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Section 1: 424B5 (FORM 424B5)

kim20190926_424b5.htm

 

Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration Statement No. 333-223226

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Proposed Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee(1)

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

 

$500,000,000

 

$60,600

 

(1)

Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price, and Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act. The fee payable in connection with the offering pursuant to this prospectus supplement is payable in accordance with Rule 456(b) under the Securities Act. Pursuant to Rule 457(p), the Registrant is partially offsetting the amount of the registration fee of $60,600 due under this Registration Statement. This amount represents (i) the remaining $1,082.50 of the registration fee of $3,080.47 previously paid by the Registrant with respect to the shares registered on the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-202389) by means of a prospectus supplement dated February 27, 2015 that were not sold and (ii) the remaining $24,621.05 of the registration fee of $58,100 previously paid by the Registrant with respect to the shares registered on the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-202389) by means of a prospectus supplement dated March 02, 2015 that were not sold. The balance of the registration fee, $34,896.45, is being paid herewith.

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Prospectus Supplement

(To Prospectus dated February 26, 2018)

$500,000,000

 

Common Stock

 

We have entered into an Equity Sales Agreement, dated September 27, 2019 (the “Sales Agreement”) with Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Barclays Capital Inc., BB&T Capital Markets, a division of BB&T Securities, LLC, BNY Mellon Capital Markets, LLC, BofA Securities, Inc., BTIG, LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Jefferies LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Mizuho Securities USA LLC, RBC Capital Markets, LLC, Scotia Capital (USA) Inc., TD Securities (USA) LLC, UBS Securities LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC (collectively the “Sales Agents” and each, individually, a “Sales Agent”) relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus pursuant to a continuous offering program. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock with an aggregate gross sales price of up to $500,000,000 from time to time through the Sales Agents, as our sales agents. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “KIM.”

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made in negotiated transactions, including block trades, or transactions that are deemed to be “at the market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, including sales made directly on the NYSE, sales made to or through a market maker and sales made through other securities exchanges or electronic communications networks. Accordingly, an indeterminate number of shares of our common stock may be sold up to the number of shares that will result in a gross sales price of $500,000,000 pursuant to the Sales Agreement. The Sales Agents are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock, but each Sales Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulation, to sell shares designated by us in accordance with the Sales Agreement. We will pay each Sales Agent a commission not to exceed 2% of the gross sales price of the shares of our common stock sold by such Sales Agent when acting as sales agent pursuant to this prospectus supplement. We may also sell some or all of the shares of common stock offered hereby to a Sales Agent as principal for its own account at prices agreed upon at the time of sale. The net proceeds we receive will be the gross proceeds received from such sales less the commissions or discounts, as the case may be, and any other costs we may incur in issuing the shares of our common stock. See “Plan of Distribution” for further information.

 

In order to preserve our status as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes, among other purposes, our charter imposes certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Description of Common Stock—Restrictions on Ownership” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See the information under the caption “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement and on page 3 of the accompanying prospectus, as well as the information under the caption “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, for factors you should consider before investing in our common stock.

 


 

Neither the SEC nor any state or other securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

Morgan Stanley

Barclays

BB&T Capital

Markets

BNY Mellon

Capital Markets,

LLC

BofA Merrill Lynch

BTIG

Citigroup

Deutsche Bank

Securities

Jefferies J.P. Morgan Mizuho Securities

RBC Capital Markets

Scotiabank

TD Securities

UBS Investment Bank

Wells Fargo Securities

 


 

The date of this prospectus supplement is September 27, 2019.

 

 

Table of Contents

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

Prospectus Supplement

About This Prospectus Supplement

S-i

Where You Can Find More Information

S-ii

Forward-Looking Statements

S-iii

Summary

S-1

Risk Factors

S-3

Use of Proceeds

S-6

Supplemental United States Federal Income Tax Considerations

S-7

Plan of Distribution

S-8

Legal Matters

S-10

Experts

S-10

 

Prospectus

About This Prospectus

1

Where Can You Find More Information

1

Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference

1

Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

2

The Company

3

Risk Factors

3

Use of Proceeds

3

Ratios of Earnings to Fixed Charges and Preferred Stock Dividends

3

Description of Debt Securities

4

Description of Common Stock

12

Description of Common Stock Warrants

14

Description of Preferred Stock

14

Description of Depositary Shares

16

Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

19

United States Federal Income Tax Considerations

24

Plan of Distribution

43

Experts

45

Legal Matters

45

 

 

Table of Contents

 

About This Prospectus Supplement

 

You should read this prospectus supplement along with the accompanying prospectus, as well as the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, carefully before you make a decision to invest in our common stock. These documents contain important information you should consider before making your investment decision. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain the terms of this offering of common stock. The accompanying prospectus contains information about our securities generally, some of which does not apply to the common stock offered by this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in or incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus. If the information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with any information contained in or incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus, the information in this prospectus supplement will apply and will supersede the inconsistent information contained in or incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus. Any statement contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in a document incorporated by reference herein and therein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in any subsequently filed document which also is incorporated by reference modifies or replaces such statement.

 

It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus before making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the additional information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. References to documents or information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus include documents or information deemed to be incorporated by reference herein or therein. See “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus supplement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus required to be filed with the SEC. Neither we nor the Sales Agents have authorized any other person to provide you with additional or different information. If anyone provides you with additional or different information, you should not rely on it. Neither we nor the Sales Agents are making an offer to sell the common stock in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any such free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein is accurate only as of their respective dates or such other dates as may be specified in such documents. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

As used in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, all references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Kimco,” and “the Company” mean Kimco Realty Corporation, a Maryland corporation, its consolidated subsidiaries and other entities controlled by Kimco Realty Corporation, except where it is clear from the context that the term means only the issuer of the common stock, Kimco Realty Corporation.

 

S-i

Table of Contents

 

Where You Can Find More Information

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public from commercial document retrieval services and at the web site maintained by the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. You may inspect information that we file with the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”), as well as our SEC filings, at the offices of the NYSE at 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005. 

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” certain information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to the other information we have filed with the SEC. The information that we incorporate by reference is considered a part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and information that we file later with the SEC prior to the termination of this offering of our common stock will automatically update and supersede the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”):

 

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 (filed with the SEC on February 15, 2019);

 

 

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2019 (filed with the SEC on May 3, 2019) and June 30, 2019 (filed with the SEC on July 26, 2019); and

 

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K dated April 30, 2019 (excluding the information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 and the related exhibit) (filed with the SEC on May 2, 2019), August 15, 2019 (filed with the SEC on August 15, 2019), August 15, 2019 (excluding the information furnished pursuant to Item 7.01 and the related exhibit) (filed with the SEC on August 16, 2019) and August 29, 2019 (filed with the SEC on August 29, 2019).

 

 

We are also incorporating by reference additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of this offering of our common stock, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as Proxy Statements. Any statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or in a document incorporated by reference herein or therein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in any other subsequently filed document which also is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

Documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are available from us without charge, excluding all exhibits unless we have specifically incorporated by reference the exhibit in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You may obtain documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by requesting them in writing or by telephone from:

 

Kimco Realty Corporation

3333 New Hyde Park Road

New Hyde Park, New York 11042-0020

Attn: Bruce Rubenstein, Corporate Secretary

(516) 869-9000

 

S-ii

Table of Contents

 

Forward-Looking Statements

 

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain certain “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. The Company intends such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and includes this statement for purposes of complying with the safe harbor provisions. Forward-looking statements, which are based on certain assumptions and describe the Company’s future plans, strategies and expectations, are generally identifiable by use of the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project,” “will,” “target,” “forecast” or similar expressions. You should not rely on forward-looking statements since they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which are, in some cases, beyond the Company’s control and could materially affect actual results, performances or achievements. Factors which may cause actual results to differ materially from our current expectations include, but are not limited to, those discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the following additional factors: (i) general adverse economic and local real estate conditions, (ii) the inability of major tenants to continue paying their rent obligations due to bankruptcy, insolvency or a general downturn in their business, (iii) financing risks, such as the inability to obtain equity, debt or other sources of financing or refinancing on favorable terms to the Company, (iv) the Company’s ability to raise capital by selling its assets, (v) changes in governmental laws and regulations and management’s ability to estimate the impact of such changes, (vi) the level and volatility of interest rates and management’s ability to estimate the impact thereof, (vii) risks related to the Company’s international operations, (viii) the availability of suitable acquisition, disposition, development and redevelopment opportunities, and risks related to acquisitions not performing in accordance with our expectations, (ix) valuation and risks related to the Company’s joint venture and preferred equity investments, (x) valuation of marketable securities and other investments, (xi) increases in operating costs, (xii) changes in the dividend policy for the Company’s common and preferred stock and the Company’s ability to pay dividends at current levels, (xiii) the reduction in the Company’s income in the event of multiple lease terminations by tenants or a failure by multiple tenants to occupy their premises in a shopping center, (xiv) impairment charges and (xv) unanticipated changes in the Company’s intention or ability to prepay certain debt prior to maturity and/or hold certain securities until maturity. Accordingly, there is no assurance that the Company’s expectations will be realized. Additional risk factors that we may disclose in documents that we file with the SEC that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus prior to completion of this offering could also cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations.

 

We caution readers that any such statements are based on currently available operational, financial and competitive information, and they should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s opinion only as of the date on which they were made. Except as required by law, we disclaim any obligation to review or update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances as they occur.

 

S-iii

Table of Contents

 

Summary

 

This summary highlights information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and may not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus, before making an investment decision to purchase shares of our common stock. See “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus supplement.

 

Kimco Realty Corporation

 

Kimco Realty Corporation, a Maryland corporation, is one of North America’s largest publicly-traded owners and operators of open-air shopping centers. We are a self-administered REIT and have owned and operated open-air shopping centers for more than 60 years. We have not engaged, nor do we expect to retain, any REIT advisors in connection with the operation of our properties. As of June 30, 2019, we had interests in 428 shopping center properties, aggregating 74.6 million square feet of gross leasable area (“GLA”), located in 27 states and Puerto Rico. In addition, we had 251 other property interests, primarily through our preferred equity investments and other real estate investments, totaling 4.3 million square feet of GLA. Our ownership interests in real estate consist of our consolidated portfolio and portfolios where we own an economic interest, such as properties in our investment real estate management programs, where we partner with institutional investors and also retain management.

 

Our executive offices are located at 3333 New Hyde Park Road, New Hyde Park, New York 11042-0020, and our telephone number is (516) 869-9000.

 

S-1

Table of Contents

 

The Offering

 

Common Stock Offered by Kimco

Shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, having an aggregate gross sales price of $500,000,000.

   

Manner of Offering

Sales of common stock, if any, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made in negotiated transactions, including block trades, or transactions that are deemed to be “at the market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, including sales made directly on the NYSE, sales made to or through a market maker and sales made through other securities exchanges or electronic communications networks.  The Sales Agents are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock, but each Sales Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulation, to sell shares designated by us in accordance with the Sales Agreement. We may also sell some or all of the shares of common stock offered hereby to a Sales Agent as principal for its own account. See “Plan of Distribution.”

   

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use any net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including, without limitation, the funding of future acquisitions, the funding of development and redevelopment costs, the redemption, from time to time, of depositary shares representing one or more class or series of our preferred stock and the reduction, from time to time, of our outstanding indebtedness, including borrowings under our revolving credit facility. Pending use of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to invest these net proceeds in short-term interest-bearing investment grade instruments. See “Use of Proceeds.”

   

NYSE Stock Exchange Symbol

KIM

 

 

Risk Factors

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement, on page 3 of the accompanying prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus prior to completion of this offering.

 

S-2

Table of Contents

 

Risk Factors

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. In consultation with your financial and legal advisers, you should carefully consider, among other matters, the risks set forth below, as well as the information under the captions “Risk Factors” on page 3 of the accompanying prospectus and “Risk Factors” disclosed in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before deciding whether an investment in our common stock is suitable for you. You should also consider any additional risk factors included in documents that we file with the SEC that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus prior to completion of this offering.

 

Anti-takeover Effect of Restrictions on Ownership

 

For us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), not more than 50% in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year. Our stock also must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. In addition, rent from related party tenants (generally, a tenant of a REIT owned, actually or constructively, 10% or more by the REIT, or a 10% owner of the REIT) is not qualifying income for purposes of the income tests under the Code.

 

Subject to the exceptions specified in our charter, no holder may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% in value of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of any currently authorized and outstanding class of our preferred stock. Our charter also contains restrictions relating to ownership of our shares which would cause our shares to be beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, cause us to be “closely held” within the meaning of the Code or otherwise result in our failure to qualify as a REIT. See “Description of Common Stock – Restrictions on Ownership” and “Description of Preferred Stock – Restrictions on Ownership” in the accompanying prospectus. These ownership limits and other provisions restricting the ownership of our common stock and preferred stock could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in control of the Company that might involve a premium price for the stock or otherwise believe to be in their best interests.

 

We could classify and reclassify unissued preferred stock and issue stock without stockholder approval.

 

Our Board of Directors has the power under our charter to authorize us to issue authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of our preferred stock into one or more classes or series of preferred stock and set the terms of such newly classified or reclassified shares. Although our Board of Directors has no such intention at the present time, it could establish a class or series of preferred stock that could, depending on the terms of such class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our securities or that our stockholders or otherwise be in the best interest of the stockholders.

 

Certain provisions of Maryland law may limit the ability of a third-party to acquire control of us.

 

Certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change of control under circumstances that otherwise could be in the best interest of our stockholders, including:

 

 

“business combination” provisions that, subject to limitations, prohibit certain business combinations between us and an “interested stockholder” (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of our shares or an affiliate thereof or an affiliate of ours who was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of our then outstanding voting stock at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question) for five years after the most recent date on which the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, and thereafter impose fair price and/or supermajority and stockholder voting requirements on these combinations; and

 

 

“control share” provisions that provide that “control shares” of the Company (defined as shares of stock that, when aggregated with other shares of stock controlled by the stockholder, entitle the stockholder to exercise or direct the exercise (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy) of one of three increasing ranges of voting power in electing directors) acquired in a “control share acquisition” (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of issued and outstanding “control shares,” subject to certain exceptions) have no voting rights except to the extent approved by our stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding all shares owned by the stockholder, by officers of us or by directors of us who are also employees.

 

We have not elected to opt-out of the business combination provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law. As permitted by the Maryland General Corporation Law, we have elected, pursuant to a provision in our bylaws, to exempt any acquisition of our stock from the control share provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law. However, our Board of Directors may by amendment to our bylaws opt into the control share provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law at any time in the future.

 

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Certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law permit our Board of Directors, without stockholder approval and regardless of what is currently provided in our charter or bylaws, to implement certain corporate governance provisions, some of which (for example, a classified board) are not currently applicable to us. These provisions may have the effect of limiting or precluding a third party from making an unsolicited acquisition proposal for us or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us under circumstances that otherwise could be in the best interest of our stockholders. See “Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to take action against our directors and officers are limited.

 

Our charter eliminates the liability of our directors and officers to us and our stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from:

 

 

actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or

 

 

a final judgment based upon a finding of active and deliberate dishonesty by the director or officer that was material to the cause of action adjudicated.

 

In addition, our charter authorizes us, and our bylaws obligate us, to indemnify our directors and officers for actions taken by them in those and certain other capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. As a result, we and our stockholders may have more limited rights against our directors and officers than might otherwise exist. See “Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

The ability of our Board of Directors to revoke our REIT qualification without stockholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our stockholders.

 

Our charter provides that our Board of Directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interest to attempt to, or to continue to, qualify as a REIT. If we cease to be a REIT, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income and would no longer be required to distribute most of our taxable income to our stockholders, which may have adverse consequences on the total return to our stockholders.

 

Our dividend policy for our common stock may change in the future. We may distribute dividends in common stock instead of paying dividends entirely in cash.

 

Cash dividends paid in 2018 totaled $1.12 per share of common stock. On each of January 15, 2019, April 15, 2019 and July 15, 2019, we paid a quarterly cash dividend of $0.28 per share of common stock to stockholders of record on January 2, 2019, April 2, 2019 and July 2, 2019, respectively. On July 23, 2019, we announced that our Board of Directors had authorized and we had declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.28 per share of common stock, payable on October 15, 2019 to stockholders of record on October 2, 2019. The decision to authorize and pay dividends on our common stock in the future, as well as the timing, amount and composition of any such future dividends, will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our earnings, FFO, financial condition, liquidity, capital requirements, contractual prohibitions or other limitations under our indebtedness and preferred stock, the annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code, state law and such other factors as our Board of Directors deems relevant. Our preferred stock and debt instruments and agreements contain certain covenants and restrictions that may limit the payment of dividends to holders of our common stock under certain circumstances. See “Description of Debt Securities—Covenants” and “Description of Preferred Stock—General” in the accompanying prospectus. Our historical distribution policy may not be indicative of any distributions for future periods. Any future dividends payable will be determined by our Board of Directors based upon the circumstances at the time of declaration, and any future dividends payable may vary from historical dividends. Any change in our dividend policy could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

 

Sales or issuances of substantial amounts of our common stock, or the possibility of such sales or issuances, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

 

You may experience significant dilution due to sales or issuances of substantial amounts of shares of our common stock as a result of this offering or additional issuances of our securities. Such sales or issuances, or the perception that such sales or issuances will occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and make it difficult for us to raise funds through securities offerings in the future. As of September 25, 2019, there were 422,217,514 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding, all of which are freely transferable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, unless held by our “affiliates” as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act.

 

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In addition, all shares of common stock acquired upon exercise of stock options and other equity-based awards granted under our stock incentive plans will also be freely tradable under the Securities Act unless acquired by our affiliates. A maximum of 57 million shares of common stock are reserved for issuance under our stock incentive plans, some of which have been issued as of the date of this prospectus supplement. Also, as of September 25, 2019, we had convertible units outstanding representing approximately 0.9 million shares of common stock. The convertible units may be settled, at the Company’s option, in cash or shares of common stock. Any shares of our common stock issued upon settlement of the convertible units will also be freely tradable under the Securities Act unless acquired by our affiliates.

 

Holders of our outstanding shares of preferred stock have, and holders of any future outstanding shares of preferred stock will have, liquidation, dividend and other rights that are senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock.

 

Our Board of Directors has the authority, without stockholder action, to designate and issue preferred stock with liquidation, dividend and other rights that are senior to those of our common stock. Our preferred stock, including our issued and outstanding shares of 5.50% Class J Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, 5.125% Class L Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock and 5.25% Class M Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, as well as any other shares of preferred stock that may be issued in the future, would receive, upon our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, before any payment is made to holders of our common stock, their liquidation preferences as well as any accrued and unpaid distributions to, but not including, the payment date. These payments would reduce the remaining amount of our assets, if any, available for distribution to holders of our common stock.

 

The Sales Agents may have conflicts of interest that arise out of relationships that they or their affiliates have with us.

 

We may use a portion of any net proceeds from this offering to reduce our outstanding indebtedness, including borrowings under our revolving credit facility. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, the revolving credit facility includes lenders who are affiliates of certain of the Sales Agents. As a result, a portion of such net proceeds that is used to repay amounts outstanding under our revolving credit facility will be received by these affiliates. Because an affiliate of a Sales Agent may receive a portion of the net proceeds, such Sales Agent has an interest in these sales beyond the sales commission or discount it will receive. This could result in a conflict of interest and cause such Sales Agent to act in a manner that is not in the best interests of us or our investors in connection with any sale of shares of our common stock in this offering. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Plan of Distribution.”

 

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Use of Proceeds

 

We intend to use any net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including, without limitation, the funding of future acquisitions, the funding of development and redevelopment costs, the redemption, from time to time, of depositary shares representing one or more class or series of our preferred stock and the reduction, from time to time, of our outstanding indebtedness, including borrowings under our revolving credit facility described in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 2, 2017. Our revolving credit facility matures in March 2021 (subject to two six month extension options), and interest on borrowings under our revolving credit facility accrues at LIBOR plus 0.875% (3.28% as of June 30, 2019) and fluctuates in accordance with changes in our senior debt ratings. As of June 30, 2019, we had $135 million outstanding under our revolving credit facility. Pending use of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to invest these net proceeds in short-term interest-bearing investment grade instruments.

 

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, affiliates of certain of the Sales Agents are lenders under our revolving credit facility. To the extent that we use any of the net proceeds from this offering to reduce borrowings outstanding under our revolving credit facility, such affiliates will receive their proportionate share of such repayment. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus supplement.

 

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Supplemental United States federal income tax Considerations

 

The discussion appearing under the caption “United States Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus has been entirely replaced and superseded by the discussion appearing in Exhibit 99.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on August 15, 2019 (the “August 2019 Form 8-K”) with respect to certain material federal income tax considerations. The August 2019 Form 8-K is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and may be obtained as described under “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus supplement. Prospective investors should carefully review the discussion appearing in Exhibit 99.1 to the August 2019 Form 8-K, as well as the other information included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before acquiring our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

Prospective investors in our common stock should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income and other tax considerations to them of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement.

 

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Plan of distribution

 

We have entered into the Sales Agreement with the Sales Agents under which we may issue and sell over a period of time and from time to time common stock with an aggregate gross sales price of up to $500,000,000 through the Sales Agents. Sales of the shares of common stock to which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate, if any, will be made in negotiated transactions, including block trades, or transactions that are deemed to be “at the market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, including sales made directly on the NYSE, sales made to or through a market maker, sales made through other securities exchanges or electronic communications networks, or as otherwise agreed with the applicable Sales Agent.

 

The Sales Agents will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement on any trading day or as otherwise agreed upon by us and the relevant Sales Agent. We will designate the maximum number of shares of common stock to be sold through a Sales Agent on any trading day, or otherwise as we and the Sales Agent agree, and the minimum price per share at which such shares may be sold. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, the Sales Agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with their normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulation, to sell, on our behalf, all of the common stock so designated. We may instruct the Sales Agents not to sell our common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Under the Sales Agreement, we or a Sales Agent may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through the Sales Agent at any time upon proper notice to the other party.

 

Settlement for any sales of our common stock is expected to occur on the second business day following the trading date on which such sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. The obligation of any Sales Agent under the Sales Agreement to sell shares of our common stock is subject to a number of conditions, which such Sales Agent reserves the right to waive in its sole discretion.

 

In connection with any sale of common stock on our behalf, a Sales Agent may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to a Sales Agent may be deemed to be an underwriting commission or discount. We have agreed in the Sales Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to the Sales Agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

If we have reason to believe the common stock is no longer an “actively-traded security” as defined under Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act, we will promptly so notify the Sales Agents, and sales of our common stock under the Sales Agreement will be suspended until that or other exemptive provisions have been satisfied in the judgment of us and the Sales Agents.

 

The offering of common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement having an aggregate gross sales price of $500,000,000 and (2) the termination of the Sales Agreement, pursuant to its terms, by either the Sales Agents or us.

 

Commissions and Expenses

 

We will pay each Sales Agent a commission not to exceed 2% of the gross sales price of the shares of our common stock sold by such Sales Agent under the Sales Agreement. We may also sell some or all of the shares of common stock offered hereby to a Sales Agent as principal for its owns account at prices agreed upon at the time of sale.

 

We have also agreed, under certain circumstances, to reimburse the Sales Agents for certain of their reasonable, documented out-of-pocket expenses, including fees and expenses of counsel in connection with the Sales Agreement. We estimate that the total expenses payable by us in connection with the offering and sale of our common stock offered hereby, excluding commissions payable to the Sales Agents under the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $500,000.

 

Reporting

 

We will deliver to the NYSE copies of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus pursuant to the rules of the NYSE. Unless otherwise required, we will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through the Sales Agents under the Sales Agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to the Sales Agents in connection with the sales of common stock for each quarter in which any sales are made through the Sales Agents.

 

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Other Relationships

 

The Sales Agents and their affiliates have engaged in, and may in the future engage in, investment banking and other commercial dealings in the ordinary course of business with us or our affiliates. They have received, or may in the future receive, customary fees and commissions for these transactions.

 

As described above under “Use of Proceeds,” we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to reduce our outstanding indebtedness, including borrowings under our revolving credit facility. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, affiliates of certain of the Sales Agents are lenders under our revolving credit facility and, in connection with their participation in the credit facility, receive customary fees. In addition, to the extent that we use any of the net proceeds from this offering to reduce borrowings outstanding under our credit facility, such affiliates will receive their proportionate share of such repayment. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus supplement.

 

In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the Sales Agents and their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. The Sales Agents and their affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

 

No Non-U.S. Registration

 

No action has been taken in any jurisdiction (except in the United States) that would permit a public offering of the shares of our common stock, or the possession, circulation or distribution of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus or other material or advertisements relating to us or this offering, where action for that purpose is required. Accordingly, the shares of our common stock may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, and neither this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus nor any free writing prospectus or other material or advertisements in connection with this offering may be distributed or published in or from any other country or jurisdiction except in compliance with any applicable rules and regulations of any such country or jurisdiction.

 

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Legal Matters

 

Latham & Watkins LLP, Washington, D.C., will pass upon certain matters relating to this offering for us. Sidley Austin LLP, New York, New York, will act as counsel to the Sales Agents. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, will pass upon certain matters of Maryland law. Latham & Watkins LLP and Sidley Austin LLP may rely upon Venable LLP with respect to matters governed by Maryland law. Certain members of Latham & Watkins LLP and their families own beneficial interests in less than 1% of our common stock.

 

Experts

 

The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

 

KIMCO REALTY CORPORATION
Debt Securities, Preferred Stock,
Depositary Shares, Common Stock and Common Stock Warrants

 

                     

 

We may from time to time offer the following securities on terms to be determined at the time of the offering:

 

 

Unsecured Senior Debt Securities;

 

Shares or Fractional Shares of Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share;

 

Depositary Shares representing Shares of Preferred Stock;

 

Shares of Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share; and

 

Warrants to Purchase Common Stock.

 

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “KIM.” We will make applications to list any shares of common stock sold pursuant to a supplement to this prospectus on the NYSE. We have not determined whether we will list any other securities we may offer on any exchange or over-the-counter market. If we decide to seek listing of any securities, the supplement to this prospectus will disclose the exchange or market.

 

Our debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares representing shares of preferred stock, common stock and common stock warrants may be offered separately, together or as units, in separate classes or series, in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in a supplement to this prospectus. When we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of such securities in supplements to this prospectus.

 

In addition, the specific terms may include limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities offered by this prospectus, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for federal income tax purposes.

 

The securities offered by this prospectus may be offered directly, through agents designated from time to time by us, or to or through underwriters or dealers. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any of the securities offered by this prospectus, their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them, will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. None of the securities offered by this prospectus may be sold without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities.

 

Each prospectus supplement will also contain information, where applicable, about United States federal income tax considerations and any legend or statement required by state law or the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

                     

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4.

 

                     

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete and any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this Prospectus is February 26, 2018.

 

 

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You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not making an offer to sell, or soliciting an offer to buy, securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement or in the documents incorporated herein and therein is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or such other documents, even though this prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements are delivered or securities are sold pursuant to the prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements at a later date. Since the respective dates of the prospectus contained in liquidity, this registration statement and any accompanying prospectus supplement, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects might have changed.

 

                     

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

1

   

WHERE CAN YOU FIND MORE INFORMATION

1

   

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

1

   

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

2

   

THE COMPANY

3

   

RISK FACTORS

3

   

USE OF PROCEEDS

3

   

RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

3

   

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

4

   

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

12

   

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK WARRANTS

14

   

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

14

   

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

16

   

PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

19

   

UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

24

   

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

43

   

EXPERTS

45

   

LEGAL MATTERS

45

 

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When used in this prospectus, “Kimco,” “the Company,” “we, “us, or “our refers to Kimco Realty Corporation, a Maryland corporation, and its direct and indirect subsidiaries on a consolidated basis.

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of an automatic shelf registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or “SEC,” as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act.” Under the automatic shelf registration process, we may, over time, sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. As allowed by SEC rules, this prospectus does not contain all the information you can find in the registration statement or the exhibits to the registration statement. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. A prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the next heading “Where You Can Find More Information” before considering an investment in the securities offered by that prospectus supplement.

 

WHERE CAN YOU FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s web site at https://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549.

 

You may also obtain copies of our SEC filings at prescribed rates by writing to the Public Reference Section of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549. Please call l-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operations at the public reference room. Our SEC filings are also available at the offices of the New York Stock Exchange, 11 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005.

 

Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete, and in each instance reference is made to the copy of that contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, each such statement being qualified in all respects by that reference and the exhibits and schedules thereto. For further information about us and the securities offered by this prospectus, you should refer to the registration statement and such exhibits and schedules which may be obtained from the SEC at its principal office in Washington, D.C. upon payment of any fees prescribed by the SEC.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The documents listed below have been filed by us under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), with the SEC and are incorporated by reference in this prospectus:

 

 

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 (filed with the SEC on February 23, 2018);

 

 

Current Report on Form 8-K dated February 15, 2018 (excluding the information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 and the related exhibit) (filed with the SEC on February 15, 2018);

 

 

Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A (filed with the SEC on March 15, 2017);

 

 

The description of the Class I Preferred Stock and Depositary Shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A12B (File No. 001-10899), filed on March 13, 2012, including any subsequently filed amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating the description;

 

 

The description of the Class J Preferred Stock and Depositary Shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A12B (File No. 001-10899), filed on July 18, 2012, including any subsequently filed amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating the description;

 

 

The description of the Class K Preferred Stock and Depositary Shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A12B (File No. 001-10899), filed on December 3, 2012, including any subsequently filed amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating the description;

 

 

The description of the Class L Preferred Stock and Depositary Shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A12B (File No. 001-10899), filed on August 8, 2017, including any subsequently filed amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating the description; and

 

 

The description of the Class M Preferred Stock and Depositary Shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A12B (File No. 001-10899), filed on December 12, 2017, including any subsequently filed amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating the description.

 

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We are also incorporating by reference into this prospectus all documents that we have filed or will file with the SEC as prescribed by Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act since the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as Proxy Statements. Any statement contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein or therein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement.

 

Copies of all documents which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement are available from us without charge, excluding all exhibits unless we have specifically incorporated by reference the exhibit in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You may obtain documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by requesting them in writing or by telephone from:

 

Kimco Realty Corporation

3333 New Hyde Park Road

New Hyde Park, New York 11042-0020

Attn: Bruce Rubenstein, Corporate Secretary

(516) 869-9000

 

You may also obtain copies of these filings, at no cost, by accessing our website at http://www.kimcorealty.com; however, the information found on our website is not considered part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement contain certain “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. The Company intends such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and includes this statement for purposes of complying with the safe harbor provisions. Forward-looking statements, which are based on certain assumptions and describe the Company’s future plans, strategies and expectations, are generally identifiable by use of the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “project,” “will,” “target,” “forecast” or similar expressions. You should not rely on forward-looking statements since they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which are, in some cases, beyond the Company’s control and could materially affect actual results, performances or achievements. Factors which may cause actual results to differ materially from our current expectations include, but are not limited to, those discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as the following additional factors: (i) general adverse economic and local real estate conditions, (ii) the inability of major tenants to continue paying their rent obligations due to bankruptcy, insolvency or a general downturn in their business, (iii) financing risks, such as the inability to obtain equity, debt or other sources of financing or refinancing on favorable terms to the Company, (iv) the Company’s ability to raise capital by selling its assets, (v) changes in governmental laws and regulations, (vi) the level and volatility of interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates and management’s ability to estimate the impact thereof, (vii) risks related to the Company’s international operations, (viii) the availability of suitable acquisition, disposition, development and redevelopment opportunities, and risks related to acquisitions not performing in accordance with the Company’s expectations, (ix) valuation and risks related to the Company’s joint venture and preferred equity investments, (x) valuation of marketable securities and other investments, (xi) increases in operating costs, (xii) changes in the dividend policy for the Company’s common stock, (xiii) the reduction in the Company’s income in the event of multiple lease terminations by tenants or a failure by multiple tenants to occupy their premises in a shopping center, (xiv) impairment charges and (xv) unanticipated changes in the Company’s intention or ability to prepay certain debt prior to maturity and/or hold certain securities until maturity. Accordingly, there is no assurance that the Company’s expectations will be realized. Additional risk factors that we may disclose in documents that we file with the SEC that are deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus prior to completion of any offering could also cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations.

 

We caution readers that any such statements are based on currently available operational, financial and competitive information, and they should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s opinion only as of the date on which they were made. Except as required by law, we disclaim any obligation to review or update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances as they occur.

 

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THE COMPANY

 

Overview

 

Kimco Realty Corporation, a Maryland corporation, is one of North America’s largest publicly traded owners and operators of open-air shopping centers. The Company’s mission is to create destinations for everyday living that inspire a sense of community and deliver value to our many stakeholders.

 

The Company is a self-administered REIT and has owned and operated open-air shopping centers for 60 years. As of December 31, 2017, the Company had interests in 493 shopping center properties, aggregating 83.2 million square feet of gross leasable area (“GLA”), located in 29 states, Puerto Rico and Canada. In addition, the Company had 372 other property interests, primarily through the Company’s preferred equity investments and other real estate investments, totaling 5.8 million square feet of GLA. The Company’s ownership interests in real estate consist of its consolidated portfolio and portfolios where the Company owns an economic interest, such as properties in the Company’s investment real estate management programs, where the Company partners with institutional investors and also retains management.

 

Our executive offices are located at 3333 New Hyde Park Road, New Hyde Park, New York 11042-0020 and our telephone number is (516) 869-9000. Nearly all operating functions, including leasing, legal, construction, data processing, maintenance, finance and accounting are administered by the Company from its executive offices in New Hyde Park, New York and supported by the Company’s regional offices. As of December 31, 2017, a total of 546 persons were employed by the Company.

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties incorporated by reference herein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K and in our reports we file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as well as the risk factors set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, before investing in our securities.

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO TOTAL FIXED CHARGES AND EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

 

The following table sets forth ratios of earnings to total fixed charges and earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the periods shown for the Company. The periods presented below have been adjusted to reflect the impact of operating properties sold and classified as discontinued operations during the year ended December 31, 2014 and for properties classified as held for sale, as applicable, in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Property, Plant and Equipment guidance.

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

Ratio of earnings to total fixed charges

2.3x

2.8x

4.2x

2.6x

2.4x

Ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends

1.9x

2.2x

3.4x

2.1x

1.9x

 

 

For purposes of computing these ratios, earnings consist of pretax income (loss) from continuing operations before adjustment for noncontrolling interests or income (loss) from equity investees plus interest on indebtedness (excluding capitalized interest), amortization of debt premiums, discounts and capitalized expenses, amortization of capitalized interest, the portion of rents representative of an interest factor and distributed income from equity investees. Fixed charges consist of interest on indebtedness (including capitalized interest), amortization of debt premiums, discounts and capitalized expenses and the portion of rents representative of an interest factor. Preferred stock dividends consist of dividend requirements on outstanding preferred stock during the applicable period.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

Our unsecured senior debt securities are to be issued under an indenture, dated as of September 1, 1993, as amended by the first supplemental indenture, dated as of August 4, 1994, the second supplemental indenture, dated as of April 7, 1995, the third supplemental indenture, dated as of June 2, 2006, the fourth supplemental indenture, dated as of April 26, 2007, the fifth supplemental indenture, dated as of September 24, 2009, the sixth supplemental indenture, dated as of May 23, 2013, the seventh supplemental indenture, dated as of April 24, 2014, and as further amended or supplemented from time to time, between us and The Bank of New York Mellon (as successor to IBJ Schroder Bank & Trust Company), as trustee. The indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and is available for inspection at the corporate trust office of the trustee at 101 Barclay Street, 8th Floor, New York, New York 10286 or as described above under “Where You Can Find More Information.” The indenture is subject to, and governed by, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended. The statements made hereunder relating to the indenture and the debt securities to be issued thereunder are summaries of some of the provisions thereof and do not purport to be complete and are subject to, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, all provisions of the indenture and the debt securities. All section references appearing herein are to sections of the indenture.

 

General

 

The debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness. The indenture provides that the debt securities may be issued without limit as to aggregate principal amount, in one or more series, in each case as established from time to time in or pursuant to authority granted by a resolution of our board of directors or as established in one or more indentures supplemental to the indenture. All debt securities of one series need not be issued at the same time and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series, for issuances of additional debt securities of that series (Section 301).

 

The indenture provides that there may be more than one trustee thereunder, each with respect to one or more series of debt securities. Any trustee under the indenture may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of debt securities, and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to that series (Section 608). In the event that two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of debt securities, each trustee shall be a trustee of a trust under the indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee (Section 609), and, except as otherwise indicated herein, any action described herein to be taken by the trustee may be taken by each trustee with respect to, and only with respect to, the series of debt securities for which it is trustee under the indenture.

 

For a detailed description of a specific series of debt securities, you should consult the prospectus supplement for that series. The prospectus supplement may contain any of the following information, where applicable:

 

 

(1)

the title and series designation of those debt securities;

 

 

(2)

the aggregate principal amount of those debt securities and any limit on the aggregate principal amount;

 

 

(3)

if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or (if applicable) the portion of the principal amount of those debt securities which is convertible into our common stock or our preferred stock, or the method by which any portion shall be determined;

 

 

(4)

if convertible, any applicable limitations on the ownership or transferability of our common stock or our preferred stock into which those debt securities are convertible which exist to preserve our status as a REIT;

 

 

(5)

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, on which the principal of those debt securities will be payable;

 

 

(6)

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable), or the method by which the rate or rates shall be determined, at which those debt securities will bear interest, if any;

 

 

(7)

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, from which any interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which that interest will be payable, the regular record dates for the interest payment dates, or the method by which that date shall be determined, the person to whom that interest shall be payable, and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

 

(8)

the place or places where (a) the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on those debt securities will be payable, (b) those debt securities may be surrendered for conversion or registration of transfer or exchange and (c) notices or demands to or upon us in respect of those debt securities and the indenture may be served;

 

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(9)

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which those debt securities may be redeemed, as a whole or in part, at our option, if we are to have that option;

 

 

(10)

our obligation, if any, to redeem, repay or purchase those debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of a holder of those debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which those debt securities will be redeemed, repaid or purchased, as a whole or in part, pursuant to that obligation;

 

 

(11)

if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies in which those debt securities are denominated and payable, which may be units of two or more foreign currencies or a composite currency or currencies, and the terms and conditions relating thereto;

 

 

(12)

whether the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on those debt securities may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may, but need not be, based on a currency, currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies) and the manner in which those amounts shall be determined;

 

 

(13)

any additions to, modifications of or deletions from the terms of those debt securities with respect to the events of default or covenants set forth in the indenture;

 

 

(14)

whether those debt securities will be issued in certificated or book-entry form or both;

 

 

(15)

whether those debt securities will be in registered or bearer form and, if in registered form, their denominations if other than $1,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 and, if in bearer form, their denominations and the terms and conditions relating thereto;

 

 

(16)

the applicability, if any, of the defeasance and covenant defeasance provisions of article fourteen of the indenture;

 

 

(17)

if those debt securities are to be issued upon the exercise of debt warrants, the time, manner and place for those debt securities to be authenticated and delivered;

 

 

(18)

the terms, if any, upon which those debt securities may be convertible into our common stock or our preferred stock and the terms and conditions upon which that conversion will be effected, including, without limitation, the initial conversion price or rate and the conversion period;

 

 

(19)

whether and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts as contemplated in the indenture on those debt securities in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem those debt securities in lieu of making such payment; and

 

 

(20)

any other terms of those debt securities not inconsistent with the provisions of the indenture (Section 301).

 

The debt securities may provide for less than the entire principal amount thereof to be payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity. We refer to this type of debt securities as original issue discount securities. Any material or applicable special U.S. federal income tax, accounting and other considerations applicable to original issue discount securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Except as described under “Merger, Consolidation or Sale,” or as otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indenture does not contain any other provisions that would limit our ability to incur indebtedness or to substantially reduce or eliminate our assets, which may have an adverse effect on our ability to service our indebtedness (including the debt securities) or that would afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event of:

 

 

(1)

a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us, our management, or any affiliate of any of those parties;

 

 

(2)

a change of control; or

 

 

(3)

a reorganization, restructuring, merger or similar transaction involving us that may adversely affect the holders of our debt securities.

 

Furthermore, subject to the limitations set forth below under “Merger, Consolidation or Sale,” we may, in the future, enter into certain transactions, such as the sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a merger or consolidation involving us, that would increase the amount of our indebtedness or substantially reduce or eliminate our assets, which may have an adverse effect on our ability to service our indebtedness, including the debt securities. In addition, restrictions on ownership and transfers of our common stock and our preferred stock are designed to preserve our status as a REIT and, therefore, may act to prevent or hinder a change of control. You should refer to the applicable prospectus supplement for information with respect to any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or our covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.

 

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A significant number of our properties are owned through our subsidiaries or joint ventures. Therefore, our rights and those of our creditors, including holders of debt securities, to participate in the assets of those subsidiaries or joint ventures upon the liquidation or recapitalization of those subsidiaries or joint ventures or otherwise will be subject to the prior claims of those entities respective creditors (except to the extent that our claims as a creditor may be recognized).

 

Denominations, Interest, Registration and Transfer

 

Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of any series will be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 (Section 302).

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on any series of debt securities will be payable at the corporate trust office of the trustee, initially located at 101 Barclay Street, 8th Floor, New York, New York 10286, provided that, at our option, payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the person entitled thereto as it appears in the security register or by wire transfer of funds to that person at an account maintained within the United States (Sections 301, 305, 306, 307 and 1002).

 

Any interest not punctually paid or duly provided for on any interest payment date with respect to a debt security will forthwith cease to be payable to the holder of that debt security on the applicable regular record date and may either be paid to the person in whose name that debt security is registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of the interest not punctually paid or duly provided for to be fixed by the trustee, notice whereof shall be given to the holder of that debt security not less than 10 days prior to the special record date, or may be paid at any time in any other lawful manner, all as more completely described in the indenture.

 

Subject to certain limitations imposed upon debt securities issued in book-entry form, the debt securities of any series will be exchangeable for other debt securities of the same series and of a like aggregate principal amount and tenor of different authorized denominations upon surrender of those debt securities at the corporate trust office of the trustee. In addition, subject to certain limitations imposed upon debt securities issued in book-entry form, the debt securities of any series may be surrendered for conversion or registration of transfer or exchange thereof at the corporate trust office of the trustee. Every debt security surrendered for conversion, registration of transfer or exchange shall be duly endorsed or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer. No service charge will be imposed for any registration of transfer or exchange of any debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with the registration of transfer or exchange of debt securities (Section 305). If the applicable prospectus supplement refers to any transfer agent (in addition to the trustee) initially designated by us with respect to any series of debt securities, we may at any time rescind the designation of that transfer agent or approve a change in the location through which that transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for that series. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents with respect to any series of debt securities (Section 1002).

 

Neither we nor any trustee shall be required to:

 

 

(1)

issue, register the transfer of or exchange debt securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before any selection of debt securities of that series to be redeemed and ending at the close of business on the day of mailing of the relevant notice of redemption;

 

 

(2)

register the transfer of or exchange any debt security, or portion thereof, called for redemption, except the unredeemed portion of any debt security being redeemed in part; or

 

 

(3)

issue, register the transfer of or exchange any debt security which has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the holder of that debt security, except the portion, if any, of that debt security not to be so repaid (Section 305).

 

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Merger, Consolidation or Sale

 

We may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to, or merge with or into, any other corporation, provided that:

 

 

(1)

either we shall be the continuing corporation, or the successor corporation (if other than us) formed by or resulting from that consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of our assets, shall expressly assume payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on all of the debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions contained in the indenture;

 

 

(2)

immediately after giving effect to that transaction and treating any indebtedness which becomes an obligation of ours or of any of our subsidiaries as a result thereof as having been incurred by us or that subsidiary at the time of that transaction, no event of default under the indenture, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become an event of default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

 

(3)

an officer’s certificate and legal opinion covering the above conditions shall be delivered to the trustee (Sections 801 and 803).

 

Covenants

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

 

 

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

 

The indenture provides that the following events are events of default with respect to any series of debt securities issued thereunder:

 

 

(1)

default for 30 days in the payment of any installment of interest on any debt security of that series;

 

 

(2)

default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any debt security of that series at its maturity;

 

 

(3)

default in making any sinking fund payment as required for any debt security of that series;

 

 

(4)

default in the performance of any of our other covenants contained in the indenture (other than a covenant added to the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities issued thereunder other than that series), continued for 60 days after written notice as provided in the indenture;

 

 

(5)

default in the payment of an aggregate principal amount exceeding $10,000,000 of any evidence of our indebtedness or any mortgage, indenture or other instrument under which indebtedness is issued or by which that indebtedness is secured, that default having occurred after the expiration of any applicable grace period and having resulted in the acceleration of the maturity of that indebtedness, but only if that indebtedness is not discharged or that acceleration is not rescinded or annulled;

 

 

(6)

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of ours or any of our significant subsidiaries (as defined in Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act) or either of our properties; and

 

 

(7)

any other event of default provided with respect to a particular series of debt securities (Section 501).

 

If an event of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then in all of those cases the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the principal amount (or, if the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all of the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately by written notice thereof to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders of debt securities). However, at any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of that series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be) has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of that series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be) may rescind and annul that declaration and its consequences if:

 

 

(1)

we shall have deposited with the trustee all required payments of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the debt securities of that series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be), plus certain fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the trustee, and

 

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(2)

all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal (or specified portion thereof), with respect to debt securities of that series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be) have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture (Section 502). The indenture also provides that the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be) may waive any past default with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default:

 

 

a.

in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any debt security of that series, or

 

 

b.

in respect of a covenant or provision contained in the indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security affected thereby (Section 513).

 

The trustee is required to give notice to the holders of debt securities within 90 days of a default under the indenture; provided, however, that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of any series of debt securities of any default with respect to that series (except a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any debt security of that series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment in respect of any debt security of that series) if the responsible officers of the trustee consider that withholding to be in the interest of those holders of debt securities (Section 601).

 

The indenture provides that no holders of debt securities of any series may institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for any remedy thereunder, except in the case of failure of the trustee, for 60 days, to act after it has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an event of default from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, as well as an offer of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it (Section 507). This provision will not prevent, however, any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on those debt securities at the respective due dates thereof (Section 508).

 

Subject to provisions in the indenture relating to its duties in case of default, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, unless those holders shall have offered to the trustee reasonable security or indemnity satisfactory to it (Section 602). The holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be) shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon the trustee. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction which is in conflict with any law or the indenture, which may involve the trustee in personal liability or which may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of debt securities of those series not joining therein (Section 512).

 

Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we must deliver to the trustee a certificate, signed by one of several specified officers, stating whether or not that officer has knowledge of any default under the indenture and, if so, specifying each of those defaults and the nature and status thereof (Section 1011).

 

Modification

 

Modifications and amendments of the indenture and debt securities may be made only with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities which are affected by such modification or amendment; provided, however, that no modification or amendment may, without the consent of the holder of each of the debt securities affected thereby,

 

 

(1)

change the stated maturity of the principal of, or any installment of interest (or premium, if any) on, any debt security;

 

 

(2)

reduce the principal amount of, or the rate or amount of interest on, or any premium payable on redemption of, any debt security, or reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount security that would be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof or would be provable in bankruptcy, or adversely affect any right of repayment of the holder of any debt security;

 

 

(3)

change the place of payment, or the coin or currency, for payment of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any debt security;

 

 

(4)

impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to any debt security;

 

 

(5)

reduce the above-stated percentage of outstanding debt securities of any series necessary to modify or amend the indenture, to waive compliance with certain provisions thereof or certain defaults and consequences thereunder or to reduce the quorum or voting requirements set forth in the indenture; or

 

 

(6)

modify any of the foregoing provisions or any of the provisions relating to the waiver of certain past defaults or certain covenants, except to increase the required percentage to effect that action or to provide that certain other provisions may not be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of that debt security (Section 902).

 

The holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities have the right to waive compliance by us with some of the covenants in the indenture (Section 1013).

 

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Modifications and amendments of the indenture may be made by us and the trustee without the consent of any holder of debt securities for any of the following purposes:

 

 

(1)

to evidence the succession of another person to us as obligor under the indenture;

 

 

(2)

to add to our covenants for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

 

(3)

to add events of default for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities;

 

 

(4)

to add or change any provisions of the indenture to facilitate the issuance of, or to liberalize some of the terms of, debt securities in bearer form, or to permit or facilitate the issuance of debt securities in uncertificated form, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

 

(5)

to change or eliminate any provisions of the indenture, provided that any of those changes or elimination shall become effective only when there are no debt securities outstanding of any series created prior thereto which are entitled to the benefit of that provision;

 

 

(6)

to secure the debt securities;

 

 

(7)

to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series, including the provisions and procedures, if applicable, for the conversion of those debt securities into our common stock or our preferred stock;

 

 

(8)

to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the indenture by more than one trustee;

 

 

(9)

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of debt securities of any series in any material respect; or

 

 

(10)

to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate defeasance and discharge of any series of those debt securities, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect (Section 901).

 

The indenture provides that in determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding debt securities of a series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver thereunder or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of debt securities,

 

 

(1)

the principal amount of an original issue discount security that shall be deemed to be outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of that determination upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof,

 

 

(2)

the principal amount of a debt security denominated in a foreign currency that shall be deemed outstanding shall be the U.S. Dollar equivalent, determined on the issue date for that debt security, of the principal amount (or, in the case of an original issue discount security, the U.S. Dollar equivalent on the issue date of that debt security of the amount determined as provided in (1) above),

 

 

(3)

the principal amount of an indexed security that shall be deemed outstanding shall be the principal face amount of that indexed security at original issuance, unless otherwise provided with respect to that indexed security pursuant to Section 301 of the indenture, and

 

 

(4)

debt securities owned by us or any other obligor upon the debt securities or any of our affiliates or of that other obligor shall be disregarded (Section 101).

 

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The indenture contains provisions for convening meetings of the holders of debt securities of a series (Section 1501). A meeting may be called at any time by the trustee and also, upon request, by us or the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, in any of those cases upon notice given as provided in the indenture (Section 1502). Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each debt security affected by certain modifications and amendments of the indenture, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present may be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series; provided, however, that, except as referred to above, any resolution with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority, in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of the holders of that specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series. Any resolution passed or decision taken at any meeting of holders of debt securities of any series duly held in accordance with the indenture will be binding on all holders of debt securities of that series. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any reconvened meeting, will be persons holding or representing a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series; provided, however, that if any action is to be taken at that meeting with respect to a consent or waiver which may be given by the holders of not less than a specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, the persons holding or representing that specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series will constitute a quorum (Section 1504).

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, if any action is to be taken at a meeting of holders of debt securities of any series with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that the indenture expressly provides may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities affected thereby, or of the holders of that series and one or more additional series:

 

 

(1)

there shall be no minimum quorum requirement for that meeting, and

 

 

(2)

the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series that vote in favor of that request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action shall be taken into account in determining whether that request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action has been made, given or taken under the indenture (Section 1504).

 

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

 

We may discharge certain obligations to holders of any series of debt securities that have not already been delivered to the trustee for cancellation and that either have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or scheduled for redemption within one year) by irrevocably depositing with the trustee, in trust, funds in the currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which those debt securities are payable in an amount sufficient to pay the entire indebtedness on those debt securities in respect of principal (and premium, if any) and interest to the date of that deposit (if those debt securities have become due and payable) or to the stated maturity or redemption date, as the case may be (Section 401).

 

The indenture provides that, if the provisions of article fourteen of the indenture are made applicable to the debt securities of or within any series pursuant to Section 301 of the indenture, we may elect either:

 

 

(1)

to defease and be discharged from any and all obligations with respect to those debt securities (except for the obligation to pay additional amounts, if any, upon the occurrence of certain events of tax, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on those debt securities and the obligations to register the transfer or exchange of those debt securities, to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities, to maintain an office or agency in respect of those debt securities and to hold moneys for payment in trust) (“defeasance”) (Section 1402); or

 

 

(2)

to be released from our obligations with respect to those debt securities under Sections 1004 to 1010, inclusive, and Section 1014 of the indenture (being the restrictions described under “Certain Covenants”) or, if provided pursuant to Section 301 of the indenture, our obligations with respect to any other covenant, and any omission to comply with those obligations shall not constitute a default or an event of default with respect to those debt securities (“covenant defeasance”) (Section 1403),

 

in either case upon the irrevocable deposit by us with the trustee, in trust, of an amount, in the currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which those debt securities are payable at stated maturity, or Government Obligations (as defined below), or both, applicable to those debt securities which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on those debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments thereon, on the scheduled due dates therefor.

 

That type of trust may only be established if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of those debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of that defeasance or covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if that defeasance or covenant defeasance had not occurred, and that such opinion of counsel, in the case of defeasance, must refer to and be based upon a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service or a change in applicable U.S. federal income tax law occurring after the date of the indenture (Section 1404).

 

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Government Obligations” means securities which are:

 

 

(1)

direct obligations of the United States of America or the government which issued the foreign currency in which the debt securities of a particular series are payable, for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged, or

 

 

(2)

obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America or that government which issued the foreign currency in which the debt securities of that series are payable, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America or that other government,

 

which, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to that Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of that Government Obligation held by the custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) the custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of the depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Government Obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the Government Obligation evidenced by the depository receipt (Section 101).

 

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, if after we have deposited funds or Government Obligations or both to effect defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to debt securities of any series,

 

 

(1)

the holder of a debt security of that series is entitled to, and does, elect pursuant to Section 301 of the indenture or the terms of that debt security to receive payment in a currency, currency unit or composite currency other than that in which the deposit has been made in respect of that debt security, or

 

 

(2)

a Conversion Event (as defined below) occurs in respect of the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which the deposit has been made,

 

then, the indebtedness represented by that debt security shall be deemed to have been, and will be, fully discharged and satisfied through the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on that debt security as they become due out of the proceeds yielded by converting the amount so deposited in respect of that debt security into the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which that debt security becomes payable as a result of that election or cessation of usage based on the applicable market exchange rate (Section 1405). “Conversion Event” means the cessation of use of:

 

 

(1)

a currency, currency unit or composite currency both by the government of the country which issued that currency and for the settlement of transactions by a central bank or other public institutions of or within the international banking community,

 

 

(2)

the European Currency Unit, or ECU, both within the European Monetary System and for the settlement of transactions by public institutions of or within the European Communities, or

 

 

(3)

any currency unit or composite currency other than the ECU for the purposes for which it was established.

 

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, all payments of principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on any debt security that is payable in a foreign currency that ceases to be used by its government of issuance shall be made in U.S. Dollars (Section 101).

 

In the event we effect covenant defeasance with respect to any debt securities and those debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any event of default other than the event of default described in clause (4) under “Events of Default, Notice and Waiver” with respect to Sections 1004 to 1010, inclusive, and Section 1014 of the indenture (which Sections would no longer be applicable to those debt securities) or described in clause (7) under “Events of Default, Notice and Waiver” with respect to any other covenant as to which there has been covenant defeasance, the amount in such currency, currency unit or composite currency in which those debt securities are payable, and Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee, will be sufficient to pay amounts due on those debt securities at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on those debt securities at the time of the acceleration resulting from that event of default. However, we would remain liable to make payment of those amounts due at the time of acceleration.

 

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The applicable prospectus supplement may further describe the provisions, if any, permitting that defeasance or covenant defeasance, including any modifications to the provisions described above, with respect to the debt securities of or within a particular series.

 

Conversion Rights

 

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities are convertible into other debt securities, our common stock or our preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Those terms will include whether those debt securities are convertible into other debt securities, our common stock or our preferred stock, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or the option of the holders of debt securities, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of those debt securities.

 

Global Securities

 

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to that series. Global securities may be issued in either registered or bearer form and in either temporary or permanent form. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to a series of debt securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to that series.

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

 

We have the authority to issue 750,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 384,046,000 shares of excess stock, par value $0.01 per share. At February 20, 2018, we had outstanding 425,455,523 shares of common stock and no shares of excess stock. Prior to August 4, 1994, we were incorporated as a Delaware corporation. On August 4, 1994, we reincorporated as a Maryland corporation pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger approved by our stockholders.

 

The following description of our common stock sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the common stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate, including a prospectus supplement providing that common stock will be issuable upon conversion of our debt securities or our preferred stock or upon the exercise of common stock warrants issued by us. The statements below describing the common stock are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of our charter and bylaws.

 

Holders of our common stock will be entitled to receive dividends when, as and if authorized by our Board of Directors and declared by us, out of assets legally available therefor. Payment and declaration of dividends on the common stock and purchases of shares thereof by us will be subject to certain restrictions if we fail to pay dividends on our preferred stock. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of common stock will be entitled to share equally and ratably in any assets available for distribution to them, after payment or provision for payment of our debts and other liabilities and the preferential amounts owing with respect to any of our outstanding preferred stock. The common stock will possess voting rights in the election of directors and in respect of certain other corporate matters, with each share entitling the holder thereof to one vote. Holders of shares of common stock will not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors, which means that holders of more than 50% of all of the shares of our common stock voting for the election of directors will be able to elect all of the directors if they choose to do so and, accordingly, the holders of the remaining shares will be unable to elect any directors. Holders of shares of common stock will not have preemptive rights, which means they have no right to acquire any additional shares of common stock that may be issued by us at a subsequent date. The common stock will, when issued, be fully paid and nonassessable and will not be subject to preemptive or similar rights.

 

Under Maryland law, a distribution (whether by dividend, redemption or other acquisition of shares) to holders of shares of common stock may be made only if, after giving effect to the distribution, (a) we are able to pay our indebtedness as it becomes due in the usual course of business and (b) subject to certain exceptions, our total assets are greater than the sum of our total liabilities plus the amount necessary to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of stockholders whose preferential rights on dissolution are superior to the holders of common stock, unless the terms of the stock held by such holders with preferred rights provide otherwise. We have complied with these requirements in all of our prior distributions to holders of common stock.

 

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Restrictions on Ownership

 

For us to qualify as a REIT under Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), not more than 50% in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year. Our stock also must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. In addition, rent from related party tenants (generally, a tenant of a REIT owned, actually or constructively, 10% or more by the REIT, or a 10% owner of the REIT) is not qualifying income for purposes of the income tests under the Code.

 

Subject to the exceptions specified in our charter, no holder may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% in value of the outstanding shares of our common stock. The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause common stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals or entities or both to be deemed constructively owned by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity which owns, actually or constructively, our common stock) by an individual or entity could cause that individual or entity (or another individual or entity) to own constructively in excess of 9.8% of our common stock, and thus subject such common stock to the ownership limit.

 

Our Board of Directors may waive the ownership limit with respect to a particular stockholder if evidence satisfactory to our Board of Directors and our tax counsel is presented that such ownership will not then or in the future jeopardize our status as a REIT. As a condition of any waiver, our Board of Directors may require a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, opinion of counsel satisfactory to it or an undertaking, or both from the applicant with respect to preserving our REIT status. The foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our Board of Directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT. If shares of common stock in excess of the ownership limit, or shares which would otherwise cause the REIT to be beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons or which would otherwise cause us to be “closely held” within the meaning of the Code or would otherwise result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, are issued or transferred to any person, that issuance or transfer shall be null and void to the intended transferee, and the intended transferee would acquire no rights to the stock. Shares transferred in excess of the ownership limit, or shares which would otherwise cause us to be “closely held” within the meaning of the Code or would otherwise result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, will automatically be exchanged for shares of a separate class of stock, which we refer to as excess stock, that will be transferred by operation of law to us as trustee for the exclusive benefit of the person or persons to whom the shares are ultimately transferred, until that time as the intended transferee retransfers the shares. While these shares are held in trust, they will not be entitled to vote or to share in any dividends or other distributions (except upon liquidation). The shares may be retransferred by the intended transferee to any person who may hold those shares at a price not to exceed either:

 

 

(1)

the price paid by the intended transferee, or

 

 

(2)

if the intended transferee did not give value for such shares (through a gift, devise or otherwise), a price per share equal to the market value of the shares on the date of the purported transfer to the intended transferee, at which point the shares will automatically be exchanged for an equal number of shares of ordinary common stock. In addition, such shares of excess stock held in trust are purchasable by us, or our designee, for a 90-day period at a price equal to the lesser of the price paid for the stock by the intended transferee and the market price for the stock on the date we determine to purchase the stock. This period commences on the date of the violative transfer if the intended transferee gives us notice of the transfer, or the date our Board of Directors determines that a violative transfer has occurred if no notice is provided.

 

All certificates representing shares of common stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

 

All persons who own, directly or by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, more than 5% (or such other percentage between 0.5% and 5%, as provided in the Income Tax Regulations promulgated under the Code) of the outstanding shares of common stock must give written notice to us containing the information specified in our charter within 30 days after the close of each year. In addition, each common stockholder shall upon demand be required to disclose to us such information with respect to the actual and constructive ownership of shares as our Board of Directors deems necessary to comply with the provisions of the Code applicable to a REIT.

 

The registrar and transfer agent for our common stock is EQ Shareowner Services.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK WARRANTS

 

We may issue common stock warrants for the purchase of our common stock. Common stock warrants may be issued independently or together with any of the other securities offered by this prospectus that are offered by any prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from the securities offered by this prospectus. Each series of common stock warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the common stock warrants of such series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of common stock warrants.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the common stock warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, where applicable, the following:

 

 

(1)

the title of those common stock warrants;

 

 

(2)

the aggregate number of those common stock warrants;

 

 

(3)

the price or prices at which those common stock warrants will be issued;

 

 

(4)

the designation, number and terms of the shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of those common stock warrants;

 

 

(5)

the designation and terms of the other securities offered by this prospectus with which the common stock warrants are issued and the number of those common stock warrants issued with each security offered by this prospectus;

 

 

(6)

the date, if any, on and after which those common stock warrants and the related common stock will be separately transferable;

 

 

(7)

the price at which each share of common stock purchasable upon exercise of those common stock warrants may be purchased;

 

 

(8)

the date on which the right to exercise those common stock warrants shall commence and the date on which that right shall expire;

 

 

(9)

the minimum or maximum amount of those common stock warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

 

(10)

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

 

(11)

a discussion of federal income tax considerations; and

 

 

(12)

any other material terms of those common stock warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of those common stock warrants.

 

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

 

We are authorized to issue 5,996,240 shares of preferred stock, $1.00 par value per share, 9,400 shares of 6.000% Class I Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, 9,000 shares of 5.50% Class J Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, 8,050 shares of 5.625% Class K Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, 10,350 shares of 5.125% Class L Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, and 10,580 shares of 5.25% Class M Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share. We are also authorized to issue 700,000 shares of Class F Excess Preferred Stock, $1.00 par value per share, 184,000 shares of Class G Excess Preferred Stock, $1.00 par value per share, 70,000 shares of Class H Excess Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, 18,400 shares of Class I Excess Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, 9,000 shares of Class J Excess Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, 8,050 shares of Class K Excess Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, 10,350 shares of Class L Excess Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, and 10,580 shares of Class M Excess Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share, which are reserved for issuance upon conversion of certain outstanding Class I preferred stock, Class J preferred stock, Class K preferred stock, Class L preferred stock or Class M preferred stock, as the case may be, as necessary to preserve our status as a REIT. At February 26, 2018, 7,000 shares of Class I Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, represented by 7,000,000 depositary shares, were outstanding, 9,000 shares of Class J Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, represented by 9,000,000 depositary shares, were outstanding, 7,000 shares of Class K Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, represented by 7,000,000 depositary shares, were outstanding, 9,000 shares of Class L Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, represented by 9,000,000 depositary shares, were outstanding, and 10,580 shares of Class M Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, represented by 10,580,000 depositary shares, were outstanding.

 

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Under our charter, our Board of Directors may from time to time establish and issue one or more classes or series of preferred stock and fix the designations, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of such classes or series and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon, including, but not limited to, the fixing of the dividend rights, dividend rate or rates, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption (including sinking fund provisions) and the liquidation preferences.

 

The following description of our preferred stock sets forth certain general terms and provisions of our preferred stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The statements below describing the preferred stock are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of our charter (including the applicable articles supplementary) and bylaws.

 

General

 

Subject to limitations prescribed by Maryland law and our charter, our Board of Directors is authorized to fix the number of shares constituting each class or series of preferred stock and the designations and powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including those provisions as may be desired concerning voting, redemption, dividends, dissolution or the distribution of assets, conversion or exchange, and those other subjects or matters as may be fixed by resolution of our Board of Directors or duly authorized committee thereof. The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and nonassessable and, except as may be determined by our Board of Directors and set forth in the articles supplementary setting forth the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.

 

You should refer to the prospectus supplement relating to the class or series of preferred stock offered thereby for specific terms, including:

 

 

(1)

The class or series, title and stated value of that preferred stock;

 

 

(2)

The number of shares of that preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of that preferred stock;

 

 

(3)

The dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to that preferred stock;

 

 

(4)

Whether dividends on that preferred stock shall be cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on that preferred stock shall accumulate;

 

 

(5)

The procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for that preferred stock;

 

 

(6)

Provisions for a sinking fund, if any, for that preferred stock;

 

 

(7)

Provisions for redemption, if applicable, of that preferred stock;

 

 

(8)

Any listing of that preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

 

(9)

The terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which that preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);

 

 

(10)

Whether interests in that preferred stock will be represented by our depositary shares;

 

 

(11)

The relative ranking and preference of the preferred stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up if other than as described in this prospectus;

 

 

(12)

Any limitations on issuance of any other series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the preferred stock as to distribution rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up;

 

 

(13)

A discussion of certain federal income tax considerations applicable to that preferred stock;

 

 

(14)

Any limitations on actual, beneficial or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of that preferred stock and, if convertible, the related common stock, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT;

 

 

(15)

Any voting rights of such class or series of that preferred stock; and

 

 

(16)

Any other material terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of that preferred stock.

 

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Rank

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement and the articles supplementary setting forth the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, the preferred stock will, with respect to rights to the payment of dividends and distribution of our assets and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, rank:

 

 

(1)

senior to all classes or series of our common stock and excess stock and to all of our equity securities the terms of which provide that those equity securities are junior to the preferred stock;

 

 

(2)

on a parity with all of our equity securities other than those referred to in clauses (1) and (3); and

 

 

(3)

junior to all of our equity securities the terms of which provide that those equity securities will rank senior to it.

 

For these purposes, the term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

 

Conversion Rights

 

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which shares of any class or series of preferred stock are convertible into common stock, debt securities or another series of preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto and the articles supplementary setting forth the terms of any class or series of preferred stock. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock or those other series of preferred stock or the principal amount of debt securities into which the preferred stock is convertible, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of that class or series of preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of that class or series of preferred stock.

 

Restrictions on Ownership

 

As discussed above under “Description of Common Stock—Restrictions on Ownership,” for us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year. Our stock also must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year). In addition, rent from related party tenants (generally, a tenant of a REIT owned, actually or constructively 10% or more by the REIT, or a 10% owner of the REIT) is not qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests under the Code. Therefore, we expect that the applicable articles supplementary for each class or series of preferred stock will contain certain provisions restricting the ownership and transfer of that class or series of preferred stock. Except as otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto, the provisions of each applicable articles supplementary relating to the ownership limit for any class or series of preferred stock will provide that, subject to some exceptions, no holder of that class or series of preferred stock may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the constructive ownership provisions of the Code, preferred stock in excess of the preferred stock ownership limit, which will be equal to 9.8% of the outstanding preferred stock of any class or series. The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause preferred stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be deemed to be constructively owned by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of any class or series of our preferred stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity which owns, actually or constructively, preferred stock) by an individual or entity could cause that individual or entity (or another individual or entity) to own constructively in excess of 9.8% of that class or series of preferred stock, and thus subject that preferred stock to the preferred stock ownership limit.

 

The registrar and transfer agent for our preferred stock is EQ Shareowner Services.

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

General

 

We may issue depositary shares, each of which will represent a fractional interest of a share of a particular class or series of our preferred stock, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Shares of a class or series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares will be deposited under a separate deposit agreement among us, the depositary named therein and the holders from time to time of the depositary receipts issued by the preferred stock depositary which will evidence the depositary shares. Subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary receipt will be entitled, in proportion to the fractional interest of a share of a particular class or series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares evidenced by that depositary receipt, to all the rights and preferences of the class or series of preferred stock represented by those depositary shares (including dividend, voting, conversion, redemption and liquidation rights).

 

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The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the applicable deposit agreement. Immediately following the issuance and delivery of a class or series of preferred stock by us to the preferred stock depositary, we will cause the preferred stock depositary to issue, on our behalf, the depositary receipts. Copies of the applicable form of deposit agreement and depositary receipt may be obtained from us upon request, and the statements made hereunder relating to the deposit agreement and the depositary receipts to be issued thereunder are summaries of certain provisions thereof and do not purport to be complete and are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the applicable deposit agreement and related depositary receipts.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions

 

The preferred stock depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of a class or series of preferred stock to the record holders of depositary receipts evidencing the related depositary shares in proportion to the number of those depositary receipts owned by those holders, subject to certain obligations of holders to file proofs, certificates and other information and to pay certain charges and expenses to the preferred stock depositary.

 

In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the preferred stock depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary receipts entitled thereto, subject to certain obligations of holders to file proofs, certificates and other information and to pay certain charges and expenses to the preferred stock depositary, unless the preferred stock depositary determines that it is not feasible to make that distribution, in which case the preferred stock depositary may, with our approval, sell that property and distribute the net proceeds from that sale to those holders.

 

No distribution will be made in respect of any depositary share to the extent that it represents any class or series of preferred stock converted into excess preferred stock or otherwise converted or exchanged.

 

Withdrawal of Preferred Stock

 

Upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the corporate trust office of the preferred stock depositary (unless the related depositary shares have previously been called for redemption or converted into excess preferred stock or otherwise), the holders thereof will be entitled to delivery at that office, to or upon that holder’s order, of the number of whole or fractional shares of the class or series of preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares evidenced by those depositary receipts. Holders of depositary receipts will be entitled to receive whole or fractional shares of the related class or series of preferred stock on the basis of the proportion of preferred stock represented by each depositary share as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, but holders of those shares of preferred stock will not thereafter be entitled to receive depositary shares therefor. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the preferred stock depositary will deliver to that holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares.

 

Redemption

 

Whenever we redeem shares of a class or series of preferred stock held by the preferred stock depositary, the preferred stock depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of the class or series of preferred stock so redeemed, provided we shall have paid in full to the preferred stock depositary the redemption price of the preferred stock to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the corresponding proportion of the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable with respect to that class or series of preferred stock. If fewer than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected pro rata (as nearly as may be practicable without creating fractional depositary shares) or by any other equitable method determined by us that will not result in the issuance of any excess preferred stock.

 

From and after the date fixed for redemption, all dividends in respect of the shares of a class or series of preferred stock so called for redemption will cease to accrue, the depositary shares so called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares so called for redemption will cease, except the right to receive any moneys payable upon their redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of those depositary receipts were entitled upon their redemption and surrender thereof to the preferred stock depositary.

 

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Voting

 

Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of a class or series of preferred stock deposited with the preferred stock depositary are entitled to vote, the preferred stock depositary will mail the information contained in that notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares which represent that class or series of preferred stock. Each record holder of depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares on the record date (which will be the same date as the record date for that class or series of preferred stock) will be entitled to instruct the preferred stock depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the amount of preferred stock represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The preferred stock depositary will vote the amount of that class or series of preferred stock represented by those depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all reasonable action which may be deemed necessary by the preferred stock depositary in order to enable the preferred stock depositary to do so. The preferred stock depositary will abstain from voting the amount of that class or series of preferred stock represented by those depositary shares to the extent it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary receipts evidencing those depositary shares. The preferred stock depositary shall not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instruction to vote, or for the manner or effect of any vote made, as long as that action or non-action is in good faith and does not result from negligence or willful misconduct of the preferred stock depositary.

 

Liquidation Preference

 

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of each depositary receipt will be entitled to the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares evidenced by that depositary receipt, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Conversion

 

The depositary shares, as such, are not generally convertible into our common stock or any of our other securities or property, except in connection with certain conversions in connection with the preservation of our status as a REIT. Nevertheless, if so specified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to an offering of depositary shares, the depositary receipts may be surrendered by holders thereof to the preferred stock depositary with written instructions to the preferred stock depositary to instruct us to cause conversion of a class or series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares evidenced by those depositary receipts into whole shares of our common stock, other shares of a class or series of preferred stock (including excess preferred stock) or other shares of stock, and we have agreed that upon receipt of those instructions and any amounts payable in respect thereof, we will cause the conversion thereof utilizing the same procedures as those provided for delivery of preferred stock to effect that conversion. If the depositary shares evidenced by a depositary receipt are to be converted in part only, a new depositary receipt or receipts will be issued for any depositary shares not to be converted. No fractional shares of common stock will be issued upon conversion, and if that conversion would result in a fractional share being issued, an amount will be paid in cash by us equal to the value of the fractional interest based upon the closing price of the common stock on the last business day prior to the conversion.

 

Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement

 

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares which represent the preferred stock and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time be amended by agreement between us and the preferred stock depositary. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary receipts or that would be materially and adversely inconsistent with the rights granted to the holders of the related class or series of preferred stock will not be effective unless that amendment has been approved by the existing holders of at least two-thirds of the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipts then outstanding. No amendment shall impair the right, subject to certain exceptions in the deposit agreement, of any holder of depositary receipts to surrender any depositary receipt with instructions to deliver to the holder the related class or series of preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented hereby, except in order to comply with law. Every holder of an outstanding depositary receipt at the time any of those types of amendments becomes effective shall be deemed, by continuing to hold that depositary receipt, to consent and agree to that amendment and to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended thereby.

 

We may terminate the deposit agreement upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice to the preferred stock depositary if:

 

 

(1)

such termination is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT, or

 

 

(2)

a majority of each class or series of preferred stock subject to that deposit agreement consents to that termination, whereupon the preferred stock depositary shall deliver or make available to each holder of depositary receipts, upon surrender of the depositary receipts held by that holder, that number of whole or fractional shares of each class or series of preferred stock as are represented by the depositary shares evidenced by those depositary receipts together with any other property held by the preferred stock depositary with respect to those depositary receipts.

 

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We have agreed that if the deposit agreement is terminated to preserve our status as a REIT, then we will use our best efforts to list each class or series of preferred stock issued upon surrender of the related depositary shares on a national securities exchange. In addition, the deposit agreement will automatically terminate if:

 

 

(1)

all outstanding depositary shares issued thereunder shall have been redeemed,

 

 

(2)

there shall have been a final distribution in respect of each class or series of preferred stock subject to that deposit agreement in connection with our liquidation, dissolution or winding up and that distribution shall have been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares representing that class or series of preferred stock, or

 

 

(3)

each share of preferred stock subject to that deposit agreement shall have been converted into our stock not so represented by depositary shares.

 

Charges of Preferred Stock Depositary

 

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the deposit agreement. In addition, we will pay the fees and expenses of the preferred stock depositary in connection with the performance of its duties under the deposit agreement. However, holders of depositary receipts will pay the fees and expenses of the preferred stock depositary for any duties requested by those holders to be performed which are outside of those expressly provided for in the deposit agreement.

 

Resignation and Removal of Preferred Stock Depositary

 

The preferred stock depositary may resign at any time by delivering notice to us of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the preferred stock depositary, that resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor preferred stock depositary. A successor preferred stock depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000.

 

Miscellaneous

 

The preferred stock depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts any reports and communications from us which are received by it with respect to the related preferred stock.

 

Neither we nor the preferred stock depositary will be liable if it is prevented from or delayed in, by law or any circumstances beyond its control, performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. Our obligations and those of the preferred stock depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performing our respective duties thereunder in good faith and without negligence (in the case of any action or inaction in the voting of a class or series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares), gross negligence or willful misconduct, and neither we nor the preferred stock depositary will be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary receipts, depositary shares or shares of a class or series of preferred stock represented thereby unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the preferred stock depositary may rely on written advice of counsel or accountants, or information provided by persons presenting shares of a class or series of preferred stock represented thereby for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed in good faith to be competent to give that information, and on documents believed in good faith to be genuine and signed by a proper party.

 

In the event the preferred stock depositary shall receive conflicting claims, requests or instructions from any holders of depositary receipts, on the one hand, and us, on the other hand, the preferred stock depositary shall be entitled to act on those claims, requests or instructions received from us.

 

PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

 

The following paragraphs summarize provisions of Maryland law and describe certain provisions of our charter and bylaws. This is a summary, and does not completely describe Maryland law, our charter or our bylaws. For a complete description, we refer you to the Maryland General Corporation Law, our charter and our bylaws. We have incorporated by reference our charter and bylaws as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

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Election of Directors

 

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, a corporation must have at least one director. Subject to this provision, a corporation’s bylaws may alter the number of directors and authorize a majority of the entire Board of Directors to alter within specified limits the number of directors set by the corporation’s charter or its bylaws.

 

Our bylaws provide that the number of directors shall not be less than three nor more than 15 and that the number of directors may be changed by a majority vote of the entire Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors currently consists of nine directors. Each director serves a one-year term and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. There is no cumulative voting on the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock can elect all of our directors. A vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority vote of the entire Board of Directors. Other vacancies may be filled by the vote of a majority of the remaining directors. However, stockholders may elect a successor to fill a vacancy on the Board of Directors which results from the removal of a director by the stockholders of the Company.

 

Each nominee for director shall be elected by a majority of the votes cast. A majority of the votes cast means the affirmative vote of a majority of the total votes cast “for” and “against” such nominee. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a nominee for director shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast if the number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected. If an incumbent director fails to receive the required vote for re-election, under our current bylaws he or she is required to offer to resign from the Board of Directors and the nominating and corporate governance committee will consider such offer to resign, determine whether to accept such director’s resignation, and will submit such recommendation for prompt consideration by the board.

 

Removal of Directors

 

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, unless the corporation’s charter provides otherwise, which ours does not, the stockholders of a corporation may remove any director with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast for the election of directors.

 

Business Combinations

 

Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:

 

 

any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, ten percent or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

 

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of ten percent or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

 

After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

 

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

 

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or which are held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

 

These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. None of these provisions of the Maryland law will apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by the board of directors of the corporation prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder.

 

We have not elected to opt-out of the business combination provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law.

 

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Control Share Acquisitions

 

Maryland law provides that a holder of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” has no voting rights with respect to those shares except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares of stock owned by the acquiror, by officers or by directors who are employees of the corporation are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquiror or shares of stock in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy, would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

 

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

 

 

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

 

 

a majority or more of all voting power.

 

Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. Except as otherwise specified in the statute, a “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares.

 

Once a person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition has undertaken to pay expenses and satisfied other conditions, such person may compel the board of directors of the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

 

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the corporation may be able to redeem any or all of the control shares for fair value, except for control shares for which voting rights previously have been approved. The right of the corporation to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for control shares, as of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such control shares are considered and not approved, or if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of these appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition. Some of the limitations and restrictions otherwise applicable to the exercise of dissenters’ rights do not apply in the context of a control share acquisition.

 

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

 

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. There can be no assurance that this provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

 

Duties of Directors with Respect to Unsolicited Takeovers

 

Maryland law provides protection for Maryland corporations against unsolicited takeovers by limiting, among other things, the duties of the directors in unsolicited takeover situations. Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, the duties of directors of Maryland corporations do not require them to, among other things, (a) accept, recommend or respond to any proposal by a person seeking to acquire control of the corporation, (b) make a determination under the Maryland business combination or control share acquisition statutes described above or (c) act or fail to act solely because of the effect the act or failure to act may have on an acquisition or potential acquisition of control of the corporation or the amount or type of consideration that may be offered or paid to the stockholders in an acquisition. Moreover, under the Maryland General Corporation Law, the act of a director of a Maryland corporation relating to or affecting an acquisition or potential acquisition of control may not be subject to any higher duty or greater scrutiny than is applied to any other act of a director. Maryland law also contains a statutory presumption that an act of a director of a Maryland corporation satisfies the applicable standards of conduct for directors under Maryland law.

 

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Subtitle 8

 

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the Maryland General Corporation Law permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:

 

 

a classified board,

 

 

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director,

 

 

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors,

 

 

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred, and

 

 

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

 

Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already vest in the Board of Directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and require, unless called by our chairman of the Board of Directors, our president, our chief executive officer or the Board of Directors, the request of holders of a majority of the outstanding shares to call a special meeting.

 

Amendments to the Charter

 

The Maryland General Corporation Law generally allows amendment of a corporation’s charter if its board of directors adopts a resolution setting forth the amendment proposed, declaring its advisability and directing that it be submitted to the stockholders for consideration at a meeting of stockholders, and the stockholders thereafter approve such proposed amendment either at a special meeting called by the board for the purpose of approval of such amendment by the stockholders or, if so directed by the board, at the next annual stockholders meeting by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of all votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

 

Under Maryland law and pursuant to our charter, most amendments to our charter must be declared advisable and approved by the Board of Directors and approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast at a meeting of stockholders.

 

Amendment to the Bylaws

 

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, the power to amend the bylaws may be left with the stockholders, vested exclusively in the directors or shared by both groups.

 

Our bylaws provide that stockholders have the power to adopt, alter or repeal any bylaws or to make new bylaws, and that the Board of Directors shall have the power to do the same, except that the Board of Directors shall not alter or repeal the section of the bylaws governing amendments to the bylaws or any bylaws made by the stockholders.

 

Dissolution of Kimco Realty Corporation

 

Under Maryland law and pursuant to our charter, a dissolution must be declared advisable and approved by our Board of Directors and approved by affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock of Kimco.

 

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

 

Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the Board of Directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (iii) by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the advance notice required by the bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on any such other business, as the case may be, and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of the bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to the Board of Directors at a special meeting may be made only (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (ii) provided that the Board of Directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the advance notice required by the bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions of the bylaws.

 

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Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

 

The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the business combination provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of us that might involve a premium price for our stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. Likewise, if our Board of Directors were to elect to be subject to the provisions of Subtitle 8 or if the provision in our bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law were amended or rescinded, these provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law could have similar anti-takeover effects.

 

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

 

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation may include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision which eliminates directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

 

The Maryland General Corporation Law requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his service in that capacity. The Maryland General Corporation Law permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services or (c) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. However, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification, and then only for expenses.

 

In addition, the Maryland General Corporation Law permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of: (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation and (b) a written undertaking by the director or officer or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that he or she did not meet the standard of conduct.

 

Our charter authorizes us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to obligate Kimco to indemnify any present or former director or officer of Kimco or any individual who, while a director of Kimco and at the request of Kimco, serves or has served another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law and without requiring a preliminary determination as to entitlement, to indemnify any present or former director or officer of Kimco or any individual who, while a director or officer of the Kimco and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in that capacity and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding.

 

Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our Board of Directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of ours or a predecessor of ours.

 

On February 25, 2009, our Board of Directors approved a form of Indemnification Agreement to be entered into between the Company and each of its executive officers, members of the Board of Directors and such other employees or consultants of the Company or any subsidiary as may be determined from time to time by the Company’s Chief Executive Officer in his discretion. A brief description of the terms and conditions of the Indemnification Agreement that are material to the Company is included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2008 and the Indemnification Agreement is filed as an exhibit thereto.

 

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It is the position of the Commission that indemnification of directors and officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act is against public policy and is unenforceable pursuant to Section 14 of the Securities Act.

 

UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our election to be taxed as a REIT and the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or debt securities. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to holders of the securities offered by this prospectus (including warrants, preferred stock and depositary shares) may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Kimco Realty Corporation and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

 

the Code;

 

current, temporary and proposed Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code;

 

the legislative history of the Code;

 

administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS; and

 

court decisions;

 

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

 

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

 

the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

potential changes in applicable tax laws.

 

Taxation of Our Company

 

General. We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1992. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

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Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ending December 31, 1992, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operation for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

 

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

 

First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

 

Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.

 

Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

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Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain (“built-in gains tax”) to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

 

Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations and are not qualified REIT subsidiaries, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “—Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

Twelfth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual demand letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined by Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.  

 

We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

 

From time to time we may own properties in other countries which may impose taxes on our operations within their jurisdictions. To the extent possible, we will structure our activities to minimize our non-U.S. tax liability. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to eliminate our non-U.S. tax liability or reduce it to a specified level. Furthermore, as a REIT, both we and our stockholders will derive little or no benefit from foreign tax credits arising from those non-U.S. taxes.

 

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

 

(1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

(2)

that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

(3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

(4)

that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

(5)

that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

(6)

not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

(7)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

 

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

 

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We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7) inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Description of Common Stock – Restrictions on Ownership” and “Description of Preferred Stock – Restrictions on Ownership.”  These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

 

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

 

Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership or a member in a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership or limited liability company retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which we directly or indirectly own an interest is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships and limited liability companies is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”

 

We generally have control of most of the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies in which we own an interest and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. We may from time to time be a limited partner or non-managing member in some of our partnerships and limited liability companies. If a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

 

We own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Asset Tests.”

 

Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. We currently own an interest in a number of taxable REIT subsidiaries and may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “—Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a 30% limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest, subject to certain exceptions. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not clear, this provision may limit the ability of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

 

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Ownership of Interests in Subsidiary REITs. We own and may acquire direct or indirect interests in one or more entities that have elected or will elect to be taxed as REITs under the Code (each, a “Subsidiary REIT”). A Subsidiary REIT is subject to the various REIT qualification requirements and other limitations described herein that are applicable to us. If a Subsidiary REIT were to fail to qualify as a REIT, then (i) that Subsidiary REIT would become subject to U.S. federal income tax and (ii) the Subsidiary REIT’s failure to qualify could have an adverse effect on our ability to comply with the REIT income and asset tests, and thus could impair our ability to qualify as a REIT unless we could avail ourselves of certain relief provisions.

 

Income Tests. We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

 

Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

 

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;

 

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;

 

Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

 

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

 

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We generally do not intend to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.  

 

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions will not be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

 

We have investments in several entities located outside the United States and from time to time may invest in additional entities or properties located outside the United States, through a taxable REIT subsidiary or otherwise. These acquisitions could cause us to incur foreign currency gains or losses. Any foreign currency gains, to the extent attributable to specified items of qualifying income or gain, or specified qualifying assets, however, generally will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, and therefore will be excluded from these tests.

 

To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends or interest, our allocable share of such dividend or interest income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test (except to the extent the interest is paid on a loan that is adequately secured by real property).

 

We will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

 

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

 

following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

 

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

 

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Prohibited Transaction Income. Any gain that we realize on the sale of property held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including any gain realized by our qualified REIT subsidiaries and our share of any gain realized by any of the partnerships or limited liability companies in which we own an interest, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. We intend to hold our properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning our properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objectives. We do not intend, and do not intend to permit any of the partnerships or limited liability companies in which we own an interest, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by us or our subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a taxable REIT subsidiary, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

Penalty Tax. Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.

 

We do not believe we have been, and do not expect to be, subject to this penalty tax, although any rental or service arrangements we enter into from time to time may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

 

Asset Tests. At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.

 

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

 

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer except, in the case of the 10% value test, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe-harbor or securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

 

Fourth, not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. We currently own the stock of certain corporations that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a taxable REIT subsidiary, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

 

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Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

 

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through our qualified REIT subsidiaries, partnerships or limited liability companies) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer may increase as a result of our capital contributions to, or the redemption of other partners’ or members’ interests in, a partnership or limited liability company in which we have an ownership interest. Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

 

Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

 

Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

 

Annual Distribution Requirements.  To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

 

90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

 

For these purposes, our REIT taxable income is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

 

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “—General.”

 

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For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, our deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of our taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we will be eligible to make this election. If we make this election, although we would not be subject to the interest expense limitation described above, our depreciation deductions may be reduced and, as a result, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased.

 

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential—i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a “publicly offered REIT.” To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount. We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations.

 

We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.

 

Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

 

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

 

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

 

Like-Kind Exchanges. We may dispose of real property that is not held primarily for sale in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

 

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Failure to Qualify.  If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders, and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

 

Tax Aspects of the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies

 

General. From time to time, we may own, directly or indirectly, interests in various partnerships and limited liability companies. We expect these will be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership or limited liability company, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership or limited liability company. We will include in our income our share of these partnership and limited liability company items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by these partnerships and limited liability companies, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company.”

 

Entity Classification. Our interests in the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership or limited liability company would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. We do not anticipate that any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation. However, if any such entity were treated as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of one or more of the partnerships or limited liability companies might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment. We believe that each of our partnerships and limited liability companies are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction. A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) generally will determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. We intend that the allocations of taxable income and loss in each of the partnerships and limited liability companies in which we own an interest from time to time comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.

 

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Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties. Under Section 704(c) of the Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership (including a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) in exchange for an interest in the partnership, must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners. Some of the partnerships and/or limited liability companies in which we own an interest were formed by way of contributions of appreciated property. The relevant partnership and/or limited liability company agreements require that allocations be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Under Section 704(c) of the Code we could be allocated less depreciation or more gain on sale with respect to a contributed property than the amounts that would have been allocated to us if we had instead acquired the contributed property with an initial tax basis equal to its fair market value. Such allocations might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

 

Any property acquired by a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.

 

Partnership Audit Rules.  The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it is uncertain how certain aspects of these new rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. The changes created by these new rules are sweeping and in many respects dependent on the promulgation of future regulations or other guidance by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock.

 

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities

 

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of acquiring, owning and disposing of our capital stock or debt securities. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or debt securities as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

 

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

persons holding our capital stock or debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

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persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock being taken into account in an applicable financial statement;

 

persons deemed to sell our capital stock or debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

 

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACQUISITION, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

 

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

 

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

Distributions Generally. Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

 

To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder to the extent of the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

 

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U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our common stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to treat the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to certain exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our common stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the common stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the common stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such dividend income. A U.S. holder that receives common stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such common stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such common stock as described above, and has a holding period in such common stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

 

Capital Gain Dividends. Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year.   In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

 

Retention of Net Capital Gains. We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:

 

 

include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

increase the adjusted tax basis of its capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

 

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations. Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

 

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock. Except as described below under “Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

 

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Redemption or Repurchase by Us. A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

 

is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder;

 

results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us; or

 

is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,

 

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

 

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

 

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Proposed Treasury Regulations issued in 2009, if enacted in their current form, would affect the basis recovery rules described above.  It is not clear whether these proposed regulations will be enacted in their current form or at all.  Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

 

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

 

Tax Rates. The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” generally is 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026.

 

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of shares of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

 

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, or qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) or (c)(20) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

 

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Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

 

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the acquisition, ownership and disposition of shares of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

 

Distributions Generally. Distributions (including any taxable stock dividends) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

 

Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

 

(1)

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

(2)

the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

 

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such capital stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions to be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

 

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests. Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

 

(1)

the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

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(2)

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to non-U.S. holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation.  The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

Retention of Net Capital Gains. Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability.  If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

 

Sale of Our Capital StockExcept as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, will constitute a USRPI.  We believe that we are a USRPHC.  Our capital stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

 

Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

 

 

(1)

such class of capital stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the New York Stock Exchange; and

 

(2)

such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of capital stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.

 

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In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 5% of the stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

 

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

 

Redemption or Repurchase by Us. A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

 

Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities

 

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of our debt securities. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).

 

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U.S. Holders

 

Payments of Interest. Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. holder’s method of tax accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition. A U.S. holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will equal the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss.  Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at a reduced rate. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

Payments of Interest. Interest paid on a debt security to a non-U.S. holder that is not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding, provided that:

 

 

the non-U.S. holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our voting stock;

 

the non-U.S. holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to us through actual or constructive stock ownership; and

 

either (1) the non-U.S. holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the non-U.S. holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the non-U.S. holder, has received from the non-U.S. holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and provides a copy of such statement to the applicable withholding agent; or (3) the non-U.S. holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” (within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.

 

If a non-U.S. holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such non-U.S. holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty.  To claim such entitlement, the non-U.S. holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

 

If interest paid to a non-U.S. holder is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the non-U.S. holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the non-U.S. holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States.

 

Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular graduated rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.

 

The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

 

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Sale or Other Taxable Disposition. A non-U.S. holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “—Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities—Non-U.S. Holders—Payments of Interest”) unless:

 

 

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

 

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.

 

Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

 

Gain described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

 

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

 

U.S. Holders. A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

 

the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

 

Non-U.S. Holders. Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

 

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Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

 

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

 

Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations, and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities.

 

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

 

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our debt securities, or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

 

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities, and will apply to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of such stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019.

 

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or debt securities.

 

Other Tax Consequences

 

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or debt securities.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities offered by this prospectus to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them or may sell the securities offered by this prospectus to investors directly or through agents. Any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities offered by this prospectus will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have reserved the right to sell or exchange securities directly to investors on our or their own behalf in those jurisdictions where we are authorized to do so.

 

We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

 

at negotiated prices.

 

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Underwriters may offer and sell the securities offered by this prospectus at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, at prices related to the prevailing market prices at the time of sale or at negotiated prices. We also may, from time to time, authorize underwriters acting as our agents to offer and sell the securities offered by this prospectus upon the terms and conditions as are set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with the sale of securities offered by this prospectus, underwriters may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of securities offered by this prospectus for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities offered by this prospectus to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent. If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the underwriters may reimburse us for some or all of our expenses in an offering.

 

Any underwriting compensation paid by us to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities offered by this prospectus may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities offered by this prospectus may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions, under the Securities Act. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification against and contribution toward certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize dealers acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase the securities offered by this prospectus from us at the public offering price set forth in that prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in that prospectus supplement.

 

Each delayed delivery contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate principal amount of the securities offered by this prospectus sold pursuant to delayed delivery contracts shall be not less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom delayed delivery contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions, and other institutions but will in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except:

 

 

(1)

the purchase by an institution of the securities offered by this prospectus covered by its delayed delivery contracts shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which that institution is subject, and

 

 

(2)

if the securities offered by this prospectus are being sold to underwriters, we shall have sold to those underwriters the total principal amount of the securities offered by this prospectus less the principal amount thereof covered by delayed delivery contracts.

 

To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

The underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. In the ordinary course of their business activities, the underwriters and their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our subsidiaries. The underwriters and their affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

 

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EXPERTS

 

The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, Washington, D.C., and Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. Any underwriters, dealers or agents will be advised about the other issues relating to any offering by their own legal counsel. Latham & Watkins LLP and any counsel for any underwriters, dealers or agents will rely on Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, as to certain matters of Maryland law. Certain members of Latham & Watkins LLP and their families own beneficial interests in less than 1% of our common stock.

 

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$500,000,000

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Morgan Stanley

Barclays

BB&T Capital Markets

BNY Mellon Capital Markets, LLC

BofA Merrill Lynch

BTIG

Citigroup

Deutsche Bank Securities

Jefferies

J.P. Morgan

Mizuho Securities

RBC Capital Markets

Scotiabank

TD Securities

UBS Investment Bank

Wells Fargo Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 27, 2019

 

 

 

 



 

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