Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Glacier Bancorp, Inc. (“Company”) is a Montana corporation headquartered in Kalispell, Montana. The Company provides a full range of banking services to individuals and businesses in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Colorado and Arizona through its wholly-owned bank subsidiary, Glacier Bank (“Bank”). The Company offers a wide range of banking products and services, including: 1) retail banking; 2) business banking; 3) real estate, commercial, agriculture and consumer loans; and 4) mortgage origination services. The Company serves individuals, small to medium-sized businesses, community organizations and public entities.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial condition as of March 31, 2019, the results of operations and comprehensive income for the three month periods ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, and changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the three month periods ended March 31, 2019 and 2018. The condensed consolidated statement of financial condition of the Company as of December 31, 2018 has been derived from the audited consolidated statements of the Company as of that date.
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements do not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for complete financial statements. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018. Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results anticipated for the year ending December 31, 2019.
The Company is a defendant in legal proceedings arising in the normal course of business. In the opinion of management, the disposition of pending litigation will not have a material affect on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change include: 1) the determination of the allowance for loan and lease losses (“ALLL” or “allowance”); 2) the valuation of debt securities; 3) the valuation of real estate acquired in connection with foreclosures or in satisfaction of loans; and 4) the evaluation of goodwill impairment. For the determination of the ALLL and real estate valuation estimates, management obtains independent appraisals (new or updated) for significant items. Estimates relating to investment valuations are obtained from independent third parties. Estimates relating to the evaluation of goodwill for impairment are determined based on internal calculations using significant independent party inputs.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements of the Company include the parent holding company and the Bank. The Bank consists of fourteen bank divisions, a treasury division, an information technology division and a centralized mortgage division. The treasury division includes the Bank’s investment portfolio and wholesale borrowings, the information technology division includes the Bank’s internal data processing, and the centralized mortgage division includes mortgage loan servicing and secondary market sales. The Bank divisions operate under separate names, management teams and advisory directors. The Company considers the Bank to be its sole operating segment as the Bank 1) engages in similar bank business activity from which it earns revenues and incurs expenses; 2) the operating results of the Bank are regularly reviewed by the Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) (i.e., the chief operating decision maker) who makes decisions about resources to be allocated to the Bank; and 3) financial information is available for the Bank. All significant inter-company transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Bank has subsidiary interests in variable interest entities (“VIE”) for which the Bank has both the power to direct the VIE’s significant activities and the obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. These subsidiary interests are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The Bank also has subsidiary interests in VIEs for which the Bank does not have a controlling financial interest and is not the primary beneficiary. These subsidiary interests are not included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The parent holding company owns non-bank subsidiaries that have issued trust preferred securities as Tier 1 capital instruments. The trust subsidiaries are not included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The Company's investments in the trust subsidiaries are included in other assets on the Company's statements of financial condition.
On April 30, 2019, the Company acquired the outstanding common stock of FNB Bancorp and its wholly-owned subsidiary, The First National Bank of Layton, a community bank based in Layton, Utah (collectively, “FNB”). As of March 31, 2019, FNB had total assets of $328,893,000, gross loans of $248,725,000 and total deposits of $279,674,000. For additional information relating to this subsequent event, see Note 13.
Loans that are intended to be held-to-maturity are reported at the unpaid principal balance less net charge-offs and adjusted for deferred fees and costs on originated loans and unamortized premiums or discounts on acquired loans. Fees and costs on originated loans and premiums or discounts on acquired loans are deferred and subsequently amortized or accreted as a yield adjustment over the expected life of the loan utilizing the interest method. The objective of the interest method is to calculate periodic interest income at a constant effective yield. When a loan is paid off prior to maturity, the remaining fees and costs on originated loans and premiums or discounts on acquired loans are immediately recognized into interest income.
The Company’s loan segments, which are based on the purpose of the loan, include residential real estate, commercial, and consumer loans. The Company’s loan classes, a further disaggregation of segments, include residential real estate loans (residential real estate segment), commercial real estate and other commercial loans (commercial segment), and home equity and other consumer loans (consumer segment).
Loans that are thirty days or more past due based on payments received and applied to the loan are considered delinquent. Loans are designated non-accrual and the accrual of interest is discontinued when the collection of the contractual principal or interest is unlikely. A loan is typically placed on non-accrual when principal or interest is due and has remained unpaid for ninety days or more. When a loan is placed on non-accrual status, interest previously accrued but not collected is reversed against current period interest income. Subsequent payments on non-accrual loans are applied to the outstanding principal balance if doubt remains as to the ultimate collectability of the loan. Interest accruals are not resumed on partially charged-off impaired loans. For other loans on nonaccrual, interest accruals are resumed on such loans only when they are brought fully current with respect to interest and principal and when, in the judgment of management, the loans are estimated to be fully collectible as to both principal and interest.
The Company considers impaired loans to be the primary credit quality indicator for monitoring the credit quality of the loan portfolio. Loans are designated impaired when, based upon current information and events, it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement and, therefore, the Company has serious doubts as to the ability of such borrowers to fulfill the contractual obligation. Impaired loans include non-performing loans (i.e., non-accrual loans and accruing loans ninety days or more past due) and accruing loans under ninety days past due where it is probable payments will not be received according to the loan agreement (e.g., troubled debt restructuring). Interest income on accruing impaired loans is recognized using the interest method. The Company measures impairment on a loan-by-loan basis in the same manner for each class within the loan portfolio. An insignificant delay or shortfall in the amounts of payments would not cause a loan or lease to be considered impaired. The Company determines the significance of payment delays and shortfalls on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration all of the facts and circumstances surrounding the loan and the borrower, including the length and reasons for the delay, the borrower’s prior payment record, and the amount of the shortfall in relation to the principal and interest due.
A restructured loan is considered a troubled debt restructuring (“TDR”) if the creditor, for economic or legal reasons related to the debtor’s financial difficulties, grants a concession to the debtor that it would not otherwise consider. The Company periodically enters into restructure agreements with borrowers whereby the loans were previously identified as TDRs. When such circumstances occur, the Company carefully evaluates the facts of the subsequent restructure to determine the appropriate accounting and under certain circumstances it may be acceptable not to account for the subsequently restructured loan as a TDR. When assessing whether a concession has been granted by the Company, any prior forgiveness on a cumulative basis is considered a continuing concession. A TDR loan is considered an impaired loan and a specific valuation allowance is established when the fair value of the collateral-dependent loan or present value of the loan’s expected future cash flows (discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate based on the original contractual rate) is lower than the carrying value of the impaired loan. The Company has made the following types of loan modifications, some of which were considered a TDR:
reduction of the stated interest rate for the remaining term of the debt;
extension of the maturity date(s) at a stated rate of interest lower than the current market rate for newly originated debt having similar risk characteristics; and
reduction of the face amount of the debt as stated in the debt agreements.
The Company recognizes that while borrowers may experience deterioration in their financial condition, many continue to be creditworthy customers who have the willingness and capacity for debt repayment. In determining whether non-restructured or unimpaired loans issued to a single or related party group of borrowers should continue to accrue interest when the borrower has other loans that are impaired or are TDRs, the Company on a quarterly or more frequent basis performs an updated and comprehensive assessment of the willingness and capacity of the borrowers to timely and ultimately repay their total debt obligations, including contingent obligations. Such analysis takes into account current financial information about the borrowers and financially responsible guarantors, if any, including for example:
analysis of global, i.e., aggregate debt service for total debt obligations;
assessment of the value and security protection of collateral pledged using current market conditions and alternative market assumptions across a variety of potential future situations; and
loan structures and related covenants.
For additional information relating to loans, see Note 3.
Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses
Based upon management’s analysis of the Company’s loan portfolio, the balance of the ALLL is an estimate of probable credit losses known and inherent within the Bank’s loan portfolio as of the date of the consolidated financial statements. The ALLL is analyzed at the loan class level and is maintained within a range of estimated losses. Determining the adequacy of the ALLL involves a high degree of judgment and is inevitably imprecise as the risk of loss is difficult to quantify. The determination of the ALLL and the related provision for loan losses is a critical accounting estimate that involves management’s judgments about known relevant internal and external environmental factors that affect loan losses. The balance of the ALLL is highly dependent upon management’s evaluations of borrowers’ current and prospective performance, appraisals and other variables affecting the quality of the loan portfolio. Individually significant loans and major lending areas are reviewed periodically to determine potential problems at an early date. Changes in management’s estimates and assumptions are reasonably possible and may have a material impact upon the Company’s consolidated financial statements, results of operations or capital.
Risk characteristics considered in the ALLL analysis applicable to each loan class within the Company's loan portfolio are as follows:
Residential Real Estate. Residential real estate loans are secured by owner-occupied 1-4 family residences. Repayment of these loans is primarily dependent on the personal income and credit rating of the borrowers. Credit risk in these loans is impacted by economic conditions within the Company’s market areas that affect the value of the property securing the loans and affect the borrowers' personal incomes. Mitigating risk factors for this loan class include a large number of borrowers, geographic dispersion of market areas and the loans are originated for relatively smaller amounts.
Commercial Real Estate. Commercial real estate loans typically involve larger principal amounts, and repayment of these loans is generally dependent on the successful operation of the property securing the loan and/or the business conducted on the property securing the loan. Credit risk in these loans is impacted by the creditworthiness of a borrower, valuation of the property securing the loan and conditions within the local economies in the Company’s diverse, geographic market areas.
Commercial. Commercial loans consist of loans to commercial customers for use in financing working capital needs, equipment purchases and business expansions. The loans in this category are repaid primarily from the cash flow of a borrower’s principal business operation. Credit risk in these loans is driven by creditworthiness of a borrower and the economic conditions that impact the cash flow stability from business operations across the Company’s diverse, geographic market areas.
Home Equity. Home equity loans consist of junior lien mortgages and first and junior lien lines of credit (revolving open-end and amortizing closed-end) secured by owner-occupied 1-4 family residences. Repayment of these loans is primarily dependent on the personal income and credit rating of the borrowers. Credit risk in these loans is impacted by economic conditions within the Company’s market areas that affect the value of the residential property securing the loans and affect the borrowers' personal incomes. Mitigating risk factors for this loan class are a large number of borrowers, geographic dispersion of market areas and the loans are originated for terms that range from 10 to 15 years.
Other Consumer. The other consumer loan portfolio consists of various short-term loans such as automobile loans and loans for other personal purposes. Repayment of these loans is primarily dependent on the personal income of the borrowers. Credit risk is driven by consumer economic factors (such as unemployment and general economic conditions in the Company’s diverse, geographic market area) and the creditworthiness of a borrower.
The ALLL consists of a specific valuation allowance component and a general valuation allowance component. The specific component relates to loans that are determined to be impaired and individually evaluated for impairment. The Company measures impairment on a loan-by-loan basis based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, except when it is determined that repayment of the loan is expected to be provided solely by the underlying collateral. For impairment based on expected future cash flows, the Company considers all information available as of a measurement date, including past events, current conditions, potential prepayments, and estimated cost to sell when such costs are expected to reduce the cash flows available to repay or otherwise satisfy the loan. For alternative ranges of cash flows, the likelihood of the possible outcomes is considered in determining the best estimate of expected future cash flows. The effective interest rate for a loan restructured in a TDR is based on the original contractual rate. For collateral-dependent loans and real estate loans for which foreclosure or a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure is probable, impairment is measured by the fair value of the collateral, less estimated cost to sell. The fair value of the collateral is determined primarily based upon appraisal or evaluation of the underlying real property value.
The general valuation allowance component relates to probable credit losses inherent in the balance of the loan portfolio based on historical loss experience, adjusted for changes in trends and conditions of qualitative or environmental factors. The historical loss experience is based on the previous twelve quarters loss experience by loan class adjusted for risk characteristics in the existing loan portfolio. The same trends and conditions are evaluated for each class within the loan portfolio; however, the risk characteristics are weighted separately at the individual class level based on the Company’s judgment and experience.
The changes in trends and conditions evaluated for each class within the loan portfolio include the following:
changes in lending policies and procedures, including changes in underwriting standards and collection, charge-off, and recovery practices not considered elsewhere in estimating credit losses;
changes in global, national, regional, and local economic and business conditions and developments that affect the collectability of the portfolio, including the condition of various market segments;
changes in the nature and volume of the portfolio and in the terms of loans;
changes in experience, ability, and depth of lending management and other relevant staff;
changes in the volume and severity of past due and nonaccrual loans;
changes in the quality of the Company’s loan review system;
changes in the value of underlying collateral for collateral-dependent loans;
the existence and effect of any concentrations of credit, and changes in the level of such concentrations; and
the effect of other external factors such as competition and legal and regulatory requirements on the level of estimated credit losses in the Company’s existing portfolio.
The ALLL is increased by provisions for loan losses which are charged to expense. The portions of loan and overdraft balances determined by management to be uncollectible are charged-off as a reduction of the ALLL and recoveries of amounts previously charged-off are credited as an increase to the ALLL. The Company’s charge-off policy is consistent with bank regulatory standards. Consumer loans generally are charged-off when the loan becomes over 120 days delinquent. Real estate acquired as a result of foreclosure or by deed-in-lieu of foreclosure is classified as other real estate owned (“OREO”) until such time as it is sold.
At acquisition date, the assets and liabilities of acquired banks are recorded at their estimated fair values which results in no ALLL carried over from acquired banks. Subsequent to acquisition, an allowance will be recorded on the acquired loan portfolios for further credit deterioration, if any.
The Company leases certain land, premises and equipment from third parties. A lessee lease is classified as an operating lease unless it meets certain criteria (e.g., lease contains option to purchase that Company is reasonably certain to exercise), in which case it is classified as a finance lease. Effective January 1, 2019, operating leases are included in net premises and equipment and other liabilities on the Company’s statements of financial condition and lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Finance leases are included in net premises and equipment and other borrowed funds on the Company’s statements of financial condition. Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. An ROU asset represents the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and also includes any direct costs and payments made prior to lease commencement and excludes lease incentives. When an implicit rate is not available, an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date is used in determining the present value of the lease payments. A lease term may include an option to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain the option will be exercised. The Company accounts for lease and nonlease components (e.g., common-area maintenance) together as a single combined lease component for all asset classes. Short-term leases of 12 months or less are excluded from accounting guidance; as a result, the lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and the leases are not reflected on the Company’s statements of financial condition. Renewal and termination options are considered when determining short-term leases. Leases are accounted for on an individual lease level.
Lease improvements incurred at the inception of the lease are recorded as an asset and depreciated over the initial term of the lease and lease improvements incurred subsequently are depreciated over the remaining term of the lease.
The Company also leases certain premises and equipment to third parties. A lessor lease is classified as an operating lease unless it meets certain criteria that would classify it as either a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease. For additional information relating to leases, see Note 4.
The Company recognizes revenue when services or products are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled. The Company’s principal source of revenue is interest income from debt securities and loans. Revenue from contracts with customers within the scope of Accounting Standards Codification™ (“ASC”) Topic 606 was $18,446,000 and $17,291,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and largely consisted of revenue from service charges and other fees from deposits (e.g., overdraft fees, ATM fees, debit card fees). Due to the short-term nature of the Company’s contracts with customers, an insignificant amount of receivables related to such revenue was recorded at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 and there were no impairment losses recognized. Policies specific to revenue from contracts with customers include the following:
Service Charges. Revenue from service charges consists of service charges and fees on deposit accounts under depository agreements with customers to provide access to deposited funds and, when applicable, pay interest on deposits. Service charges on deposit accounts may be transactional or non-transactional in nature. Transactional service charges occur in the form of a service or penalty and are charged upon the occurrence of an event (e.g., overdraft fees, ATM fees, wire transfer fees). Transactional service charges are recognized as services are delivered to and consumed by the customer, or as penalty fees are charged. Non-transactional service charges are charges that are based on a broader service, such as account maintenance fees and dormancy fees, and are recognized on a monthly basis.
Debit Card Fees. Revenue from debit card fees includes interchange fee income from debit cards processed through card association networks. Interchange fees represent a portion of a transaction amount that the Company and other involved parties retain to compensate themselves for giving the cardholder immediate access to funds. Interchange rates are generally set by the card association networks and are based on purchase volumes and other factors. The Company records interchange fees as services are provided.
Accounting Guidance Adopted in 2019
The ASC is the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) officially recognized source of authoritative GAAP applicable to all public and non-public non-governmental entities. Rules and interpretive releases of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the authority of the federal securities laws are also sources of authoritative GAAP for the Company as an SEC registrant. All other accounting literature is non-authoritative. The following paragraphs provide descriptions of recently adopted Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) that may have had a material effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
ASU 2017-08 - Receivables - Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs. In March 2017, FASB amended ASC Subtopic 310-20 to shorten the amortization period for certain callable debt securities held at a premium. Specifically, the amendments required the premium to be amortized to the earliest call date instead of the maturity date. The amendments did not require an accounting change for securities held at a discount; the discount continues to be amortized to maturity. The amendments were effective for public business entities for the first interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and any adjustments were to be reflected as of the beginning of the year that includes the interim period. Entities were to apply the amendments on a modified retrospective basis; therefore, a cumulative-effect reduction to retained earnings of $24,102,000 was recognized as of the January 1, 2019 effective date. The Company’s debt securities that were effected by the amendments were primarily in the state and local governments category. The Company’s accounting policies and procedures were updated to reflect the amendments.
ASU 2016-02 - Leases. In February 2016, FASB amended ASC Topic 842 to address several aspects of lease accounting with the significant change being the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities for leases previously classified as operating leases. The amendments were effective for public business entities for the first interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company has lease agreements for which the amendments required the recognition of a lease liability to make lease payments and an ROU asset which represents its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. An entity is permitted to elect not to restate its comparative periods in the period of adoption when transitioning to ASC Topic 842 and the Company made this election. In addition, the Company made the following elections related to implementation: 1) to not use hindsight in determining lease terms and in assessing impairment of ROU assets; and 2) to use the practical expedient package, which required no reassessment of whether existing contracts are or contain leases as well as no reassessment of lease classification for existing leases. At the date of adoption, the Company recognized an ROU asset and related lease liability on the Company’s statement of financial condition of $36,178,000 and $38,220,000, respectively. The Company developed new processes to comply with the accounting and disclosure requirements of such amendments and policies and procedures were updated accordingly.
Accounting Guidance Pending Adoption at March 31, 2019
The following paragraphs provide descriptions of newly issued but not yet effective ASUs that could have a material effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
ASU 2017-04 - Intangibles - Goodwill and Other. In January 2017, FASB amended ASC Topic 350 to simplify the measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, under these amendments, an entity should perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The amendments are effective for public business entities for the first interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company has goodwill from prior business combinations and performs an annual impairment test or more frequently if changes or circumstances occur that would more-likely-than-not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying value. During the third quarter of 2018, the Company performed its impairment assessment and determined the fair value of the aggregated reporting units exceeded the carrying value, such that the Company’s goodwill was not considered impaired. Although the Company cannot anticipate future goodwill impairment assessments, based on the most recent assessment, it is unlikely that an impairment amount would need to be calculated and, therefore, the Company does not anticipate a material impact from these amendments to the Company’s financial position and results of operations. The current accounting policies and processes are not anticipated to change, except for the elimination of the Step 2 analysis. For additional information regarding goodwill impairment testing, see Note 5.
ASU 2016-13 - Financial Instruments - Credit Losses. In June 2016, FASB amended ASC Topic 326 to replace the incurred loss model with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses over the life of the loan and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to calculate credit loss estimates. The amendments are effective for public business entities for the first interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of these amendments to the Company’s financial position and results of operations and currently does not know or cannot reasonably quantify the impact of the adoption of the amendments as a result of the complexity and extensive changes from the amendments. The ALLL is a material estimate of the Company and given the change from an incurred loss model to a methodology that considers the credit loss over the life of the loan, there is the potential for an increase in the ALLL at adoption date. The Company is anticipating a significant change in the processes and procedures to calculate the ALLL, including changes in assumptions and estimates to consider expected credit losses over the life of the loan versus the current accounting practice that utilizes the incurred loss model. The Company will also develop new procedures for determining an allowance for credit losses relating to held-to-maturity debt securities. In addition, the current accounting policy and procedures for other-than-temporary impairment on available-for-sale debt securities will be replaced with an allowance approach. The Company has engaged a third-party vendor solution and is currently in the implementation phase and evaluating the appropriate models, loan pools and assumptions to be utilized. The project team anticipates running parallel models during 2019 to refine its processes and procedures. For additional information on the ALLL, see Note 3.