|Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Consolidated Financial Statements of BOK Financial Corporation (“BOK Financial” or “the Company”) have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"), including interpretations of U.S. GAAP issued by federal banking regulators and general practices of the banking industry. The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of BOK Financial and its subsidiaries, principally BOKF, NA, CoBiz Bank, BOK Financial Securities, Inc., The Milestone Group, Inc. and Cavanal Hill Distributors, Inc. All significant intercompany transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the assets, liabilities, non-controlling interests and results of operations of variable interest entities (“VIEs”) when BOK Financial is determined to be the primary beneficiary. Variable interest entities are generally defined as entities that either do not have sufficient equity to finance their activities without support from other parties or whose equity investors lack a controlling financial interest. Determination that the Company is the primary beneficiary considers the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the variable interest's economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses of the variable interest or the right to receive benefits of the variable interest that could be significant to the variable interest.
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.
Nature of Operations
BOK Financial, through its subsidiaries, provides a wide range of financial services to commercial and industrial customers, other financial institutions, municipalities, and consumers. These services include depository and cash management; lending and lease financing; mortgage banking; securities brokerage, trading and underwriting; and personal and corporate trust.
BOKF, NA operates as Bank of Oklahoma primarily in the Tulsa and Oklahoma City metropolitan areas of the state of Oklahoma and Bank of Texas primarily in the Dallas, Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas of the state of Texas. In addition, BOKF, NA does business as Bank of Albuquerque in Albuquerque, New Mexico; Colorado State Bank and Trust in Denver, Colorado; Bank of Arizona in Phoenix, Arizona; Mobank in Kansas City, Missouri/Kansas and Bank of Arkansas in Northwest Arkansas. BOKF, NA also operates the TransFund electronic funds network, Cavanal Hill Investment Management, and BOK Financial Asset Management, Inc.
On October 1, 2018, BOK Financial acquired CoBiz Financial, Inc. and CoBiz Bank, its wholly owned subsidiary. CoBiz Financial has been merged into BOK Financial. CoBiz Bank will be merged into BOKF, NA in the first quarter of 2019.
Use of Estimates
Preparation of BOK Financial's Consolidated Financial Statements requires management to make estimates of future economic activities, including loan collectability, prepayments and cash flows from customer accounts. These estimates are based upon current conditions and information available to management. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates.
Assets and liabilities acquired, including identifiable intangible assets, are recorded at fair value on the acquisition date. The purchase price includes consideration paid at closing and the estimated fair value of contingent consideration that will be paid in the future, subject to achieving defined performance criteria. Premiums and discounts assigned to interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities are amortized over the lives of the acquired assets and liabilities on either an individual instrument or pool basis. Provision for credit losses is recognized for changes in credit quality after the acquisition date. Goodwill is recognized as the excess of the purchase price over the net fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The Consolidated Statements of Earnings include the results of operations from the acquisition date.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill and intangible assets generally result from business combinations and are evaluated for each of BOK Financial's reporting units for impairment annually or more frequently if conditions indicate impairment. The evaluation of possible impairment of goodwill and intangible assets involves significant judgment based upon short-term and long-term projections of future performance.
Reporting units are defined by the Company as significant lines of business within each operating segment. This definition is consistent with the manner in which the chief operating decision maker assesses the performance of the Company and makes decisions concerning the allocation of resources. The Company qualitatively assesses whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting units are less than their carrying value, including goodwill. Reporting unit carrying value includes sufficient capital to exceed regulatory requirements. This assessment includes consideration of relevant events and circumstances including but not limited to macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, the financial and stock performance of the Company and other relevant factors.
If the Company concludes based on the qualitative assessment that goodwill may be impaired, a quantitative one-step impairment test will be applied to goodwill at all reporting units. The quantitative analysis compares the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying value, including goodwill. The fair value of each reporting unit is estimated by the discounted future earnings method. Goodwill is considered impaired if the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of the reporting unit, including goodwill.
Intangible assets are generally composed of customer relationships, naming rights, non-compete agreements and core deposit premiums. They are amortized using accelerated or straight-line methods, as appropriate, over the estimated benefit periods. These periods range from 3 years to 20 years. The net book values of identifiable intangible assets are evaluated for impairment when economic conditions indicate impairment may exist.
Due from banks, funds sold (generally federal funds sold for one day), resell agreements (which generally mature within one day to 30 days) and investments in money market funds are considered cash equivalents.
Securities are identified as trading, investment (held to maturity) or available for sale at the time of purchase based upon the intent of management, liquidity and capital requirements, regulatory limitations and other relevant factors. Trading securities, which are acquired for profit through resale, are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in current period earnings. Investment securities are carried at amortized cost. Amortization is computed by methods that approximate level yield and is adjusted for changes in prepayment estimates. Securities identified as available for sale are carried at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are recorded, net of deferred income taxes, as accumulated other comprehensive income in shareholders' equity. Available for sale securities are separately identified as pledged to creditors if the creditor has the right to sell or re-pledge the collateral.
The purchase or sale of securities is recognized on a trade date basis. Realized gains and losses on sales of securities are based upon specific identification of the security sold. A receivable or payable is recognized for subsequent transaction settlement. Securities meeting certain criteria may also be transferred from the available for sale classification to the investment securities portfolio at fair value on the date of transfer. The unrealized gain or loss at the date of transfer is retained in accumulated other comprehensive income and in the carrying value of the investment securities portfolio. Such amounts are amortized over the estimated remaining life of the security as an adjustment to yield, offsetting the related amortization of the premium or accretion of the discount on the transferred securities.
On a quarterly basis, the Company performs separate evaluations of impaired debt investment and available for sale securities to determine if the decline in fair value below the amortized cost is other-than-temporary.
Management determines whether it intends to sell or if it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell impaired securities. This determination considers current and forecasted liquidity requirements and securities portfolio management. If the Company intends to sell or it is more likely than not that it will be required to sell the impaired debt security, a charge is recognized against earnings for the entire unrealized loss. For all impaired debt securities for which there is no intent or expected requirement to sell, the evaluation considers all available evidence to assess whether it is more likely than not that all amounts due would not be collected according to the security's contractual terms. Impairment of debt securities rated investment grade by nationally-recognized rating agencies is considered temporary unless specific contrary information is identified. Impairment of debt securities rated below investment grade by at least one of the nationally recognized rating agencies is evaluated based on projections of estimated cash flows. Any expected credit loss due to the inability to collect all amounts due according to the security's contractual terms is recognized as a charge against earnings. Any remaining unrealized loss related to other factors would be recognized in other comprehensive income, net of taxes.
BOK Financial may elect to carry certain securities at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in current period income. These securities are held with the intent that gains or losses will offset changes in the fair value of mortgage servicing rights or certain derivative instruments.
Restricted equity securities represent equity interests the Company is required to hold in the Federal Reserve Banks and Federal Home Loan Banks. Restricted equity securities are carried at cost as these securities do not have a readily determined fair value because ownership of these shares is restricted and they lack a market.
The fair value of our securities portfolio is generally based on a single price for each financial instrument provided to us by a third-party pricing service determined by one or more of the following:
Quoted prices for similar, but not identical, assets or liabilities in active markets;
Quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets;
Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, such as interest rate and yield curves, volatilities, prepayment speeds, loss severities, credit risks and default rates; and
Other inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market inputs.
The underlying methods used by the third-party pricing services are considered in determining the primary inputs used to determine fair values. We evaluate the methodologies employed by the third-party pricing services by comparing the price provided by the pricing service with other sources, including brokers' quotes, sales or purchases of similar instruments and discounted cash flows to establish a basis for reliance on the pricing service values. Significant differences between the pricing service provided value and other sources are discussed with the pricing service to understand the basis for their values. Based on all observable inputs, management may adjust prices obtained from third-party pricing services to more appropriately reflect the prices that would be received to sell assets or paid to transfer liabilities in orderly transactions in the current market.
Derivative instruments may be used by the Company as part of its internal risk management programs or may be offered to customers. All derivative instruments are carried at fair value and changes in fair value are generally reported in income as they occur. The determination of fair value of derivative instruments considers changes in interest rates, commodity prices and foreign exchange rates. Fair values for exchange-traded contracts are based on quoted prices in an active market for identical instruments. Fair values for over-the-counter contracts are generated internally using third-party valuation models. Inputs used in third-party valuation models to determine fair values are considered significant other observable inputs. Credit risk is also considered in determining fair value. Deterioration in the credit rating of customers or other counterparties reduces the fair value of asset contracts. Deterioration of our credit rating could decrease the fair value of our derivative liabilities.
When bilateral netting agreements or similar agreements exist between the Company and its counterparties that create a single legal claim or obligation to pay or receive the net amount in settlement of the individual derivative contracts, the Company reports derivative assets and liabilities on a net by derivative contract by counterparty basis.
Derivative contracts may also require the Company to provide or receive cash margin as collateral for derivative assets and liabilities. Derivative assets and liabilities are reported net of cash margin when certain conditions are met. In addition, derivative contracts executed with customers under Customer Risk Management Programs may be secured by non-cash collateral in conjunction with a credit agreement with that customer. Access to collateral in the event of default is reasonably assured.
Derivative instruments may be designated as cash flow hedges of variable rate assets or liabilities, or of anticipated transactions. Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income to the extent they are effective. The amount recorded in other comprehensive income is reclassified to earnings in the same periods as the hedged cash flows impact earnings. The ineffective portion of changes in fair value is reported in current earnings.
BOK Financial may use derivative instruments in managing its interest rate sensitivity, as part of its economic hedge of the changes in the fair value of mortgage servicing rights and to mitigate the market risk of holding trading securities. Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments used in managing interest rate sensitivity and as part of its economic hedge of changes in the fair value of mortgage servicing rights are included in Other Operating Revenue - Gain (loss) on derivatives, net in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings. Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments used to mitigate the market risk of holding trading securities are included in Operating Revenue - Brokerage and trading revenue.
BOK Financial also enters into mortgage loan commitments that are considered derivative contracts. Forward sales contracts that have not been designated as hedging instruments are used to economically hedge these mortgage loan commitments as well as mortgage loans held for sale. Mortgage loan commitments are carried at fair value based upon quoted prices. Changes in the fair value of mortgage loan commitments, mortgage loans held for sale and forward sales contracts are reported in Other Operating Revenue - Mortgage banking revenue.
BOK Financial offers programs that permit its customers to manage various risks, including fluctuations in energy, cattle and other agricultural products, interest rates and foreign exchange rates with derivative contracts. Customers may also manage interest rate risk through interest rate swaps used by the borrower to modify interest rate terms of their loans or to-be-announced securities used by our mortgage banking customers to hedge their loan production. Derivative contracts are executed between the customers and BOK Financial. Offsetting contracts are executed between BOK Financial and other selected counterparties to minimize market risk from changes in commodity prices, interest rates or foreign exchange rates. The counterparty contracts are identical to customer contracts, except for a fixed pricing spread or fee paid to BOK Financial as profit and compensation for administrative costs and credit risk which is recognized over the life of the contracts and included in other Operating Revenue - Brokerage and trading revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings.
Loans are either secured or unsecured based on the type of loan and the financial condition of the borrower. Repayment is generally expected from cash flow or proceeds from the sale of selected assets of the borrower. BOK Financial is exposed to risk of loss on loans due to the borrower's financial difficulties, which may arise from any number of factors, including problems within the respective industry or local economic conditions. Access to collateral, in the event of borrower default, is reasonably assured through adherence to applicable lending laws and through sound lending standards and credit review procedures. Accounting policies for all loans, excluding residential loans guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, are as follows.
Interest is accrued at the applicable interest rate on the outstanding principal amount. Loans are placed on nonaccruing status when, in the opinion of management, full collection of principal or interest is uncertain. Internally risk graded loans are individually evaluated for nonaccruing status quarterly. Non-risk graded loans are generally placed on nonaccruing status when 90 days or more past due or within 60 days of being notified of the borrower's bankruptcy filing. Interest previously accrued but not collected is charged against interest income when the loan is placed on nonaccruing status. Payments received on nonaccruing loans are applied to principal or recognized as interest income, according to management's judgment as to the collectability of principal. Loans may be returned to accruing status when, in the opinion of management, full collection of principal and interest, including principal previously charged off, is probable based on improvements in the borrower's financial condition or a sustained period of performance.
For loans acquired with no evidence of credit deterioration, discounts are accreted on either an individual basis for loans with unique characteristics or on a pool basis for groups of homogeneous loans. Accretion is discontinued when a loan with an individually attributed discount is placed on nonaccruing status.
Loans to borrowers experiencing financial difficulties may be modified in troubled debt restructurings ("TDRs"). All TDRs are generally classified as nonaccruing, excluding loans guaranteed by U.S. government agencies. Modifications generally consist of extension of payment terms or interest rate concessions and may result either voluntarily through negotiations with the borrower or involuntarily through court order. Generally, principal and accrued but unpaid interest is not voluntarily forgiven.
Performing loans may be renewed under the current collateral, debt service ratio and other underwriting standards. Nonaccruing loans may also be renewed and will remain classified as nonaccruing.
Occasionally, loans, other than residential mortgage loans, may be held for sale in order to manage credit concentration. These loans are carried at the lower of cost or fair value with gains or losses recognized in gain (loss) on assets.
All loans are charged-off when the loan balance or a portion of the loan balance is no longer supported by the paying capacity of the borrower or when the required cash flow is reduced in a TDR. The charge-off amount is determined through an evaluation of available cash resources and collateral value. Internally risk graded loans are evaluated quarterly and charge-offs are taken in the quarter in which the loss is identified. Non-risk graded loans that are past due between 60 days and 180 days, based on the loan product type, are charged off. Loans to borrowers whose personal obligation has been discharged through Chapter 7 bankruptcy proceedings are charged off within 60 days of notice of the bankruptcy filing, regardless of payment status.
Loan origination and commitment fees and direct loan acquisition and origination costs are deferred and amortized as an adjustment to yield over the life of the loan or over the commitment period, as applicable. Amortization does not anticipate loan prepayments. Net unamortized fees are recognized in full at time of payoff.
Qualifying residential mortgage loans guaranteed by U.S. government agencies have been sold into GNMA pools. Under certain performance conditions specified in government programs, the Company has the right, but not the obligation to repurchase loans from GNMA pools. These loans no longer qualify for sale accounting and are recognized in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Guaranteed loans are considered to be impaired because we do not expect to receive all principal and interest based on the loan's contractual terms. The principal balance continues to be guaranteed, however, interest accrues at a curtailed rate as specified in the programs. The carrying value of these loans is reduced based on an estimate of expected cash flows discounted at the original note rate plus a liquidity spread. Guaranteed loans may be modified in TDRs in accordance with U.S. government agency guidelines. Interest continues to accrue at the modified rate. Guaranteed loans may either be resold into GNMA pools after a performance period specified by the programs or foreclosed and conveyed to the guarantors.
Loans are disaggregated into portfolio segments and further disaggregated into classes. The portfolio segment is the level at which the Company develops and documents a systematic method for determining its Allowance for Credit Losses. Classes are based on the risk characteristics of the loans and the Company's method for monitoring and assessing credit risk.
Allowance for Loan Losses and Accrual for Off-Balance Sheet Credit Risk
The appropriateness of the allowance for loan losses and accrual for off-balance sheet credit risk (collectively "Allowance for Credit Losses") is assessed by management based on an ongoing quarterly evaluation of the probable estimated losses inherent in the portfolio, including probable losses on both outstanding loans and unused commitments to provide financing. A consistent well-documented methodology has been developed and is applied by an independent Credit Administration department to assure consistency across the Company.
The allowance for loan losses consists of specific allowances attributed to impaired loans that have not yet been charged down to amounts we expect to recover, general allowances based on estimated loss rates by loan class and nonspecific allowances based on factors that affect more than one portfolio segment. There were no changes to the methodology for estimating general allowances during 2018 or 2017.
Loans are considered to be impaired when it becomes probable that BOK Financial will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreements. Internally risk graded loans are evaluated individually for impairment. Substantially all commercial and commercial real estate loans and certain residential mortgage and personal loans are risk graded based on a quarterly evaluation of the borrowers' ability to repay. Certain commercial loans and most residential mortgage and personal loans are small balance, homogeneous pools of loans that are not risk graded. Non-risk graded loans are identified as impaired based on performance status. Generally, non-risk graded loans 90 days or more past due, modified in a troubled debt restructuring or in bankruptcy are considered to be impaired.
Specific allowances for impaired loans are measured by an evaluation of estimated future cash flows discounted at the loan's initial effective interest rate or the fair value of collateral for certain collateral dependent loans. The fair value of real property held as collateral is generally based on third party appraisals that conform to Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice, less estimated selling costs. Appraised values are on an “as-is” basis and generally are not adjusted by the Company. Updated appraisals are obtained at least annually or more frequently if market conditions indicate collateral values may have declined. Collateral value of mineral rights is generally determined by our internal staff of engineers based on projected cash flows from proven oil and gas reserves under existing economic and operating conditions. The value of other collateral is generally determined by our special assets staff based on projected liquidation cash flows under current market conditions. Collateral values and available cash resources that support impaired loans are evaluated quarterly. Historical statistics may be used as a practical way to estimate impairment in limited situations, such as when a collateral dependent loan is identified as impaired at the end of a reporting period until an appraisal of collateral value is received or a full assessment of future cash flows is completed. Estimates of future cash flows and collateral values require significant judgments and may be volatile.
General allowances for unimpaired loans are based on an estimated loss rate by loan class. The appropriate historical gross loss rate for each loan class is determined by the greater of the current loss rate based on the most recent twelve months or a ten-year average gross loss rate. Recoveries are not directly considered in the estimation of historical loss rates. Recoveries generally do not follow predictable patterns and are not received until well-after the charge-off date as a result of protracted legal actions. For risk graded loans, historical gross loss rates are adjusted for changes in risk grading. For each loan class, the current weighted average risk grade is compared to the long-term weighted average risk grade. This comparison determines whether credit risk in each loan class is increasing or decreasing. Historical loss rates are adjusted upward or downward in proportion to changes in average risk grading. General allowances for unimpaired loans also consider inherent risks identified for each loan class. Inherent risks consider loss rates that most appropriately represent the current credit cycle and other factors attributable to a specific loan class which have not yet been represented in the historical gross loss rates or risk grading. These factors include changes in commodity prices or engineering imprecision which may affect the value of reserves that secure our energy loan portfolio, construction risk that may affect commercial real estate loans, changes in regulations and public policy that may disproportionately impact health care loans and changes in loan products.
Nonspecific allowances are maintained for risks beyond factors specific to a particular portfolio segment or loan class. These factors include trends in the economy in our primary lending areas, concentration in large-balance loans and other relevant factors.
An accrual for off-balance sheet credit risk is included in Other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The appropriateness of the accrual is determined in the same manner as the allowance for loan losses.
A provision for credit losses is charged against or credited to earnings in amounts necessary to maintain an appropriate Allowance for Credit Losses. Recoveries of loans previously charged off are added to the allowance when received.
Real Estate and Other Repossessed Assets
Real estate and other repossessed assets are acquired in partial or total forgiveness of loans. These assets are initially recognized at cost, which is determined by fair value at date of foreclosure less estimated disposal costs. They are subsequently carried at the lower of cost or current fair value less estimated disposal costs. Decreases in fair value below cost are recognized as asset-specific valuation allowances which may be reversed when supported by future increases in fair value. Subsequent increases in fair value may be used to reduce the allowance but not below zero.
Fair values of real estate are based on “as is” appraisals which are updated at least annually or more frequently for certain asset types or assets located in certain distressed markets. Fair values based on appraisals are generally considered to be based on significant other observable inputs. The Company also considers decreases in listing price and other relevant information in quarterly evaluations and reduces the carrying value of real estate and other repossessed assets when necessary. Fair values based on list prices and other relevant information are generally considered to be based on significant unobservable inputs. Additional costs incurred to complete real estate and other repossessed assets may increase the carrying value, up to current fair value based on “as completed” appraisals. The fair value of mineral rights included in repossessed assets are generally determined by our internal staff of engineers based on projected cash flows from proven oil and gas reserves under existing economic and operating conditions. The value of other repossessed assets is generally determined by our special assets staff based on projected liquidation cash flows under current market conditions.
Income generated by these assets is recognized as received. Operating expenses are recognized as incurred. Gains or losses on sales of real estate and other repossessed assets are based on the cash proceeds received less the cost basis of the asset, net of any valuation allowances. The estimated disposal costs of real estate and other repossessed assets are evaluated by the Company on an annual basis based on actual results.
Transfers of Financial Assets
BOK Financial regularly transfers financial assets as part of its mortgage banking activities and periodically may transfer other financial assets. Transfers are recorded as sales when the criteria for surrender of control are met.
The Company has elected to carry certain residential mortgage loans held for sale at fair value under the fair value option. Changes in fair value are recognized in net income as they occur. These loans are reported separately in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and changes in fair value are recorded in Other Operating Revenue - Mortgage banking revenue in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings.
Fair value of conforming residential mortgage loans that will be sold to U.S. government agencies is based on sales commitments or market quotes considered Level 2 inputs. Fair value of mortgage loans that are unable to be sold to U.S. government agencies is based on Level 3 inputs using quoted prices of loans that are sold in securitization transactions with a liquidity discount applied. The fair value is corroborated with an independent third party on at least an annual basis.
BOK Financial retains a repurchase obligation under underwriting representations and warranties related to residential mortgage loans transferred and generally retains the right to service the loans. The Company may incur a recourse obligation in limited circumstances. Separate accruals are recognized in Other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets for repurchase and recourse obligations. These reserves reflect the estimated amount of probable loss the Company will incur as a result of repurchasing a loan, indemnifications, and other settlement resolutions.
Repurchases of loans with an origination defect that are also credit impaired are considered collateral dependent and are initially recognized at net realizable value (appraised value less the cost to sell). The difference between unpaid principal balance and net realizable value is not accreted. Repurchases of loans with an origination defect that are not credit impaired are carried at fair value as of the repurchase date. Interest income continues to accrue on these loans and the discount is accreted over the estimated life of the loan.
The Company may also choose to purchase GNMA loans once certain mandated delinquency criteria are met. The loans that are eligible and are chosen to be repurchased are initially recognized at fair value based on expected cash flow discounted using the average agency guaranteed debenture rates, average actual principal loss rates and liquidity premium.
Mortgage Servicing Rights
Mortgage servicing rights may be purchased or may be recognized when mortgage loans are originated and sold with servicing rights retained. All mortgage servicing rights are carried at fair value. Changes in the fair value are recognized in earnings as they occur.
Mortgage servicing rights are not traded in active markets. A cash flow model is used to determine fair value. Key assumptions and estimates, including projected prepayment speeds and assumed servicing costs, earnings on escrow deposits, ancillary income and discount rates, used by this model are based on current market sources. Assumptions used to value mortgage servicing rights are considered significant unobservable inputs. A separate third-party model is used to estimate prepayment speeds based on interest rates, housing turnover rates, estimated loan curtailment, anticipated defaults and other relevant factors. The prepayment model is updated daily for changes in market conditions and adjusted to better correlate with actual performance of BOK Financial's servicing portfolio. Fair value estimates from outside sources are received at least annually to corroborate the results of the valuation model.
Premises and Equipment
Premises and equipment are carried at cost, including capitalized interest when appropriate, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets or, for leasehold improvements, over the shorter of the estimated useful lives or remaining lease terms. Useful lives range from 5 years to 40 years for buildings and improvements, 3 years to 10 years for software and related implementation costs, and 3 years to 10 years for furniture and equipment. Construction in progress represents facilities construction and data processing systems projects underway that have not yet been placed into service. Depreciation and amortization begin once the assets are placed into service.
Repair and maintenance costs, including software maintenance and enhancement costs, are charged to expense as incurred. Software licensing costs are generally charged to expense as incurred. Software licensing costs are capitalized if the contractual right to take possession of the software exists and it is feasible to take possession without significant penalty. Capitalized costs are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the software or remaining contractual life of the license.
Premises no longer used by the Company are transferred to real estate and other repossessed assets. The transferred amount is the lower of cost less accumulated depreciation or fair value less estimated disposal costs as of the transfer date.
Rent expense for leased premises is recognized as incurred over the lease term. The effects of rent holidays, significant rent escalations and other adjustments to rent payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Ongoing technology projects of significant size or length are reviewed at least annually for impairment. Accumulated costs are reviewed for projects or components of projects that do not support the value of the asset being developed. Findings of obsolescence, duplicate effort or other conditions that do not support the recorded value are impaired, with the cost of the impaired components being charged to current-year earnings.
Federal and State Income Taxes
BOK Financial and its subsidiaries file consolidated tax returns. The subsidiaries provide for income taxes on a separate return basis and remit to BOK Financial amounts determined to be currently payable. BOK Financial is agent for its subsidiaries under the Company's tax sharing agreements and has no ownership rights to any refunds received for the benefit of its subsidiaries.
Current income tax expense or benefit is based on an evaluation that considers estimated taxable income, tax credits, and statutory federal and state income tax rates. The amount of current income tax expense or benefit recognized in any period may differ from amounts reported to taxing authorities. Annually, tax returns are filed with each jurisdiction where the Company conducts business and recognized current income tax expense or benefit is adjusted to the filed tax returns.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are based upon the temporary differences between the values of assets and liabilities as recognized in the financial statements and their related tax basis using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in statutory tax rates on the measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized through income tax expense in the period the change is enacted. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion of the entire deferred tax asset may not be realized.
BOK Financial has unrecognized tax benefits, which are included in accrued current income taxes payable, for the uncertain portion of recorded tax benefits and related interest. These uncertainties result from the application of complex tax laws, rules, regulations and interpretations, primarily in state taxing jurisdictions. Unrecognized tax benefits are assessed quarterly and may be adjusted through current income tax expense in future periods based on changing facts and circumstances, completion of examinations by taxing authorities or expiration of a statute of limitations. Estimated penalties and interest on uncertain tax positions are recognized in income tax expense.
Employee Benefit Plans
BOK Financial sponsors a defined contribution plan (“Thrift Plan”) and a defined benefit cash balance pension plan (“Pension Plan”). Employer contributions to the Thrift Plan, which matches employee contributions subject to percentage and years of service limits, are expensed when incurred. Pension Plan costs, which are based upon actuarial computations of current costs, are expensed annually. Pension Plan benefits were curtailed as of April 1, 2006. No participants may be added to the Pension Plan and no additional service benefits will be accrued. BOK Financial recognizes the funded status of its employee benefit plans. Adjustments required to recognize the Pension Plan's net funded status are made through accumulated other comprehensive income, net of deferred income taxes.
Share-Based Compensation Plans
BOK Financial awards stock options and non-vested common shares as compensation to certain officers. Compensation cost is generally fixed based on the grant date fair value of the award. The grant date fair value of stock options is based on the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Stock options generally have graded vesting over 7 years. Each tranche is considered a separate award for valuation and compensation cost recognition. Grant date fair value of non-vested shares is based on the then-current market value of BOK Financial common stock. Non-vested shares generally cliff vest in 3 years and are subject to a holding period after vesting of 2 years. Compensation cost of non-vested shares granted under the Executive Incentive Plan varies based on changes in the fair value of BOKF common shares.
Compensation cost is recognized as expense over the service period, which is generally the vesting period. Expense is reduced for estimated forfeitures over the vesting period and adjusted for actual forfeitures as they occur. Stock-based compensation awarded to certain officers has performance conditions that affect the number of awards granted. Compensation cost is adjusted based on the probable outcome of the performance conditions.
Tax effects of share-based payments are recognized through tax expense. Dividends on non-vested shares that are not subject to forfeiture are charged to retained earnings.
Other Operating Revenue
Fees and commissions revenue is generated through the sales of products, consisting primarily of financial instruments, and the performance of services for customers under contractual obligations. Revenue from providing services for customers is recognized at the time services are provided in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to for those services. Revenue is recognized based on the application of five steps:
Identify the contract with a customer
Identify the performance obligations in the contract
Determine the transaction price
Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
Recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation
For contracts with multiple performance obligations, individual performance obligations are accounted for separately if the customer can benefit from the good or service on its own or with other resources readily available to the customer and the promise to transfer goods and services to the customer is separately identifiable in the contract. The transaction price is allocated to the performance obligations based on relative standalone selling prices.
Revenue is recognized on a gross basis whenever we have primary responsibility and risk in providing the services or products to our customers and have discretion in establishing the price for the services or products. Revenue is recognized on a net basis whenever we act as an agent for products or services of others.
Brokerage and trading revenue includes revenues from trading, customer hedging, retail brokerage and investment banking. Trading revenue includes net realized and unrealized gains primarily related to sales of securities to institutional customers and related derivative contracts. Customer hedging revenue includes realized and unrealized changes in the fair value of derivative contracts held for customer risk management programs including credit valuation adjustments, as necessary. We offer commodity, interest rate, foreign exchange and equity derivatives to our customers. These customer contracts are offset with contracts with selected counterparties and exchanges to minimize changes in market risk from changes in commodity prices, interest rates or foreign exchange rates. Retail brokerage revenue represents fees and commissions earned on sales of fixed income securities, annuities, mutual funds and other financial instruments to retail customers. Investment banking revenue includes fees earned upon completion of underwriting and financial advisory services. Investment banking revenue also includes fees earned in conjunction with loan syndications.
Transaction card revenue includes merchant discount fees and electronic funds transfer network fees, net of interchange fees paid to card issuers and assessments paid to card networks. Merchant discount fees represent fees paid by customers for account management and electronic processing of card transactions. Merchant discount fees are recognized at the time the customer’s transactions are processed or other services are performed. The Company also maintains the TransFund electronic funds transfer network for the benefit of its members, which includes the BOKF, NA. Electronic funds transfer fees are recognized as electronic transactions processed on behalf of its members.
Fiduciary and asset management revenue includes fees from asset management, custody, recordkeeping, investment advisory and administration services. Revenue is recognized on an accrual basis at the time the services are performed and may be based on either the fair value of the account or the service provided.
Deposit service charges and fees include commercial account service charges, overdraft fees, check card fee revenue and automated service charge and other deposit service fees. Fees are recognized at least quarterly in accordance with published deposit account agreements and disclosure statements for retail accounts or contractual agreements for commercial accounts. Item charges for overdraft or non-sufficient funds items are recognized as items are presented for payment. Account balance charges and activity fees are accrued monthly and collected in arrears. Commercial account activity fees may be offset by an earnings credit based on account balances. Check card fees represent interchange fees paid by a merchant bank for transactions processed from cards issued by the Company. Check card fees are recognized when transactions are processed.
Mortgage banking revenue includes revenues recognized in conjunction with the origination, marketing and servicing of conventional and government-sponsored residential mortgage loans. Mortgage production revenue includes net realized gains (losses) on sales of residential mortgage loans in the secondary market and the net change in unrealized gains (losses) on residential mortgage loans held for sale. Mortgage production revenue also includes changes in the fair value of derivative contracts not designated as hedging instruments related to residential mortgage loan commitments and forward sales contracts. Mortgage servicing revenue includes servicing fee income and late charges on loans serviced for others.
Newly Adopted and Pending Accounting Pronouncements
The following is a summary of newly adopted and pending accounting pronouncements that may have a more than insignificant effect on the Company's financial statements.
Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB")
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASU 2014-09")
On May 28, 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09 to clarify the principles for recognizing revenue by providing a more robust framework that will give greater consistency and comparability in revenue recognition practices. In the new framework, an entity recognizes revenue in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for goods or services. The new model requires the identification of performance obligations included in contracts with customers, a determination of the transaction price and an allocation of the price to those performance obligations. The entity recognizes revenue when performance obligations are satisfied. Revenue from financial assets and liabilities is explicitly excluded from the scope of ASU 2014-09. Management adopted the standard in the first quarter of 2018 using the modified retrospective transition method. There were no significant cumulative effect adjustments as a result of implementation as of January 1, 2018 as our current revenue recognition policies generally conformed with the principals in ASU 2014-09.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net) ("ASU 2016-08")
On March 17, 2016, the FASB Issued ASU 2016-08 to amend the principal versus agent implementation guidance in ASU 2014-09. The ASU clarifies that an entity should evaluate whether it is the principal or the agent for each specified good or service promised in a contract with a customer. Management adopted the standard in the first quarter of 2018. Interchange fees paid to issuing banks for card transactions processed related to its merchant processing services previously included in data processing and communication expense are now netted against the amounts charged to the merchant in transaction card processing revenue.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities ("ASU 2016-01")
On January 5, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01 over the recognition and measurement of financial assets and liabilities. The update requires equity investments, in general, to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. It also eliminates the requirement to disclose the methods and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value for financial instruments measured at amortized cost, requires entities to use the exit price notion when measuring fair value, requires an entity to present separately in other comprehensive income the portion of the total change in fair value of a liability resulting from a change in the instrument-specific credit risk when the fair value option has been elected, requires separate presentation of financial assets and liabilities by measurement category and form on the balance sheet or accompanying notes, clarifies that an entity should evaluate the need for a valuation allowance on a deferred tax asset related to available-for-sale securities in combination with the entity's other deferred tax assets, and simplifies the impairment assessment of equity investments without readily determinable fair values. Management adopted the standard in the first quarter of 2018. Upon adoption, net unrealized gains of $2.7 million from equity securities were reclassified from other comprehensive income to retained earnings.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) ("ASU 2016-02")
On February 25, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 to increase transparency and comparability by recognizing lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. Lessees will be required to recognize an obligation for future lease payments measured on a discounted basis and a right-of-use asset. The ASU is effective for the Company for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. As originally issued, ASU 2016-02 required implementation through the modified transition method applied as of the earliest period presented in the financial statements. In 2018 an additional and optional transition method that allows entities to apply the standard as of the adoption date was approved. BOKF elected this optional transition method. BOKF elected all practical expedients other than the lessee's practical expedient to combine lease and non-lease components which would further gross up the lease liability and related right of use asset. The implementation of ASU 2016-02 increased the reported right of use assets and liabilities by approximately $137 million. The effect on retained earnings was immaterial.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Assets Measured at Amortized Cost ("ASU 2016-13")
On June 16, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13 in order to provide more timely recording of credit losses on loans and other financial instruments. The ASU adds an impairment model (known as the current expected credit loss ("CECL") model) that is based on expected credit losses rather than incurred credit losses. It requires measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets carried at amortized cost, including loans and related off-balance sheet credit exposure and investment securities, based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. ASU 2016-13 also changes the recognition of other-than-temporary impairment of available for sale securities to an allowance methodology from a direct write-down methodology. ASU 2016-13 will be effective for the Company for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. ASU 2016-13 will be applied through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective.
The Company has established a CECL implementation team in order to evaluate the impact the adoption of ASU 2016-13 will have on the Company's financial statements. The CECL implementation team, overseen by the Chief Credit Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and Chief Risk Officer, has developed a project plan that incorporates input from various departments within the bank including Credit, Financial Reporting, Risk, and Information Technology among others. Key implementation activities for 2018 included portfolio segmentation, credit risk driver identification, model development, as well as process and information systems enhancements. Key implementation initiatives for 2019 include model validation and development of governance and control and disclosure frameworks. The Company will adopt the standard on January 1, 2020.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments ("ASU 2016-15")
On August 26, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, which amends guidance in ASC 230 on the classification of certain cash receipts and payments in the statement of cash flows. The amendments address eight cash flow issues. Management adopted the standard in first quarter of 2018. Adoption of ASU 2016-15 did not have a material impact on the Company's financial statements.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities ("ASU 2017-12")
On August 28, 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, which amends the hedge accounting recognition and presentation requirements in ASC 815 in order to improve transparency and understandability of information and reduce the complexity. The update expands the types of transactions eligible for hedge accounting, eliminates the requirement to separately measure and present hedge ineffectiveness, simplifies hedge effectiveness assessments and updates documentation and presentation requirements. The update allows the reclassification of certain debt securities from held to maturity to available for sale if the debt security is eligible to be hedged under the last-of-layer method. ASU 2017-12 is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods therein; however, early adoption was permitted. Adoption of ASU 2017-12 had no material impact on the Company's financial statements.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2018-05, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (SAB 118).
On March 13, 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-05, which adds SEC guidance related to SAB 118 - Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. ASU 2018-05 was effective upon issuance. The adoption of ASU 2018-05 has not had a significant impact in 2018.
FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract ("ASU 2018-15")
On August 29, 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, which requires a customer in a cloud hosting arrangement that is a service contract to follow the internal use software requirements in ASC 350-40 to determine which implementation costs to capitalize or expense as incurred. Internal use software guidance requires the capitalization of costs incurred during the development phase. Capitalized costs will be amortized over the term of the hosting arrangement beginning when the arrangement is ready for its intended use. ASU 2018-15 is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019; however, early adoption is permitted. The Company elected to early adopt the update prospectively in third quarter of 2018. The adoption of ASU 2018-15 has not had a significant impact in 2018.