|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accounting and reporting policies of the Corporation conform to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and to general practice within the financial services industry. The following is a description of the more significant of those policies.
Associated Banc-Corp (individually referred to herein as the "Parent Company" and together with all of its subsidiaries and affiliates, collectively referred to herein as the "Corporation") is a bank holding company headquartered in Wisconsin. The Corporation provides a full range of banking and related financial services to consumer and commercial customers through its network of bank and nonbank subsidiaries. The Corporation is subject to competition from other financial and non-financial institutions that offer similar or competing products and services. The Corporation is regulated by federal and state agencies and is subject to periodic examinations by those agencies.
Basis of Financial Statement Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Parent Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Investments in unconsolidated entities (none of which are considered to be variable interest entities in which the Corporation is the primary beneficiary) are accounted for using the cost method of accounting when the Corporation has determined that the cost method is appropriate. Investments not meeting the criteria for cost method accounting are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Investments in unconsolidated entities are included in other assets, and the Corporation’s share of income or loss is recorded in other noninterest income, while distributions in excess of the investment are recorded in gain on assets.
All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the balance sheet and revenues and expenses for the period. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates. Estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change include the determination of the allowance for loan losses, goodwill impairment assessment, mortgage servicing rights valuation, and income taxes. Management has evaluated subsequent events for potential recognition or disclosure.
Securities are classified as held to maturity or available for sale at the time of purchase. Investment securities classified as held to maturity, which management has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity, are reported at amortized cost. Investment securities classified as available for sale, which management has the intent and ability to hold for an indefinite period of time, but not necessarily to maturity, are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, net of related deferred income taxes, included in stockholders’ equity as a separate component of other comprehensive income. Any decision to sell investment securities available for sale would be based on various factors, including, but not limited to, asset / liability management strategies, changes in interest rates or prepayment risks, liquidity needs, or regulatory capital considerations. Realized gains or losses on investment security sales (using specific identification method) are included in investment securities gains (losses), net, in the consolidated statements of income. Premiums and discounts are amortized or accreted into interest income over the estimated life (earlier of call date, maturity, or estimated life) of the related security, using a prospective method that approximates level yield.
In certain situations, management may elect to transfer certain investment securities from the available for sale classification to the held to maturity classification. In such cases, the investment securities are reclassified at fair value at the time of transfer. Any unrealized gain or loss included in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) at the time of transfer is retained therein and amortized over the remaining life of the investment security as an adjustment to yield.
Declines in the fair value of investment securities (with certain exceptions for debt securities noted below) that are deemed to be other-than-temporary are charged to earnings as a realized loss, and a new cost basis for the investment security is established. In evaluating other-than-temporary impairment, management considers the length of time and extent to which the security has been in an unrealized loss position, changes in security ratings, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer, as well as security and industry specific economic conditions. In addition, the Corporation considers the intent and ability to retain its investment in the issuer for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value in the near term. Declines in the fair value of debt securities below amortized cost are deemed to be other-than-temporary in circumstances where: (1) the Corporation has the intent to sell a security; (2) it is more likely than not that the Corporation will be required to sell the security
before recovery of its amortized cost basis; or (3) the Corporation does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security. If the Corporation intends to sell a security or if it is more likely than not that the Corporation will be required to sell the security before recovery, an other-than-temporary impairment write-down is recognized in earnings equal to the difference between the security’s amortized cost basis and its fair value. If an entity does not intend to sell the security or it is more likely than not that it will not be required to sell the security before recovery, the other-than-temporary impairment write-down is separated into an amount representing credit loss, which is recognized in earnings, and an amount related to all other factors, which is recognized in other comprehensive income. Declines in value determined to be other-than-temporary are included in investment securities gains (losses), net, in the consolidated statements of income. See Note 3 for additional information on investment securities.
Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) and Federal Reserve Bank Stocks
The Corporation is required to maintain Federal Reserve stock and FHLB stock as a member of both the Federal Reserve System and the FHLB, and in amounts as required by these institutions. These equity securities are “restricted” in that they can only be sold back to the respective institutions or another member institution at par. Therefore, they are less liquid than other marketable equity securities and their fair value is equal to amortized cost. See Note 3 for additional information on the FHLB and Federal Reserve Bank Stocks.
Loans Held for Sale
Residential Loans Held for Sale: Loans held for sale, which consist generally of current production of certain fixed-rate, first-lien residential mortgage loans, are now carried at estimated fair value. Effective January 1, 2017, management elected the fair value option to account for all newly originated mortgage loans held for sale which results in the financial impact of changing market conditions being reflected currently in earnings as opposed to being dependent upon the timing of sales. The estimated fair value was based on what secondary markets are currently offering for portfolios with similar characteristics, which the Corporation classifies as a Level 2 fair value measurement.
Commercial Loans Held for Sale: Loans held for sale are carried at the lower of cost or estimated fair value. The estimated fair value is based on a discounted cash flow analysis, which the Corporation classifies as a Level 2 nonrecurring fair value measurement.
Loans that management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future or until maturity or pay-off are reported at their outstanding principal balances, net of any deferred fees and costs on originated loans. Origination fee income received on loans and amounts representing the estimated direct costs of origination are deferred and amortized to interest income over the life of the loan using the effective interest method. An allowance for loan losses is established for estimated credit losses in the loan portfolio. See Allowance for Loan Losses below for further policy discussion.
Nonaccrual Loans: Management considers a loan to be impaired when it is probable that the Corporation will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the original contractual terms of the note agreement, including both principal and interest. This determination is based on management's review of current information and other events regarding the borrowers’ ability to repay their obligations. Management has determined that commercial and consumer loan relationships that have nonaccrual status or have had their terms restructured in a troubled debt restructuring meet this impaired loan definition.
Interest income on loans is based on the principal balance outstanding computed using the effective interest method. The accrual of interest income for commercial loans is discontinued when there is a clear indication that the borrower’s cash flow may not be sufficient to meet payments as they become due, while the accrual of interest income for consumer loans is discontinued when loans reach specific delinquency levels. Loans are considered past due if the required principal and interest payments have not been received as of the date such payments were due. Loans are generally placed on nonaccrual status when contractually past due 90 days or more as to interest or principal payments, unless the loan is well secured and in the process of collection. Additionally, whenever management becomes aware of facts or circumstances that may adversely impact the collectability of principal or interest on loans, it is management’s practice to place such loans on a nonaccrual status immediately, rather than delaying such action until the loans become 90 days past due. When a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, previously accrued and uncollected interest is reversed, amortization of related deferred loan fees or costs is suspended, and income is recorded only to the extent that interest payments are subsequently received in cash and a determination has been made that the principal and interest of the loan is collectible. If collectability of the principal and interest is in doubt, payments received are applied to loan principal.
While a loan is in nonaccrual status, some or all of the cash interest payments received may be treated as interest income on a cash basis as long as the remaining recorded investment in the loan (i.e., after charge off of identified losses, if any) is deemed to be fully collectible. The determination as to the ultimate collectability of the loan's remaining recorded investment must be supported by a current, well documented credit evaluation of the borrower’s financial condition and prospects for repayment, including consideration of the borrower’s sustained historical repayment performance and other relevant factors. A nonaccrual loan is returned
to accrual status when all delinquent principal and interest payments become current in accordance with the terms of the loan agreement, the borrower has demonstrated a period of sustained repayment performance, and the ultimate collectability of the total contractual principal and interest is no longer in doubt. A sustained period of repayment performance generally would be a minimum of six months. See Note 4 for additional information on loans.
Troubled Debt Restructurings (“Restructured Loans”): Loans are considered restructured loans if concessions have been granted to borrowers that are experiencing financial difficulty. The concessions granted generally involve the modification of terms of the loan, such as changes in payment schedule or interest rate, which generally would not otherwise be considered. Restructured loans can involve loans remaining on nonaccrual, moving to nonaccrual, or continuing on accrual status, depending on the individual facts and circumstances of the borrower. Nonaccrual restructured loans are included and treated with all other nonaccrual loans. In addition, all accruing restructured loans are reported as troubled debt restructurings, which are considered and accounted for as impaired loans. Generally, restructured loans remain on nonaccrual until the customer has attained a sustained period of repayment performance under the modified loan terms (generally a minimum of six months). However, performance prior to the restructuring, or significant events that coincide with the restructuring, are considered in assessing whether the borrower can meet the new terms and whether the loan should be returned to or maintained on accrual status. If the borrower’s ability to meet the revised payment schedule is not reasonably assured, the loan remains on nonaccrual status. See Note 4 for additional information on restructured loans.
Allowance for Loan Losses: The allowance for loan losses is a reserve for estimated credit losses on individually evaluated loans determined to be impaired as well as estimated credit losses inherent in the loan portfolio, and is based on quarterly evaluations of the collectability and historical loss experience of loans. Actual credit losses, net of recoveries, are deducted from the allowance for loan losses. A provision for loan losses, which is a charge against earnings, is recorded to bring the allowance for loan losses to a level that, in management’s judgment, is appropriate to absorb probable losses in the loan portfolio.
The methodology applied by the Corporation, designed to assess the appropriateness of the allowance for loan losses, is based upon management’s ongoing review and grading of the loan portfolio into criticized loan categories (defined as specific loans warranting either specific allocation, or a criticized status of special mention, substandard, doubtful, or loss). The methodology also focuses on evaluation of several factors, including but not limited to: evaluation of facts and issues related to specific loans, management’s ongoing review and grading of the loan portfolio, consideration of historical loan loss and delinquency experience on each portfolio category, trends in past due and nonaccrual loans, the level of potential problem loans, the risk characteristics of the various classifications of loans, changes in the size and character of the loan portfolio, concentrations of loans to specific borrowers or industries, existing economic conditions, the fair value of underlying collateral, and other qualitative and quantitative factors which could affect potential credit losses. Because each of the criteria used is subject to change, the analysis of the allowance for loan losses is not necessarily indicative of the trend of future loan losses in any particular loan category. The total allowance for loan losses is available to absorb losses from any segment of the loan portfolio.
When an individual loan is determined to be impaired, the allowance for loan losses attributable to the loan is allocated based on management’s estimate of the borrower’s ability to repay the loan given the availability of collateral, other sources of cash flows, as well as evaluation of legal options available to the Corporation. The amount of impairment is measured based upon the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, the fair value of the underlying collateral less applicable selling costs, or the observable market price of the loan. If foreclosure is probable or the loan is collateral dependent, impairment is measured using the fair value of the loan’s collateral, less costs to sell. Large groups of homogeneous loans, such as residential mortgage, home equity, and other consumer, are collectively evaluated for impairment.
Management believes that the level of the allowance for loan losses is appropriate. While management uses currently available information to recognize losses on loans, future adjustments to the allowance for loan losses may be necessary based on newly received appraisals, updated commercial customer financial statements, rapidly deteriorating cash flow, and changes in economic conditions that affect our customers. In addition, various regulatory agencies, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review the Corporation’s allowance for loan losses. Such agencies may require additions to the allowance for loan losses or may require that certain loan balances be charged off or downgraded into criticized loan categories when their credit evaluations differ from those of management based on their judgments about information available to them at the time of their examinations. See Loans and Troubled Debt Restructurings above for further policy discussion and see Note 4 for additional information on the allowance for loan losses.
Other Real Estate Owned
Other real estate owned is included in other assets in the consolidated balance sheets and is comprised of property acquired through a foreclosure proceeding or acceptance of a deed-in-lieu of foreclosure, and loans classified as in-substance foreclosure. Other real estate owned is recorded at the fair value of the underlying property collateral, less estimated selling costs. This fair value becomes the new cost basis for the foreclosed asset. The initial write-down, if any, will be recorded as a charge off against the
allowance for loan losses. Any subsequent write-downs to reflect current fair value, as well as gains and losses on disposition and revenues and expenses incurred in maintaining such properties, are expensed as incurred. Other real estate owned also includes bank premises formerly but no longer used for banking as well as property originally acquired for future expansion but no longer intended to be used for that purpose. Banking premises are transferred at the lower of carrying value or fair value, less estimated selling costs and any write-down is expensed as incurred.
Allowance for Unfunded Commitments
The allowance for unfunded commitments is maintained at a level believed by management to be sufficient to absorb estimated probable losses related to unfunded credit facilities (including unfunded loan commitments and letters of credit) and is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for unfunded commitments is based upon an evaluation of the unfunded credit facilities, including an assessment of historical commitment utilization experience and credit risk grading of the loan. Net adjustments to the allowance for unfunded commitments are included in the provision for credit losses in the consolidated statements of income. See Note 4 and Note 16 for additional information on the allowance for unfunded commitments.
Mortgage Repurchase Reserve
The Corporation sells residential mortgage loans to investors in the normal course of business. Residential mortgage loans sold to investors are predominantly conventional residential first lien mortgages originated under the usual underwriting procedures, and are most often sold on a nonrecourse basis, primarily to the Government Sponsored Enterprises ("GSE"). The Corporation’s agreements to sell residential mortgage loans usually require certain representations and warranties on the underlying loans sold, related to credit information, loan documentation, collateral, and insurability, which if subsequently untrue or breached, could require the Corporation to indemnify or repurchase certain loans affected. To a much lesser degree, the Corporation may sell residential mortgage loans with limited recourse (limited in that the recourse period ends prior to the loan’s maturity, usually after certain time and / or loan paydown criteria have been met), whereby indemnification or repurchase could be required if the loan had defined delinquency issues during the limited recourse periods. The balance in the repurchase reserve at the balance sheet date reflects the estimated amount of potential loss the Corporation could incur from repurchasing a loan (“put back” requests), as well as loss reimbursements, indemnification, and other settlement resolutions (“make whole” payments). See Note 16 for additional information on the mortgage repurchase reserve.
Premises and Equipment and Software
Premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are computed on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets or the lease term. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, while additions or major improvements are capitalized and depreciated over the estimated useful lives. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the lease terms or the estimated useful lives of the improvements. Software, included in other assets in the consolidated balance sheets, is amortized on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the contract terms or the estimated useful life of the software. See Note 6 for additional information on premises and equipment.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets: The excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the net assets acquired consists primarily of goodwill, core deposit intangibles, and other identifiable intangibles (primarily related to customer relationships acquired). Core deposit intangibles have estimated finite lives and are amortized on an accelerated basis to expense over a 10-year period. The other intangibles have estimated finite lives and are amortized on an accelerated basis to expense over their weighted average life (a weighted average life of 11 years for 2017 and 12 years for 2016). The Corporation reviews long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles for impairment at least annually, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, in which case an impairment charge would be recorded.
Goodwill is not amortized but, instead, is subject to impairment tests on at least an annual basis, and more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. The impairment testing process is conducted by assigning net assets and goodwill to each reporting unit. An initial qualitative evaluation is made to assess the likelihood of impairment and determine whether further quantitative testing to calculate the fair value is necessary. When the qualitative evaluation indicates that impairment is more likely than not, quantitative testing is required whereby the fair value of each reporting unit is calculated and compared to the recorded book value, “step one.” If the calculated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is not considered impaired and “step two” is not considered necessary. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its calculated fair value, the impairment test continues (“step two”) by comparing the carrying value of the reporting unit’s goodwill to the implied fair value of goodwill. The implied fair value is computed by adjusting all assets and liabilities of the reporting unit to current fair value with the offset adjustment to goodwill.
The adjusted goodwill balance is the implied fair value of the goodwill. An impairment charge is recognized if the carrying value of goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of goodwill. See Note 5 for additional information on goodwill and other intangible assets.
Mortgage Servicing Rights: The Corporation sells residential mortgage loans in the secondary market and typically retains the right to service the loans sold. Upon sale, a mortgage servicing rights asset is capitalized, which represents the then current fair value of future net cash flows expected to be realized for performing servicing activities. Mortgage servicing rights, when purchased, are initially recorded at fair value. As the Corporation has not elected to subsequently measure any class of servicing assets under the fair value measurement method, the Corporation follows the amortization method. Mortgage servicing rights are amortized in proportion to and over the period of estimated net servicing income, and assessed for impairment at each reporting date. Mortgage servicing rights are carried at the lower of the initial capitalized amount, net of accumulated amortization, or estimated fair value, in the consolidated balance sheets.
The Corporation periodically evaluates its mortgage servicing rights asset for impairment. Impairment is assessed based on fair value at each reporting date using estimated prepayment speeds of the underlying mortgage loans serviced and stratifications based on the risk characteristics of the underlying loans (predominantly loan type and note interest rate). As mortgage interest rates fall, prepayment speeds are usually faster and the value of the mortgage servicing rights asset generally decreases, requiring additional valuation reserve. Conversely, as mortgage interest rates rise, prepayment speeds are usually slower and the value of the mortgage servicing rights asset generally increases, requiring less valuation reserve. A valuation allowance is established, through a charge to earnings, to the extent the amortized cost of the mortgage servicing rights exceeds the estimated fair value by stratification. If it is later determined that all or a portion of the temporary impairment no longer exists for a stratification, the valuation is reduced through a recovery to earnings. An other-than-temporary impairment (i.e., recoverability is considered remote when considering interest rates and loan pay off activity) is recognized as a write-down of the mortgage servicing rights asset and the related valuation allowance (to the extent a valuation allowance is available) and then against earnings. A direct write-down permanently reduces the carrying value of the mortgage servicing rights asset and valuation allowance, precluding subsequent recoveries. See Note 5 for additional information on mortgage servicing rights.
Amounts provided for income tax expense are based on income reported for financial statement purposes and do not necessarily represent amounts currently payable under tax laws. Deferred income taxes, which arise principally from temporary differences between the amounts reported in the financial statements and the tax bases of assets and liabilities, are included in the amounts provided for income taxes. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income and tax planning strategies which will create taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, the amount of taxes paid in available carryback years, projected future taxable income, and, if necessary, tax planning strategies in making this assessment.
The Corporation files a consolidated federal income tax return and separate or combined state income tax returns. Accordingly, amounts equal to tax benefits of those subsidiaries having taxable federal or state losses or credits are offset by other subsidiaries that incur federal or state tax liabilities.
It is the Corporation’s policy to provide for uncertainty in income taxes as a part of income tax expense based upon management’s assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Corporation believes it has appropriately accounted for any unrecognized tax benefits. To the extent the Corporation prevails in matters for which a liability for an unrecognized tax benefit was established or is required to pay amounts in excess of the liability established, the Corporation’s effective tax rate in a given financial statement period may be impacted. See Note 13 for additional information on income taxes.
Derivative and Hedging Activities
Derivative instruments, including derivative instruments embedded in other contracts, are carried at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets with changes in the fair value recorded to earnings or accumulated other comprehensive income, as appropriate. On the date the derivative contract is entered into, the Corporation designates the derivative as a fair value hedge (i.e., a hedge of the fair value of a recognized asset or liability), a cash flow hedge (i.e., a hedge of the variability of cash flows to be received or paid related to a recognized asset or liability), or a free-standing derivative instrument. For a derivative designated as a fair value hedge, the changes in the fair value of the derivative instrument and the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability are recognized in current period earnings as an increase or decrease to the carrying value of the hedged item on the balance sheet and in the related income statement account. For a derivative designated as a cash flow hedge, the effective portions of changes
in the fair value of a derivative instrument are recorded in other comprehensive income and the ineffective portions of changes in the fair value of a derivative instrument are recognized in current period earnings as an adjustment to the related income statement account. Amounts within accumulated other comprehensive income are reclassified into earnings in the period the hedged item affects earnings. For a derivative designated as a free-standing derivative instrument, changes in fair value are reported in current period earnings. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Corporation only had free-standing derivative instruments to facilitate customer borrowing activity. These free-standing derivative instruments included: interest rate risk management, commodity hedging, and foreign currency exchange solutions. See Note 14 for additional information on derivative and hedging activities.
The funded status of the retirement plans are recognized as an asset or liability in the consolidated balance sheets, and changes in that funded status are recognized in the year in which the changes occur through other comprehensive income. Plan assets and benefit obligations are measured as of fiscal year end. The measurement of the projected benefit obligation and pension expense involve actuarial valuation methods and the use of various actuarial and economic assumptions. The Corporation monitors the assumptions and updates them periodically. Due to the long-term nature of the pension plan obligation, actual results may differ significantly from estimations. Such differences are adjusted over time as the assumptions are replaced by facts and values are recalculated. See Note 12 for additional information on the Corporation’s retirement plans.
The fair value of stock options granted is estimated on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option pricing model, while the fair value of restricted common stock awards is their fair market value on the date of grant. The fair values of stock options and restricted stock awards are amortized as compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the grants. Expenses related to stock options and restricted stock awards are fully recognized on the date the colleague meets the definition of normal or early retirement. Compensation expense recognized is included in personnel expense in the consolidated statements of income. See Note 11 for additional information on stock-based compensation.
Comprehensive income includes all changes in stockholders’ equity during a period, except those resulting from transactions with stockholders. In addition to net income, other components of the Corporation’s comprehensive income include the after tax effect of changes in net unrealized gain / loss on securities available for sale and changes in net actuarial gain / loss on defined benefit postretirement plans. Comprehensive income is reported in the accompanying consolidated statements of changes in stockholder’s equity and consolidated statements of comprehensive income. See Note 22 for additional information on accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value represents the estimated price at which an orderly transaction to sell an asset or to transfer a liability would take place between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions (i.e., an exit price concept). As there is no active market for many of the Corporation’s financial instruments, estimates are made using discounted cash flow or other valuation techniques. Inputs into the valuation methods are subjective in nature, involve uncertainties, and require significant judgment and therefore cannot be determined with precision. Accordingly, the derived fair value estimates presented herein are not necessarily indicative of the amounts the Corporation could realize in a current market exchange. Assets and liabilities are categorized into three levels based on the markets in which the assets and liabilities are traded and the reliability of the assumptions used to determine fair value. In instances where the determination of the fair value measurement is based on inputs from different levels of the fair value hierarchy, the level in the fair value hierarchy in which the entire fair value measurement falls is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. The Corporation’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment, and considers factors specific to the asset or liability. See Note 18 for additional information on fair value measurements. Below is a brief description of each fair value level.
Level 1 — Level 1 inputs utilize quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Corporation has the ability to access.
Level 2 — Level 2 inputs are inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 2 inputs may include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, as well as inputs that are observable for the asset or liability (other than quoted prices), such as interest rates, foreign exchange rates, and yield curves that are observable at commonly quoted intervals.
Level 3 — Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability, which are typically based on an entity’s own assumptions, as there is little, if any, related market activity.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents are considered to include cash and due from banks, interest-bearing deposits in other financial institutions, federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell.
Earnings Per Common Share
Earnings per common share are calculated utilizing the two-class method. Basic earnings per common share are calculated by dividing the sum of distributed earnings to common shareholders and undistributed earnings allocated to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings per common share are calculated by dividing the sum of distributed earnings to common shareholders and undistributed earnings allocated to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding adjusted for the dilutive effect of common stock awards (outstanding stock options and unvested restricted stock awards) and common stock warrants. See Note 20 for additional information on earnings per common share.
Accounting Policy Election
Effective January 1, 2017, residential mortgage loans that are classified as held for sale are accounted using the fair value option method of accounting. Management has elected the fair value option to mitigate accounting mismatches between held for sale loan valuations and corresponding derivative commitments. Prior to January 1, 2017, residential mortgage loans that were classified as held for sale were accounted for at the lower of cost or market method of accounting.
New Accounting Pronouncements Adopted
Date of adoption
Effect on financial statements
ASU 2017-08 Receivables - Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20), Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities
The FASB issued amendments to require that certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium be amortized to the earliest call date. The amendments do not require an accounting change for securities held at a discount, which continue to be amortized to maturity.
1st Quarter 2017
The Corporation early adopted the accounting standard with no material impact on results of operations, financial position, or liquidity.
ASU 2017-03 Accounting Changes and Error Corrections (Topic 250) and Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323)
The FASB issues amendments to require, for ASUs that have not been adopted yet, registrants to determine the potential effects (if material) of those ASUs on their financial statements when adopted and include the appropriate disclosures in the financial statements. If the impact of adoption is unknown or cannot be estimated, a registrant should include a statement noting this and consider adding qualitative disclosures to the financial statements to assist the reader in evaluating the impact of the ASUs, when adopted, on the financial statements.
1st Quarter 2017
No material impact on results of operations, financial position, or liquidity.
ASU 2016-17 Consolidation (Topic 810): Interests Held through Related Parties That Are Under Common Control
The FASB issued an amendment to address how a reporting entity that is a single decision maker of a variable interest entity treats indirect interests in the entity held through related parties that are under common control with the reporting entity.
1st Quarter 2017
No material impact on results of operations, financial position, or liquidity.
ASU 2016-07 Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323): Simplifying the Transition to the Equity Method of Accounting
The FASB issued an amendment to eliminate the requirement that when an investment qualifies for use of the equity method as a result of an increase in the level of ownership interest or degree of influence, an investor must adjust the investment, results of operations, and retained earnings retroactively on a step-by-step basis as if the equity method had been in effect during all previous periods that the investment had been held. The amendment requires that the equity method investor add the cost of acquiring the additional interests in the investee to the current basis of the investor’s previously held interest and adopt the equity method of accounting as of the date the investment becomes qualified for equity method accounting. Therefore, upon qualifying for the equity method of accounting, no retroactive adjustment of the investment is required. The amendment requires that an entity that has an available-for-sale equity security that becomes qualified for the equity method of accounting recognize through earnings the unrealized holding gain or loss in accumulated other comprehensive income at the date the investment becomes qualified for use of the equity method. Entities should apply the amendment prospectively to increases in the level of ownership interest or degree of influence that result in the adoption of the equity method.
1st Quarter 2017
No material impact on results of operations, financial position, or liquidity.