Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Summary of Operations
Hanmi Financial Corporation (“Hanmi Financial,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) was formed as a holding company of Hanmi Bank (the “Bank”) and registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Act on March 17, 2001. The Bank's primary operations are related to traditional banking activities, including the acceptance of deposits and originating loans and investing in securities.
The Bank is a California state-chartered financial institution insured by the FDIC. Effective July 19, 2016, the Bank converted from a state member bank to a state nonmember bank and, as a result, the FDIC is now its primary federal bank regulator. The California Department of Business Oversight remains the Bank's primary state bank regulator. During the third quarter of 2016, the Federal Reserve canceled the Bank's holdings of Federal Reserve stock for $14.4 million in cash.
The Bank is a community bank conducting general business banking, with its primary market encompassing the Korean-American community as well as other ethnic communities across California, Texas, Illinois, Virginia, New Jersey, and New York. The Bank’s full-service offices are located in markets where many of the businesses are run by immigrants and other minority groups. The Bank’s client base reflects the multi-ethnic composition of these communities. As of December 31, 2018, the Bank maintained a network of 39 full-service branch offices and 9 loan production offices in California, Texas, Illinois, Virginia, New Jersey, New York, Colorado, Georgia and Washington State.
Basis of Presentation
The accounting and reporting policies of Hanmi Financial and subsidiaries conform, in all material respects, to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and general practices within the banking industry. The information set forth in the following notes is presented on a continuing operations basis, unless otherwise noted. The following is a summary of the significant accounting policies consistently applied in the preparation of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Principles of Consolidation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Hanmi Financial and its wholly-owned subsidiary, the Bank. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of Financial Statements
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant areas where estimates are made consist of the allowance for loan and lease losses and allowance for off-balance sheet items, other-than-temporary impairment, securities valuations, the fair values of assets and liabilities acquired in a business combination and income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Certain amounts in the prior years' financial statements and related disclosures were reclassified to conform to the current year presentation with no effect on previously reported net income, stockholders’ equity or cash flows.
Through our branch network and lending units, we provide a broad range of financial services to individuals and companies. These services include demand, time and savings deposits; and commercial and industrial, real estate and consumer lending. While our chief decision makers monitor the revenue streams of our various products and services, operations are managed and financial performance is evaluated on a company-wide basis. Accordingly, we consider all of our operations to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash, due from banks and overnight federal funds sold, all of which have original or purchased maturities of less than 90 days.
Securities are classified into three categories and accounted for as follows:
Securities that we have the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as “held to maturity” and reported at amortized cost;
Securities that are bought and held principally for the purpose of selling them in the near future are classified as “trading securities” and reported at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are recognized in earnings; and
Securities not classified as held to maturity or trading securities are classified as “available for sale” and reported at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity as accumulated other comprehensive income, net of income taxes.
We review securities on an ongoing basis for the presence of other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”) or permanent impairment, taking into consideration current market conditions, fair value in relationship to cost, extent and nature of the change in fair value, issuer rating changes and trends, whether we intend to sell a security or if it is likely that we will be required to sell the security before recovery of our amortized cost basis of the investment, which may be maturity, and other factors.
Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 320 requires other-than-temporarily impaired securities to be written down when fair value is below amortized cost in circumstances where: (1) an entity has the intent to sell a security; (2) it is more likely than not that an entity will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis; or (3) an entity does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security. If we intend to sell a security or if it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery, an OTTI write-down is recognized in earnings equal to the entire difference between the security’s amortized cost basis and its fair value. If we do not intend to sell the security or it is not more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery, the OTTI write-down is separated into an amount representing credit loss, which is recognized in earnings, and the amount related to all other factors, which is recognized in other comprehensive income net of tax. A credit loss is the difference between the cost basis of the security and the present value of cash flows expected to be collected, discounted at the security’s effective interest rate at the date of acquisition. The cost basis of an other than temporarily impaired security is written down by the amount of impairment recognized in earnings. The new cost basis is not adjusted for subsequent recoveries in fair value.
Loans and leases receivable
Originated loans and leases: Loans and leases are originated by the Company with the intent to hold them for investment and are stated at the principal amount outstanding, net of unearned income. Net deferred fees and costs include nonrefundable loan fees and direct loan origination costs. Net deferred fees or costs are recognized as an adjustment to interest income over the contractual life of the loans using the effective interest method or taken into income when the related loans are paid off or sold. The amortization of loan fees or costs is discontinued when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status. Interest income is recorded on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the respective loan and includes prepayment penalties.
Purchased loans: Purchased loans are stated at the principal amount outstanding, net of unearned discounts or unamortized premiums. All loans acquired in our acquisitions are initially measured and recorded at their fair value on the acquisition date. A component of the initial fair value measurement is an estimate of the loan losses over the life of the purchased loans. Purchased loans are also evaluated for impairment as of the acquisition date and are accounted for as “acquired non-impaired” or “purchased credit impaired” loans.
Leases Receivable: As described in “Note 2 — Acquisitions” to the consolidated financial statements, we purchased a portfolio of leases receivable during the fourth quarter of 2016. These receivables include equipment finance agreements with terms ranging from 1 to 7 years. The acquired leases receivable were measured and recorded at fair value on the date of acquisition. Leases originated by the Bank subsequent to acquisition are recorded based on the principal amount outstanding, net of unearned income, and initial indirect costs. Equipment leases are similar to commercial business loans in that the leases are typically made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flows of the borrower’s business.
Acquired non-impaired loans and leases: Acquired non-impaired loans and leases are those loans for which there was no evidence of credit deterioration at their acquisition date and it was probable that we would be able to collect all contractually required payments. Acquired non-impaired loans and leases, together with originated loans and leases, are referred to as non-purchased credit impaired (“Non-PCI”) loans and leases. Purchase discount or premium on acquired non-impaired loans and leases is recognized as an adjustment to interest income over the contractual life of such loans and leases using the effective interest method or taken into income when the related loans or leases are paid off or sold.
Purchased credit impaired loans. Purchased credit impaired (“PCI”) loans are accounted for in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) ASC Subtopic 310-30, “Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality.” A purchased loan is deemed to be credit impaired when there is evidence of credit deterioration since its origination and it is probable at the acquisition date that we would be unable to collect all contractually required payments. We apply PCI loan accounting (i) when we acquire loans deemed to be impaired, and (ii) as a general policy election for non-impaired loans that we acquire in a distressed bank acquisition.
For PCI loans, at the time of acquisition we (i) calculated the contractual amount and timing of undiscounted principal and interest payments (the “undiscounted contractual cash flows”) and (ii) estimated the amount and timing of undiscounted expected principal and interest payments (the “undiscounted expected cash flows”). The difference between the undiscounted contractual cash flows and the undiscounted expected cash flows is the nonaccretable difference. The nonaccretable difference represents an estimate of the loss exposure of principal and interest related to the PCI loan portfolios; such amount is subject to change over time based on the performance of such loans. The carrying value of PCI loans is reduced by payments received, both principal and interest, and increased by the portion of the accretable yield recognized as interest income.
The excess of expected cash flows at acquisition over the initial fair value of acquired impaired loans is referred to as the “accretable yield” and is recorded as interest income over the estimated life of the loans using the effective yield. If estimated cash flows are indeterminable, the recognition of interest income will cease to be recognized.
At acquisition, the Company may aggregate PCI loans into pools having common credit risk characteristics such as product type, geographic location and risk rating. Increases in expected cash flows over those previously estimated increase the accretable yield and are recognized as interest income prospectively. Decreases in the amount and changes in the timing of expected cash flows compared to those previously estimated decrease the accretable yield and usually result in a provision for loan losses and the establishment of an allowance for loan losses. As the accretable yield increases or decreases from changes in cash flow expectations, the offset is a decrease or increase to the nonaccretable difference. The accretable yield is measured at each financial reporting date based on information then currently available and represents the difference between the remaining undiscounted expected cash flows and the current carrying value of the loans.
The Company removes loans from loan pools when the Company receives payment in settlement with the borrower, sells the loan, or forecloses upon the collateral securing the loan. The Company recognizes "Disposition gain on Purchased Credit Impaired Loans" when the cash proceeds or the amount received are in excess of the loan's carrying amount. The removal of the loan from the loan pool and the recognition of disposition gains do not affect the then applicable loan pool accretable yield.
PCI loans that are contractually past due are still considered to be accruing and performing as long as there is an expectation that the estimated cash flows will be received. If the timing and amount of cash flows is not reasonably estimable, the loans may be classified as nonaccrual with interest income recognized on either a cash basis or as a reduction of the principal amount outstanding.
Nonaccrual loans and nonperforming assets: Loans are placed on nonaccrual status when, in the opinion of management, the full timely collection of principal or interest is in doubt. Generally, the accrual of interest is discontinued when principal or interest payments become more than 90 days past due. However, in certain instances, we may place a particular loan on nonaccrual status earlier, depending upon the individual circumstances surrounding the loan’s delinquency. When an asset is placed on nonaccrual status, previously accrued but unpaid interest is reversed against current income. Subsequent collections of cash are applied as principal reductions when received, except when the ultimate collectability of principal is probable, in which case interest payments are credited to income. Nonaccrual assets may be restored to accrual status when principal and interest become current and full repayment is expected, which generally occurs after sustained payment of six months. Interest income is recognized on the accrual basis for impaired loans not meeting the criteria for nonaccrual.
Nonperforming assets consist of loans and leases on nonaccrual status, loans 90 days or more past due and still accruing interest, loans restructured with troubled borrowers where the terms of repayment have been renegotiated resulting in a reduction or deferral of interest or principal, and other real estate owned (“OREO”). Loans are generally placed on nonaccrual status when they become 90 days past due unless management believes the loan is adequately collateralized and in the process of collection. Additionally, the Bank may place loans that are not 90 days past due on nonaccrual status, if management reasonably believes the borrower will not be able to comply with the contractual loan repayment terms and collection of principal or interest is in question.
Loans Held for Sale
Loans originated, or transferred from loans and leases receivable, and intended for sale in the secondary market are carried at the lower of aggregate cost or fair market value. Fair market value, if lower than cost, is determined based on valuations obtained from market participants or the value of underlying collateral, calculated individually. A valuation allowance is established if the market value of such loans is lower than their cost and net unrealized losses, if any, are recognized through a valuation allowance by charges to income. Origination fees on loans held for sale, net of certain costs of processing and closing the loans, are deferred until the time of sale and are included in the computation of the gain or loss from the sale of the related loans.
Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses
Management believes the allowance for loan and lease losses is appropriate to provide for probable losses inherent in the loan and lease portfolio. However, the allowance is an estimate that is inherently uncertain and depends on the outcome of future events. Management’s estimates are based on: previous loss experience; volume, growth, size and composition of the loan portfolio; the value of collateral; and current economic conditions. Our lending is concentrated generally in real estate, commercial, SBA and trade finance lending to small and middle market businesses primarily in California, Illinois, and Texas.
The Bank charges or credits the income statement for provisions to the allowance for loan and lease losses and the allowance for off-balance sheet items at least quarterly based upon the allowance need. The allowance for loan and lease losses is maintained at a level considered adequate by management to absorb probable losses in the loan and lease portfolio. The allowance is determined through an analysis involving quantitative calculations based on historic loss rates and qualitative adjustments for general allowances and individual impairment calculations for specific allocations. The Bank charges the allowance for actual losses on loans and leases and credits the allowance for recoveries on loans and leases previously charged-off.
The Bank evaluates the allowance methodology at least annually. For the fourth quarter of 2018, the Bank utilized a 31-quarter look-back period, anchored to the first quarter of 2011, with equal weighting to all quarters. Management determined it was appropriate to anchor the look-back period, in consideration for a prolonged period of low losses and the procyclical nature of provisioning. The anchoring will allow the Bank to better capture the economic cycle while improving the ability to measure losses. For the fourth quarters of 2017 and 2016, the Bank utilized 27 and 24-quarter look-back periods, respectively. In addition, the estimated loss emergence period utilized in the Bank’s loss migration analysis changed to 2.5 years in 2016 and remained unchanged in 2017 and 2018. Moreover, the Bank reevaluated the qualitative adjustments, adjusting to current condition in light of the lengthening of the business cycle and the continued improvement in credit metrics.
To determine general allowance requirements, existing loans were divided into eleven general pools of risk-rated loans as well as three homogeneous loan pools. in 2016 the pooling was revised to eliminate loan types that can be combined under a broader category in order to maintain an accurate analysis of the defined segmentation. For risk-rated loans, migration analysis allocates historical losses by loan pool and risk grade to determine risk factors for potential losses inherent in the current outstanding loan portfolio. Since the homogeneous loans are bulk graded, the risk grade is not factored into the historical loss analysis. In addition, specific allowances are allocated for loans deemed “impaired.”
When determining the appropriate level for allowance for loan and lease losses, management considers qualitative adjustments for any factors that are likely to cause estimated losses associated with the Bank’s current portfolio to differ from historical loss experience, including, but not limited to, national and local economic and business conditions, volume and geographic concentrations, and problem loan and lease trends.
To systematically quantify the credit risk impact of trends and changes within the loan and lease portfolio, a credit risk matrix is utilized. The qualitative factors are considered on a loan pool by loan pool basis subsequent to, and in conjunction with, a loss migration analysis. The credit risk matrix provides various scenarios with positive or negative impact on the portfolio along with corresponding basis points for qualitative adjustments.
Loans are measured for impairment when it is probable that not all amounts, including principal and interest, will be collected in accordance with the original contractual terms of the loan agreement. The amount of impairment and any subsequent changes are recorded through the provision for loan losses as an adjustment to the allowance for loan losses.
The Bank follows the “Interagency Policy Statement on the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses” and, as an integral part of the quarterly credit review process, the allowance for loan losses and allowance for off-balance sheet items are reviewed for adequacy. The California Department of Business Oversight and/or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation may require the Bank to recognize additions to the allowance for loan losses based upon their assessment of the information available to them at the time of their examinations.
In general, the Bank will charge off a loan and declare a loss when its collectability is questionable and when the Bank can no longer justify presenting the loan as an asset on its balance sheet. To determine if a loan should be charged off, all possible sources of repayment are analyzed, including the potential for future cash flow from income or liquidation of other assets, the value of any collateral, and the strength of co-makers or guarantors. When these sources do not provide a reasonable probability that principal can be collected in full, the Bank will fully or partially charge off the loan.
For a real estate loan, including commercial term loans secured by collateral, any impaired portion is considered as loss if the loan is more than 90 days past due. In a case where the fair value of collateral is less than the loan balance and the borrower has no other assets or income to support repayment, the amount of the deficiency is considered a loss and charged off.
For a commercial and industrial loan other than those secured by real estate, if the borrower is in the process of a bankruptcy filing in which the Bank is an unsecured creditor or deemed virtually unsecured by lack of collateral equity or lien position and the borrower has no realizable equity in assets and prospects for recovery are negligible, the loan is considered a loss and charged off. Additionally, a commercial and industrial unsecured loan that is more than 120 days past due is considered a loss and charged off.
For an unsecured consumer loan where a borrower files for bankruptcy, the loan is considered a loss within 60 days of receipt of notification of filing from the bankruptcy court. Other consumer loans are considered a loss if they are more than 90 days past due. Other events, such as bankruptcy, fraud, or death result in charge offs being recorded in an earlier period.
Loans are identified and classified as impaired when it is probable that not all amounts, including principal and interest, will be collected in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan agreement. The Bank will consider the following loans as impaired: nonaccrual loans or loans where principal or interest payments have been contractually past due for 90 days or more, unless the loan is both well-collateralized and in the process of collection; and loans classified as troubled debt restructuring loans.
The Bank considers whether the borrower is experiencing problems such as operating losses, marginal working capital, inadequate cash flows or business deterioration in realizable value. The Bank also considers the financial condition of a borrower who is in industries or countries experiencing economic or political instability.
When a loan is considered impaired, any future cash receipts on such loans will be treated as either interest income or return of principal depending upon management’s opinion of the ultimate risk of loss on the individual loan. Cash payments are treated as interest income where management believes the remaining principal balance is fully collectible.
We evaluate loan impairment in accordance with GAAP. Impaired loans are measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate or, as a practical expedient, at the loan’s observable market price or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent, less costs to sell. If the value of the impaired loan is less than the recorded investment in the loan, the deficiency will be charged off against the allowance for loan losses or, alternatively, a specific allocation will be established. Additionally, impaired loans are specifically excluded from the analysis when determining the amount of the general allowance for loan losses required for the period.
For impaired loans where the impairment amount is measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s original effective interest rate, any impairment that represents the change in present value attributable to the passage of time is recognized as provision for loan losses.
Troubled Debt Restructuring
A loan is identified as a troubled debt restructuring (“TDR”) when a borrower is experiencing financial difficulties and, for economic or legal reasons related to these difficulties, the Bank grants a concession to the borrower in the restructuring that it would not otherwise consider. The Bank has granted a concession when, as a result of the restructuring, it does not expect to collect all amounts due, including principal and/or interest accrued at the original terms of the loan. The concessions may be granted in various forms, including a below-market change in the stated interest rate, a reduction in the loan balance or accrued interest, an extension of the maturity date, or a note split with principal forgiveness. TDRs are reviewed for potential impairment. Generally, a nonaccrual loan that is restructured remains on nonaccrual status for a period of six months to demonstrate that the borrower can perform under the restructured terms. If the borrower’s performance under the new terms is not reasonably assured, the loan remains classified as a nonaccrual loan. Loans classified as TDRs are reported as impaired loans.
Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are computed on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the various classes of assets. The ranges of useful lives for the principal classes of assets are as follows:
Buildings and improvements
10 to 30 years
Furniture and equipment
3 to 10 years
Term of lease or useful life, whichever is shorter
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We account for long-lived assets in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360, “Property, Plant and Equipment.” This requires that long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles be reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
Other Real Estate Owned
Assets acquired through loan foreclosure are recorded at the lower of cost or fair value less estimated costs to sell when acquired. If fair value declines subsequent to foreclosure, valuation impairment is recorded through expense. Operating costs after acquisition are expensed.
Servicing Assets and Servicing liabilities
Servicing assets and servicing liabilities are initially recorded at fair value in accordance with the provisions of ASC 860, “Transfers and Servicing.” The fair values of servicing assets and servicing liabilities represent either the price paid if purchased, or the allocated carrying amounts based on relative values when retained in a sale. Servicing assets and servicing liabilities are amortized in proportion to, and over the period of, estimated net servicing income. The fair value of servicing assets and servicing liabilities are determined based on the present value of estimated net future cash flows related to contractually specified servicing fees and costs.
The servicing assets and servicing liabilities are recorded based on the present value of the contractually specified servicing fee, net of adequate compensation cost, for the estimated life of the loan, using a discount rate and a constant prepayment rate. Management periodically evaluates the servicing assets and servicing liabilities for impairment. Impairment, if it occurs, is recognized in a valuation allowance in the period of impairment.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other intangible assets consist of acquired intangible assets arising from acquisitions, including core deposit and third-party originators intangibles. The acquired intangible assets were initially measured at fair value and then are amortized on the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives while goodwill is not amortized.
Goodwill and other intangible assets are assessed for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount may not be recoverable. The Company performed its annual impairment test and determined no impairment existed as of December 31, 2018.
Federal Home Loan Bank Stock
The Bank is a member of the FHLB of San Francisco and is required to own common stock in the FHLB based upon the Bank’s balance of outstanding FHLB advances. FHLB stock is carried at cost and may be sold back to the FHLB at its carrying value. FHLB stock is periodically evaluated for impairment based on ultimate recovery of par value. Both cash and stock dividends received are reported as dividend income.
Federal Reserve Bank Stock
The Bank was a member of the Federal Reserve Bank (“FRB”) of San Francisco and was required to maintain stock in the FRB based on a specified ratio relative to the Bank’s capital. Effective July 19, 2016, the Bank converted from a state member bank to a state nonmember bank and, as a result, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is now its primary federal bank regulator. Our holdings of FRB stock were canceled by the Federal Reserve. Both cash and stock dividends received are reported as dividend income.
Bank-Owned Life Insurance
We have purchased single premium life insurance policies (“bank-owned life insurance”) on certain officers. The Bank is the beneficiary under each policy. In the event of the death of a covered officer, we will receive the specified insurance benefit from the insurance carrier. Bank-owned life insurance is recorded at the amount that can be realized under the insurance contract at the balance sheet date, which is the cash surrender value adjusted for other charges or other amounts due, if any, that are probable at settlement.
We provide for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Bank has invested in limited partnerships formed to develop and operate affordable housing units for lower income tenants throughout California. The partnership interests are accounted for utilizing the proportional amortization method with amortization expense and tax benefits recognized through the income tax provision in accordance with Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-1, Accounting for Investments in Qualified Affordable Housing Projects.
The Company accounts for share-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, “Compensation-Stock Compensation,” During the first quarter in 2016, the Company early adopted ASU 2016-09 which provides improvements to the accounting for employee share-based payments. As a result of this new standard, excess tax benefits from exercise or vesting of share-based awards are included as a reduction in provision for income tax expense in the period in which the exercise or vesting occurs. As a result of adoption of this ASU, excess tax benefits related to the Company's share-based compensation were recognized as income tax expense in the consolidated statement of income for the three years ended December 31, 2018.
Earnings per Share
Earnings per share (“EPS”) is calculated on both a basic and a diluted basis. Basic EPS excludes dilution and is computed by dividing income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted from the issuance of common stock that then shared in earnings, excluding common shares in treasury. For diluted EPS, weighted-average number of common shares included the impact of unvested restricted stock under the treasury method.
Unvested restricted stock containing rights to non-forfeitable dividends are considered participating securities prior to vesting and have been included in the earnings allocation in computing basic and diluted EPS under the two-class method.
In August 2018, the Company's Board of Directors adopted a stock repurchase program. Under this repurchase program, the Company may repurchase up to 5% of its outstanding shares or approximately 1.6 million shares of its common stock. The program permits shares to be repurchased in open market or private transactions, through block trades, and pursuant to any trading plan that may be adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The repurchase program may be suspended, terminated or modified at any time for any reason, including market conditions, the cost of repurchasing shares, the availability of alternative investment opportunities, liquidity, and other factors deemed appropriate. These factors may also affect the timing and amount of share repurchases. The repurchase program does not obligate the Company to purchase any particular number of shares. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company repurchased 1.6 million shares of common stock at a cost of $36.1 million under this program.
We use the cost method of accounting for treasury stock. The cost method requires us to record the reacquisition cost of treasury stock as a deduction from stockholders’ equity on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
For business combinations that are accounted for under the acquisition method, the acquiring entity in a business combination recognizes 100 percent of the acquired assets and assumed liabilities, regardless of the percentage owned, at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition. Any excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets and other identifiable intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. To the extent the fair value of net assets acquired, including other identifiable assets, exceeds the purchase price, a bargain purchase gain is recognized. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed from contingencies must also be recognized at fair value, if the fair value can be determined during the measurement period. Results of operations of an acquired business are included in the statement of earnings from the date of acquisition. Acquisition-related costs, including conversion and restructuring charges, are expensed as incurred.
Accounting Standards Adopted in 2018
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (Topic 825) and ASU 2018-02, Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Topic 220). Summaries of ASU 2016-01 and 2018-02 and the impact of their adoption are included in Notes 3 and 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, respectively. In addition to other provisions, ASU 2016-01 requires public business entities to use the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes. Beginning in 2018, the Company measured the fair value of certain financial instruments, included in Note 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, using an exit price notion.
The Company also adopted ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), as of January 1, 2018. ASU 2014-09 established a principles-based approach to recognizing revenue that applies to all contracts other than those covered by other authoritative U.S. GAAP guidance. Quantitative and qualitative disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are also required. ASU 2014-09 was to be effective for interim and annual
periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and was to be applied on either a modified retrospective or full retrospective basis.
In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14 which deferred the original effective date for all entities by one year. Public
business entities are required to apply the guidance in ASU 2015-14 to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15,
2017, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period.
The standard’s core principle is that a company shall recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In doing so, companies generally are required to use more judgment and make more estimates than under prior guidance. These may include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. Subsequent to the issuance of ASU 2014-09, the FASB issued targeted updates to clarify specific implementation issues including ASU No. 2016-08, Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net), ASU No. 2016-10, Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing, ASU No. 2016-12, Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients, and ASU No. 2016-20. Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. For financial reporting purposes, the standard allows for either full retrospective adoption, meaning the standard is applied to all of the periods presented, or modified retrospective adoption, meaning the standard is applied only to the most current period presented in the financial statements with the cumulative effect of initially applying the standard recognized at the date of initial application.
Since the guidance does not apply to revenue associated with financial instruments, including loans and securities that are accounted for under other GAAP, the new guidance did not have an impact on revenue most closely associated with our financial instruments, including interest income and expense. The Company completed its overall assessment of revenue streams and review of related contracts potentially affected by the ASU, including revenue streams associated with our noninterest income. Based on this assessment, the Company concluded that ASU 2014-09 did not change the method in which the Company currently recognizes revenue for these revenue streams.
The Company's noninterest income primarily includes service charges on deposit accounts, trade finance and other service charges and fees, servicing income, bank-owned life insurance income and gains or losses on sale of SBA loans, PCI loans and securities. Based on our assessment of revenue streams related to the Company's noninterest income, we concluded that the Company's performance obligations for such revenue streams are typically satisfied as services are rendered. If applicable, the Company records contract liabilities, or deferred revenue, when payments from customers are received or due in advance of providing services to customers and records contract assets when services are provided to customers before payment is received or before payment is due. The Company’s noninterest revenue streams are largely based on transactional activities and since the Company generally receives payments for its services during the period or at the time services are provided, there are no contract asset or receivable balances as of December 31, 2018. Consideration is often received immediately or shortly after the Company satisfies its performance obligation and revenue is recognized.
The Company also completed its evaluation of certain costs related to these revenue streams to determine whether such costs should be presented as expenses or contra-revenue (i.e., gross versus net) and concluded that our Consolidated Statements of Income do not include any revenue streams that are impacted by such gross versus net provisions of the new standard. The Company adopted ASU 2014-09 and its related amendments on its required effective date of January 1, 2018 utilizing the modified retrospective approach. Since there was no impact upon adoption of this new standard, a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings was not deemed necessary.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Effective
FASB ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), introduces the most significant change for lessees including the requirement under the new guidance to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for all leases not considered short-term leases. By definition, a short-term lease is one in which: (a) the lease term is 12 months or less; and (b) there is not an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise. For short-term leases, lessees may elect an accounting policy by class of underlying asset under which right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are not recognized and lease payments are generally recognized as expense over the lease term on a straight-line basis. This change will result in lessees recognizing right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for most leases currently accounted for as operating leases under the legacy lease accounting guidance. Examples of changes in the new guidance affecting both lessees and lessors include: (a) defining initial direct costs to only include those incremental costs that would not have been incurred if the lease had not been entered into, (b) requiring related party leases to be accounted for based on their legally enforceable terms and conditions, (c) eliminating the additional requirements that must be applied today to leases involving real estate and (d) revising the circumstances under which the transfer contract in a sale-leaseback transaction should be accounted for as the sale of an asset by the seller-lessee and the purchase of an asset by the buyer-lessor. In addition, both lessees and lessors are subject to new disclosure requirements. ASU 2016-02 is effective for public entities for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018.
Under the new lease guidance to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for all leases not considered short-term, the Company is required to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for most leases currently accounted for as operating leases under the legacy lease accounting standards. This would impact the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet by grossing up the assets and the liabilities to report the leases as an asset and a liability instead of reporting it as an expense to the income statement.
As a lessee in over 40 operating lease arrangements that are not considered short term, effective January 1, 2019, the Company estimates a right-of-use asset of approximately $50 million, which is not considered to have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet. The final impact of this new accounting standard on the Company’s consolidated financial statements will be determined in the first quarter of 2019.
FASB ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, introduces new guidance for the accounting for credit losses on instruments within its scope. The new guidance introduces an approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments. It also modifies the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities and provides for a simplified accounting model for purchased financial assets with credit deterioration since their origination. Current expected credit losses (“CECL”) model, will apply to: (1) financial assets subject to credit losses and measured at amortized cost; and (2) certain off-balance sheet credit exposures. This includes loans, held-to-maturity debt securities, loan commitments, financial guarantees, and net investments in leases, as well as reinsurance and trade receivables. Upon initial recognition of the exposure, the CECL model requires an entity to estimate the credit losses expected over the life of an exposure (or pool of exposures). The estimate of expected credit losses ("ECL") should consider historical information, current information, and reasonable and supportable forecasts, including estimates of prepayments. Financial instruments with similar risk characteristics should be grouped together when estimating ECL. ASU 2016-13 is effective for public entities for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early application of the guidance will be permitted for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years.
The Company has established a steering committee comprised of senior executives from the Accounting and Credit Risk functions and has engaged third party consultants to support CECL adoption activities. The Company is currently engaged in implementation activities and has completed the initial procedures to develop estimation models utilizing an external vendor to support implementation. A preliminary CECL model has been developed and is currently being refined, along with the execution of procedures to support the ongoing estimation activities associated with CECL. The Company is still evaluating the impacts of ASU 2016-13 on its consolidated financial statements.
FASB ASU 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill impairment by eliminating the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill (i.e., the current Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test) to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Under this ASU, the impairment test is simply the comparison of the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount (the current Step 1), with the impairment charge being the deficit in fair value but not exceeding the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The simplified one-step impairment test applies to all reporting units (including those with zero or negative carrying amounts). An entity should apply the amendments in this ASU on a prospective basis. An entity is required to disclose the nature of and reason for the change in accounting principle upon transition. That disclosure should be provided in the first annual period and in the interim period within the first annual period when the entity initially adopts the amendments in this standard. Public business entities should adopt the amendments in this ASU for annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU and does not expect it will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
FASB ASU 2017-08, Receivables-Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Topic 310): Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities, shortens the period of amortization of the premium on certain callable debt securities to the earliest call date. ASU 2017-08 applies to securities that have explicit, non-contingent call features that are callable at fixed prices and on preset dates. Securities purchased at a discount and mortgage-backed securities in which early repayment is based on prepayment of the underlying assets of the security are outside the scope of ASU 2017-08. For public business entities, the standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period, and applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU and does not expect it will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
FASB ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, was issued in August 2017 with the objective of improving the financial reporting of hedging relationships to better portray the economic results of an entity’s risk management activities in its financial statements. In addition to that main objective, the amendments in this update make certain targeted improvements to simplify the application of the hedge accounting guidance in current GAAP. The ASU requires certain hedging instrument to be presented in the same line item as the hedged item and also requires expanded disclosures. This ASU’s mandatory effective date for calendar year-end public companies is January 1, 2019, but the amendments may be early adopted in any interim or annual period after issuance. The Company does not currently have hedging transactions that would be impacted by this ASU and does not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.