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In consideration of such granted rights, Yulong WFOE agrees to provide the necessary financial support to such Yulong operating company whether or not such Yulong operating company incurs loss, and agrees not to request repayment if such Yulong operating company is unable to do so. 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Additionally, as the parent company of Yulong WFOE, the Company is considered the primary beneficiary of the Yulong operating companies. Accordingly, the Company consolidates the accounts of the Yulong operating companies for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, in accordance with Regulation S-X-3A-02 promulgated by the Securities Exchange Commission (&#8220;SEC&#8221;), and Accounting Standards Codification (&#8220;ASC&#8221;) 810-10,&#160;<i>Consolidation</i>.</font></p><p style="font: 10pt/normal 'times new roman', times, serif; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify; color: #000000; text-transform: none; text-indent: 0.5in; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: 0px; white-space: normal; widows: 1; font-stretch: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;"><font style="font: 10pt/normal 'times new roman', times, serif; font-stretch: normal;">&#160;</font></p><p style="font: 10pt/normal 'times new roman', times, serif; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify; color: #000000; text-transform: none; text-indent: 0px; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: 0px; white-space: normal; widows: 1; font-stretch: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;"><font style="font: 10pt/normal 'times new roman', times, serif; 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In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, considered necessary for a fair presentation of the financial statements have been included. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full year. The information included in this Form&#160;10-Q should be read in conjunction with information included in the Company&#8217;s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2015, that was filed with the SEC on September 28, 2015.</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;"><u>Principles of consolidation</u></font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its subsidiaries, and the VIEs. 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Significant accounting estimates reflected in the condensed consolidated financial statements include the useful lives and impairment of property, plant and equipment, collectability of receivables, realization of deferred tax assets, inventory valuation, warrant liabilities, stock-based compensation, and the present value of the net minimum lease payments of the capital lease. 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The balance sheet amounts, with the exception of equity, at March 31, 2016 and June 30, 2015 were translated at 6.45 RMB and 6.11 RMB to $1.00, respectively. The equity accounts were stated at their historical rate. The average translation rate applied to statement of income and other comprehensive income accounts for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 was 6.54 RMB and 6.12 RMB, respectively. The average translation rate applied to statement of income and other comprehensive income accounts for the nine months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 was 6.40 RMB and 6.15 RMB, respectively. 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Cash and cash equivalents also consist of funds for payment of Company expenses entrusted to the Company&#8217;s founder, which the founder agreed to convert into U.S. dollars in his personal capacity and make payments therefrom for the Company.</p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0.5in;">&#160;</p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0px; text-align: justify;">The Company entrusted RMB 3,000,000 ($465,300) to its founder. As of March 31, 2016, he converted and paid approximately RMB 194,000 ($30,000) of the Company&#8217;s U.S. expenses and returned approximately RMB 571,000 ($88,607) in unconverted funds to the Company. Subsequent to March 31, 2016, he converted and paid approximately RMB 815,000 ($126,433) of the Company&#8217;s U.S. expenses, and returned approximately RMB 1,420,000 ($220,260) of the unconverted funds to the Company.</p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify;"></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;"><u>Accounts and other receivables</u></font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">During the normal course of business, the Company extends unsecured credit to its customers and others. Management reviews its accounts and other receivables balances each reporting period to determine if an allowance for doubtful accounts is required. Customer accounts are considered past due over 90 days. An estimate for doubtful accounts is recorded when collection of the full amount is no longer probable. Bad debts are written off against the allowance after all collection efforts have ceased. 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The Company assesses the recoverability of the assets based on the undiscounted future cash flows the assets are expected to generate and recognize an impairment loss when estimated discounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset plus net proceeds expected from disposition of the asset, if any, are less than the carrying value of the asset. When the Company identifies an impairment, the Company reduce the carrying amount of the asset to its estimated fair value based on a discounted cash flows approach or, when available and appropriate, to comparable market values. 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In cases where quoted market prices are not available, fair values are based on estimates using present value or other valuation techniques. Those techniques are significantly affected by the assumptions used, including the discount rate and estimates of future cash flows. In that regard, the derived fair value estimates cannot be substantiated by comparison to independent markets and, in many cases, could not be realized in immediate settlement of the instruments. Topic 825 excludes certain financial instruments and all non-financial assets and liabilities from its disclosure requirements. 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The Company occasionally subcontracts waste hauling projects, whereby the subcontractors are the primary obligors to complete these projects, and the Company does not have any general credit risk as the services are prepaid by the customers. Sales and subcontracting costs from these subcontract arrangements are recorded at the net amount in accordance with ASC 605-45. The Company started to generate such revenue subsequent to March 31, 2016 and the amount is expected to be immaterial to the Company&#8217;s consolidated revenues for the year ending June 30, 2016.</font></td></tr></table><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;"><u>Shipping and handling</u></font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">Shipping and handling costs pertaining to raw material purchases are included in cost of revenue.</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">Shipping costs incurred in the delivery of products and depreciation expenses for transportation equipment (under Yulong Transport) are included in selling expense. 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Depreciation expense amounted to $2,919 and $40,701 for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and $43,989 and $148,399 for the nine months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;"><u>Concentration of risk</u></font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;"><i>Credit risk</i></font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-indent: 0.5in;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;"><i>&#160;</i></font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. As of March 31, 2016 and June 30, 2015, $31,275,994 and $16,393,414 were deposited with various major financial institutions located in the PRC, respectively. While management believes that these financial institutions are of high credit quality, it also continually monitors their credit worthiness. Historically, deposits in Chinese banks are secure due to state policy to protect depositor interests. However, China promulgated a Bankruptcy Law in August 2006 that came into effect on June 1, 2007, which contains a separate article expressly stating that the State Council may promulgate implementation measures to provide for the bankruptcy of Chinese banks based on the Bankruptcy Law. Under the current Bankruptcy Law, a Chinese bank may file bankruptcy if it deems itself to be insolvent. In addition, since China&#8217;s concession to the World Trade Organization, foreign banks have been gradually permitted to operate in China and have intensified competition in many aspects, especially since the opening of the RMB business to foreign banks in late 2006. Therefore, the risk of bankruptcy at the institutions that the Company maintains deposits has increased. 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For the three months ended March 31, 2015, no customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company&#8217;s total revenues. For the nine months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, no customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company&#8217;s total revenues.&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">&#160;</font></p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif; font-size: 10pt; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 1; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; font-stretch: normal; margin: 0pt; text-align: justify;"><font style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 10pt; line-height: normal; font-family: 'times new roman', times, serif;">As of March 31, 2016, three customers accounted for 15%, 14% and 10% of the Company&#8217;s total accounts receivable. 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Among other disclosures, ASC 220-10,&#160;<i>Comprehensive Income</i>, requires that all items that are required to be recognized under current accounting standards as components of comprehensive income be reported in a financial statement that is displayed with the same prominence as other financial statements. 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The Company is required to accrue for these benefits based on certain percentages of the employees&#8217; respective salaries, subject to certain ceilings, in accordance with the relevant PRC regulations, and make cash contributions to the state-sponsored plans out of the amounts accrued. 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In addition, Yulong WFOE may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to enterprise expansion fund and staff bonus and welfare fund at its discretion. The VIEs may each allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to a discretionary surplus fund at its discretion. The statutory reserve funds and the discretionary funds are not distributable as cash dividends. 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The Company determined its warrants would be recorded as derivative instruments on the issuance dates because the strike price of the warrants is denominated in US dollars, a currency other than the Company&#8217;s functional currency RMB. 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Among other disclosures, ASC 220-10,&#160;<i>Comprehensive Income</i>, requires that all items that are required to be recognized under current accounting standards as components of comprehensive income be reported in a financial statement that is displayed with the same prominence as other financial statements. 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The main objective in developing this ASU is enhancing the reporting model for financial instruments to provide users of financial statements with more decision-useful information. The amendments in this ASU address certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. For public business entities, the ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Earlier application is permitted as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption for public entities if the entity should present separately in other comprehensive income the portion of the total change in the fair value of a liability resulting from a change in the instrument-specific credit risk if the entity has elected to measure the liability at fair value in accordance with the fair value option for financial instruments. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-01 to have material impact on its financial position, results