Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
– The consolidated financial statements include NorthWest Indiana Bancorp (the “Bancorp”), its wholly-owned subsidiaries NWIN Risk Management, Inc. (a captive insurance subsidiary) and Peoples Bank SB (the “Bank”), and the Bank’s wholly owned subsidiaries, Peoples Service Corporation, NWIN, LLC, NWIN Funding, Incorporated, and Columbia Development Company, LLC. The Bancorp’s business activities include being a holding company for the Bank as well as a holding company for NWIN Risk Management, Inc. The Bancorp’s earnings are dependent upon the earnings of the Bank. Peoples Service Corporation provides insurance and annuity investments to the Bank’s wealth management customers. NWIN, LLC is located in Las Vegas, Nevada and serves as the Bank’s investment subsidiary and parent of a real estate investment trust, NWIN Funding, Inc. NWIN Funding, Inc. was formed as an Indiana Real Estate Investment Trust. The formation of NWIN Funding, Inc. provides the Bancorp with a vehicle that may be used to raise capital utilizing portfolio mortgages as collateral, without diluting stock ownership. In addition, NWIN Funding, Inc. receives favorable state tax treatment for income generated by its operations. Columbia Development Company is a limited liability company that serves to hold certain real estate properties that are acquired through foreclosure. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
– Preparing financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period, as well as the disclosures provided. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates associated with the allowance for loan losses, fair values of foreclosed real estate, loan servicing rights, investment securities, deferred tax assets, goodwill, and the status of contingencies are particularly susceptible to material change in the near term.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
– The Bancorp grants residential, commercial real estate, commercial business and installment loans to customers primarily in Lake County, in northwest Indiana, and Cook County, in northeast Illinois. The Bancorp is also an active lender in Porter County, and to a lesser extent, LaPorte, Newton, and Jasper counties in Indiana, and Lake and Will counties in Illinois. Substantially all loans are secured by specific items of collateral including residences, commercial real estate, business assets, and consumer assets.
– For purposes of the statements of cash flows, the Bancorp considers cash on hand, noninterest bearing deposits in other financial institutions, all interest bearing deposits in other financial institutions with original maturities of 90 days or less, and federal funds sold to be cash and cash equivalents. The Bancorp reports net cash flows for customer loan and deposit transactions and short-term borrowings with maturities of 90 days or less.
Certificates of deposits in other financial institutions
– Certificates of deposits in other financial institutions generally mature within 5 years and are carried at cost.
– The Bancorp classifies securities into held-to-maturity, available-for-sale, or trading categories. Held-to-maturity securities are those which management has the positive intent and the Bancorp has the ability to hold to maturity, and are reported at amortized cost. Available-for-sale securities are those the Bancorp may decide to sell if needed for liquidity, asset-liability management or other reasons. Available-for-sale securities are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses reported in other comprehensive income, net of tax. At December 31, 2018, and 2017, all of the Bancorp’s securities were classified as available-for-sale. The Bancorp does not have a trading portfolio. Realized gains and losses resulting from the sale of securities recorded on the trade date are computed by the specific identification method. Interest and dividend income, adjusted by amortization of premiums or discounts on a level yield method, are included in earnings. Securities are reviewed for other-than-temporary impairment on a quarterly basis.
The Bancorp considers the following factors when determining an other-than-temporary impairment for a security: the length of time and the extent to which the market value has been less than amortized cost; the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer; the underlying fundamentals of the relevant market and the outlook for such market for the near future; and an assessment of whether the Bancorp has (1) the intent to sell the debt security or (2) it is more likely than not that the Bancorp will be required to sell the debt security before its anticipated market recovery. If either of these conditions are met, management will recognize other-than-temporary impairment. If, in management’s judgment, an other-than-temporary impairment exists, the cost basis of the security will be written down for the credit loss, and the unrealized credit loss will be transferred from accumulated other comprehensive loss as an immediate reduction of current earnings.
– Mortgage loans originated and intended for sale in the secondary market are carried at the lower of aggregate cost or fair market value, as determined by outstanding commitments from investors. Net unrealized losses, if any, are recorded as a valuation allowance and charged to earnings.
Mortgage loans held-for-sale can be sold with servicing rights retained or released. The carrying value of mortgage loans sold is reduced by the amount allocated to the servicing rights. Gains and losses on sales of mortgage loans are based on the difference between the selling price and the carrying value of the related loan sold.
– Loans that management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or payoff are reported at the principal balance outstanding, net of unearned interest, net deferred loan fees and costs, and an allowance for loan losses. Interest income is accrued on the unpaid principal balance. Loan origination fees, net of certain direct origination costs, are deferred and recognized in interest income using the level-yield method without anticipating prepayments. The accrual of interest income on mortgage and commercial loans is discontinued at the time the loan is 90 days delinquent unless the loan is well-secured and in process of collection. Consumer loans are typically charged-off no later than when they reach 120 days past due. Past due status is based on the contractual terms of the loan. In all cases, loans are placed on non-accrual or charged-off status at an earlier date if collection of principal or interest is considered doubtful.
Generally, interest accrued but not received for loans placed on non-accrual status is reversed against interest income. Interest received on such loans is accounted for on the cash-basis or cost-recovery method, until qualifying for return to accrual. Loans are returned to accrual status when all the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured.
Allowance for Loan Losses
– The allowance for loan losses (allowance) is a valuation allowance for probable incurred credit losses. Loan losses are charged against the allowance when management believes the uncollectibility of a loan balance is confirmed. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance. Management estimates the allowance balance required using past loan loss experience, the nature and volume of the portfolio, information about specific borrower situations and estimated collateral values, economic conditions, and other factors. Allocations of the allowance may be made for specific loans, but the entire allowance is available for any loan that, in management’s judgment, should be charged-off.
A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Bancorp will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Factors considered by management in determining impairment include payment status, collateral value, and the probability of collecting scheduled principal and interest payments when due. Loans that experience insignificant payment delays and payment shortfalls generally are not classified as impaired. Management determines the significance of payment delays and payment shortfalls on a case by case basis, taking into consideration all of the circumstances surrounding the loan and the borrower, including the length of the delay, the reasons for the delay, the borrower’s prior payment record, and the amount of the shortfall in relation to the principal and interest owed. Impairment is measured on a loan by loan basis for commercial and construction loans by either the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, the loan’s obtainable market price, or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. Large groups of smaller balance homogeneous loans are collectively evaluated for impairment. Accordingly, the Bancorp does not separately identify individual consumer and residential loans for impairment disclosures.
Troubled Debt Restructures
– A troubled debt restructuring of a loan is undertaken to improve the likelihood that the loan will be repaid in full under the modified terms in accordance with a reasonable repayment schedule. All modified loans are evaluated to determine whether the loan should be reported as a troubled debt restructure (TDR). A loan is a TDR when the Bancorp, for economic or legal reasons related to the borrower's financial difficulties, grants a concession to the borrower by modifying or renewing a loan under terms that the Bancorp would not otherwise consider. To make this determination, the Bancorp must determine whether (a) the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties and (b) the Bancorp granted the borrower a concession. This determination requires consideration of all of the facts and circumstances surrounding the modification. An overall general decline in the economy or some level of deterioration in a borrower's financial condition does not inherently mean the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties.
Some of the factors considered by management when determining whether a borrower is experiencing financial difficulties are: (1) is the borrower currently in default on any of its debts, (2) has the borrower declared or is the borrower in the process of declaring bankruptcy, and (3) absent the current modification, the borrower would likely default.
Federal Home Loan Bank Stock –
The Bank is a member of the FHLB system. Members are required to own a certain amount of stock based on the level of borrowings and other factors, and may invest in additional amounts. FHLB stock is carried at cost, classified as a restricted security, and periodically evaluated for impairment based on ultimate recovery of par value. Both cash and stock dividends are reported as income.
Transfers of Financial Assets
– Transfers of financial assets are accounted for as sales when control over the assets has been surrendered. Control over transferred assets is deemed to be surrendered when (1) the assets have been isolated from the Bancorp, (2) the transferee obtains the right (free of conditions that constrain it from taking advantage of the right) to pledge or exchange the transferred assets, and (3) the Bancorp does not maintain effective control over the transferred assets through an agreement to repurchase them before their maturity.
– Land is carried at cost. Premises and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Premises and related components are depreciated using the straight-line method with useful lives ranging from 26 to 39 years. Furniture and equipment are depreciated using the straight-line method with useful lives ranging from 2 to 10 years.
– Assets acquired through or instead of loan foreclosure are initially recorded at fair value less estimated costs to sell when acquired, establishing a new cost basis. If fair value declines subsequent to foreclosure, a valuation allowance is recorded through expense. Operating costs after acquisition are expensed.
– Premises and equipment and other long-term assets are reviewed for impairment when events indicate their carrying amount may not be recoverable from future undiscounted cash flows. If impaired, the assets are recorded at fair value.
Bank Owned Life Insurance
– The Bancorp has purchased life insurance policies on certain key executives. In accordance with accounting for split-dollar life insurance, Bank owned life insurance is recorded at the amount that can be realized under the insurance contract at the balance sheet date, which is the cash surrender value adjusted for other charges or other amounts due that are probable at settlement.
– The Bancorp records the assets acquired, including identified intangible assets, and the liabilities assumed in acquisitions at their fair values. These fair values often involve estimates based on third-party valuations, such as appraisals, or internal valuations based on discounted cash flow analyses or other valuation techniques that may include estimates of attrition, inflation, asset growth rates or other relevant factors. In addition, the determination of the useful lives over which an intangible asset will be amortized is subjective. Under the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 350, goodwill and indefinite-lived assets recorded are reviewed for impairment on an annual basis, as well as on an interim basis if events or changes indicate that the asset might be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized for any excess of carrying value over fair value of the goodwill or the indefinite-lived intangible asset.
– Substantially, all repurchase agreement liabilities represent amounts advanced by various customers that are not covered by federal deposit insurance and are secured by securities owned by the Bancorp.
– Income tax expense is the total of the current year income tax due or refundable and the change in deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are the expected future tax amounts for the temporary differences between carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities, computed using enacted tax rates. A valuation allowance, if needed, reduces deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Bancorp evaluated tax positions taken for filing with the Internal Revenue Service and all state jurisdictions in which it operates. The Bancorp believes that income tax filing positions will be sustained under examination and does not anticipate any adjustments that would result in a material adverse effect on the Bancorp's financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. Accordingly, the Bancorp has not recorded any reserves or related accruals for interest and penalties for uncertain tax positions at December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Loan Commitments and Related Financial Instruments
– Financial instruments include off-balance sheet credit instruments, such as commitments to make loans and standby letters of credit, issued to meet customer financing needs. The face amount for these items represents the exposure to loss, before considering customer collateral or ability to repay. Such financial instruments are recorded when they are funded.
Earnings Per Common Share –
Basic earnings per common share is net income divided by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. The restricted shares issued provide for dividend and voting rights and are therefore considered participating securities. Accordingly, all restricted stock is included in basic earnings per share.
Comprehensive income consists of net income and other comprehensive income. Other comprehensive income includes unrealized gains and losses on securities available-for-sale and the unrecognized gains and losses on postretirement benefits.
– Loss contingencies, including claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business, are recorded as liabilities when the likelihood of loss is probable and an amount or range of loss can be reasonably estimated. Management does not believe such matters currently exist that will have a material effect on the financial statements.
– Cash on hand or on deposit with the Federal Reserve Bank of $2.2 million and $878 thousand was required to meet regulatory reserve and clearing requirements at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. These balances do not earn interest.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
– Fair values of financial instruments are estimated using relevant market information and other assumptions, as more fully disclosed in a separate note. Fair value estimates involve uncertainties and matters of significant judgment regarding interest rates, credit risk, prepayments and other factors, especially in the absence of broad markets for particular instruments. Changes in assumptions or in market conditions could significantly affect the estimates.
– While the Bancorp's executive management monitors the revenue streams of the various products and services, the identifiable segments are not material and operations are managed and financial performance is evaluated on a company-wide basis. Accordingly, all of the Bancorp's financial service operations are considered by management to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment.
– Certain amounts appearing in the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2017, may have been reclassified to conform to the December 31, 2018 presentation.
– Assets of the Bancorp’s wealth management department, other than cash on deposit at the Bancorp, are not included in these consolidated financial statements because they are not assets of the Bancorp.
Adoption of New Accounting Pronouncements –
In May 2014, Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09 and ASU 2015-14,
Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)
, superseding the current revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605, Revenue Recognition. The ASU is based on the principle that revenue is recognized to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The ASU also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. The new guidance is effective for the Bancorp's year ending December 31, 2018 and has been adopted as of January 1, 2018. The use of the modified retrospective approach has been used for implementing this standard. Interest income is outside of the scope of the new standard and was not impacted by the adoption of the standard. Management mapped noninterest income accounts to their associated income streams and applied the five step model to identify the contract, identify the performance obligations in the contract, determine the total transaction price, allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation, and ensure revenue is recognized when the performance obligation is satisfied. A review of the Bancorp’s noninterest income has not resulted in a change in revenue recognition since adoption.
In January 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01,
Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
. The ASU covers various changes to the accounting, measurement, and disclosures related to certain financial instruments, including requiring equity investments to be accounted for at fair value with changes recorded through earnings, the use of the exit price when measuring fair value, and disaggregation of financial assets and liabilities by category for disclosure purposes. The new guidance is effective for the Bancorp's year ending December 31, 2018 and was adopted on January 1, 2018. The adoption of this ASU has not had a material impact on the consolidated financial statements, as the Bancorp does not hold any equity securities with unrealized gains or losses. The new reporting requirements have been incorporated into the fair value of financial instruments table and disclosures.
In March 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09:
Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718)—Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting
. This ASU seeks to reduce complexity in accounting standards. The areas for simplification in ASU No. 2016-09, identified through outreach for the Simplification Initiative, pre-agenda research for the Private Company Council, and the August 2014 Post-Implementation Review Report on FASB Statement No. 123(R), Share-Based Payment, involve several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including (1) accounting for income taxes, (2) classification of excess tax benefits on the statement of cash flow, (3) forfeitures; (4) minimum statutory tax withholding requirements, (5) classification of employee taxes paid on the statement of cash flows when an employer withholds shares for tax withholding purposes, (6) the practical expedient for estimating the expected term, and (7) intrinsic value. The Bancorp adopted this ASU during 2017, and the adoption of this ASU has not had a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Upcoming Accounting Pronouncements -
In February 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02,
s, which will supersede the current lease requirements in ASC 840. The ASU requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and related lease liability for all leases, with a limited exception for short-term leases. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with the classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the statement of operations. Currently, leases are classified as either capital or operating, with only capital leases recognized on the balance sheet. The reporting of lease-related expenses in the statements of operations and cash flows will be generally consistent with the current guidance. The new lease guidance will be effective for the Bancorp's year ending December 31, 2019 and will be applied using a modified retrospective transition method to the beginning of the earliest period presented. Management has concluded that the adoption of this update will not have a material effect on the Bancorp’s consolidated financial statements, as the Bancorp does not engage in the leasing of property or in leasing of any significant furniture, fixtures, equipment, or software.
In June 2016, FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13,
Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments
. The ASU includes increased disclosures and various changes to the accounting and measurement of financial assets including the Bancorp’s loans and available-for-sale and held-to-maturity debt securities. Each financial asset presented on the balance sheet would have a unique allowance for credit losses valuation account that is deducted from the amortized cost basis to present the net carrying value at the amount expected to be collected on the financial asset. The amendments in this ASU also eliminate the probable initial recognition threshold in current GAAP and instead, reflect an entity’s current estimate of all expected credit losses using reasonable and supportable forecasts. The new credit loss guidance will be effective for the Bancorp's year ending December 31, 2020. Upon adoption, the ASU will be applied using a modified retrospective transition method to the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. A prospective transition approach is required for debt securities for which an other-than-temporary impairment had been recognized before the effective date. Early adoption for all institutions is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Management is in the process of evaluating the impact adoption of this update will have on the Bancorp’s consolidated financial statements. This process of evaluation has engaged multiple areas of the Bancorp’s management in discussing loss estimation methods and the application of these methods to specific segments of the loans receivable portfolio. Management has been actively monitoring developments and evaluating the use of different methods allowed. Given the amount of time left to adoption, the appropriateness of the loss estimation methods chosen, and the continuing development of understanding of application, additional time is required to understand how this ASU will affect the Bancorp’s financial statements. Management plans on running parallel calculations during the year and finalizing a method or methods of adoption in time for the effective date.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04,
Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment
. This Standard simplifies the manner in which an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. In computing the implied fair value of goodwill under Step 2, an entity, prior to the amendments in ASU No. 2017-04, had to perform procedures to determine the fair value at the impairment testing date of its assets and liabilities, including unrecognized assets and liabilities, in accordance with the procedure that would be required in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. However, under the amendments in this ASU, an entity should (1) perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, and (2) recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, with the understanding that the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, ASU No. 2017-04 removes the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment and, if it fails such qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. Finally, this ASU amends the Overview and Background sections of the Accounting Standards Codification as part of the FASB’s initiative to unify and improve such sections across Topics and Subtopics. The new guidance will be effective for the Company’s year ending December 31, 2020.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08,
Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities
. This Standard amends the amortization period for certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium. In particular, the amendments in this ASU require the premium to be amortized to the earliest call date. The amendments do not, however, require an accounting change for securities held at a discount; instead, the discount continues to be amortized to maturity. The amendments in this ASU more closely align the amortization period of premiums and discounts to expectations incorporated in market pricing on the underlying securities. In fact, in most cases, market participants price securities to the call date that produces the worst yield when the coupon is above current market rates (i.e., the security is trading at a premium), and price securities to maturity when the coupon is below market rates (i.e., the security is trading at a discount), in anticipation that the borrower will act in its economic best interest. The new guidance will be effective for the Company’s year ending December 31, 2020. Management will recognize amortization expense as dictated by the amount of premiums and the differences between maturity and call dates at the time of adoption.