traditional reference to the percentage (by weight) of potassium oxide contained in the ore. A higher percentage corresponds to a higher percentage of potassium oxide in the ore.
(g)
In August 2019, we temporarily idled our Colonsay, Saskatchewan potash mine for the remainder of 2019 in light of reduced customer demand. On January 28, 2020, we announced that we intend to keep it idled for the foreseeable future. The Colonsay operating capacity will not be included in our operating rate calculation until it resumes operation.
(h)
We have the ability to reach an annual operating capacity of 2.1 million tonnes over time by increasing our staffing levels and investment in mine development activities.
(i)
The annual operational capacity of Esterhazy increased by 0.7 million tonnes in 2019 reflecting the ramp-up in capacity from the K3 shaft.
(j)
K-Mag® is a specialty product that we produce at our Carlsbad facility.
Canadian Mines
We operate three Canadian potash facilities all located in the southern half of the Province of Saskatchewan, including our solution mine at Belle Plaine, two interconnected mine shafts at our Esterhazy shaft mine and our shaft mine at Colonsay. In addition, we are expanding our Esterhazy mine for the K3 shaft.

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Extensive potash deposits are found in the southern half of the Province of Saskatchewan. The potash ore is contained in a predominantly rock salt formation known as the Prairie Evaporites. The Prairie Evaporites deposits are bounded by limestone formations and contain the potash beds. Three potash deposits of economic importance occur in Saskatchewan: the Esterhazy, Belle Plaine and Patience Lake members. The Patience Lake member is mined at Colonsay, and the Esterhazy member at Esterhazy. At Belle Plaine all three members are mined. Each of the major potash members contains several potash beds of different thicknesses and grades. The particular beds mined at Colonsay and Esterhazy have a mining height of 11 and 8 feet, respectively. At Belle Plaine several beds of different thicknesses are mined.
Our potash mines in Canada produce MOP exclusively. Esterhazy and Colonsay utilize shaft mining while Belle Plaine utilizes solution mining technology. Traditional potash shaft mining takes place underground at depths of over 1,000 meters where continuous mining machines cut out the ore face and load it onto conveyor belts. The ore is then crushed, moved to storage bins and hoisted to refineries above ground. In contrast, our solution mining process involves heated brine, which is pumped through a “cluster” to dissolve the potash in the ore beds at a depth of approximately 1,500 meters. A cluster consists of a series of boreholes drilled into the potash ore. A separate distribution center at each cluster controls the brine flow. The solution containing dissolved potash and salt is pumped to a refinery where sodium chloride, a co-product of this process, is separated from the potash through the use of evaporation and crystallization techniques. Concurrently, the solution is pumped into a cooling pond where additional crystallization occurs and the resulting product is recovered via a floating dredge. Refined potash is dewatered, dried and sized. Our Canadian operations produce 13 different MOP products, including industrial grades, many through proprietary processes.
Our potash mineral rights in the Province of Saskatchewan consist of the following:
 
Belle Plaine
 
Colonsay
 
Esterhazy
 
Total
Acres under control
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Owned in fee
17,526

 
10,524

 
116,980

 
145,030

Leased from Province
51,250

 
120,343

 
197,814

 
369,407

Leased from others

 
3,826

 
87,760

 
91,586

Total under control
68,776

 
134,693

 
402,554

 
606,023

We believe that our mineral rights in Saskatchewan are sufficient to support current operations for more than a century. Leases are generally renewable at our option for successive terms, generally 21 years each, except that certain of the acres shown above as “Leased from others” are leased under long-term leases with terms (including renewals at our option) that expire from 2023 to 2170.
As part of the Vale Fertilizantes transaction, Mosaic acquired the assets of Vale Potash Canada Ltd. and its greenfield potash project in the Kronau area approximately 27 kilometers southeast of Regina, Saskatchewan.  In addition, Mosaic leases approximately 294,000 acres of mineral rights from the government of Saskatchewan, and approximately 99,700 acres of freehold mineral rights in the Kronau/Regina area, which have not been developed and are not included in the table above.
We pay Canadian resource taxes consisting of the Potash Production Tax and resource surcharge. The Potash Production Tax is a Saskatchewan provincial tax on potash production and consists of a base payment and a profits tax. We also pay a percentage of the value of resource sales from our Saskatchewan mines. In addition to the Canadian resource taxes, royalties are payable to the mineral owners in respect of potash reserves or production of potash. We have included a further discussion of the Canadian resource taxes and royalties in our Management’s Analysis.
Since December 1985, we have effectively managed an inflow of salt saturated brine into our Esterhazy mine. At various times since then, we have experienced changing amounts and patterns of brine inflows at Esterhazy. To date, the brine inflow, including our remediation efforts to control it, has not had a material impact on our production processes or volumes. The volume of the net brine inflow (the rate of inflow less the amount we are pumping out of the mine) or net outflow (when we are pumping more brine out of the mine than the rate of inflow) fluctuates and is dependent on a number of variables, such as the location of the source of the inflow; the magnitude of the inflow; available pumping, surface and underground brine storage capacities; underground injection well capacities, and the effectiveness of calcium chloride and cementatious grout used to reduce or prevent the inflows, among other factors. As a result of these brine inflows, we incur expenditures, certain of which have been capitalized and others that have been charged to expense, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.

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It is possible that the costs of remedial efforts at Esterhazy may further increase in the future and that such an increase could be material, or, in the extreme scenario, that the brine inflows, risk to employees or remediation costs may increase to a level which would cause us to change our mining processes or abandon the mine. See “Key Factors that can Affect Results of Operations and Financial Condition” and “Potash Net Sales and Gross Margin” in our Management’s Analysis and “Our Esterhazy mine has had an inflow of salt saturated brine for more than 30 years” in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this report, which are incorporated herein by reference, for a discussion of costs, risks and other information relating to the brine inflows. The K3 shafts at our Esterhazy mine are part of our potash expansion plan, which is also designed to mitigate risk from current and future inflows.
Due to the ongoing brine inflow at Esterhazy, subject to exceptions that are limited in scope and amount, we are unable to obtain insurance coverage for underground operations for water incursion problems for the K1 and K2 shafts. Like other potash producers’ shaft mines, our Colonsay, Saskatchewan, and Carlsbad, New Mexico, mines are also subject to the risks of inflow of water as a result of their shaft mining operations, but water inflow risks at these mines are included in our insurance coverage subject to deductibles, limited coverage terms and lower sub-limits negotiated with our insurers.
United States Mine
In the United States, we have a shaft mine located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The ore reserves at our Carlsbad mine are made up of langbeinite, a double sulfate of potassium and magnesium. This type of potash reserve occurs in a predominantly rock salt formation known as the Salado Formation. The McNutt Member of this formation consists of eleven units of economic importance, of which we currently mine one. The McNutt Member’s evaporite deposits are interlayered with anhydrite, polyhalite, potassium salts, clay, and minor amounts of sandstone and siltstone.
Continuous underground mining methods are utilized to extract the ore. Drum type mining machines are used to cut the langbeinite ore from the face. Mined ore is then loaded onto conveyors, transported to storage areas, and then hoisted to the surface for further processing at our refinery.
We produce a double sulfate of potash magnesia product, which we market under our brand name K-Mag®, at our Carlsbad facility.
At the Carlsbad facility, we mine and refine potash from 77,221 acres of mineral rights. We control these reserves pursuant to either (i) leases from the U.S. government that, in general, continue in effect at our option (subject to readjustment by the U.S. government every 20 years) or (ii) leases from the State of New Mexico that continue as long as we continue to produce from them. These reserves contain an estimated total of 176 million tonnes of potash mineralization (calculated after estimated extraction losses) in one mining bed evaluated at thicknesses ranging from 6.5 feet to 10 feet. At average refinery rates, these ore reserves are estimated to be sufficient to yield 32 million tonnes of langbeinite concentrates with an average grade of approximately 22% K2O. At projected rates of production, we estimate that Carlsbad’s reserves of langbeinite are sufficient to support operations for approximately 49.7 years.
Royalties for the U.S. operations amounted to approximately $6.7 million in 2019. These royalties are established by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, in the case of the Carlsbad leases from the U.S. government, and pursuant to provisions set forth in the leases, in the case of the Carlsbad state leases.
Reserves
Our estimates below of our potash reserves and non-reserve potash mineralization are based on exploration drill hole data, seismic data and actual mining results over more than 35 years. Proven reserves are estimated by identifying material in place that is delineated on at least two sides and material in place within a half-mile radius or distance from an existing sampled mine entry or exploration core hole. Probable reserves are estimated by identifying material in place within a one mile radius from an existing sampled mine entry or exploration core hole. Historical extraction ratios from the many years of mining results are then applied to both types of material to estimate the proven and probable reserves. We believe that all reserves and non-reserve potash mineralization reported below are potentially recoverable using existing production shaft and refinery locations.

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Our estimated recoverable potash ore reserves and non-reserve potash mineralization as of December 31, 2019 for each of our mines are as follows:
(tonnes of ore in millions)
 
Reserves(a)(b)
 
Potash
Mineralization(a)(c)
Facility
 
Recoverable
Tonnes
 
Average
Grade
(% K2O)
 
Potentially
Recoverable
Tonnes
Canada
 
 
 
 
 
 
Belle Plaine
 
799

 
18.0

 
2,517

Colonsay
 
299

 
26.3

 
425

Esterhazy
 
872

 
24.6

 
671

sub-totals
 
1,970

 
22.2

 
3,613

United States
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carlsbad
 
176

 
5.3

 

Totals
 
2,146

 
20.8

 
3,613

______________________________
(a)
There has been no third party review of reserve estimates within the last five years. The reserve estimates have been prepared in accordance with the standards set forth in Industry Guide 7 promulgated by the SEC.
(b)
Includes 1.3 billion tonnes of proven reserves and 0.8 billion tonnes of probable reserves.
(c)
The non-reserve potash mineralization reported in the table in some cases extends to the boundaries of the mineral rights we own or lease. Such boundaries are up to 16 miles from the closest existing sampled mine entry or exploration core hole. Based on available geologic data, the non-reserve potash mineralization represents potash that we expect to mine in the future, but it may not meet all of the technical requirements for categorization as proven or probable reserves under Industry Guide 7.
As discussed more fully above, we either own the reserves and mineralization shown above or lease them pursuant to mineral leases that generally remain in effect or are renewable at our option, or are long-term leases. Accordingly, we expect to be able to mine all reported reserves that are leased prior to termination or expiration of the existing leases.
Natural Gas
Natural gas is used at our Belle Plaine solution mine as a fuel to produce steam and to dry potash products. The steam is used to generate electricity and provide thermal energy to the evaporation, crystallization and solution mining processes. The Belle Plaine solution mine typically accounts for approximately 80% of our Potash segment’s total natural gas requirements for potash production. At our shaft mines, natural gas is used as a fuel to heat fresh air supplied to the shaft mines and for drying potash products. Combined natural gas usage for both the solution and shaft mines totaled 17 million MMbtu during 2019. We purchase our natural gas requirements on firm delivery index price-based physical contracts and on short term spot-priced physical contracts. Our Canadian operations purchase physical natural gas from Alberta and Saskatchewan using AECO price indices references and transport the gas to our plants via the TransGas pipeline system. The U.S. potash operation in New Mexico purchases physical gas in the southwest respective regional market using the El Paso San Juan Basin market pricing reference. We use financial derivative contracts to manage the pricing on portions of our natural gas requirements.
Mosaic Fertilizantes Segment
Our Mosaic Fertilizantes segment owns and operates mines, chemical plants, crop nutrient blending and bagging facilities, port terminals and warehouses in Brazil and Paraguay, which produce and sell concentrated phosphates crop nutrients, phosphate-based animal feed ingredients and potash fertilizer. The following map shows the locations of our operations in Brazil and Paraguay.

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402910864_mosfertilizantesmapjan2020.jpg
We are the largest producer and one of the largest distributors of blended crop nutrients for agricultural use in Brazil. We produce and sell phosphate and potash-based crop nutrients, and animal feed ingredients through our operations. Our operations in Brazil include five phosphate rock mines; four chemical plants and a potash mine. We own and operate ten blending plants in Brazil and one blending plant and port in Paraguay. In addition, we lease several other warehouses and blending units depending on sales and production levels. We also have a 62% ownership interest in Fospar, S.A. (“Fospar”). Fospar owns and operates an SSP granulation plant, which produces approximately 0.5 million tonnes of SSP per year, and a deep-water port and throughput warehouse terminal facility in Paranagua, Brazil. The port facility at Paranagua handles approximately 3.0 million tonnes of imported crop nutrients. In 2019, Mosaic Fertilizantes sold approximately 9.2 million tonnes of crop nutrient products and accounted for approximately 25% of fertilizer shipments in Brazil.
We have the capability to annually produce approximately 4.0 million tonnes of phosphate and potash-based crop nutrients and animal feed ingredients. Crop nutrient products produced are marketed to crop nutrient manufacturers, distributors, retailers and farmers.
In addition to producing crop nutrients, Mosaic Fertilizantes purchases phosphates, potash and nitrogen products which are either used to produce blended crop nutrients (“Blends”) or for resale. In 2019, Mosaic Fertilizantes purchased 1.6 million tonnes of phosphate-based products, primarily MicroEssentials®, from our Phosphates segment, and 2.1 million tonnes of potash products from our Potash segment and Canpotex.
Early in 2019, Brazil's National Mining Agency implemented new standards regarding tailings dam safety, construction, environmental licenses, and operations. As a result of these new standards, we temporarily idled operations at four tailings dams and the three related mines at Araxa, Tapira, and Catalao, which negatively impacted our operations, production levels, costs, and results in an amount of approximately $77 million. We resumed full mining operations during the third quarter of

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2019 after we received a Certificate of Stabilization for each of the idled tailings dams, which certified our full compliance with the new standards.
Phosphate Crop Nutrients and Animal Feed Ingredients
Our Brazilian phosphates operations have capacity to produce approximately 1.1 million tonnes of phosphoric acid (“P2O5”) per year, or about 70% of Brazilian annual capacity. Phosphoric acid is produced by reacting ground phosphate rock with sulfuric acid. Phosphoric acid is the key building block for the production of high analysis or concentrated phosphate crop nutrients and animal feed products, and is the most comprehensive measure of phosphate capacity and production and a commonly used benchmark in our industry. Our Brazilian phosphoric acid production totaled approximately 0.8 million tonnes in 2019 and accounted for approximately 88% of Brazilian annual output. Production in 2019 was negatively impacted by steps taken to comply with the new standards implemented by Brazil's National Mining Agency discussed above.
Our principal phosphate crop nutrient products are:
Monoammonium Phosphate (11-52-0) MAP is a crop nutrient composed of two macronutrients, nitrogen and phosphoric acid. This slurry is added inside a rotary drum type granulator with ammonia to complete the neutralization reaction and produce MAP.
Triple superphosphate (TSP) TSP is a highly concentrated phosphate crop nutrient. TSP is produced from the phosphate rock reaction with phosphoric acid in a kuhlmann type reactor. The process for the production of TSP in Brazil is run of pile where the product undergoes a curing process of approximately seven days for later granulation.
Single superphosphate (SSP) SSP is a crop nutrient with a low concentration of phosphorus that is used in agriculture because of the sulfur content in its formulation. SSP is produced from mixing phosphate rock with sulfuric acid in a kuhlmann or malaxador type reactor, after the reaction the product goes to the curing process and then feeds the granulation units.
Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) Dicalcium phosphate is produced by the reaction of desulphurized phosphoric acid with limestone. At Uberaba, it is produced from the reaction of concentrated phosphoric acid with limestone slurry. At Cajati the phosphoric acid is diluted with dry limestone. The reaction of the DCP occurs in a kuhlmann or spinden type reactor.
Our primary mines and chemical plants are located in the states of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, and Goias. Production of our animal feed ingredients products is located at our Uberaba, Minas Gerais, and Cajati, Sao Paulo facilities. We market our feed phosphate primarily under the brand name Foscálcio.
Annual capacity by plant as of December 31, 2019 and production volumes by plant for 2019 are listed below:
(tonnes of ore in millions)
 
Phosphoric acid
 
Processed Phosphate(a) (MAP/TSP/SSP/DCP/Feed)
Facility
 
Capacity(b)
 
Production(c)
 
Capacity(b)
Production(c)
Phosphate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Uberaba
 
0.9

 
0.7

 
1.9

1.4

Cajati
 
0.2

 
0.1

 
0.6

0.3

Araxá
 

 

 
1.0

0.9

Catalao
 

 

 
0.4

0.3

Total
 
1.1

 
0.8

 
3.9

2.9

______________________________
(a)
Our ability to produce processed phosphates has been less than our annual operational capacity as stated in the table above, except to the extent we purchase phosphoric acid. Factors affecting actual production are described in note (c) below.
(b)
The annual production capacity was calculated using the hourly capacity, days stopped for annual maintenance and OEE (historical utilization factor and capacity factor).
(c)
Actual production varies from annual operational capacity shown in the table above due to factors that include, among others, the level of demand for our products, maintenance and turnaround time, accidents, mechanical failure. In 2019,

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actual production was also impacted by downtime to comply with new standards implemented by Brazil's National Mining Agency.
The phosphoric acid produced at Cajati is used to produce DCP. The phosphoric acid produced at Uberaba is used to produce MAP, TSP and DCP. We produced approximately 2.9 million tonnes of concentrated phosphate crop nutrients during 2019 which accounted for approximately 69% of estimated Brazilian annual production.
Phosphate Rock
Phosphate rock is the key mineral used to produce phosphate crop nutrients and feed phosphate. Our phosphate rock production in Brazil totaled approximately 2.9 million tonnes in 2019 which accounted for approximately 55% of estimated Brazilian annual production. We are the largest producer of phosphate rock in Brazil and currently operate four mines with a combined annual capacity of approximately 5.0 million tonnes. Production of one tonne of MAP requires 1.6 to 1.7 tonnes of phosphate rock. Production of one tonne of SSP requires between 0.6 to 0.7 tonnes of phosphate rock. Production of one tonne of TSP requires 1.4 tonnes of phosphate rock.
Our wholly owned phosphate mines and related mining operations in Brazil are located in the states of Minas Gerais, Goiás
and São Paulo, Brazil. During 2019, we operated five active mines; Araxá, Patrocínio and Tapira, in the state of Minas Gerais; Catalão, in the state of Goiás; and Cajati, in the state of São Paulo.
All of our Brazilian phosphate rock mines are open pit mines. The phosphate ore is extracted by drilling and blasting, loaded by backhoe into trucks and transported to the processing plants at each mine, with the exception of Patrocínio which does not have its own processing plant. The ore extracted at Patrocínio is transported by rail to Araxá for processing. We process the ore at beneficiation plants that we own.
The following table shows the annual capacity of rock production volume and grade for each of our phosphate mines as of December 31, 2019 and 2018:
 
 
 
2019
 
2018
(tonnes in millions)
Capacity(a)
 
Production(b)
 
Average BPL(c)
 
%
P2O5(d)
 
Production(b)
 
Average BPL(c)
 
%
P2O5
(d)
Facility
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Catalão
1.0

  
0.9

 
74.8

 
34.2

 
0.8

 
74.8

 
34.2

Tapira
2.1

  
1.3

 
77.4

 
35.4

 
1.9

 
77.4

 
35.4

Araxá/Patrocínio
1.3

 
0.4

 
76.5

 
35.0

 
0.8

 
75.4

 
34.5

Cajati
0.6

  
0.3

 
75.6

 
34.6

 
0.5

 
75.6

 
34.6

Total
5.0

  
2.9

 
76.5

 
35.0

 
4.0

 
76.2

 
34.9

______________________________
(a)
Annual operational capacity is the expected average long-term annual capacity considering constraints represented by the grade, quality and quantity of the reserves being mined as well as equipment performance and other operational factors.
(b)
Actual production varies from annual operational capacity shown in the above table due to factors that include among others the level of demand for our products, the quality of the reserves, the nature of the geologic formations we are mining at any particular time, maintenance and turnaround time, accidents, mechanical failure, weather conditions, and other operating conditions, as well as the effect of recent initiatives intended to improve operational excellence. In 2019, our actual production was negatively impacted by downtime to comply with new standards implemented by Brazil's National Mining Agency as discussed above.
(c)
BPL is a traditional reference to the amount (by weight percentage) of calcium phosphate contained in phosphate rock or a phosphate ore body. A higher BPL corresponds to a higher percentage of calcium phosphate.
(d)
The percent of P2O5 in the above table represents a measure of the phosphate content in phosphate rock or a phosphate ore body. A higher percentage corresponds to a higher percentage of phosphate content in phosphate rock or a phosphate ore body.
Phosphate Reserves
The evaluation of mineral reserves is based upon exploration core drilling as well as technical and economic analyses to determine that reserves can be economically mined. Proven (measured) reserves are those resources of sufficient

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concentration to meet minimum physical, chemical and economic criteria related to our current product standards and mining and production practices. Our estimates or probable (indicated) reserves are based on information similar to that used for proven reserves, but sites for drilling are farther apart or are otherwise less adequately spaced than for proven reserves, although the degree of assurance is high enough to assume continuity between such sites.
The following table sets forth our proven and probable phosphates reserves as of December 31, 2019:
(tonnes in millions)
Reserve Tonnes (a)(b)
 
%
P2O5
Active Mines
 
 
 
Catalão
71.4

  
11.1

Tapira
619.5

  
7.6

Araxá
15.6

   
11.8

Patrocínio(c)
478.4

 
12.1

Cajati
70.8

 
5.1

Total Mines
1,255.7

  
9.4

______________________________
(a)
Tonnage is stated in millions of run of mine dry metric tons and Grade is % P205, after adjustments for depletion, mining dilution and recovery.
(b)
Mineral reserves were audited by external consulting firms.
(c)
The declared reserves correspond to the original scope of the Patrocínio project.

We are required to pay royalties to mineral owners and resource taxes to the Brazilian government for phosphate and potash production. The resource taxes, known as Compensação Financeira pela Exploração de Recursos Minerais or CFEM, are regulated by the National Mining Agency. In 2019, we paid royalties and resource taxes of approximately $8 million.
Sulfur
We use molten sulfur at our phosphates concentrates plants to produce sulfuric acid, one of the key components used in our production of phosphoric acid. We consumed approximately 1.0 million long tons of sulfur for our own production during 2019. We purchase approximately 60% of the volume under annual supply agreements from oil and natural gas refiners, who are required to remove or recover sulfur during the refining process. The remaining 40% is purchased in the spot market. Sulfur is imported through the Tiplam port and transported by rail to the Uberaba plant and by truck to the Araxá and Cajati locations.
Although sulfur is readily available from many different suppliers and can be transported to our phosphate facilities by a variety of means, sulfur is an important raw material used in our business that has in the past been and could in the future be subject to volatile pricing and availability. Alternative transportation and terminaling facilities might not have sufficient capacity to fully serve all of our facilities in the event of a disruption to current transportation or terminaling facilities. Changes in the price of sulfur or disruptions or sulfur transportation or terminaling facilities could have a material impact on our business.
Ammonia
We use ammonia, together with phosphoric acid, to produce MAP, and to a lesser extent for SSP production. We consumed approximately 130,000 tonnes of ammonia during 2019. Production of one tonne of MAP requires approximately 0.137 tonnes of ammonia. We purchase all of our ammonia under a long-term supply agreement with a single supplier. Ammonia is imported through the Tiplam port and transported by truck to Uberaba, Araxá and Catalão.
We own approximately 1% of the Tiplam terminal in Santos, Sao Paulo. Our ownership percentage, along with a contractual agreement, guarantee us unloading priority for ammonia and also provide us unloading capacity for rock, sulfur and crop nutrients.
Although ammonia is readily available from many different suppliers and can be transported to our phosphates facilities by a variety of means, ammonia is an important raw material used in our business that has in the past been and in the future, could be subject to volatile pricing. Alternative transportation and terminaling facilities might not have sufficient capacity to fully

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serve all of our facilities in the event of a disruption to existing transportation or terminaling facilities. Changes in the price of ammonia or disruptions to ammonia transportation of terminaling could have a material impact on our business. We have included a discussion of ammonia prices in our Management's Analysis.
Brazilian Potash
We conduct potash operations through the leased Taquari-Vassouras shaft mine, which is the only potash mine in Brazil, located in Rosário do Catete, in the Brazilian state of Sergipe. We also own a related refinery at the site. We produce and sell potash product domestically. MOP is the primary source of potassium for the crop nutrient industry in Brazil. Red MOP has traces of iron oxide. The granular and standard grade Red MOP products are well-suited for direct fertilizer application and bulk blending. Our potash product is marketed in Brazil to crop nutrient manufacturers, distributors and retailers and is also used in the manufacturing of crop nutrients.
Potash Mine
The potash deposit is in the Taquari-Vassouras sub-basin and the Taquari-Vassouras Industrial Complex is in Rosário do Catete. It can be reached by road and is also served by rail about 9km from the site and a port facility about 40 km from the mine site. The underground mining operations comprises three municipalities: Rosário do Catete, Capela and Carmópolis.
The ore is sylvinite (KCL, NaCL) containing sylvite (KCl) and halite (NaCl). It is mined at a depth of 500 to 740 meters by room and pillar methods using six continuous miners. Room and pillar is a mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane, creating horizontal arrays of rooms and pillars. The ore is extracted in two phases. In the first, "pillars" of untouched material are left to support the roof overburden, and open areas or "rooms" are extracted underground; the pillars are then partially extracted in the same manner. The technique is usually used for relatively flat-lying deposits.
The beneficiation process operation begins at the run-of-mine stockpile. The material is conveyed to the processing circuit where it is divided into eight major units: crushing, concentration, dissolution, drying, compaction, storage and shipping.
Our current potash annualized operational capacity totals 520,000 tonnes of product per year and accounts for 100% of Brazilian annual capacity. Production totaled 426,000 tonnes in 2019, with a K20 grade of 58%. Production during 2019 was negatively impacted by an area of challenging geology, which affected the mine's operating rates.
In 2019, we paid royalties of approximately $7 million related to the leasing of potash assets and mining rights for Taquari.
Reserves
Our estimate of potash reserves is based on exploration drill hole data, seismic data and actual mining results. We believe that all reserves are potentially recoverable using existing production and refinery locations. As of December 31, 2019, we had probable reserves of 9.5 million tonnes with an average K2O grade of 23.75%. We are currently in the process of having further technical work performed by independent third parties that will provide the information necessary to determine the proven reserves. Based on current estimates, we believe the reserves will be exhausted in 2023.
Land Holdings
Mosaic Fertilizantes owns properties and the surface rights of certain additional rural lands comprising over 32,000 hectares (79,000 acres) in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Paraná, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina, Bahia and Sergipe, and has the right to mine additional properties which contain phosphate rock or potash reserves. Most of our land holdings are needed to operate our phosphate and potash production and fertilizer distribution businesses. A portion of our land assets may no longer be required for our current operations and may be leased to third parties, for agricultural or other purposes, or may be set aside for mineral or environmental conservation. Our real property assets are generally comprised of concentrates plants, port facilities and phosphate and potash mines, crop nutrient blending and bagging facilities and other properties which we have acquired through our presence in Brazil.
India and China Distribution Businesses
Our China and India distribution businesses market phosphate-, potash- and nitrogen-based crop nutrients and provide other ancillary services to wholesalers, cooperatives, independent retailers, and farmers in the Asia-Pacific regions. These operations provide our Phosphates and Potash segments access to key markets outside of North and South America and serve

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as a marketing agent for our Phosphates segment. In 2019, the India and China operations purchased 429,686 tonnes of phosphate-based products from our Phosphates segment and MWSPC, and 367,470 tonnes of potash products from our Potash segment and Canpotex. They also purchase phosphates, potash and nitrogen products from unrelated third parties, which we either use to produce blended crop nutrients or for resale.
In China, we own two 300,000-tonne per year capacity blending plants. In 2019, we sold approximately 172,000 tonnes of Blends and distributed another 513,000 tonnes of phosphate and potash crop nutrients in China.
In India, we have distribution facilities to import and sell crop nutrients. In 2019, we distributed approximately 784,000 tonnes of phosphate and potash crop nutrient products in India.
SALES AND DISTRIBUTION ACTIVITIES
United States and Canada
We have a United States and Canada sales and marketing team that serves our business segments. We sell to wholesale distributors, retail chains, cooperatives, independent retailers and national accounts.
Customer service and the ability to effectively minimize the overall supply chain costs are key competitive factors in the crop nutrient and animal feed ingredients businesses. In addition to our production facilities, to service the needs of our customers, we own or have contractual throughput or other arrangements at strategically located distribution warehouses along or near the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers as well as in other key agricultural regions of the United States and Canada. From these facilities, we distribute Mosaic-produced phosphate and potash products for customers who in turn resell the product into the distribution channel or directly to farmers in the United States and Canada.
We own port facilities in Tampa, Florida and Houston, Texas, which have deep water berth capabilities providing access to the Gulf of Mexico. We discontinued operations at the Houston, Texas facility in 2017 and are currently not marketing the asset for sale. We also own warehouse distribution facilities in Savage, Minnesota; Rosemount, Minnesota; Pekin, Illinois; and Henderson, Kentucky. We anticipate idling of the Savage, Minnesota facility in the first quarter of 2020.
In addition to the facilities that we own, our U.S. distribution operations also include leased distribution space or contractual throughput agreements in other key geographical areas including California, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas and Wisconsin.
Our Canadian customers include independent dealers and national accounts. We also lease and own warehouse facilities in Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba in Canada.
International
Outside of the United States and Canada, we market our Phosphates segment’s products through our Mosaic Fertilizantes segment and our China and India distribution businesses, as well as a salesforce focused on geographies outside of North America. The countries that account for the largest amount of our phosphates sales outside the United States, by volume, are Brazil, Canada, Australia and Argentina.
Our sales outside of the United States and Canada of potash products are made through Canpotex. Canpotex sales are allocated between its members based on peaking capacity. In 2019, our share of Canpotex sales remained at 36.2%.
Our potash exports from Carlsbad are sold through our own sales force. We also market our Potash segment’s products through our Mosaic Fertilizantes segment and our China and India distribution businesses, which acquire potash primarily through Canpotex. The countries that account for the largest amount of international potash sales, by volume, are Brazil, China, Indonesia, India and Malaysia.
To service the needs of our customers, our Mosaic Fertilizantes segment includes a network of strategically located sales offices, crop nutrient blending and bagging facilities, port terminals and warehouse distribution facilities that we own and operate. The blending and bagging facilities primarily produce Blends from phosphate, potash and nitrogen. The average product mix in our Blends (by volume) contains approximately 15% nitrogen, 50% phosphate, and 35% potash, although this mix differs based on seasonal and other factors. All of our production in Brazil is consumed within the country.

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Our India and China distribution businesses also includes a network of strategically located sales offices, crop nutrient blending and bagging facilities, port terminals and warehouse distribution facilities. These businesses serve primarily as a sales outlet for our North American Phosphates production, as well as additional phosphate production we market from our MWSPC joint venture, both for resale and as an input for Blends. Our Potash segment also has historically furnished the majority of the raw materials needs for the production of Blends, primarily via Canpotex, and is expected to continue to do so in the future.
Other Products
With a strong brand position in a multi-billion dollar animal feed ingredients global market, our Phosphates segment supplies animal feed ingredients for poultry and livestock to customers in North America, Latin America and Asia. Our potash sales to non-agricultural users are primarily to large industrial accounts and the animal feed industry. Additionally, in North America, we sell potash for de-icing and as a water softener regenerant, while recently concluding to exit the fluorosilicic acid business used for water fluoridation. In Brazil, we also sell phosphogypsum.
COMPETITION
Because crop nutrients are global commodities available from numerous sources, crop nutrition companies compete primarily on the basis of delivered price. Other competitive factors include product quality, cost and availability of raw materials, customer service, plant efficiency and availability of product. As a result, markets for our products are highly competitive. We compete with a broad range of domestic and international producers, including farmer cooperatives, subsidiaries of larger companies, and independent crop nutrient companies. Foreign competitors often have access to cheaper raw materials, are required to comply with less stringent regulatory requirements or are owned or subsidized by governments and, as a result, may have cost advantages over North American companies. We believe that our extensive North American and international production and distribution system provides us with a competitive advantage by allowing us to achieve economies of scale, transportation and storage efficiencies, and obtain market intelligence. Also, we believe our performance products, such as MicroEssentials®, provide us a competitive advantage with customers in North and South America.
Unlike many of our competitors, we have our own distribution system to sell phosphate- and potash-based crop nutrients and animal feed ingredients, whether produced by us or by other third parties, around the globe. In North America, we have one of the largest and most strategically located distribution systems for crop nutrients, including warehouse facilities in key agricultural regions. We also have an extensive network of distribution facilities internationally, including in the key growth regions of South America and Asia, with port terminals, warehouses, and blending plants in Brazil, Paraguay, China, and India. Our global presence allows us to efficiently serve customers in approximately 40 countries.
Phosphates Segment
Our Phosphates segment operates in a highly competitive global market. Among the competitors in the global phosphate industry are domestic and foreign companies, as well as foreign government-supported producers in Asia and North Africa. Phosphate producers compete primarily based on price, as well as product quality, service and innovation. Major integrated producers of feed phosphates are located in the United States, Europe and China. Many smaller producers are located in emerging markets around the world. Many of these smaller producers are not miners of phosphate rock or manufacturers of phosphoric acid and are required to purchase this material on the open market.
We believe that we are a low-cost integrated producer of phosphate-based crop nutrients, due in part to our scale, vertical integration and strategic network of production and distribution facilities. As the world’s largest producer of concentrated phosphates, as well as the second largest miner of phosphate rock in the world and the largest in the United States, we maintain an advantage over some competitors as the scale of operations effectively reduces production costs per unit. We are also vertically integrated to captively supply one of our key inputs, phosphate rock, to our phosphate production facilities. We believe that our position as an integrated producer of phosphate rock provides us with a significant cost advantage over competitors that are non-integrated phosphate producers. In addition, our ownership in the Miski Mayo Mine allows us to supplement our overall phosphate rock needs. We also sell a portion of Miski Mayo production to third parties. MWSPC enables us to not only further diversify our sources of phosphates but also improve our access to key agricultural countries in Asia and the Middle East.
We produce ammonia at our Faustina, Louisiana concentrates plant in quantities sufficient to meet approximately one third of our total ammonia needs in North America. With no captive ammonia production supplying all our Florida operations, we

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are subject to significant volatility in our purchase price of ammonia from world markets. The CF Ammonia Supply Agreement provides us with a long-term supply of a substantial volume of ammonia at prices based on the price of natural gas, and is intended to lessen this volatility.
With our dedicated sulfur transportation barges and tugs, and our 50% ownership interest in Gulf Sulphur Services, we are also well-positioned to source an adequate, flexible and cost-effective supply of sulfur to our Florida and Louisiana phosphate production facilities, our third key input. We believe that our investments in sulfur assets continue to afford us a competitive advantage compared to other producers in cost and access to sulfur.
With facilities in both central Florida and Louisiana, we are logistically well positioned to fulfill our needs at very competitive prices. Those multiple production points also afford us the flexibility to optimally balance supply and demand.
Potash Segment
Potash is a commodity available from several geographical regions around the world and, consequently, the market is highly competitive. Through our participation in Canpotex, we compete outside of North America against various independent and state-owned potash producers. Canpotex has substantial expertise and logistical resources for the international distribution of potash, including strategically located export assets in Portland, Oregon, St. John, New Brunswick, and Vancouver, British Columbia. Our principal methods of competition with respect to the sale of potash include product pricing, and offering consistent, high-quality products and superior service. We believe that our potash cost structure is competitive in the industry and should improve as we continue to complete our potash expansion projects.
Mosaic Fertilizantes
The Mosaic Fertilizantes segment operates in a highly competitive market in Brazil. We compete with a broad range of domestic and international producers, including farmer cooperatives, subsidiaries of larger companies, and independent crop nutrient companies. We believe that having a vertically integrated business, internationally but also in Brazil, provides us with a competitive advantage by allowing us to achieve economies of scale, transportation and storage efficiencies, and obtain market intelligence.
Mosaic Fertilizantes has a wide variety of customers including farmers, blenders, and other local distributors. We compete with local businesses that offer a wide variety of products that are available from many sources. We believe the strategic location of our mines and chemical plants, in close proximity to our customers, and the benefit of our own distribution network, gives us an advantage over most of our competitors. The vertical integration of our wholly-owned production, along with our distribution network, as well as our focus on product innovation and customer solutions, position us with an advantage over many of our competitors. We have a strong brand in Brazil. In addition to having access to our own production, our distribution activities have the capability to supply a wide variety of crop nutrients to our dealer/farmer customer base.
FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND
Our results of operations historically have reflected the effects of several external factors which are beyond our control and have in the past produced significant downward and upward swings in operating results. Revenues are highly dependent upon conditions in the agriculture industry and can be affected by, among other factors: crop conditions; changes in agricultural production practices; worldwide economic conditions, including the increasing world population, household incomes, and demand for more protein-rich food, particularly in developing regions such as China, India, and Latin America; changing demand for biofuels; variability in commodity pricing; governmental policies; the level of inventories in the crop nutrient distribution channels; customer expectations about farmer economics, future crop nutrient prices and availability, and transportation costs, among other matters; market trends in raw material costs; market prices for crop nutrients; and weather. Furthermore, our crop nutrients business is seasonal to the extent farmers and agricultural enterprises in the markets in which we compete purchase more crop nutrient products during the spring and fall. The international scope of our business, spanning the northern and southern hemispheres, reduces to some extent the seasonal impact on our business. The degree of seasonality of our business can change significantly from year to year due to conditions in the agricultural industry and other factors. The seasonal nature of our businesses requires significant working capital for inventory in advance of the planting seasons.
We sell products throughout the world. Unfavorable changes in trade protection laws, policies and measures, government policies and other regulatory requirements affecting trade; unexpected changes in tax and trade treaties; strengthening or

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weakening of foreign economies as well as political relations with the United States may cause sales trends to customers in one or more foreign countries to differ from sales trends in the United States.
Our international operations are subject to risks from changes in foreign currencies, or government policy, which can affect local farmer economics.
OTHER MATTERS
Employees
We had approximately 12,600 employees as of December 31, 2019, consisting of approximately 9,100 salaried and 3,500 hourly employees. There are also approximately 700 hourly employees at the Miski Mayo mine, of which we own 75% and its results are consolidated within our results of operations.
Labor Relations
As of December 31, 2019: 
We had ten collective bargaining agreements with unions covering 87% of our hourly employees in the U.S. and Canada. Of these employees, approximately 12% are covered under collective bargaining agreements scheduled to expire in 2020.
Agreements with 34 unions covered all employees in Brazil, representing 87% of our international employees. More than one agreement may govern our relations with each of these unions. In general, the agreements are renewable on an annual basis.
Failure to renew any of our union agreements could result in a strike or labor stoppage that could have a material adverse effect on our operations. However, we have not experienced significant work stoppage in many years and historically have had good labor relations.
Information Available on our Website
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments thereto, filed with the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder are made available free of charge on our website, (www.mosaicco.com), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. These reports are also available on the SEC's website (www.sec.gov). The information contained on our website and the SEC's website is not being incorporated in this report.
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Information regarding our executive officers as of February 20, 2020 is set forth below:
Name
 
Age
 
Position
Bruce M. Bodine Jr.
 
48

 
Senior Vice President - Phosphates
Clint C. Freeland
 
51

 
Senior Vice President - Chief Financial Officer
Mark J. Isaacson
 
57

 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Chrisopher A. Lewis
 
57

 
Senior Vice President - Human Resources
Richard N. McLellan
 
63

 
Senior Vice President - Commercial
James “Joc” C. O’Rourke
 
59

 
Chief Executive Officer, President and Director
Walter F. Precourt III
 
55

 
Senior Vice President - Strategy and Growth
Corrine D. Ricard
 
56

 
Senior Vice President - Mosaic Fertilizantes
Karen A. Swager
 
49

 
Senior Vice President - Potash
Bruce M. Bodine Jr. Mr. Bodine was named Senior Vice President - Phosphates and, also provides executive oversight for the corporate procurement organization effective as of January 1, 2019. Prior to that, he served as our Senior Vice President - Potash beginning in June 2016, as our Vice President - Potash (from April to May 2016), prior to that, as our Vice President -

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Supply Chain (from August 2015 to March 2016), prior to that as our Vice President - Operations Business Development (from October 2014 to August 2015), prior to that as Vice President - Operations for our Esterhazy and Colonsay potash production facilities (from July 2013 to October 2014), prior to that as the General Manager, Esterhazy (from September 2012 to June 2013) and prior to that as the General Manager, Four Corners (from March 2010 to August 2012). Before that, Mr. Bodine held various plant and mine development management positions in the Phosphates segment beginning with Mosaic’s formation in 2004. Mr. Bodine serves as a director of MVM Resources International, B.V., the general partner of Compañia Minera Miski Mayo S.R.L., the joint venture that operates the mines in Peru.
Clint C. Freeland. Mr. Freeland was named Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in June 2018. Prior to joining Mosaic, Mr. Freeland served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Dynegy Inc. from July 2011 until Dynegy’s merger with Vistra Energy Corp. in April 2018. Mr. Freeland was responsible for Dynegy’s financial affairs, including finance and accounting, treasury, tax and banking and credit agency relationships. In November 2011, as part of a reorganization of its subsidiaries, certain of Dynegy’s affiliates filed voluntary petitions for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code (the “Code”) and, in July 2012, Dynegy filed a voluntary petition for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the Code. Dynegy emerged from Bankruptcy in October 2012. Prior to joining Dynegy, Mr. Freeland served as Senior Vice President, Strategy & Financial Structure of NRG Energy, Inc. from February 2009 to July 2011. Mr. Freeland served as NRG’s Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from February 2008 to February 2009 and its Vice President and Treasurer from April 2006 to February 2008. Prior to joining NRG, Mr. Freeland held various key financial roles within the energy sector.
Mark J. Isaacson. Mr. Isaacson was named Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary in August 2015 and previously served as our Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since August 2014. Mr. Isaacson joined Mosaic upon its formation in 2004 as its Chief Phosphates Counsel before being promoted to Vice President, Associate General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer in 2011 and to Vice President, Acting General Counsel and Corporate Secretary in June 2014. Prior to joining Mosaic, Mr. Isaacson worked for 15 years at Cargill, Inc., where he served as Senior Attorney for a number of its business units.
Christopher A. Lewis. Mr. Lewis was named Senior Vice President—Human Resources in June 2019. Prior to joining Mosaic, Mr. Lewis held the role of Vice President, Project Execution for Spectra Energy Corporation’s merger into Calgary, Alberta, Canada-based Enbridge, Inc. where he led construction of the companies’ energy assets throughout North America, as well as a synergy capture program post acquisition. Prior to that role, Lewis held roles at DCP Midstream, LLC, a natural gas company based in Denver, where he started as the head of Human Resources while the company was formed as a spinoff from Duke Energy in 2007. From 2010 to 2016, he was DCP’s Chief Corporate Officer, a multi-functional role that included leadership of the human resources function. Earlier in his career, Lewis held regional and global senior human resources positions at Thomson Multimedia (formerly RCA, GE consumer electronics) and DHL, Inc.
Richard N. McLellan. Mr. McLellan was appointed Senior Vice President - Commercial effective November 15, 2019. Prior to that time, he served as Senior Vice President - Mosaic Fertilizantes since May 2018, Senior Vice President - Brazil from February 2017 to May 2018, Senior Vice President - Commercial from April 2007 to February 2017, and before that as our Vice President - North American Sales since December 2005 and as Country Manager for our (and, prior to the Combination, Cargill’s) Brazilian crop nutrient business since November 2002. Mr. McLellan joined Cargill in 1989 and held various roles in its Canadian and U.S. operations, including grain, retail and wholesale crop nutrient distribution.
James “Joc” C. O’Rourke. Mr. O’Rourke was promoted to President and Chief Executive Officer effective in August 2015. Previously, he served as Executive Vice President - Operations and Chief Operating Officer since August 2012 and before that as Executive Vice President - Operations since January 2009. Prior to joining Mosaic, Mr. O’Rourke was President, Australia Pacific for Barrick Gold Corporation, the largest gold producer in Australia, since May 2006, where he was responsible for the Australia Pacific Business Unit, consisting of ten gold and copper mines in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Before that, Mr. O’Rourke was Executive General Manager in Australia and Managing Director of Placer Dome Asia Pacific Ltd., the second largest gold producer in Australia, from December 2004, where he was responsible for the Australia Business Unit, consisting of five gold and copper mines; and General Manager of Western Australia Operations for Iluka Resources Ltd., the world’s largest zircon and second largest titanium producer, from September 2003, where he was responsible for six mining and concentrating operations and two mineral separation/synthetic rutile refineries. Mr. O’Rourke had previously held various management, engineering and other roles in the mining industry in Canada and Australia since 1984. Mr. O’Rourke has served on our Board of Directors since May 2015 and is also a director of The Toro Company.

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Walter F. Precourt III. Mr. Precourt was named Senior Vice President - Strategy and Growth effective January 1, 2019, and has provided executive oversight for the Environmental, Health and Safety organization since June 2016. He previously served as Senior Vice President - Phosphates and provided executive oversight for the corporate procurement organization from June 2016 until January 1, 2019, as our Senior Vice President - Potash Operations from May 2012 to June 2016, and before that he led our Environment, Health and Safety organization since joining Mosaic in 2009. Prior to joining Mosaic, Mr. Precourt was employed by cement and mineral component producer Holcim (U.S.) where he initially led its safety transformation and later became Vice President of Environment and Government Affairs. Mr. Precourt started his career at The Dow Chemical Company where he served in a variety of roles in Operations, Technology, Capital Project Management, and Environmental, Health and Safety. Mr. Precourt served as a director and was the past Chairman of the Board of the Saskatchewan Potash Producers Association and was a director of Fertilizer Canada.
Corrine D. Ricard. Ms. Ricard was appointed Senior Vice President - Mosaic Fertilizantes effective November 15, 2019. Prior to that she served as Senior Vice President - Commercial since February 2017, Senior Vice President - Human Resources from April 2012 to February 2017, and before that she held a number of other leadership positions at Mosaic, including Vice President - International Distribution, Vice President - Business Development and Vice President - Supply Chain. Prior to Mosaic’s formation, Ms. Ricard worked for Cargill in various roles, including risk management, supply chain and commodity trading.
Karen A. Swager. Ms. Swager was named Senior Vice President - Potash on January 1, 2019. Previously, Ms. Swager held leadership positions at Mosaic, including Vice President - Minerals, Vice President - Mining Operations and General Manager in our Phosphates business. She also led the mine planning and strategy group for the Phosphates business.
Our executive officers are generally elected to serve until their respective successors are elected and qualified or until their earlier death, resignation or removal. No “family relationships,” as that term is defined in Item 401(d) of Regulation S-K, exist among any of the listed officers or between any such officer and any member of our board of directors.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of the risks and uncertainties described below.
Our Esterhazy mine has had an inflow of salt saturated brine for more than 30 years.
Since December 1985, we have had inflows of salt saturated brine into our Esterhazy, Saskatchewan mine. Over the past century, several potash mines experiencing water inflow problems have flooded. In order to control brine inflows at Esterhazy, we have incurred, and will continue to incur, expenditures, certain of which, due to their nature, have been capitalized, while others have been charged to expense.
At various times, we experience changing amounts and patterns of brine inflows at the Esterhazy mine. Periodically, some of these inflows have exceeded available pumping capacity. If that were to continue for several months without abatement, it could exceed our available storage capacity and ability to effectively manage the brine inflow. This could adversely affect production at the Esterhazy mine. The brine inflow is variable, resulting in both net inflows (the rate of inflow is more than the amount we are pumping out of the mine) and net outflows (when we are pumping more brine out of the mine than the rate of inflow). There can be no assurance that: 
our pumping, surface storage, underground storage or injection well capacities for brine will continue to be sufficient, or that the pumping, grouting and other measures that we use to manage the inflows at the Esterhazy mine will continue to be effective;
there will not be a disruption in the supply of calcium chloride, which is a primary material used to reduce or prevent the flow of incoming brine;
our estimates of the volumes of net inflows or net outflows of brine, or storage capacity for brine at the Esterhazy mine, are accurate;
the volumes of the brine inflows will not fluctuate from time to time, the rate of the brine inflows will not be greater than our prior experience or current assumptions, changes in inflow patterns will not adversely affect our ability to locate and manage the inflows, or that any such fluctuations, increases or changes would not be material; and
the expenditures to control the inflows will be consistent with our prior experience or future estimates.

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From time to time, new or improved technology becomes available to facilitate our management of the inflows, such as when horizontal drilling techniques were developed and refined. Taking advantage of these new or improved technologies may require significant capital expenditures and/or may increase our costs of management.
Due to the ongoing brine inflow at Esterhazy, subject to exceptions that are limited in scope and amount, we are unable to obtain insurance coverage for underground operations for water incursion problems. Our mines at Colonsay, Saskatchewan, and Carlsbad, New Mexico, are also subject to the risks of inflow of water as a result of our shaft mining operations.
It is possible that the costs of remedial efforts at Esterhazy may further increase in the future and that such an increase could be material, or, in the extreme scenario, that the brine inflows, risk to employees or management costs may increase to a level which would cause us to change our mining processes or abandon the mines. See the “Key Factors that can Affect Results of Operations and Financial Condition” and “Potash Net Sales and Gross Margin” sections of our Management’s Analysis, which sections are incorporated herein by reference, for a discussion of costs, risks and other information relating to the brine inflows.
Our operating results are highly dependent upon and fluctuate based upon business and economic conditions and governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry in which we or our customers operate. These factors are outside of our control and may significantly affect our profitability.
Our operating results are highly dependent upon business and economic conditions and governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry, which we cannot control. The agricultural products business can be affected by a number of factors, the most important of which are: 
weather and field conditions (particularly during periods of traditionally high crop nutrients consumption);
quantities of crop nutrients imported and exported;
current and projected inventories and prices, which are heavily influenced by U.S. exports and world-wide markets; and
Governmental policies, including farm and biofuel policies, which may directly or indirectly influence the number of acres planted, the level of inventories, the mix of crops planted or crop prices or otherwise negatively affect our operating results.
International market conditions, which are also outside of our control, may also significantly influence our operating results. The international market for crop nutrients is influenced by such factors as the relative value of the U.S. dollar and its impact upon the cost of importing crop nutrients, foreign agricultural policies, including subsidy policies, the existence of, or changes in, import or foreign currency exchange barriers in certain foreign markets, changes in the hard currency demands of certain countries and other regulatory policies of foreign governments, as well as the laws and policies of the United States affecting foreign trade and investment.
Our most important products are global commodities, and we face intense global competition from other crop nutrient producers that can affect our prices and volumes.
Our most important products are concentrated phosphate crop nutrients, including diammonium phosphate, or DAP, monoammonium phosphate, or MAP, MicroEssentials® and muriate of potash, or MOP. We sell most of our DAP, MAP and MOP in the form of global commodities. Our sales of these products face intense global competition from other crop nutrient producers.
Changes in competitors’ production or shifts in their marketing focus have in the past significantly affected both the prices at which we sell our products and the volumes that we sell, and are likely to continue to do so in the future.
Competitors are more likely to increase their production at times when world agricultural and crop nutrient markets are strong, and to focus on sales into regions where their returns are highest. Increases in the global supply of DAP, MAP and MOP or competitors’ increased sales into regions in which we have significant sales could adversely affect our prices and volumes.
Competitors and potential new entrants in the markets for both concentrated phosphate crop nutrients and potash have in recent years expanded capacity, or begun, or announced plans, to expand capacity or build new facilities. The extent to which current global or local economic and financial conditions, changes in global or local economic and financial conditions, or other factors may cause delays or cancellation of some of these ongoing or planned projects, or result in the acceleration of existing or new projects, is unclear. In addition, certain of our products sold to China may be subject to tariffs due to ongoing trade tensions between China and the United States. The level of exports by Chinese producers of concentrated phosphate

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crop nutrients depends to a significant extent on Chinese government actions to curb exports through, among other measures, prohibitive export taxes at times when the government believes it desirable to assure ample domestic supplies of concentrated phosphate crop nutrients to stimulate grain and oilseed production.
In addition, the other member of Canpotex is among our competitors who may, in the future, expand its potash production capacity. Each Canpotex member's respective shares of Canpotex sales is based upon that member's respective proven peaking capacity for producing potash. When a Canpotex member expands its production capacity, the new capacity is added to that member’s proven peaking capacity based on a proving run at the maximum production level. Alternatively, Canpotex members may elect to rely on an independent engineering firm and approved protocols to calculate their proven peaking capacity. Antitrust and competition laws prohibit the members of Canpotex from coordinating their production decisions, including the timing of their respective proving runs. Worldwide potash production levels during these proving runs could exceed then-current market demand, resulting in an oversupply of potash and lower potash prices.
We cannot accurately predict when or whether members’ or new entrants’ ongoing or planned capacity expansions or new facilities will be completed, the timing of competitors’ tests to prove peaking capacity for Canpotex purposes, the cumulative effect of these and recently completed expansions, the impact of tariffs on exports to China, or future decisions by the Chinese government on the level of Chinese exports of concentrated phosphate crop nutrients, or the effects of these or other actions by our competitors on the prices for our products or the volumes that we will be able to sell. The effects of any of these events occurring could be materially adverse to our results of operations.
Our crop nutrients and other products are subject to price and demand volatility resulting from periodic imbalances of supply and demand, which may cause our results of operations to fluctuate.
Historically, the market for crop nutrients has been cyclical, and prices and demand for our products have fluctuated to a significant extent, particularly for phosphates and, to a lesser extent, potash. Periods of high demand, increasing profits and high capacity utilization tend to lead to new plant investment and increased production in the industry. This growth increases supply until the market is over-saturated, leading to declining prices and declining capacity utilization until the cycle repeats.
As a result, crop nutrient prices and volumes have been, and are expected to continue to be, volatile. This price and volume volatility may cause our results of operations to fluctuate and potentially deteriorate. The price at which we sell our crop nutrient products and our sales volumes could fall in the event of industry oversupply conditions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In contrast, high prices may lead our customers and farmers to delay purchasing decisions in anticipation of future lower prices, thus impacting our sales volumes.
Due to reduced market demand, depressed agricultural economic conditions and other factors, we and our predecessors have at various times suspended or curtailed production at some of our facilities. The extent to which we utilize available capacity at our facilities will cause fluctuations in our results of operations, as we will incur costs for any temporary or indefinite shutdowns of our facilities and lower sales tend to lead to higher fixed costs as a percentage of sales.
Variations in crop nutrient application rates may exacerbate the cyclicality of the crop nutrient markets.
Farmers are able to maximize their economic return by applying optimum amounts of crop nutrients. Farmers’ decisions about the application rate for each crop nutrient, or to forego application of a crop nutrient, particularly phosphate and potash, vary from year to year depending on a number of factors, including, among others, crop prices, crop nutrient and other crop input costs or the level of the crop nutrient remaining in the soil following the previous harvest. Farmers are more likely to increase application rates when crop prices are relatively high, crop nutrient and other crop input costs are relatively low and the level of the crop nutrient remaining in the soil is relatively low. Conversely, farmers are likely to reduce or forego application when farm economics are weak or declining or the level of the crop nutrients remaining in the soil is relatively high. This variability in application rates can materially accentuate the cyclicality in prices for our products and our sales volumes.
Our crop nutrient business is seasonal, which may result in carrying significant amounts of inventory and seasonal variations in working capital, and our inability to predict future seasonal crop nutrient demand accurately may result in excess inventory or product shortages.
The use of crop nutrients is seasonal. Farmers tend to apply crop nutrients during two short application periods, the strongest one in the spring, before planting, and the other in the fall, after harvest. As a result, the strongest demand for our products typically occurs during the Spring planting season, with a second period of strong demand following the fall harvest. In contrast, we and other crop nutrient producers generally produce our products throughout the year. As a result, we and/or our customers generally build inventories during the low demand periods of the year in order to ensure timely product availability

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during the peak sales seasons. The seasonality of crop nutrient demand results in our sales volumes and net sales typically being the highest during the North American spring season and our working capital requirements typically being the highest just prior to the start of the Spring season. Our quarterly financial results can vary significantly from one year to the next due to weather-related shifts in planting schedules and purchasing patterns.
If seasonal demand exceeds our projections, we will not have enough product and our customers may acquire products from our competitors, which would negatively impact our profitability. If seasonal demand is less than we expect, we will be left with excess inventory and higher working capital and liquidity requirements. The degree of seasonality of our business can change significantly from year to year due to conditions in the agricultural industry and other factors.
The distribution channels for crop nutrients have capacity to build significant levels of inventories, which can adversely affect our sales volumes and selling prices.
In order to balance the production needs of crop nutrient producers with farmers’ seasonal use of crop nutrients, crop nutrient distribution channels need to have the capacity to build significant inventories. The build-up of inventories in the distribution channels can become excessive, particularly during the cyclical periods of low demand that have been typical in the crop nutrient industry. When there are excessive inventories in the distribution channel, our sales volumes and selling prices can be adversely impacted, even during periods in which farmers’ use of crop nutrients may remain strong.
Changes in transportation costs can affect our sales volumes and selling prices.
The cost of delivery is a significant factor in the total cost to customers and farmers of crop nutrients. As a result, changes in transportation costs, or in customer expectations about them, can affect our sales volumes and prices.
Customer expectations about future events can have a significant effect on the demand for our products. These expectations can significantly affect our sales volumes and selling prices.
Customer expectations about future events have had and are expected to continue to have an effect on the demand and prices for crop nutrients. Future events that may be affected by customer expectations include, among others: 
Customer expectations about future crop nutrient prices and availability.
Customer expectations about prices and availability of crop nutrients have had and are expected to continue to have an effect on the demand for crop nutrients. When customers anticipate increasing crop nutrient prices, customers tend to accumulate inventories before the anticipated price increases. This can result in a lag in our realization of rising market prices for our products. Conversely, customers tend to delay their purchases when they anticipate future prices for crop nutrients will stabilize or decrease, adversely affecting our sales volumes and selling prices. Customer expectations about availability of crop nutrients can have similar effects on sales volumes and prices. 
Customer expectations about future farmer economics.
Similarly, customer expectations about future farmer economics have had and are expected to continue to have an effect on the demand for crop nutrients. When customers anticipate improving farmer economics, customers tend to accumulate crop nutrient inventories in anticipation of increasing sales volumes and selling prices. This can result in a lag in our realization of rising market prices for our products. Conversely, when customers anticipate declining farmer economics, customers tend to reduce the level of their purchases of crop nutrients, adversely affecting our sales volumes and selling prices. 
Changes in customer expectations about transportation costs.
As discussed above, increasing transportation costs effectively increase customers’ and farmers’ costs for crop nutrients and can reduce the amount we realize for our sales. Expectations of decreasing transportation costs can result in customers and farmers anticipating that they may be able to decrease their costs by delaying purchases. As a result, changes in customer expectations about transportation costs can affect our sales volumes and prices.
We conduct our operations primarily through a limited number of key production and distribution facilities. Any disruption at any one of these facilities could have a material adverse impact on our business. The risk of material disruption increases when demand for our products results in high operating rates at our facilities.
We conduct our operations through a limited number of key production and distribution facilities. These facilities include our phosphate mines and concentrates plants; our potash mines; and the ports and other distribution facilities through which we,

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Canpotex and any joint ventures in which we participate, conduct our respective businesses, as well as other commercial arrangements with unrelated third parties. Any disruption of operations at any one of these facilities has the possibility of significantly affecting our production or our ability to distribute our products. Operating these facilities at high rates during periods of high demand for our products increases the risk of mechanical or structural failures, decreases the time available for routine maintenance and increases the impact on our operating results from any disruption. A disruption of operations at any one of our key facilities could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
Examples of the types of events that could result in a disruption at one of these facilities include: adverse weather; strikes or other work stoppages; deliberate, malicious acts, including acts of terrorism; political and economic instability; cyber attacks; risks associated with our international operations; changes in permitting, financial assurance or other environmental, health and safety laws or other changes in the regulatory environment in which we operate; legal and regulatory proceedings; our relationships with the other member of Canpotex and any joint ventures in which we participate and their or our exit from participation in Canpotex or any such joint ventures; other changes in our commercial arrangements with unrelated third parties; brine inflows at our Esterhazy, Saskatchewan, mine or our other shaft mines; mechanical failure and accidents or other failures occurring in the course of operating activities, including at our gypstacks, clay settling areas and tailing dams; and other factors.
Insurance market conditions, our loss experience and other factors affect the insurance coverage that we carry, and we are not fully insured against all potential hazards and risks incident to our business. As a result, our insurance coverage may not adequately cover our losses.
We maintain property, business interruption and casualty insurance policies, but we are not insured against all potential hazards and risks incident to our business. We are subject to various self-retentions and deductibles under these insurance policies. As a result of market conditions, our loss experience and other factors, our premiums, self-retentions and deductibles for insurance policies can increase substantially and, in some instances, certain insurance may become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. In addition, significantly increased costs could lead us to decide to reduce, or possibly eliminate, coverage. As a result, a disruption of operations at one of our key facilities or a significant casualty could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
Important raw materials and energy used in our businesses in the past have been and may in the future be the subject of volatile pricing. Changes in the price of our raw materials could have a material impact on our businesses.
Natural gas, ammonia and sulfur are key raw materials used in the manufacture of phosphate crop nutrient products. Natural gas is used as both a chemical feedstock and a fuel to produce anhydrous ammonia, which is a raw material used in the production of concentrated phosphate products. Natural gas is also a significant energy source used in the potash solution mining process. From time to time, our profitability has been and may in the future be impacted by the price and availability of these raw materials and other energy costs. Because most of our products are commodities, there can be no assurance that we will be able to pass through increased costs to our customers. A significant increase in the price of natural gas, ammonia, sulfur or energy costs that is not recovered through an increase in the price of our related crop nutrients products could have a material adverse impact on our business. In addition, under our long-term CF Ammonia Supply Agreement we have agreed to purchase approximately 545,000 to 725,000 tonnes of ammonia per year during a term that may extend until December 31, 2032, and at a price to be determined by a formula based on the prevailing price of U.S. natural gas. If the price of natural gas rises or the market price for ammonia falls outside of the range anticipated at execution of this agreement, we may not realize a cost benefit from the natural gas-based pricing over the term of the agreement, or the cost of our ammonia under the agreement could become a competitive disadvantage. At times, we have paid considerably more for ammonia under the agreement than what we would have paid had we purchased it in the spot market.
During periods when the price for concentrated phosphates is falling because of falling raw material prices, we may experience a lag in realizing the benefits of the falling raw materials prices. This lag can adversely affect our gross margins and profitability.
During some periods, changes in market prices for raw materials can lead to changes in the global market prices for concentrated phosphate crop nutrients. In particular, the global market prices for concentrated phosphate crop nutrients can be affected by changes in the market prices for sulfur, ammonia, phosphate rock or phosphoric acid raw materials. Increasing market prices for these raw materials tend to put upward pressure on the selling prices for concentrated phosphate crop nutrients, and decreasing market prices for these raw materials tend to put downward pressure on selling prices for concentrated phosphate crop nutrients. When the market prices for these raw materials falls rapidly, the selling prices for our concentrated phosphate crop nutrients can fall more rapidly than we are able to consume our raw material inventory that we

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purchased or committed to purchase in the past at higher prices. As a result, our costs may not fall as rapidly as the selling prices of our products. Until we are able to consume the higher-priced raw materials, our gross margins and profitability can be adversely affected.
During periods when the prices for our products are falling because of falling raw material prices, we could be required to write-down the value of our inventories. Any such write-down could adversely affect our results of operations and the value of our assets.
We carry our inventories at the lower of cost or market. In periods when the market prices for our products are falling rapidly, including in response to falling market prices for raw materials, it is possible that we could be required to write-down the value of our inventories if market prices fall below our costs. Any such write-down could adversely affect our results of operations and the value of our assets. Any such effect could be material.
Our estimates of future selling prices reflect in part the purchase commitments we have from our customers. As a result, defaults on these existing purchase commitments because of the global or local economic and financial conditions or for other reasons could adversely affect our estimates of future selling prices and require additional inventory write-downs.
In the event of a disruption to existing terminaling facilities or transportation for our products or raw materials, alternative terminaling facilities or transportation might not be available on a timely basis or have sufficient capacity to fully serve all of our customers or facilities.
Terminaling facilities and transportation include the ports and other distribution facilities through which we, Canpotex and the joint ventures in which we participate, conduct our respective businesses; transportation and related equipment arrangements; and other commercial arrangements with unrelated third parties.
Examples of the types of events that could result in a disruption of terminaling facilities or transportation include: adverse weather; strikes or other work stoppages; deliberate, malicious acts, including cyber attacks; political and economic instability and other risks associated with our international operations; changes in permitting, financial assurance or other environmental, health and safety laws or other changes in the regulatory environment in which we operate; legal and regulatory proceedings; our relationships with the other member of Canpotex and any joint ventures in which we participate and their or our exit from participation in Canpotex or any such joint ventures; other changes in our commercial arrangements with unrelated third parties; accidents occurring in the course of operating activities; lack of truck, rail, barge or ship transportation; and other factors. We discuss a number of these examples in more detail throughout this Risk Factors section. Such disruption could adversely impact our business and financial results of operations.
We are subject to risks associated with our international sales and operations, which could negatively affect our sales to customers in foreign countries as well as our operations and assets in foreign countries. Some of these factors may also make it less attractive to distribute cash generated by our operations outside the United States to our stockholders, or to utilize cash generated by our operations in one country to fund our operations or repayments of indebtedness in another country or to support other corporate purposes.
For 2019, we derived approximately 74% of our net sales from customers located outside of the United States. As a result, we are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties relating to international sales and operations, including: 
difficulties and costs associated with complying with a wide variety of complex laws, treaties and regulations;
unexpected changes in regulatory environments;
increased government ownership and regulation of the economy in the countries we serve;
political and economic instability, including the possibility for civil unrest, inflation and adverse economic conditions resulting from governmental attempts to reduce inflation, such as imposition of higher interest rates and wage and price controls;
unpredictable tax audit practices of various governments;
nationalization of properties by foreign governments;
the imposition of tariffs, exchange controls, trade barriers or other restrictions, or government-imposed increases in the cost of resources and materials necessary for the conduct of our operations or the completion of strategic initiatives, including with respect to our joint ventures; and
currency exchange rate fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies, particularly the Brazilian real and the Canadian dollar.

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The occurrence of any of the above in the countries in which we operate or elsewhere could jeopardize or affect our ability to transact business there and could adversely affect our revenues and operating results and the value of our assets located outside of the United States.
In addition, tax regulations and tax audit practices, currency exchange controls and other restrictions may also make it economically unattractive to: 
distribute cash generated by our operations outside the United States to our stockholders; or
utilize cash generated by our operations in one country to fund our operations or repayments of indebtedness in another country or to support other corporate purposes.
Changes in tax laws or regulations or their interpretation, or exposure to additional tax liabilities, could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to taxes, including income taxes, resource taxes and royalties, and non-income based taxes in the United States, Canada, China, Brazil and other countries where we operate.  Changes in tax laws or regulations or their interpretation could result in higher taxes, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
In 2018, U.S. federal tax law changes took effect. This was a significant change to the U.S. tax system of taxation resulting in numerous areas open to interpretation given the newness and breadth of changes to the rules. As a result, risk exists related to developing interpretation and application of the new rules that could result in higher taxes which could materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to periodic audits by various levels of tax authorities in all countries where we have meaningful operations. The due process, audit and appeal practices and procedures of such authorities may vary significantly by jurisdiction, may be unpredictable (and unreliable) in nature and may result in significant risk to us. For various reasons, some governments may issue significant reassessments on audit based positions not fully grounded in law or fact, even though, upon disputing the reassessments, a great many are overturned on administrative appeal and through the court system. Certain systems involve tax litigation as a common practice. In certain countries, there are requirements to pay a reassessment (even though the matter has not been finally decided by the tax administration or a court of law) while the taxpayer has a well-supported objection and appeals administratively or in court. This may result in tying up significant funds and/or creating adverse treasury and credit risks that may interrupt, impede or otherwise materially affect our business operations.
Our assets outside of North America are located in countries with volatile conditions, which could subject us and our assets to significant risks.
We are a global business with substantial assets located outside of the United States and Canada. Our operations in Brazil, China, India and Paraguay are a fundamental part of our business. We have a majority interest in the joint venture entity operating the Miski Mayo mine in Peru that supplies phosphate rock to us. We also have a joint venture investment in MWSPC, which operates a mine and chemical complexes that produce phosphate fertilizers and other downstream products in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Volatile economic, political and market conditions in these and other emerging market countries may have a negative impact on our operations, operating results and financial condition. In addition, unfavorable changes in trade protection laws, policies and measures, or governmental actions and policies and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and the pricing and sourcing of our raw materials, may also have a negative impact on our operations, operating results and financial condition.
Natural resource extraction is an important part of the economy in Peru, and, in the past, there have been protests against other natural resource operations in Peru. There remain numerous social conflicts that exist within the natural resource sector in Peru. As a result, there is potential for active protests against natural resource companies. If the Government of Peru’s proactive efforts to address the social and environmental issues surrounding natural resource activities are not successful, protests could extend to or impact the Miski Mayo mine and adversely affect our interest in the Miski Mayo joint venture or the supply of phosphate rock to us from the mine.
Adverse weather conditions, including the impact of hurricanes, and excess heat, cold, snow, rainfall and drought, have in the past, and may in the future, adversely affect our operations, and result in increased costs, decreased sales or production and potential liabilities.
Adverse weather conditions, including the impact of hurricanes and excess heat, cold, snow, rainfall and drought, have in the past and may in the future adversely affect our operations, particularly our Phosphates business. In the past, hurricanes have resulted in minor physical damage to our facilities in Florida and Louisiana.

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Additionally, water treatment costs due to high water balances, tend to increase significantly following excess rainfall from hurricanes or other adverse weather. Some of our Florida and Louisiana facilities have had or could have high water levels that may require treatment. High water balances in the past at phosphate facilities in Florida also led the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (“FDEP”) to adopt rules requiring phosphate production facilities to meet more stringent process water management objectives for phosphogypsum management systems.
If additional excess rainfall or hurricanes occur in coming years, our facilities may be required to take additional measures to manage process water to comply with existing or future requirements and these measures could potentially have a material effect on our business and financial condition.
Adverse weather may also cause a loss of production due to disruptions in our supply chain or adversely affect delivery of our products to our customers. For example, oil refineries that supply sulfur to us may suspend operations as a result of a hurricane, and incoming shipments of ammonia can be delayed, disrupting production at our Florida or Louisiana facilities and delivery of our products.
Excess rainfall and drought have in the past, and may in the future adversely affect us. For example, we recently experienced the wettest year in North America in nearly 50 years which reduced fertilizer applications by farmers. Excess rainfall also resulted in higher river levels which adversely affected delivery of our products. Drought can reduce farmers’ crop yields and the uptake of phosphates and potash, reducing the need for application of additional phosphates and potash for the next planting season. Drought can also lower river levels, adversely affecting delivery of our products to our customers.
Our operations are dependent on having the required permits and approvals from governmental authorities. Denial or delay by a government agency in issuing any of our permits and approvals or imposition of restrictive conditions on us with respect to these permits and approvals may impair our business and operations.
We hold numerous governmental environmental, mining and other permits and approvals authorizing operations at each of our facilities. Our ability to continue operations at a facility could be materially affected by a government agency decision to deny or delay issuing a new or renewed permit or approval, to revoke or substantially modify an existing permit or approval or to substantially change conditions applicable to a permit modification, or by legal actions that successfully challenge our permits.
Expanding our operations or extending operations into new areas is also predicated upon securing the necessary environmental or other permits or approvals. We have been engaged in, and over the next several years, we and our subsidiaries will be continuing our, efforts to obtain permits in support of anticipated operations at certain of our properties.
A denial of our permits, the issuance of permits with cost-prohibitive conditions, substantial delays in issuing key permits, or legal actions that prevent us from relying on permits or revocation of permits, could prevent us from mining at certain of our properties and thereby have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
For example: 
In Florida, local community involvement has become an increasingly important factor in the permitting process for mining companies, and various counties and other parties in Florida have in the past filed and continue to file lawsuits challenging the issuance or renewal of some of the permits we require. These actions can significantly delay issuance of the permits we need to operate or expand operations.
We have included additional discussion about permitting for our phosphate mines in Florida under “Environmental, Health, Safety and Security Matters—Operating Requirements and Impacts—Permitting” in our Management’s Analysis.
We are subject to financial assurance requirements as part of our routine business operations. These financial assurance requirements affect our costs and increase our liquidity requirements. If we were unable to satisfy applicable financial assurance requirements, we might not be able to obtain or maintain permits we need to operate our business as we have in the past. Our need to comply with these requirements could materially affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
In many cases, as a condition to obtaining or maintaining permits and approvals or otherwise, we are required to comply with financial assurance requirements of governmental authorities. The purpose of these requirements is to provide comfort to the government that sufficient funds will be available for the ultimate closure, post-closure care or reclamation of our facilities.
In some cases, we are able to comply through the satisfaction of applicable state financial strength tests. But, if we are unable to do so, we must utilize alternative methods of complying with the financial assurance requirements or we would be

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prevented from continuing our mining operations and also could be subject to enforcement proceedings brought by relevant government agencies. Potential alternative methods of compliance include providing credit support in the form of cash escrows or trusts, surety bonds from surety or insurance companies, letters of credit from banks, or other forms of financial instruments or collateral to satisfy the financial assurance requirements or negotiating a consent agreement that establishes a different form of financial assurance. Use of alternative means of financial assurance imposes additional expense on us. Some of them, such as letters of credit, also use a portion of our available liquidity. Other alternative means of financial assurance, such as surety bonds, may in some cases require collateral and generally require us to obtain a discharge of the bonds or to post additional collateral (typically in the form of cash or letters of credit) at the request of the issuer of the bonds. Collateral that is required may be in many forms including letters of credit or other financial instruments that utilize a portion of our available liquidity, or in the form of assets such as real estate, which reduces our flexibility to manage or sell assets.
For example:
With respect to two facilities we acquired as part of our acquisition of the Florida phosphate assets and assumption of certain related liabilities of CF (the “CF Phosphate Assets Acquisition”), (i) we currently use a financial test supported by a corporate guarantee to meet Florida state regulations governing financial assurance related to the post-closure care of the phosphogypsum stack at our closed Bonnie facility in Florida, and (ii) under the terms of a consent decree with federal and state regulators we currently provide credit support in the form of a surety bond from insurance companies, as a means of financial assurance for closure and post-closure care requirements for the phosphogypsum stack at our Plant City, Florida facility. These financial assurance funding obligations require estimates of future expenditures that could be impacted by refinements in scope, technological developments, cost inflation, changes in regulations, discount rates and the timing of activities. Additional financial assurance commitments could be required in the future if increases in cost estimates exceed the assurance amount currently in place. In addition, with respect to the Plant City facility, our use of a surety bond may in some cases require that we obtain a discharge of the bond or post collateral at the request of the issuers of the bond. Required collateral may be in many forms including letters of credit or other financial instruments that utilize a portion of our available liquidity. Any of these circumstances could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
As more fully discussed in Note 15 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, in 2016 under the terms of two consent decrees with federal and state regulators, we deposited a total of $630 million into two trust funds to provide additional financial assurance for the estimated costs of closure and post-closure care of most of our other phosphogypsum stack systems in Florida (excluding those acquired as part of the CF Phosphate Assets Acquisition) and Louisiana. As required under one of the consent decrees, we have also issued a $50 million letter of credit to further support our financial assurance obligations. We have also agreed to guarantee the difference between the amounts held in each trust fund (including earnings) and the estimated closure and long-term care costs. Compliance with the financial assurance requirements included in these consent decrees satisfies substantially all of our state financial assurance obligations relating to the covered facilities, which were historically satisfied without the need for any expenditure of corporate funds, to the extent our financial statements met certain balance sheet and income statement financial strength tests.
In the past, we have also not always been able to satisfy applicable financial strength tests, and, in the future, it is possible that we will not be able to pass the applicable financial strength tests, negotiate or receive approval of consent decrees, establish escrow or trust accounts or obtain letters of credit, surety bonds or other financial instruments on acceptable terms and conditions or at a reasonable cost, or that the form and/or cost of compliance could increase, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We have included additional discussion about financial assurance requirements under “Off Balance Sheet Arrangements and Obligations—Other Commercial Commitments” in our Management’s Analysis.
The discontinuation or replacement of LIBOR may affect our financial condition and results of operations.
On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for calculation of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) by the end of 2021. At this time, we cannot predict the impact the discontinuation, reform, or replacement of LIBOR may have on interest rates paid on our credit facility and other financial instruments and interest rate swaps. As a result, it is possible that these interest rate fluctuations could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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