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Section 1: 424B5 (PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT)

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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)​
 Registration Statement No: 333-231338 ​
The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is not complete and may be changed. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion. Dated September 3, 2019.
Preliminary Prospectus Supplement to Prospectus dated May 9, 2019.
11,000,000 shares
[MISSING IMAGE: 399452857_lg_redwoodtrust.jpg]
Common Stock
We are offering 11,000,000 shares of our common stock to be sold in this offering. We will receive all of the net proceeds from the sale of our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “RWT.” On August 30, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $16.60 per share.
We have elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In order to protect us against the risk of losing our qualification as a REIT due to concentration of ownership of our outstanding stock, our charter generally prohibits any single stockholder, or any group of affiliated stockholders, from beneficially owning more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of any class of our stock, unless our board of directors waives or modifies this ownership limit. In addition, our charter contains various other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of shares of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares” beginning on page 25 of the accompanying prospectus.
An investment in our common stock involves risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement, page 2 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and page 111 of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019 to read about important factors that you should consider before investing in our common stock.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriters have agreed to purchase our common stock from us at a price of $     per share, which will result in approximately $     million of net proceeds to us after deducting offering expenses payable by us. The underwriters propose to offer the shares of common stock from time to time for sale in negotiated transactions or otherwise, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices, subject to receipt of acceptance by it and subject to its right to reject any order in whole or in part. See “Underwriting” beginning on page S-19 of this prospectus supplement.
We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional 1,650,000 shares from us at the price set forth above, within 30 days of the date of this prospectus supplement.
The shares of common stock sold in this offering will be ready for delivery on or about September   , 2019.
Joint Book-Running Managers
J.P. Morgan
Wells Fargo Securities
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
Credit Suisse
Co-managers
JMP Securities
Keefe, Bruyette & Woods
A Stifel Company
September   , 2019

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About this Prospectus Supplement
You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering when making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents we have referred you to in the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.” This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement on Form S-3 we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC, under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. We have omitted certain parts of the registration statement, as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. You may inspect and copy the registration statement, including exhibits, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov or at the SEC’s public reference room. See “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the SEC that adds to, updates or changes information contained in an earlier filing we made with the SEC shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information in the earlier filing.
Unless otherwise mentioned or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus supplement to “Redwood,” “we,” “us,” “our” or similar references mean Redwood Trust, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
If the information set forth in this prospectus supplement differs in any way from the information set forth in the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information set forth in this prospectus supplement.
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference herein or therein. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it.
We are not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer to sell the shares of our common stock in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since that date. Neither this prospectus supplement nor the accompanying prospectus constitutes an offer, or an invitation on our behalf or on behalf of the underwriters, to subscribe for and purchase any of the securities, and may not be used for or in connection with an offer or solicitation by anyone, in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation.
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. You can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “plan,” “could,” “should,” “continue” or the negative of such terms or similar words or expressions. These forward-looking statements may also use different phrases.
We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. These forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, may include, among other things, statements that address our strategy and operating performance and events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future, including, but not limited to, our statements in “Summary — The Offering” on page S-4 and “Use of Proceeds” on page S-15 regarding our intended use of the proceeds of this offering.
These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict; therefore, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in any forward-looking statements. The risks and uncertainties include those described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019 and in our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as well as those referenced in “Risk Factors” below. These are factors that we think could cause our actual results to differ materially from expected results. Other factors besides those listed could also adversely affect us. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
Important factors, among others, that may affect our actual results include: the pace at which we redeploy our available capital into new investments and initiatives; our ability to scale our platform and systems, particularly with respect to our new initiatives; interest rate volatility, changes in credit spreads, and changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; changes in the demand from investors for residential mortgages and investments, and our ability to distribute residential mortgages through our whole-loan distribution channel; our ability to finance our investments in securities and our acquisition of residential mortgages with short-term debt; changes in the values of assets we own; general economic trends, the performance of the housing, real estate, mortgage, credit, and broader financial markets, and their effects on the prices of earning assets and the credit status of borrowers; federal and state legislative and regulatory developments, and the actions of governmental authorities, including the new U.S. presidential administration, and in particular those affecting the mortgage industry or our business (including, but not limited to, the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s rules relating to FHLB membership requirements and the implications for our captive insurance subsidiary’s membership in the FHLB); strategic business and capital deployment decisions we make; developments related to the fixed income and mortgage finance markets and the Federal Reserve’s statements regarding its future open market activity and monetary policy; our exposure to credit risk and the timing of credit losses within our portfolio; the concentration of the credit risks we are exposed to, including due to the structure of assets we hold and the geographical concentration of real estate underlying assets we own; our exposure to adjustable-rate mortgage loans; the efficacy and expense of our efforts to manage or hedge credit risk, interest rate risk, and other financial and operational risks; changes in credit ratings on assets we own and changes in the rating agencies’ credit rating methodologies; changes in interest rates; changes in mortgage prepayment rates; changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; our ability to finance the acquisition of real estate-related assets with short-term debt; the ability of counterparties to satisfy their obligations to us; our involvement in securitization transactions, the profitability of those transactions, and the risks we are exposed to in engaging in securitization transactions; exposure to claims and litigation,
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including litigation arising from our involvement in securitization transactions; ongoing litigation against various trustees of RMBS transactions; whether we have sufficient liquid assets to meet short-term needs; our ability to successfully compete and retain or attract key personnel; our ability to adapt our business model and strategies to changing circumstances; changes in our investment, financing, and hedging strategies and new risks we may be exposed to if we expand our business activities; our exposure to a disruption or breach of the security of our technology infrastructure and systems; exposure to environmental liabilities; our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations; our failure to maintain appropriate internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures; the impact on our reputation that could result from our actions or omissions or from those of others; changes in accounting principles and tax rules; our ability to maintain our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; limitations imposed on our business due to our REIT status and our status as exempt from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940; decisions about raising, managing, and distributing capital; our expectations regarding the use of the net proceeds from this offering; our ability to successfully negotiate, execute and close the proposed acquisition of an operating platform that originates business purpose residential mortgage loans, together with an associated portfolio of loans and subordinate mortgage-backed securities on the terms or timetable that we currently contemplate, or at all, structure the proposed acquisition in a manner that is accretive to us over the long term, secure collateralized financing for the associated portfolio as part of the acquisition, and efficiently complete the integration of the acquired platform; and other factors not presently identified.
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information appearing elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and may not contain all of the information that is important to you. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus include information about the shares of common stock we are offering as well as information regarding our business and financial data. You should read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including information incorporated by reference, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety. Investors should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Unless otherwise stated, all information contained in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of common stock in this offering.
About Redwood Trust, Inc.
Redwood Trust, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is a specialty finance company focused on making credit-sensitive investments in single-family residential and multifamily mortgages and related assets and engaging in mortgage banking activities. Our goal is to provide attractive returns to stockholders through a stable and growing stream of earnings and dividends, as well as through capital appreciation. We operate our business in two segments: Investment Portfolio and Mortgage Banking.
Our primary sources of income are net interest income from our investment portfolio and non-interest income from our mortgage banking activities. Net interest income consists of the interest income we earn on investments less the interest expense we incur on borrowed funds and other liabilities. Income from mortgage banking activities is generated through the acquisition of loans and their subsequent sale or securitization, as well as through the origination of business purpose residential loans.
Redwood Trust, Inc. has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, beginning with its taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We generally refer, collectively, to Redwood Trust, Inc. and those of its subsidiaries that are not subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “the REIT” or “our REIT.” We generally refer to subsidiaries of Redwood Trust, Inc. that are subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “our taxable REIT subsidiaries” or “TRS.” Our mortgage banking activities and investments in mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs, are generally carried out through our taxable REIT subsidiaries, while our portfolio of mortgage- and other real estate-related investments is primarily held at our REIT. We generally intend to retain profits generated and taxed at our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and to distribute as dividends at least 90% of the taxable income we generate at our REIT.
Our Investment Portfolio segment includes a portfolio of investments in residential mortgage-backed securities, or RMBS, retained from our Sequoia securitizations, as well as RMBS issued by third parties and other credit risk-related investments. In addition, this segment includes a subsidiary of Redwood Trust that is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago, or FHLBC, and that utilizes long-term financing from the FHLBC to make long-term investments directly in residential mortgage loans. This segment also includes residential bridge loans, which are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors rehabilitating and reselling or renting residential properties that were originated by our subsidiary, 5 Arches, LLC (following the completion of our acquisition of 5 Arches, LLC in the first quarter of 2019), and transferred to our Investment Portfolio. The Investment Portfolio segment’s main sources of revenue are interest income from investment portfolio securities and loans held-for-investment. Additionally, this segment may realize gains and losses upon the sale of securities. Funding expenses, hedging expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax provisions associated with these activities are also included in this segment.
Our Mortgage Banking segment primarily consists of operating a mortgage loan conduit that acquires residential loans from third-party originators for subsequent sale, securitization, or transfer to our investment portfolio. We typically acquire prime, jumbo mortgages and the related MSRs on a flow basis from our network of loan sellers and distribute those loans through our Sequoia private-label securitization program or to institutions that acquire pools of whole loans. We also supplement our flow purchases with
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bulk loan acquisitions. In addition, beginning in the third quarter of 2018, this segment began to acquire single-family rental loans for subsequent sale or securitization. Single-family rental loans are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors in single-family (1-4 unit) rental properties. Beginning in the first quarter of 2019, when we completed our acquisition of 5 Arches, LLC, this segment began to originate business purpose residential mortgage loans (including residential bridge loans and single-family rental loans). This segment also includes various derivative financial instruments that we utilize to manage certain risks associated with residential loans we acquire. Our Mortgage Banking segment’s main source of revenue is income from mortgage banking activities, which includes valuation increases (or gains) on loans we acquire and subsequently sell or securitize, and from hedges used to manage risks associated with these activities. Additionally, this segment may generate interest income on loans held pending securitization or sale. Funding expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax expenses associated with these activities are also included in this segment.
We sponsor our Sequoia securitization program, which we use for the securitization of residential mortgage loans. We are required under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States, or GAAP, to consolidate the assets and liabilities of certain securitization entities we have sponsored for financial reporting purposes. However, each of these entities is independent of Redwood and of each other, and the assets and liabilities of these entities are not owned by us or legal obligations of ours, respectively, although we are exposed to certain financial risks associated with our role as the sponsor or depositor of these entities and, to the extent we hold securities issued by, or other investments in, these entities, we are exposed to the performance of these entities and the assets they hold. We refer to certain of these securitization entities issued prior to 2012 as “consolidated Legacy Sequoia entities,” and the securitization entities formed in connection with the securitization of Redwood Choice expanded-prime loans as the “consolidated Sequoia Choice entities.” Additionally, during 2018, we consolidated variable interest entities, or VIEs, certain third-party Freddie Mac K-Series and SLST securitization entities that we determined were and for which we determined we were the primary beneficiary. Where applicable, in analyzing our results of operations, we distinguish results from current operations “at Redwood” and from consolidated entities.
Recent Developments
Through this offering and in the future we may raise equity or debt capital to acquire assets and make long-term investments to expand our investment portfolio or enhance our mortgage banking operating platforms, including funding large purchases of portfolios of residential, multifamily, or business purpose residential loans or securities, or other portfolio investments, or for other purposes, such as for acquisitions to expand our mortgage banking platform, to repay our $201 million principal amount of exchangeable senior notes maturing in November 2019, or to temporarily repay short-term collateralized borrowings. For example, we are currently working with a financial institution counterparty to seek to arrange long-term, recourse secured debt financing for a pool of approximately $300 million principal amount of subordinate RMBS currently held in our investment portfolio. Our goal is to announce this proposed financing transaction in early September 2019 and seek to complete this proposed transaction during the third quarter of 2019, subject to, among other things, market conditions. There can be no assurance that the proposed transaction will be completed on this time table or at all.
In addition, we are currently negotiating and conducting due diligence in connection with a proposed acquisition of an operating platform that originates business purpose residential mortgage loans, together with an associated portfolio of loans and subordinate mortgage-backed securities. There is currently no agreement with the seller binding us or the seller to execute or close the proposed acquisition. If we are successful in completing these negotiations and executing and closing this proposed acquisition, we currently estimate that we would deploy approximately $375 to $425 million of total capital in completing the acquisition, the substantial majority of which would be used to acquire the associated portfolio (net of collateralized financing for this portfolio that we would expect to be in place as part of the acquisition). Although we believe we have access to sufficient capital resources to complete the acquisition on the terms currently contemplated, we continuously monitor market conditions and may at any time in the future decide to take advantage of opportunities to raise equity or debt capital at times and on terms we believe are advantageous to us and our business.
If we are successful in negotiating, executing, and closing the proposed acquisition, we would expect the acquisition to close in the fourth quarter of 2019, subject to customary closing conditions. Our goal is
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to structure the proposed acquisition in a manner that is accretive to us over the long term. However, our accretion analysis is subject to a variety of market and other factors, including, among others, the completion of our due diligence, the final agreed upon terms of the acquisition, the terms of the collateralized financing for the associated portfolio that we expect to be in place as part of the acquisition and any opportunistic equity or debt capital raises that we decide in the future to take advantage of as we monitor market conditions. There can be no guarantee that this acquisition will occur at all, on the schedule described above, or on the terms we currently contemplate, or, if it does, that it will in fact be accretive.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated in the State of Maryland on April 11, 1994, and commenced operations on August 19, 1994. We operate so as to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941. Our telephone number is (415) 389-7373. Our website is www.redwoodtrust.com. Information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
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THE OFFERING
The following is a brief summary of the terms of this offering and our common stock. This summary is not a complete description of this offering or our common stock. You should read the full text and more specific details contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Issuer
Redwood Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation.
Securities Offered
11,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share
Option to purchase additional shares
We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional 1,650,000 shares of common stock within 30 days of the date of this prospectus supplement.
Common stock to be outstanding upon completion of this offering
108,715,021 shares of common stock (110,365,021 shares of common stock if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full), in each case based on 97,715,021 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2019. Shares of common stock outstanding do not include approximately 55.3 million shares of common stock (i) issuable upon conversion or exchange of our outstanding convertible or exchangeable notes, (ii) issuable in respect of vested and unvested deferred and restricted stock units, (iii) issuable in respect of unvested performance stock units (assuming maximum vesting under the performance-based vesting formula), (iv) reserved for issuance under our equity and incentive compensation plans (assuming the full vesting of outstanding deferred, restricted and performance stock units), (v) remaining reserved for issuance under our ATM offering program and (vi) remaining reserved for issuance under our direct stock purchase and dividend reinvestment plans, in each case as of June 30, 2019. There were no shares of common stock issued by us between June 30, 2019 and the date hereof.
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
For certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of the shares of our common stock, see “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” on page 30 of the accompanying prospectus.
Use of Proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $     (or approximately $     if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full), after deducting estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund our business and investment activity, which may include funding pending or recently completed investment transactions (including, for example, funding the remainder of the purchase price for subordinate securities backed by a pool of reperforming and non-performing residential mortgage loans, and funding capital calls on a multifamily whole loan investment fund). In addition, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to fund new
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investment opportunities in portfolios of residential, multifamily, or business purpose residential loans or securities, to make other portfolio investments, to fund our mortgage banking business, and to repay our $201 million principal amount of exchangeable senior notes maturing in November 2019, and for general corporate purposes.
Pending such uses, we may use all or a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to temporarily reduce borrowings under our short-term residential or business purpose loan warehouse facilities and our short-term real estate securities repurchase facilities. We may subsequently re-borrow amounts under our short-term residential or business purpose loan warehouse facilities and our short-term real estate securities repurchase facilities to fund our business and investment activity, as described above. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-15.
Listing
Our common stock is listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “RWT.”
Risk Factors
See “Risk Factors” on page S-9 and beginning on page 2 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, and page 111 of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019 and any other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of factors you should consider carefully before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Common Stock
To assist us in satisfying the requirements for qualification as a REIT, our charter prohibits any person from acquiring or holding beneficial ownership of shares of our common stock representing in excess of 9.8%, in number of shares or value, of the outstanding shares of our common stock, unless our board of directors waives or modifies this ownership limit. We have previously granted limited waivers of this prohibition and, subject to the approval of our board of directors, we may grant additional waivers at any time. In addition, our charter contains various other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares” on page 25 of the accompanying prospectus.
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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
We derived the summary consolidated financial data for the three years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018, and as of December 31, 2018, from our audited consolidated financial statements. We derived the summary unaudited consolidated financial data for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2019, and as of June 30, 2019, from our unaudited consolidated interim financial statements. The following information should be read in conjunction with our audited and unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future, and our interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year or any future period. For more details on how you can obtain our SEC reports and other information, you should read the section of the accompanying prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Six Months Ended June 30,
Years Ended December 31,
2019
2018
2018
2017
2016
(unaudited)
(In thousands, except share data)
Interest Income
Residential loans
$ 153,238 $ 105,745 $ 239,818 $ 154,362 $ 137,804
Business purpose loans
6,785 4,333
Multifamily loans
57,305 21,322
Commercial loans
345 30,496
Real estate securities
49,467 51,991 105,078 90,803 76,873
Other interest income
12,788 1,859 8,166 2,547 1,182
Total interest income
279,583 159,595 378,717 248,057 246,355
Interest Expense
Short-term debt
(46,493) (26,610) (58,917) (36,851) (22,287)
Asset-backed securities issued
(125,408) (27,750) (99,429) (19,108) (14,735)
Long-term debt
(43,595) (35,367) (80,693) (52,857) (51,506)
Total interest expense
(215,496) (89,727) (239,039) (108,816) (88,528)
Net Interest Income
64,087 69,868 139,678 139,241 157,827
Reversal of provision for loan losses
7,102
Net Interest Income After Provision
64,087 69,868 139,678 139,241 164,929
Non-interest Income
Mortgage banking activities, net
31,469 37,172 59,566 53,908 38,691
Mortgage servicing rights income (loss), net(1)
7,860 14,353
Investment fair value changes, net
23,297 2,498 (25,689) 10,374 (28,574)
Other income, net(1)
5,994 5,440 12,874 4,576 6,338
Realized gains, net
13,513 14,077 27,041 13,355 28,009
Total non-interest income, net
74,273 59,187 73,792 90,073 58,817
Operating expenses
(49,414) (42,039) (82,782) (77,156) (88,786)
Net Income before Provision for Income Taxes
88,946 87,016 130,688 152,158 134,960
(Provision for) Benefit from income taxes
(3,216) (7,424) (11,088) (11,752) (3,708)
Net Income
$ 85,730 $ 79,592 $ 119,600 $ 140,406 $ 131,252
Basic earnings per common share
$ 0.88 $ 1.02 $ 1.47 $ 1.78 $ 1.66
Diluted earnings per common share
$ 0.78 $ 0.88 $ 1.34 $ 1.60 $ 1.54
Regular dividends declared per common share
$ 0.60 $ 0.58 $ 1.18 $ 1.12 $ 1.12
Basic weighted average shares outstanding
94,846,431 75,388,638 78,724,912 76,792,957 76,747,047
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
128,499,431 104,291,180 110,027,770 101,975,008 97,909,090
(1)
Mortgage servicing rights income (loss), net is included in Other income, net on our consolidated statement of income for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2018. For the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, Mortgage servicing rights income (loss), net was $1,911 and $2,830, respectively, and for the year ended December 31, 2018, Mortgage servicing rights income (loss), net was $7,076.
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June 30,
2019
December 31,
2018
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except share data)
Balance sheet data:
ASSETS(1)
Residential loans, held-for-sale, at fair value
$ 1,056,287 $ 1,048,801
Residential loans, held-for-investment, at fair value
6,227,078 6,205,941
Business purpose residential loans, at fair value
250,854 141,258
Multifamily loans, held-for-investment, at fair value
3,749,657 2,144,598
Real estate securities, at fair value
1,477,486 1,452,494
Other investments
372,130 438,518
Cash and cash equivalents
218,145 175,764
Restricted cash
33,953 29,313
Goodwill and intangible assets
50,999
Accrued interest receivable
54,265 47,105
Derivative assets
26,609 35,789
Other assets
334,123 217,825
Total Assets
$ 13,851,586 $ 11,937,406
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY(1)
Liabilities
Short-term debt(2)
$ 2,462,885 $ 2,400,279
Accrued interest payable
47,092 42,528
Derivative liabilities
173,847 84,855
Accrued expenses and other liabilities
117,428 78,719
Asset-backed securities issued, at fair value
6,913,129 5,410,073
Long-term debt, net
2,573,173 2,572,158
Total Liabilities
12,287,554 10,588,612
Equity
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share, 270,000,000 and 180,000,000 shares authorized; 97,715,021 and 84,884,344 issued and outstanding
977 849
Additional paid-in capital
2,013,044 1,811,422
Accumulated other comprehensive income
48,923 61,297
Cumulative earnings
1,495,671 1,409,941
Cumulative distributions to stockholders
(1,994,583) (1,934,715)
Total Equity
1,564,032 1,348,794
Total Liabilities and Equity
$ 13,851,586 $ 11,937,406
Recourse senior debt to equity(3)
3.0x 3.4x
Recourse debt to equity(4)
3.1x 3.5x
(1)
Our consolidated balance sheets include assets of consolidated VIEs that can only be used to settle obligations of these VIEs and liabilities of consolidated VIEs for which creditors do not have recourse to Redwood Trust, Inc. or its affiliates. At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, assets of consolidated VIEs totaled $7,937,685 and $6,331,191, respectively. At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, liabilities of consolidated VIEs totaled $7,189,086 and $5,709,807, respectively.
(2)
Includes $201 million of our exchangeable senior notes, which were reclassified from Long-term debt, net to Short-term debt, net as the maturity of the notes was less than one year as of November 15, 2018.
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(3)
Recourse senior debt is comprised of approximately $2.0 billion and $2.0 billion of FHLBC borrowings, $445 million and $445 million of convertible senior notes, $1.2 billion and $1.0 billion of borrowings under security repurchase facilities, $812 million and $949 million of borrowings under mortgage loan warehouse facilities, and $201 million and $201 million of short-term exchangeable senior notes at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. Recourse senior debt excludes asset-backed securities issued by securitization entities consolidated for financial reporting purposes of $6.9 billion and $5.4 billion and $237 million and $266 million of servicer advance financing at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, for which Redwood Trust does not have recourse liability. Excludes an aggregate of  $140 million of subordinated debt issued by Redwood Trust at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
(4)
Recourse debt is comprised of recourse senior debt plus an aggregate of  $140 million of subordinated debt issued by Redwood Trust at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 and excludes asset-backed securities issued by securitization entities consolidated for financial reporting purposes of  $6.9 billion and $5.4 billion and $237 million and $266 million of servicer advance financing at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, for which Redwood Trust does not have recourse liability.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in the shares of common stock being offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risk factors described below, the risk factors incorporated herein by reference to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019 and the risk factors contained in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occur, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flow. As a result, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we think are immaterial may also materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition and could result in a complete loss of your investment.
Risks Related to our Common Stock and this Offering
We may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree and in ways that may not yield a return to our stockholders.
We will retain broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this public offering. Stockholders may not deem such uses desirable, and our use of the proceeds may not yield a significant return or any return at all for our stockholders. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund our business and investment activity, which may include funding pending or recently completed investment transactions (including, for example, funding the remainder of the purchase price for subordinate securities backed by a pool of reperforming and non-performing residential mortgage loans, and funding capital calls on a multifamily whole loan investment fund). In addition, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to fund new investment opportunities in portfolios of residential, multifamily, or business purpose residential loans or securities, to make other portfolio investments, to fund our mortgage banking business, and to repay our $201 million principal amount of exchangeable senior notes maturing in November 2019, and for general corporate purposes. Pending such uses, we may use all or a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to temporarily reduce borrowings under our short-term residential or business purpose loan warehouse facilities and our short-term real estate securities repurchase facilities. We may subsequently re-borrow amounts under our short-term residential or business purpose loan warehouse facilities and our short-term real estate securities repurchase facilities to fund our business and investment activity, as described above. Because of the number and variability of factors that determine our use of the proceeds from this offering, our actual uses of the proceeds from this offering may vary substantially from our currently planned uses.
The issuance of additional stock will dilute all other stockholdings and could affect the market price of our common stock.
As of June 30, 2019, we had an aggregate of approximately 55.3 million shares of common stock (i) issuable upon conversion or exchange of our outstanding convertible or exchangeable notes, (ii) issuable in respect of vested and unvested deferred and restricted stock units, (iii) issuable in respect of unvested performance stock units (assuming maximum vesting under the performance-based vesting formula), (iv) reserved for issuance under our equity and incentive compensation plans (assuming the full vesting of outstanding deferred, restricted and performance stock units), (v) remaining reserved for issuance under our ATM offering program and (vi) remaining reserved for issuance under our direct stock purchase and dividend reinvestment plans. There were no shares of common stock issued by us between June 30, 2019 and the date hereof. We may issue all of these shares without any action or approval by our stockholders. The issuance of unreserved shares, as well as any shares of our common stock issued in connection with the exercise of deferred stock units, performance stock units, restricted stock units or convertible or exchangeable notes or derivative instruments, or otherwise, would dilute the percentage ownership held by the investors in our common stock.
Investing in our common stock may involve a high degree of risk. Investors in our common stock may experience losses, volatility and poor liquidity, and we may reduce our dividends in a variety of circumstances.
An investment in our common stock may involve a high degree of risk, particularly when compared to other types of investments. Risks related to the economy, the financial markets, our industry, our investing
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activity, our other business activities, our financial results, the amount of dividends we distribute, the manner in which we conduct our business and the way we have structured and limited our operations could result in a reduction in, or the elimination of, the value of our common stock. The level of risk associated with an investment in our common stock may not be suitable for the risk tolerance of many investors. Investors may experience volatile returns and material losses. In addition, the trading volume of our common stock (i.e., its liquidity) may be insufficient to allow investors to sell their common stock when they want to or at a price they consider reasonable.
Our earnings, cash flows, book value, and dividends can be volatile and difficult to predict. Investors in our common stock should not rely on our estimates, projections or predictions, or on management’s beliefs about future events. In particular, the sustainability of our earnings and our cash flows will depend on numerous factors, including our level of investment activity, our access to debt and equity financing, the returns we earn, the amount and timing of credit losses, payment rates on residential mortgage loans we invest in or that underlie the mortgage-backed securities we invest in, the expense of running our business and other factors, including the risk factors described herein and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019. As a consequence, although we seek to pay a regular common stock dividend rate that is sustainable, we may reduce our regular dividend rate, or stop paying dividends, in the future for a variety of reasons. We may not provide public warnings of dividend reductions prior to their occurrence. Although we have paid special dividends in the past, we have not paid a special dividend since 2007, and we may not do so in the future. Changes to the amount of dividends we distribute may result in a reduction in the value of our common stock.
A limited number of institutional stockholders own a significant percentage of our common stock, which could have adverse consequences to other holders of our common stock.
Based on 2019 filings on Schedule 13G with the SEC, we believe that five institutional stockholders each beneficially owned 5% or more of our outstanding common stock, and we believe based on data obtained from other public sources that, overall, institutional stockholders beneficially owned, as of June 30, 2019, in the aggregate, approximately 90% of our outstanding common stock. Furthermore, one or more of these investors or other investors could significantly increase their ownership of our common stock. Significant ownership stakes held by these individual institutions or other investors could have adverse consequences for other stockholders because each of these stockholders will have a significant influence over the outcome of matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the election of our directors and transactions involving a change in control. In addition, should any of these significant stockholders determine to liquidate all or a significant portion of their holdings of our common stock, it could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
Although, under our charter, stockholders are generally precluded from beneficially owning more than 9.8% of our outstanding common stock, our board of directors may amend existing ownership-limitation waivers or grant waivers to other stockholders in the future, in each case in a manner which may allow for increases in the concentration of the ownership of our common stock held by one or more stockholders.
Future sales of our common stock by us or by our directors or officers could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to raise funds in a new securities offering.
We may issue additional shares of common stock in subsequent public offerings or private placements. In addition, we may issue additional shares of common stock pursuant to our ATM offering program, upon conversion of our convertible debt or upon exchange of our exchangeable debt, to participants in our direct stock purchase and dividend reinvestment plan and to our directors, officers and employees under our employee stock purchase plan and our incentive plan, including upon the exercise of, or in respect of, distributions on equity awards previously granted thereunder. We are not required to offer any such shares to existing stockholders on a preemptive basis. Therefore, it may not be possible for existing stockholders to participate in future share issuances, which may dilute existing stockholders’ interests in us. In addition, if market participants buy shares in issuances by us in the future, it may reduce or eliminate any purchases of our common stock they might otherwise make in the open market, which in turn could have the effect of reducing the volume of shares of our common stock traded in the marketplace, which could reduce the market price and liquidity of our common stock and, in turn, our ability to raise funds in a new securities offering.
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As of June 30, 2019, our current directors and executive officers beneficially owned, in the aggregate, approximately 2% of our common stock. Certain sales of shares of our common stock by these individuals are required to be publicly reported and are tracked by many market participants as a factor in making their own investment decisions. As a result, future sales by these individuals could negatively affect the market price of our common stock and, in turn, our ability to raise funds in a new securities offering.
We and each of our directors and executive officers have entered into lock up agreements with the underwriters of this offering pursuant to which we and our directors and executive officers, with limited exceptions, for a period of 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, may not, without the prior written consent of the representatives of the underwriters, sell or transfer any shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for any shares of our common stock. The representatives of the underwriters may, in their sole discretion, at any time from time to time, waive in writing the terms and conditions of these lock up agreements.
Holders of our common stock may not receive dividend distributions, or dividend distributions may decrease over time. Changes in the amount of dividend distributions we pay or in the tax characterization of dividend distributions we pay may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to raise funds in new securities offerings.
Our dividend distributions are driven by a variety of factors, including our minimum dividend distribution requirements under the REIT tax laws and our REIT taxable income as calculated pursuant to the Code. We generally intend to distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, although our reported financial results for GAAP purposes may differ materially from our REIT taxable income.
During the six months ended June 30, 2019, we paid $60 million of cash dividends on our common stock, representing cumulative dividends of  $0.60 per share. In August 2019, our board of directors declared a regular dividend of  $0.30 per share for the third quarter of 2019, which is payable on September 30, 2019 to shareholders of record on September 16, 2019. Our ability to continue to pay a dividend of   $0.30 per share per quarter in the future may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including the risk factors described herein and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019. These same factors may affect our ability to pay other future dividends. In addition, to the extent we determine that future dividends would represent a return of capital to investors, rather than the distribution of income, we may determine to discontinue dividend payments until such time that dividends would again represent a distribution of income. Any reduction or elimination of our payment of dividend distributions would not only reduce the amount of dividends you would receive as a holder of our common stock, but could also have the effect of reducing the market price of our common stock and our ability to raise funds in new securities offerings.
In addition, the rate at which holders of our common stock are taxed on dividends we pay and the characterization of our dividend — be it ordinary income, capital gains, or a return of capital — could have an impact on the market price of our common stock and, in turn, our ability to raise funds in new stock offerings. After we announce the expected characterization of dividend distributions we have paid, the actual characterization (and, therefore, the rate at which holders of our common stock are taxed on the dividend distributions they have received) could vary from our expectation, including due to errors, changes made in the course of preparing our corporate tax returns, or changes made in response to an IRS audit), with the result that holders of our common stock could incur greater income tax liabilities than expected.
Provisions of Maryland law, our charter and bylaws may impede or discourage a takeover, which could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Provisions of our charter and bylaws, as well as provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or the MGCL, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders. In order to maintain our qualifications as a REIT, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding capital stock may be owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals (defined in the Code to include certain entities). In order to protect us against the risk of losing our qualification as a REIT due to concentration of ownership of our outstanding stock, our charter generally prohibits any
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single stockholder, or any group of affiliated stockholders, from beneficially owning more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of any class of our stock, unless our board of directors waives or modifies this ownership limit. This limitation may preclude an acquisition of control of us by a third party without the consent of our board of directors. Our board of directors has granted a limited number of such waivers to institutional investors to own shares in excess of this 9.8% limit, which waivers are subject to certain terms and conditions. Our board of directors may amend these existing waivers to permit additional share ownership or may grant waivers to additional stockholders at any time.
Certain other provisions contained in our charter and bylaws and in the MGCL may discourage a third-party from making an acquisition proposal for us and may therefore inhibit a change in control. Our charter includes provisions granting our board of directors the authority to cause us to issue preferred stock from time to time and to establish the terms, preferences and rights of the preferred stock without the approval of our stockholders. In addition, provisions in our charter and bylaws and the MGCL restrict our stockholders’ ability to remove directors and fill vacancies on our board of directors and restrict the voting rights of shares of our common stock acquired in excess of certain ownership thresholds. These provisions and others may delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
Certain of our outstanding securities rank, and we may in the future offer debt or equity securities that may rank, senior to our common stock, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We have issued and outstanding 5.625% convertible senior notes due 2024, 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2023 and 5.625% exchangeable senior notes due 2019, which have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock. If we decide to issue additional debt or preferred equity securities in the future, which would rank senior to our common stock, it is likely that they will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any equity securities or convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock and may result in dilution to owners of our common stock. We and, indirectly, our stockholders, will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, holders of our common stock will bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting the value of their stock holdings in us.
Your investment has various U.S. federal income tax risks.
Although the provisions of the Code generally relevant to an investment in shares of our common stock are described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” on page 30 of the accompanying prospectus, we urge you to consult your tax advisor concerning the effects of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax laws to you with regard to an investment in shares of our common stock.
Risks Related to Proposed Acquisition
We are currently negotiating and conducting due diligence in connection with a proposed acquisition of an operating platform and an associated portfolio of loans and securities, but it is possible that we will not successfully complete the proposed acquisition on the terms or timetable currently contemplated, or at all.
As of September 3, 2019, we are negotiating and conducting due diligence in connection with a proposed acquisition of an operating platform that originates business purpose residential mortgage loans, together with an associated portfolio of loans and subordinate mortgage-backed securities. If we are successful in completing these negotiations and executing and closing this proposed acquisition, we would expect the acquisition to close in the fourth quarter of 2019, subject to customary closing conditions. This proposed acquisition is in the process of being negotiated and the related documentation and due diligence efforts are ongoing. There is currently no agreement with the seller binding us or the seller to execute or close the proposed acquisition. In addition, any agreement with the seller is expected to contain a number of conditions that must be satisfied prior to consummation of the proposed acquisition, as well as certain
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termination rights. As a result, we may not be able to complete the proposed acquisition on the terms or timetable that we currently contemplate, or at all, and it is possible that one or more conditions to closing will not be satisfied or waived or that other events will intervene to delay or prevent the completion of the proposed acquisition.
We may fail to realize all of the anticipated benefits of the proposed acquisition or those benefits may take longer to realize than expected and our business, financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected. We may also encounter significant difficulties in integrating the acquired platform.
While our goal is to structure the proposed acquisition in a manner that is beneficial and accretive to us over the long term, our accretion analysis and beliefs about the benefits of the proposed acquisition are subject to a variety of market and other factors, including, among others: (i) the completion of our due diligence; (ii) the final agreed upon terms of the proposed acquisition; (iii) the terms of the collateralized financing for the associated portfolio that we expect to be in place as part of the proposed acquisition; (iv) any opportunistic equity or debt capital raises that we decide in the future to take advantage of as we monitor market conditions; and (v) our current estimates, assumptions and projections about the current and future operation of the platform, including, without limitation, estimates, assumptions, and projections about (a) the platform’s future origination volumes, operating expenses, financing costs, and ability to profitably sell or securitize the business purpose mortgage loans that it originates, (b) the performance of, and returns on, the associated portfolio of loans and securities that are part of the proposed acquisition, and (c) the cost and process of integrating the platform with our current operations, as well as any one-time costs or charges associated with the proposed acquisition and subsequent integration and the amortization of any intangible assets acquired in the proposed transaction.
Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the proposed acquisition will depend, in part, on our ability to integrate the acquired platform, which may be a complex, costly and time-consuming process. If we are successful in completing the proposed acquisition, we will be required to devote significant management attention and resources to integrate the business practices and operations of the acquired business. The integration process may disrupt our business and, if implemented ineffectively, could restrict the realization of the full expected benefits. In addition, the integration of the acquired business may result in material unanticipated issues, expenses, liabilities, competitive responses, and diversion of management’s attention. The failure to meet the challenges involved in the integration process and to realize the anticipated benefits of the proposed acquisition could cause an interruption of, or a loss of momentum in, our operations and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Many of these factors will be outside of our control and any one of them could result in increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected benefits and diversion of management’s time and energy, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in us becoming subject to litigation. In addition, even if the proposed acquisition were to be integrated successfully, the full anticipated benefits of the proposed acquisition may not be realized within the anticipated time frame, or at all. We may not be able to maintain the results of operations or operating efficiency that we and the acquired business have achieved or might achieve separately. Further, additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in the integration process as a result of risks currently unknown to us. All of these factors could cause reductions in our earnings per share, decrease or delay any accretive or other beneficial effect of the proposed acquisition and negatively impact the price of our common stock.
Our anticipated investment of capital in, and the costs associated with, the proposed acquisition may change and it is possible that we will not successfully fund the proposed acquisition on the terms or in the amounts we currently contemplate which would have a negative impact on the anticipated benefits of the proposed acquisition or could negatively impact our ability to complete the proposed acquisition.
During the ongoing negotiations of the proposed acquisition, the seller in the proposed acquisition is expected to continue to operate the business of the platform in the ordinary course. As a result, during this time, we would expect the seller to continue to originate loans, sell and securitize loans, and invest in securities issued in any securitization transaction it executes. Consequently, the size of the associated portfolio of loans and securities may change, potentially materially, before any execution and closing of the
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proposed acquisition. Any change in the size of the associated portfolio of loans and securities would be expected to change the amount of capital (and associated collateralized financing for this portfolio) that we would need to complete the proposed acquisition. Further, while we would expect collateralized financing for the portfolio investments we would acquire in the proposed acquisition to be in place as part of the acquisition, we may not be successful in securing this financing and may require additional capital or alternative sources of financing to finance this portfolio.
In addition, while we believe we have access to sufficient capital resources to complete the proposed acquisition on the terms currently contemplated (including by funding the proposed acquisition using a combination of currently available capital as well as funds available to us from sales of other portfolio investments or short-term borrowings collateralized by other portfolio investments), we continuously monitor market conditions and may at any time in the future decide to take advantage of opportunities to raise capital at times and on terms we believe are advantageous to us and our business, including through one or more future public or private equity or debt offerings. We may not be successful in these financing efforts (including our effort to seek to arrange long-term, recourse secured debt financing for a pool of our subordinate RMBS portfolio investments), or the cost of financing or the proceeds realized from the sale of other portfolio investments may be on terms that are less attractive than our current estimates, assumptions, and projections, which would have a negative impact on the anticipated benefits of the proposed acquisition or could negatively impact our ability to complete the proposed acquisition.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds we will receive from this offering will be approximately $     million ($     million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full), after deducting estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund our business and investment activity, which may include funding pending or recently completed investment transactions (including, for example, funding the remainder of the purchase price for subordinate securities backed by a pool of reperforming and non-performing residential mortgage loans, and funding capital calls on a multifamily whole loan investment fund). In addition, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to fund new investment opportunities in portfolios of residential, multifamily, or business purpose residential loans or securities, to make other portfolio investments, to fund our mortgage banking business, and to repay our $201 million principal amount of exchangeable senior notes maturing in November 2019, and for general corporate purposes.
Pending such uses, we may use all or a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to temporarily reduce borrowings under our short-term residential or business purpose loan warehouse facilities and our short-term real estate securities repurchase facilities. At June 30, 2019, we had two single-family rental loan warehouse facilities with a total outstanding debt balance of  $54 million, a weighted average interest rate of 4.67%, and maturities from June 2020 to June 2021 with weighted average days until maturity of 426 days. At June 30, 2019, we had four residential bridge loan warehouse facilities with a total outstanding debt balance of  $120 million, a weighted average interest rate of 4.93%, and maturities from November 2019 to May 2022 with weighted average days until maturity of 821 days. At June 30, 2019, we had four residential loan warehouse facilities with an aggregate outstanding balance of approximately $638 million, a weighted average interest rate of 3.90% and maturities from August 2019 through March 2020, with weighted average days until maturity of 166 days. At June 30, 2019, we had ten real estate securities repurchase facilities with an aggregate outstanding balance of approximately $1.21 billion, a weighted average interest rate of 3.48%, and maturities from July 2019 through August 2019 with weighted average days until maturity of 27 days. We may subsequently re-borrow amounts under our short-term residential or business purpose loan warehouse facilities and our short-term real estate securities repurchase facilities to fund our business and investment activity, as described above.
Affiliates of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC and Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC are lenders under our short-term residential or business purpose loan warehouse facilities and/or our short-term real estate securities repurchase facilities and may receive a portion of the proceeds from this offering from any amounts repaid under such facilities. See “Underwriting.”
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and our capitalization as of June 30, 2019:

on an actual basis; and

on a pro forma basis to give effect to the sale of the shares of common stock in this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock and after deducting estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The following information should be read in conjunction with our unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the six-month period ended June 30, 2019. For more details on how you can obtain our SEC reports and other information, you should read the section of the accompanying prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”
As of June 30, 2019
Actual
Pro Forma
(In thousands, except share
and per share data)
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 218,145 $     
Short-term debt:
Total short-term debt facilities
2,462,885 2,462,885
Long-term debt:
Trust preferred securities and subordinated notes(1)
139,500 139,500
FHLBC borrowings
1,999,999 1,999,999
Principal amount of 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2023(1)
245,000 245,000
Principal amount of 5.625% convertible senior notes due 2024(1)
200,000 200,000
Total debt
5,047,384 5,047,384
Equity:
Common stock, $0.01 par value per share; 270,000,000 and 180,000,000 shares authorized; 97,715,021 and 84,884,344 issued and outstanding, actual and           and           issued and outstanding, pro forma
977
    ​
Additional paid-in capital
2,013,044
    ​
Accumulated other comprehensive income
48,923 48,923
Cumulative earnings
1,495,671 1,495,671
Cumulative distributions to stockholders
(1,994,583) (1,994,583)
Total equity
1,564,032     
Total capitalization
6,611,416     
(1)
Amounts shown for 2023 Notes, 2024 Notes and trust preferred securities and subordinated notes do not reflect, in the aggregate, $22 million in accrued interest, unamortized convertible debt discount and unamortized deferred issuance costs.
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The number of shares of common stock, actual and pro forma, shown in the table above excludes the following as of June 30, 2019:

10,952,900 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon conversion of the 5.625% convertible senior notes due 2024;

13,206,978 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon conversion of the 4.75% convertible senior notes due 2023;

9,282,762 shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the exchange of the 5.625% exchangeable senior notes due 2019;

2,635,440 shares of common stock issuable in respect of vested and unvested deferred and restricted stock units;

1,642,206 shares of common stock issuable in respect of unvested performance stock units (assuming maximum vesting under the performance-based vesting formula);

2,724,297 shares reserved for issuance under our equity and incentive compensation plans (assuming the full vesting of outstanding deferred, restricted and performance stock units);

8,407,990 remaining shares reserved for issuance under our ATM offering program; and

6,482,584 remaining shares reserved for issuance under our direct stock purchase and dividend reinvestment plans.
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DISTRIBUTION POLICY
We generally are required to distribute to our stockholders an amount equal to at least 90% of our REIT taxable income determined before applying the deduction for dividends paid and by excluding net capital gains. Such distributions must be made in the tax year to which they relate or, if declared before the timely filing of our tax return for such year and paid not later than the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, in the following tax year.
If we fail to meet the distribution test as a result of a retroactive adjustment to our REIT taxable income, we may be able to avoid disqualification as a REIT by paying a “deficiency” dividend within a specified time period and in accordance with other requirements set forth in the Code. We would be liable for interest based on the amount of the deficiency dividend. A deficiency dividend is not permitted if the deficiency is due to fraud with intent to evade tax or to a willful failure to file a timely tax return. We believe we are in compliance with all our dividend distribution requirements.
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UNDERWRITING
Subject to the terms and conditions in the underwriting agreement between us and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, as the representatives of the underwriters, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the respective number of shares of our common stock set forth opposite its name in the table below.
Underwriter
Number of shares of common
stock to be purchased
J.P. Morgan Securities LLC
Wells Fargo Securities, LLC
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC
JMP Securities LLC
Keefe, Bruyette & Woods, Inc.
          
Total
11,000,000
The underwriters are offering the shares of common stock subject to acceptance of the shares from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters are subject to certain conditions precedent such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions and approval of certain legal matters by their counsel. The underwriters have agreed to purchase all of the shares of common stock being offered by us subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement. However, the underwriters are not required to purchase any or all of the shares of common stock covered by the option to purchase additional shares of common stock described below. The underwriting agreement also provides that if an underwriter defaults, the purchase commitments of non-defaulting underwriters may also be increased or the offering may be terminated.
The underwriters are purchasing the common shares from us at a price of $     per share. The underwriters propose to offer the shares of common stock from time to time for sale in one or more transactions on the NYSE, in the over-the-counter market, through negotiated transactions or otherwise at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices, subject to receipt of acceptance by it and subject to its right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject any order in whole or in part. The underwriters may effect such transactions by selling shares of common stock to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or purchasers of shares of common stock for whom they may act as agent or to whom they may sell as principal. The difference between the price at which the underwriters purchase the shares and the price at which the underwriters resell such shares may be deemed underwriting compensation. Sales of shares made outside of the United States may be made by affiliates of the underwriters.
We have granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 1,650,000 shares of common stock from us. If any shares are purchased with this option, the underwriters will purchase shares in approximately the same proportion as shown in the table above. If any additional shares of common stock are purchased, the underwriters will offer the additional shares on the same terms as those on which the shares are being offered.
We estimate that the expenses of this offering payable by us will be approximately $350,000. We have also agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain of their expenses in an amount up to $10,000.
We have agreed that we will indemnify the underwriters and certain of their affiliates and controlling persons against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or contribute to payments that the underwriters and certain of their affiliates and controlling persons may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.
We have agreed that we will not, without the prior written consent of the representatives on behalf of the underwriters for a period of 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, (i) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any
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option, right or warrant to purchase or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for any shares of our common stock or publicly announce the intention to do any of the foregoing, or (ii) enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of our common stock, whether any such transaction described in clause (i) or (ii) above is to be settled by delivery of our common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise, other than:

shares of common stock to be sold pursuant to this prospectus supplement;

shares of our common stock issued pursuant to our Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan;

shares of our common stock, options to purchase shares of our common stock or other equity-based awards granted under our existing equity incentive plans or any replacement plan under a new registration statement;

any shares of our common stock issued upon the exercise of options or other awards (including deferred stock units) granted under existing equity incentive plans; and

the sale or issuance of, or entry into agreement to sell or issue, any shares of common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock in connection with the acquisition of an operating platform that originates business purpose mortgage loans, an associated portfolio of loans and subordinate mortgage-backed securities, and any securities, businesses, property or assets related to such acquisition or portfolio; provided, that the aggregate number of shares of common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock may not exceed 5% of the total number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately following the completion of this offering.
Notwithstanding the foregoing paragraph, we may make offers and sales of our common stock pursuant to our ATM offering program beginning 15 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, but we have agreed that we will not, without the prior written consent of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, make offers and sales of our common stock pursuant to our ATM offering program prior to 15 days after date of this prospectus supplement.
Our directors and executive officers have entered into lock up agreements with the underwriters prior to the commencement of this offering pursuant to which they, with limited exceptions, for a period of 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, may not, without the prior written consent of the representatives on behalf of the underwriters, (1) offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right, or warrant to purchase, or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock (including without limitation, our common stock which may be deemed to be beneficially owned by the director or executive officer in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and securities which may be issued upon exercise of a stock option or warrant) or publicly announce the intention to do any of the foregoing or (2) enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of the common stock, whether any such transaction described in clause (1) or (2) above is to be settled by delivery of our common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise. In addition, our directors and executive officers have agreed that, without the prior written consent of the representatives on behalf of the underwriters, he or she will not, during the period ending 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, make any demand for or exercise any right with respect to, the registration of any shares of our common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock.
With respect to our directors and executive officers, the foregoing restrictions do not apply to transfers of our common stock (subject to specified limitations):

to an immediate family member;

to one or more trusts of which the sole beneficiaries thereof are the directors and executive officers and/or their respective immediate family members;
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as a bona fide gift or gifts;

in a transaction consummated in accordance with a contract, instruction or plan satisfying the requirements of Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and existing or entered into prior to the date of this prospectus supplement;

pursuant to a domestic order or a negotiated divorce settlement; and

to us in satisfaction of any tax withholding obligations pursuant to the terms of any equity compensation plan or arrangement.
In addition, subject to specified limitations, our directors and executive officers may establish a contract, instruction or plan satisfying the requirements of Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, without being subject to the foregoing restrictions.
In connection with this offering, the underwriters may engage in stabilizing transactions and syndicate covering transactions. Stabilizing transactions involves making bids for, purchasing and selling shares of common stock in the open market for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock while this offering is in progress. Syndicating covering transactions involve purchases of shares of our common stock in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover short positions. These transactions may include making short sales of the common stock, which involves the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of shares of common stock than they are required to purchase in this offering, and purchasing shares of common stock on the open market to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales may be “covered” shorts, which are short positions in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, or may be “naked” shorts, which are short positions in excess of that amount. The underwriters may close out any covered short position either by exercising their option to purchase additional shares, in whole or in part, or by purchasing shares in the open market. In making this determination, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market compared to the price at which the underwriters may purchase shares through the option to purchase additional shares. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the common stock in the open market that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering. To the extent that the underwriters create a naked short position, they will purchase shares in the open market to cover the position.
The underwriters have advised us that, pursuant to Regulation M of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, they may also engage in other activities that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the shares, including the imposition of penalty bids. This means that if the representatives of the underwriters purchase shares of common stock in the open market in stabilizing transactions or to cover short sales, the representatives can require the underwriters that sold those shares as part of this offering to repay the underwriting discount received by them.
These activities may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of the common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock, and, as a result, the price of the common stock may be higher than the price that otherwise might exist in the open market. Neither we nor the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. In addition, neither we nor the underwriters make any representation that the underwriters will engage in these transactions. If the underwriters commence these activities, they may discontinue them at any time without notice. The underwriters may carry out these transactions on the NYSE, in the over the counter market or otherwise.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in electronic format may be made available by emails or through websites maintained by the underwriters or by their respective affiliates, or selling group members, if any, participating in the offering. The underwriters may agree to allocate a number of shares to underwriters and selling group members for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be made by the representatives of the underwriters and selling group members on the same basis as other allocations.
The underwriters and their affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include sales and trading, commercial and investment banking, advisory, investment
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management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, market making, brokerage and other financial and non-financial activities and services. Certain of the underwriters and their affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, a variety of these services to us and to persons and entities with relationships with us, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses, including potentially advising us in connection with the proposed acquisition described under “Prospectus Supplement Summary — Recent Developments” in this prospectus supplement.
In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their affiliates, officers, directors and employees may purchase, sell or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps and other financial instruments for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and trading activities may involve or relate to our assets, securities and/or instruments (directly, as collateral securing other obligations or otherwise) and/or persons and entities with relationships with us. The underwriters and their affiliates may also communicate independent investment recommendations, market color or trading ideas and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such assets, securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they should acquire, long and/or short positions in such assets, securities and instruments.
Affiliates of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC and Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC are lenders under our short-term residential or business purpose loan warehouse facilities and/or our short-term real estate securities repurchase facilities and may receive a portion of the proceeds from this offering from any amounts repaid under such facilities. See “Use of Proceeds.” In addition, an affiliate of Wells Fargo Securities, LLC is a securities administrator under one of our servicing advance facilities.
Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The shares offered by this prospectus supplement may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus supplement or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such shares be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus supplement comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.
You should be aware that the laws and practices of certain countries require investors to pay stamp taxes and other charges in connection with purchases of securities.
Sales Outside of the United States
Hong Kong.   Please note that (1) the common stock may not be offered or sold in Hong Kong by means of this document or any other document other than to professional investors within the meaning of Part I of Schedule 1 to the Securities and Futures Ordinance of Hong Kong (Cap. 571) (SFO) and any rules made thereunder, or in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance of Hong Kong (Cap. 32) (CMO) or which do not constitute an offer or invitation to the public for the purposes of the CMO or the SFO, and (2) no person shall issue, or possess for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, any advertisement, invitation or document relating to the common stock which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to common stock which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to such professional investors. The contents of this document have not been reviewed by any regulatory authority in Hong Kong. You are advised to exercise caution in relation to the offer. If you are in any doubt about any of the contents of this document, you should obtain independent professional advice.
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United Kingdom.   THE COMMON STOCK SHALL NOT BE MARKETED, OFFERED OR SOLD IN THE UNITED KINGDOM EXCEPT TO EXEMPT PERSONS UNDER THE FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS ACT (FINANCIAL PROMOTION) ORDER 2005 (THE “FPO”): (1) PERSONS WHO ARE INVESTMENT PROFESSIONALS, AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 19(5) OF THE FPO; (2) PERSONS WHO ARE CERTIFIED HIGH NET WORTH INDIVIDUALS, AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 48(2) OF THE FPO; (3) PERSONS WHO ARE HIGH NET WORTH COMPANIES, UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS ETC., AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 49(2)(A) TO (D) OF THE FPO; (4) PERSONS WHO ARE CERTIFIED SOPHISTICATED INVESTORS, AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 50(1) OF THE FPO; (5) PERSONS WHO ARE SELF-CERTIFIED SOPHISTICATED INVESTORS, AS DEFINED IN ARTICLE 50A(1) OF THE FPO; OR (6) PERSONS TO WHOM THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT MAY OTHERWISE LAWFULLY BE COMMUNICATED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP. Clifford Chance US LLP is acting as counsel to the underwriters in connection with certain legal matters relating to the shares of common stock being offered hereby. Venable LLP will issue an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of our common stock.
EXPERTS
The audited consolidated financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and do not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. We file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our public filings are available to the public at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov and on our website at www.redwoodtrust.com.
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with them which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below (SEC File No. 001-13759):

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which was filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019;

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, which were filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019 and August 8, 2019, respectively;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 28, 2019, February 1, 2019, May 10, 2019, May 17, 2019 and September 3, 2019;

our Definitive Proxy Statement with respect to the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 5, 2019 (solely to the extent specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K);

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, which was filed with the SEC on January 7, 1998; and

all documents filed by Redwood Trust, Inc. with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering (but excluding any items, documents, or portions of items or documents which are deemed “furnished” and not filed with the SEC).
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. Requests should be directed to Redwood Trust, Inc., Attention: Investor Relations, at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941, telephone: (866) 269-4976.
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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: 399452857_lg_redwoodtrust.jpg]
Redwood Trust, Inc.
Debt Securities
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants
Stockholder Rights
Units
We may from time to time offer, in one or more classes or series, separately or together, and in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more supplements to this prospectus, the following securities:

debt securities, which may consist of debentures, notes, or other types of debt;

shares of our common stock;

shares of our preferred stock;

warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing; and

units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.
We refer to the debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, warrants, rights and units registered hereunder collectively as the “securities” in this prospectus. The specific terms of each series or class of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and will include, among other things, where applicable:

in the case of debt securities, the specific title, aggregate principal amount, currency, form (which may be certificated or global), authorized denominations, maturity, rate (or manner of calculating the rate) and time of payment of interest, terms for redemption at our option or repayment at the holder’s option, terms for sinking payments, terms for conversion into shares of our common stock or preferred stock, covenants, and any initial public offering price;

in the case of preferred stock, the specific designation, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to transferability, dividends and other distributions, and terms and conditions of redemption and any initial public offering price;

in the case of warrants or rights, the duration, offering price, exercise price, and detachability; and

in the case of units, the constituent securities comprising the units, the offering price, and detachability.
In addition, the specific terms may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate, among other purposes, to preserve the status of our company as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The applicable prospectus supplement will also contain information, where applicable, about certain U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by such prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in any of our securities.
The securities may be offered directly by us or by any selling security holder, through agents designated from time to time by us or to or through underwriters or dealers. If any agents, dealers, or underwriters are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission, or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections entitled “Plan of Distribution” and “About This Prospectus” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such series of securities.
Our common stock currently trades on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “RWT”. On May 8, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $16.53 per share.
Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement concerning factors you should consider before investing in our securities.
This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is May 9, 2019.

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You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different or additional information. We are offering to sell the securities and seeking offers to buy the securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted.
We have not authorized any dealer or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying supplement to this prospectus. This prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus is delivered or securities are sold on a later date.
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About This Prospectus
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus sets forth certain terms of the securities that we may offer.
Each time we offer securities, we will attach a prospectus supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will contain the specific description of the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement will supersede this prospectus to the extent it contains information that is different from, or that conflicts with, the information contained in this prospectus.
It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information contained in the documents identified under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus.
Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our” or “Redwood” mean Redwood Trust, Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries, except where it is made clear that the terms mean Redwood Trust, Inc. only.
Our principal executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941; our telephone number is (415) 389-7373.
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Risk Factors
You should carefully consider any specific risks set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and under the caption “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, incorporated into this prospectus by reference, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. You should consider carefully those risk factors together with all of the other information included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you decide to purchase our securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.
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Cautionary Statement
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements within the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ from our beliefs, expectations, estimates, and projections and, consequently, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements are not historical in nature and can be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” and similar expressions or their negative forms, or by references to strategy, plans, or intentions. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including, among other things, those described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under the caption “Risk Factors.” Other risks, uncertainties, and factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected are summarized below and described from time to time in reports we file with the SEC, including under the heading “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
Important factors, among others, that may affect our actual results include: the pace at which we redeploy our available capital into new investments and initiatives; our ability to scale our platform and systems, particularly with respect to specific initiatives; interest rate volatility, changes in credit spreads (the market value yield on a loan or security less the relevant risk-free benchmark interest rate), and changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; changes in the demand from investors for residential mortgages and investments, and our ability to distribute residential mortgages through our whole-loan distribution channel; our ability to finance our investments in securities and our acquisition of residential mortgages with short-term debt; the availability of assets for purchase at attractive risk-adjusted returns and our ability to reinvest cash and the proceeds from the potential sale of securities and investments we hold; changes in the values of assets we own; higher than expected operating expenses due to delays or decreases in the realization of expected operating expense reductions related to the repositioning of our conforming mortgage banking activities and commercial loan origination activities, and other unforeseen expenses; general economic trends, the performance of the housing, commercial real estate, mortgage, credit, and broader financial markets, and their effects on the prices of earning assets and the credit status of borrowers; the impact of changes to U.S. federal income tax laws on the U.S. housing market, mortgage finance markets, and our business; changes to fiscal, tax, and other federal policies by Congress or President Trump’s administration; developments related to the fixed income and mortgage finance markets and the Federal Reserve’s statements regarding its future open market activity and monetary policy; federal and state legislative and regulatory developments, and the actions of governmental authorities, including the new U.S. presidential administration, and in particular those affecting the mortgage industry or our business (including, but not limited to, the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s rules relating to FHLB membership requirements and the implications for our captive insurance subsidiary’s membership in the FHLB); strategic business and capital deployment decisions we make; our exposure to credit risk and the timing of credit losses within our portfolio; the concentration of the credit risks we are exposed to, including due to the structure of assets we hold and the geographical concentration of real estate underlying assets we own; our exposure to adjustable-rate mortgage loans; the efficacy and expense of our efforts to manage or hedge credit risk, interest rate risk, and other financial and operational risks; changes in credit ratings on assets we own and changes in the rating agencies’ credit rating methodologies; changes in interest rates; changes in mortgage prepayment rates; changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; our ability to finance the acquisition of real estate-related assets with short-term debt; the ability of counterparties to satisfy their obligations to us; our involvement in securitization transactions, the profitability of those transactions, and the risks we are exposed to in engaging in securitization transactions; exposure to claims and litigation, including litigation arising from our involvement in securitization transactions; litigation against various trustees of residential mortgage-backed securities transactions; whether we have sufficient liquid assets to meet short-term needs; our ability to successfully compete and retain or attract key personnel; our ability to adapt our business model and strategies to changing circumstances; changes in our investment, financing, and hedging strategies and new risks we may be exposed to if we expand our business activities; our exposure to a
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disruption or breach of the security of our technology infrastructure and systems; exposure to environmental liabilities; our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations; our failure to maintain appropriate internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures; the impact on our reputation that could result from our actions or omissions or from those of others; changes in accounting principles and tax rules; our ability to maintain our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; limitations imposed on our business due to our REIT status and our status as exempt from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940; decisions about raising, managing, and distributing capital; and other factors not presently identified.
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Redwood Trust, Inc.
Redwood Trust, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is a specialty finance company focused on making credit-sensitive investments in single-family residential and multifamily mortgages and related assets and engaging in mortgage banking activities. Our goal is to provide attractive returns to shareholders through a stable and growing stream of earnings and dividends, as well as through capital appreciation. We operate our business in two segments: Investment Portfolio and Mortgage Banking.
Our primary sources of income are net interest income from our investment portfolio and non-interest income from our mortgage banking activities. Net interest income consists of the interest income we earn on investments less the interest expense we incur on borrowed funds and other liabilities. Income from mortgage banking activities is generated through the acquisition of loans and their subsequent sale or securitization, as well as through the origination of business purpose residential loans.
Redwood Trust, Inc. has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or a REIT, under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, beginning with its taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We generally refer, collectively, to Redwood Trust, Inc. and those of its subsidiaries that are not subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “the REIT” or “our REIT.” We generally refer to subsidiaries of Redwood Trust, Inc. that are subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “our taxable REIT subsidiaries” or “TRS.” Our mortgage banking activities and investments in mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs, are generally carried out through our taxable REIT subsidiaries, while our portfolio of mortgage- and other real estate-related investments is primarily held at our REIT. We generally intend to retain profits generated and taxed at our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and to distribute as dividends at least 90% of the taxable income we generate at our REIT.
Our Investment Portfolio segment includes a portfolio of investments in residential mortgage-backed securities, or RMBS, retained from our Sequoia securitizations, as well as RMBS issued by third parties and other credit risk-related investments. In addition, this segment includes a subsidiary of Redwood Trust that is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago, or FHLBC, and that utilizes long-term financing from the FHLBC to make long-term investments directly in residential mortgage loans. This segment also includes residential bridge loans, which are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors rehabilitating and reselling or renting residential properties that we acquired from our affiliate, 5 Arches, LLC. The Investment Portfolio segment’s main sources of revenue are interest income from investment portfolio securities and loans held-for-investment. Additionally, this segment may realize gains and losses upon the sale of securities. Funding expenses, hedging expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax provisions associated with these activities are also included in this segment.
Our Mortgage Banking segment primarily consists of operating a mortgage loan conduit that acquires residential loans from third-party originators for subsequent sale, securitization, or transfer to our investment portfolio. We typically acquire prime, jumbo mortgages and the related mortgage servicing rights on a flow basis from our network of loan sellers and distribute those loans through our Sequoia private-label securitization program or to institutions that acquire pools of whole loans. We also supplement our flow purchases with bulk loan acquisitions. In addition, beginning in the third quarter of 2018, this segment began to acquire single-family rental loans from our affiliate 5 Arches, LLC, for subsequent sale or securitization. Single-family rental loans are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors in single-family (1-4 unit) rental properties. This segment also includes various derivative financial instruments that we utilize to manage certain risks associated with residential loans we acquire. Our Mortgage Banking segment’s main source of revenue is income from mortgage banking activities, which includes valuation increases (or gains) on loans we acquire and subsequently sell or securitize, and from hedges used to manage risks associated with these activities. Additionally, this segment may generate interest income on loans held pending securitization or sale. Funding expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax expenses associated with these activities are also included in this segment.
We sponsor our Sequoia securitization program, which we use for the securitization of residential mortgage loans. We are required under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States, or GAAP, to consolidate the assets and liabilities of certain securitization entities we have sponsored for financial reporting purposes. However, each of these entities is independent of Redwood and of each other, and the assets and liabilities of these entities are not owned by us or legal obligations of ours, respectively,
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although we are exposed to certain financial risks associated with our role as the sponsor or depositor of these entities and, to the extent we hold securities issued by, or other investments in, these entities, we are exposed to the performance of these entities and the assets they hold. We refer to certain of these securitization entities issued prior to 2012 as “consolidated Legacy Sequoia entities,” and the securitization entities formed in connection with the securitization of Redwood Choice expanded-prime loans as the “consolidated Sequoia Choice entities.” Additionally, during 2018, we consolidated certain third-party Freddie Mac K-Series and SLST securitization entities that we determined were VIEs and for which we determined we were the primary beneficiary. Where applicable, in analyzing our results of operations, we distinguish results from current operations “at Redwood” and from consolidated entities.
We were incorporated in the State of Maryland on April 11, 1994, and commenced operations on August 19, 1994. We operate so as to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our principal executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941. Our telephone number is (415) 389-7373. Our website is www.redwoodtrust.com. Information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
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Use of Proceeds
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement for any offering of securities, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities to fund our business and investment activity, which may include funding investment transactions, bridge loans, mortgage loans for single-family rental properties, residential and multifamily mortgage backed securities, as well as for our mortgage banking business and general corporate purposes.
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General Description of Securities
The following is a brief description of the material terms of our securities that may be offered under this prospectus. This description does not purport to be complete and is subject in all respects to applicable Maryland law and to the provisions of our charter and bylaws, including any amendments or supplements thereto, copies of which are on file with the SEC as described under “Where You Can Find Information” and are incorporated by reference herein.
We, directly or through agents, dealers, or underwriters designated from time to time, may offer, issue, and sell, together or separately:

debt securities, which may consist of debentures, notes, or other types of debt;

shares of our common stock;

shares of our preferred stock;

warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing; and

units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.
We may issue the debt securities as exchangeable for or convertible into shares of common stock, preferred stock, or other securities. The preferred stock may also be exchangeable for and/or convertible into shares of common stock, another series of preferred stock, or other securities. The debt securities, the preferred stock, the common stock, the warrants, the rights and the units are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the securities. When a particular series of securities is offered, a supplement to this prospectus will be delivered with this prospectus, which will set forth the terms of the offering and sale of the offered securities.
Our charter provides that we have authority to issue up to 180,000,000 shares of stock, par value $0.01 per share, all of which is currently classified as common stock. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and we intend to so list any additional shares of our common stock which are issued and sold hereunder. We may elect to list any future class or series of our securities issued hereunder on an exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not liable for our debts or obligations.
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Description of Debt Securities
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.
We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.
The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.
As used in this section only, “Redwood,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Redwood Trust, Inc., excluding our subsidiaries, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.
General
The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).
We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment);

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;
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any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;

if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Transfer and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.
Certificated Debt Securities.   You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.
You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.
Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System.   Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”
Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.
No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than Redwood) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.
Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us.
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Events of Default
“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;

default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, within 30 days when and as due in respect of any security of that series;

default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Redwood and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Redwood;

any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.
We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof.
If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of  (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.
The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. Subject
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to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.
No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.
Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.
The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall send to each Securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after the trustee becomes aware or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.
Modification and Waiver
We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or
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to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance.   The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
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This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants.   The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).
The conditions include:

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Securityholders
None of our past or present directors, officers, employees or securityholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed under, the laws of the State of New York.
The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.
The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any
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such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.
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Description of Common Stock
All shares of common stock offered by this prospectus will be duly authorized, fully paid, and nonassessable. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends if, as, and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends. They are also entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, after payment of or adequate provision for all of our known debts and liabilities. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on transfer of our stock.
Subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. Except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of our common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.
Holders of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption, or, if listed on the New York Stock Exchange, appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities. Subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, all shares of common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation, and other rights.
Transfer Agent, Registrar, and Dividend Disbursing Agent
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is currently Computershare Trust Company, N.A. and its affiliate, Computershare Inc., acts as dividend disbursing agent.
Power to Reclassify Shares of Our Stock; Issuance of Additional Shares
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify from time to time any unissued shares of our stock into other classes or series of stock, including preferred stock, and to cause the issuance of such shares. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, the board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series. We believe that the power to issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock and thereafter to issue the classified or reclassified shares provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. These actions can be taken without stockholder approval, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although we have no present intention of doing so, we could issue a class or series of stock that could delay, defer, or prevent a transaction or a change in control of Redwood Trust that might involve a premium price for holders of common stock or otherwise be in their best interest. We have no shares of preferred stock presently outstanding.
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Description of Preferred Stock
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify from time to time any unissued shares of stock in one or more classes or series of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued preferred stock of any class or series in one or more classes or series. If we offer preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such preferred stock, including the following, where applicable:

the designation of the shares and the number of shares that constitute the class or series;

the dividend rate (or the method of calculating dividends), if any, on the shares of the class or series and the priority as to payment of dividends with respect to other classes or series of our shares of stock;

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate;

the dividend periods (or the method of calculating the dividend periods);

the voting rights of the preferred stock, if any;

the liquidation preference and the priority as to payment of the liquidation preference with respect to other classes or series of our stock and any other rights of the shares of the class or series upon our liquidation or winding-up;

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such preferred stock;

whether or not and on what terms the shares of the class or series will be subject to redemption or repurchase at our option;

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which such preferred stock will be converted into the common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);

whether the shares of the class or series of preferred stock will be listed on a securities exchange or quoted on an inter-dealer quotation system;

any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer applicable to the preferred stock, in addition to those already set forth in our charter, that may be necessary to preserve our status as a REIT; and

the other rights and privileges and any qualifications, limitations, or restrictions of the rights or privileges of the class or series.
Transfer Agent, Registrar, and Dividend Disbursing Agent
The transfer agent and registrar for our preferred stock is currently Computershare Trust Company, N.A. and its affiliate, Computershare Inc., acts as dividend disbursing agent. If different, we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement the transfer agent, registrar, and dividend disbursing agent for any series of preferred stock offered by that prospectus supplement.
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Description of Securities Warrants
We may issue securities warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock, respectively referred to as common stock warrants and preferred stock warrants. Securities warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from such other securities. Each issuance of the securities warrants will be issued under a separate securities warrant agreement to be entered into by us and a bank or trust company, as securities warrant agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of offered securities warrants. Each issue of securities warrants will be evidenced by securities warrant certificates. The securities warrant agent will act solely as an agent of ours in connection with the securities warrant certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holder of securities warrant certificates or beneficial owners of securities warrants.
If we offer securities warrants pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such securities warrants, including the following, where applicable:

the offering price;

the aggregate number of shares purchasable upon exercise of such securities warrants, and in the case of securities warrants for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such securities warrants;

the designation and terms of the securities with which such securities warrants are being offered, if any, and the number of such securities warrants being offered with each such security;

the date on and after which such securities warrants and any related securities will be transferable separately;

the number of shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of each of such securities warrants and the price at which such number of shares of preferred stock or common stock may be purchased upon such exercise;

the date on which the right to exercise such securities warrants shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

any other material terms of such securities warrants.
Holders of future securities warrants, if any, will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as stockholders of Redwood Trust.
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Description of Rights to Purchase Shares of Common or Preferred Stock
We may issue, as a dividend at no cost, to holders of record of our securities or any class or series thereof on the applicable record date, rights to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing. In this prospectus, we refer to such rights as “stockholder rights.” If stockholders rights are so issued to existing holders of securities, each stockholder right will entitle the registered holder thereof to purchase the securities issuable upon exercise of the rights pursuant to the terms set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If stockholder rights are issued, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such stockholder rights including the following where applicable:

record date;

subscription price;

subscription agent;

aggregate number of shares of preferred stock, shares of common stock, warrants, or units purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights and in the case of stockholder rights for preferred stock or warrants exercisable for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights or warrants;

the date on which the right to exercise such stockholder rights shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

other material terms of such stockholder rights.
In addition to the terms of the stockholder rights and the securities issuable upon exercise thereof, the prospectus supplement may describe, for a holder of such stockholder rights who validly exercises all stockholder rights issued to such holder, how to subscribe for unsubscribed securities, issuable pursuant to unexercised stockholder rights issued to other holders, to the extent such stockholder rights have not been exercised.
Holders of stockholder rights will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as stockholders of Redwood Trust, except to the extent described in the related prospectus supplement.
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Description of Units
We may issue units consisting of two or more other constituent securities. These units may be issuable as, and for a specified period of time may be transferable only as, a single security, rather than as the separate constituent securities comprising such units. The statements made in this section relating to the units are summaries only. These summaries are not complete. When we issue units, we will provide the specific terms of the units in a prospectus supplement. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
When we issue units, we will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the units being issued:

the title of any series of units;

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

information with respect to any book-entry procedures;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in the units; and

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.
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Global Securities
Book-Entry, Delivery and Form
Unless we indicate differently in a prospectus supplement, the securities (other than warrant securities) initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.
DTC has advised us that it is:

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.
DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.
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Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.
Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.
Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.
As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or
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an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities and upon request of a holder,
we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.
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Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares
In order that we may meet the requirements for qualification as a REIT at all times, among other purposes, our charter prohibits any person from acquiring or holding beneficial ownership of shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or collectively, capital stock, in excess of 9.8%, in number of shares or value, of the outstanding shares of the related class of capital stock. For this purpose, the term “beneficial ownership” means beneficial ownership, as determined under Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act, of capital stock by a person, either directly or constructively, including through application of the constructive ownership provisions of Section 544 of the Code and related provisions.
Under the constructive ownership rules of Section 544 of the Code, a holder of a warrant generally will be treated as owning the number of shares of capital stock into which such warrant may be converted. In addition, the constructive ownership rules generally attribute ownership of securities owned by a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust proportionately to its stockholders, partners, or beneficiaries, respectively. The rules may also attribute ownership of securities owned by family members to other members of the same family and may treat an option to purchase securities as actual ownership of the underlying securities by the optionholder. The rules further provide when securities constructively owned by a person will be considered to be actually owned for the further application of such attribution provisions. To determine whether a person holds or would hold capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit, a person will be treated as owning not only shares of capital stock actually owned, but also any shares of capital stock attributed to that person under the attribution rules described above. Accordingly, a person who directly owns less than 9.8% of the shares outstanding may nevertheless be in violation of the 9.8% ownership limit.
Any acquisition or transfer of shares of capital stock or warrants that would cause us to be disqualified as a REIT or that would create a direct or constructive ownership of shares of capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit, or result in the shares of capital stock being beneficially owned, within the meaning of Section 856(a) of the Code, by fewer than 100 persons, determined without any reference to any rules of attribution, or result in our being closely held within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code, will be null and void, and the intended transferee will acquire no rights to those shares or warrants. These restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.
If any purported transfer of shares of capital stock or warrants results in a purported transferee owning, directly or constructively, shares in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit due to the unenforceability of the transfer restrictions described above, the amount of shares causing the purported transferee to violate the 9.8% ownership limit will constitute excess securities. Excess securities will be transferred by operation of law to Redwood Trust as trustee for the exclusive benefit of the person or persons to whom the excess securities are ultimately transferred, until such time as the purported transferee retransfers the excess securities. While the excess securities are held in trust, a holder of such securities will not be entitled to vote or to share in any dividends or other distributions with respect to such securities and will not be entitled to exercise or convert such securities into shares of capital stock. Excess securities may be transferred by the purported transferee to any person (if such transfer would not result in excess securities) at a price not to exceed the price paid by the purported transferee (or, if no consideration was paid by the purported transferee, the Market Price (as defined in our charter) of the excess securities on the date of the purported transfer), at which point the excess securities will automatically be exchanged for the stock or warrants, as the case may be, to which the excess securities are attributable. If a purported transferee receives a higher price for designating an ultimate transferee, such purported transferee shall pay, or cause the ultimate transferee to pay, such excess to us. In addition, such excess securities held in trust are subject to purchase by us at a purchase price equal to the lesser of  (a) the price per share or per warrant, as the case may be, in the transaction that created such excess securities (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the Market Price at the time of such devise or gift), reduced by the amount of any distributions received in violation of the charter that have not been repaid to us, and (b) the Market Price on the date we elect to purchase the excess securities, reduced by the amount of any distributions received in violation of the charter that have not been repaid to us.
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Upon a purported transfer of excess securities, the purported transferee shall cease to be entitled to distributions, voting rights, and other benefits with respect to the shares of capital stock or warrants except the right to payment of the purchase price for the shares of capital stock or warrants on the retransfer of securities as provided above. Any dividend or distribution paid to a purported transferee on excess securities prior to our discovery that shares of capital stock have been transferred in violation of our charter shall be repaid to us upon demand. If these transfer restrictions are determined to be void, invalid, or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, then the purported transferee of any excess securities may be deemed, at our option, to have acted as an agent on our behalf in acquiring the excess securities and to hold the excess securities on our behalf.
All certificates representing shares of capital stock and warrants will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.
Any person who acquires shares or warrants in violation of our charter, or any person who is a purported transferee such that excess securities result, must immediately give written notice or, in the event of a proposed or attempted transfer that would be void as set forth above, give at least 15 days prior written notice to us of such event and shall provide us such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the transfer on our status as a REIT. In addition, as required under the REIT provisions of the Code, every record owner of more than 5.0%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is 2,000, or 1.0%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is greater than 200 but less than 2,000, or 12%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is 200 or less, of the number or value of our outstanding shares will receive a questionnaire from us by January 30 requesting information as to how the shares are held. In addition, our charter requires that such stockholders must provide written notice to us by 30 days after January 1 stating the name and address of the record stockholder, the number of shares beneficially owned and a description of how the shares are held. In practice, we have generally permitted our stockholders to comply with the foregoing charter requirement by responding to our annual REIT questionnaire. Further, each stockholder upon demand is required to disclose to us in writing such information with respect to the direct and constructive ownership of shares and warrants as our board of directors deems reasonably necessary to comply with the REIT provisions of the Code, to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental agency or to determine any such compliance.
Our board of directors may increase or decrease the 9.8% ownership limit. In addition, to the extent consistent with the REIT provisions of the Code, our board of directors may, pursuant to our charter, waive the 9.8% ownership limit for a purchaser of our stock. As a condition to such waiver the intended transferee must give written notice to the board of directors of the proposed transfer no later than the fifteenth day prior to any transfer which, if consummated, would result in the intended transferee owning shares in excess of the ownership limit. Our board of directors may also take such other action as it deems necessary or advisable to protect our status as a REIT. Pursuant to our charter, our board of directors has, from time to time, waived the ownership limit for certain of our stockholders.
The provisions described above may inhibit market activity and the resulting opportunity for the holders of our capital stock and warrants to receive a premium for their shares or warrants that might otherwise exist in the absence of such provisions. Such provisions also may make us an unsuitable investment vehicle for any person seeking to obtain ownership of more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock.
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Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws
We have summarized certain terms and provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter and bylaws. This summary is not complete and is qualified by the provisions of our charter and bylaws, and the Maryland General Corporation Law. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
For restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock contained in our charter, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares.”
Maryland Business Combination Act
Under the Maryland Business Combination Act, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder, as such terms are defined in the Act, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by provision in the charter of the corporation. Our charter provides that we elect not to be governed by the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act.
Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act
The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act causes persons who acquire beneficial ownership of stock at levels of 10%, 33%, and more than 50% (control share acquisitions) to lose the voting rights of such stock unless voting rights are restored by the stockholders at a meeting by vote of two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter (excluding stock held by the acquiring stockholder or the corporation’s officers or employee directors). The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act affords a cash-out election for stockholders other than the acquiring stockholder, at an appraised value (but not less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiring person in the control share acquisition), payable by the corporation, if voting rights for more than 50% of the outstanding stock are approved for the acquiring person. Under certain circumstances, the corporation may redeem shares acquired in a control share acquisition if voting rights for such shares have not been approved. The statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation, or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. A corporation’s board of directors has an “opt-out” power, exercisable through amendment of the corporation’s bylaws (which could be changed by the stockholders), to exempt in advance any control share acquisition from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act acquisitions by certain persons of shares of our common stock in accordance with waivers from the ownership limit in our charter granted to such persons by our board of directors.
The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act could have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire us and of increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers.
Board of Directors, Vacancies, and Removal of Directors
All directors are elected annually to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until their respective successors are duly elected and qualify.
Pursuant to our election to be subject to certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which such vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies. A director may be removed with or without cause by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast generally for the election of directors.
Charter Amendments and Extraordinary Corporate Actions
Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange, convert or engage in similar transactions
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outside the ordinary course of business, unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter provides for approval of these matters by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the total number of shares entitled to vote on the matter.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by the board of directors or (iii) by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of our bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting.
Exclusive Forum
Our bylaws provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any Internal Corporate Claim (as defined in the Maryland General Corporation Law), (b) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (c) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any director or officer or other employee of ours to us or our stockholders, (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours arising pursuant to any provision of the Maryland General Corporation Law or the our charter or our bylaws, or (e) any other action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
Subtitle 8
Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any of:

a classified board of directors;

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

a requirement that a vacancy on the board of directors be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or

a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.
Pursuant to Subtitle 8, we have elected to provide that vacancies on the board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (a) vest in the board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (b) require, unless called by our chairman of the board, our president, the board of directors or a majority of independent directors, the request of holders of a majority of outstanding shares entitled to vote at the meeting to call a special meeting of stockholders.
Meetings of Stockholders
Under our current bylaws and pursuant to Maryland law, annual meetings of stockholders will be held each year at a date and at the time in the month of May determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by our board of directors, the chairman of the board of directors, our president or a majority of independent directors. Additionally, subject to the provisions of our bylaws,
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special meetings of the stockholders to act on any matter must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder or stockholders must pay such estimated cost before our secretary may prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting.
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Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock and debt securities, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential tax effects. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the ownership of the securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. Your tax treatment will vary depending upon the terms of the specific securities you acquire, as well as your particular situation. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Redwood Trust, Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

the Code;

current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code, or Treasury Regulations;

the legislative history of the Code;

administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS; and

court decisions;
in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.
You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

potential changes in applicable tax laws.
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Taxation of the Company
General
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and to operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.
Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our U.S. federal income tax status as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Additionally, to the extent we make certain investments, such as investments in commercial mortgage loan securitizations, the accuracy of such opinion will also depend on the accuracy of certain opinions rendered to us in connection with such transactions. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described in this discussion may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.
Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that we currently distribute to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

We will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

If we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of  “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Income Tests — Foreclosure Property.”

We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.
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If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of  (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

If we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of  $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of  $50,000 for each such failure.

We will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of  (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

If we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of  (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (1) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (2) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

We will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any “excess inclusion income” derived from an investment in residual interests in certain mortgage loan securitization structures (i.e., a “taxable mortgage pool” or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or a REMIC) to the extent that our capital stock is held by specified types of tax-exempt organizations known as “disqualified organizations” that are not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a taxable REIT subsidiary, or a TRS, we will not be subject to this tax. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Taxable Mortgage Pools.”

Our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our TRSs, generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Income Tests — Penalty Tax.”
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We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

If we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.
We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.
Requirements for Qualification as a REIT
The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
(1)
that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2)
that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;
(3)
that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;
(4)
that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;
(5)
that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;
(6)
not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and
(7)
that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.
The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.
We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5)  and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company —  Failure to Qualify.”
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In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.
Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries
In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership, including such partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, would be treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. For purposes of the REIT qualification tests, the treatment of our ownership of partnerships or limited liability companies that are, in each case, treated as disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes is generally the same as described below with respect to qualified REIT subsidiaries.
We generally have control of our subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.
From time to time, we may own wholly owned subsidiaries that are treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) qualifies as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a TRS, as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Asset Tests.”
Ownership of Interests in TRSs
From time to time, we may own interests in one or more TRSs. A TRS is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes), other than a REIT, in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a TRS. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a TRS may generally engage in any business. A TRS is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or as receiving any income that the TRS earns. Rather, the stock issued by the TRS is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the TRS. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a TRS is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See
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“Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our TRSs to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.
Non-U.S. TRSs that are not engaged in trade or business in the United States for tax purposes generally are not subject to U.S. corporate income taxation. However, certain U.S. shareholders of such non-U.S. corporations may be required to include in their income currently their proportionate share of the earnings of such a corporation, whether or not such earnings are distributed. This could affect our ability to comply with the REIT income tests and distribution requirement. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Income Tests” and “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Annual Distribution Requirements.” We currently do not own interests in any non-U.S. TRS, but we may acquire interests in such TRSs in the future.
We may hold a significant number of assets in one or more TRSs, subject to the limitation that securities in TRSs may not represent more than 20% of our total assets (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018). We may engage in securitization transactions through our TRSs, and to the extent that we acquire loans with an intention of selling such loans in a manner that might expose us to a 100% tax on “prohibited transactions,” such loans may be acquired by a TRS.
Certain restrictions imposed on TRSs are intended to ensure that such entities will be subject to appropriate levels of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, if amounts are paid to a REIT or deducted by a TRS due to transactions between a REIT, its tenants and/or the TRS, that exceed the amount that would be paid to or deducted by a party in an arm’s-length transaction, the REIT generally will be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of such excess. Furthermore, income of a TRS that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf generally will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Income Tests — Penalty Tax.”
Taxable Mortgage Pools
An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool, or a TMP, under the Code if:

substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.
Under applicable Treasury Regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP. We may enter into financing and securitization arrangements that give rise to TMPs.
A TMP generally is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP. If a REIT owns directly, or indirectly through one or more qualified REIT subsidiaries or other entities that are disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, 100% of the equity interests in the TMP, the TMP will be a qualified REIT subsidiary and, therefore, disregarded as an entity separate from the REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and would not generally affect the tax qualification of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would generally be limited to the REIT’s shareholders. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Excess Inclusion Income.”
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Excess Inclusion Income
A portion of income from a TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” A REIT’s excess inclusion income, including any excess inclusion income from a residual interest in a REMIC, must be allocated among its shareholders in proportion to dividends paid. We generally do not expect to generate excess inclusion income that would be allocated to our stockholders. In the event we do generate excess inclusion income, we are required to notify our stockholders of the amount of such income allocated to them. A shareholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the shareholder;

in the case of a shareholder that is a REIT, a regulated investment company, or a RIC, or a common trust fund or other pass-through entity, is considered excess inclusion income of such entity;

is subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of shareholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax;

results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption, to the extent allocable to most types of non-U.S. shareholders; and

is taxable at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate, currently 21%, to the REIT, rather than its shareholders, to the extent allocable to the REIT’s shares held in record name by disqualified organizations (generally, tax-exempt entities not subject to unrelated business income tax, including governmental organizations).
The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to our stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make such determinations using a reasonable method.
Tax-exempt investors, RIC or REIT investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our capital stock.
If a subsidiary partnership of ours that we do not wholly own, directly or through one or more disregarded entities, were a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and potentially would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax or withholding tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we will have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT.
Income Tests
We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing.
Interest Income
Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property and, if an obligation is secured by a mortgage on both real property and personal property, the fair market value
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of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property. In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and personal property, we may be required to apportion our interest on the loan between interest on an obligation that is secured by real property (or by an interest in real property) and interest on an obligation that is not so secured. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test.
To the extent that we derive interest income from a loan where all or a portion of the amount of interest payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales and not the net income or profits of any person. This limitation does not apply, however, to a mortgage loan where the borrower derives substantially all of its income from the property from the leasing of substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower would qualify as rents from real property had we earned it directly.
To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (or a shared appreciation provision), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that the property is not inventory or dealer property of the borrower or ours.
Any amount includible in our gross income with respect to a regular or residual interest in a REMIC generally is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as receiving directly our proportionate share of the income of the REMIC for purposes of determining the amount that is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property.
Among the assets we may hold are certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than a direct mortgage on the real property. The IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2003-65, or the Revenue Procedure, which provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. From time to time, we may own mezzanine loans that do not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of any mezzanine loans we may own as real estate assets or the interest generated by such loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test. If we acquire or make corporate mezzanine loans or other commercial real estate corporate loans, such loans will not qualify as real estate assets and interest income with respect to such loans will not be qualifying income for the 75% gross income test. To the extent that such non-qualification causes us to fail the 75% gross income test, we could be required to pay a penalty tax or fail to qualify as a REIT.
We expect that any commercial mortgage-backed securities, or CMBS, that we may invest in will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income, original issue discount and market discount from such CMBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. As discussed above, if less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our income derived from the REMIC interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce non-qualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest, original issue discount and market discount on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property and, if an obligation is secured by a mortgage on both real property and personal property, the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, as discussed above.
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We believe that the interest income that we receive from our mortgage-related investments and securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. However, to the extent we own non-REMIC collateralized mortgage obligations or other debt instruments secured by mortgage loans (rather than by real property) or secured by non-real estate assets, or debt securities that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property, the interest income received with respect to such securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.
Fee Income
We may receive various fees in connection with our operations. The fees generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if they are received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by the income or profits of any person. Other fees are not qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests.
Dividend and Certain Foreign Income
We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally will be classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Any dividends we receive from a REIT will be qualifying income in our hands for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.
Income inclusions from equity investments in certain foreign corporations, such as controlled foreign corporations and passive foreign investment companies, as defined in the Code, are technically neither dividends nor any of the other enumerated categories of income specified in the 95% gross income test for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, under IRS guidance, certain such income inclusions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test.
Hedging Transactions
From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.
Rents from Real Property
To the extent that we own real property or interests therein, rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income tests described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales or
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if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property if we earned such amounts directly;

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a TRS of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of  “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the TRS are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space;

Rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a TRS; and

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a TRS (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”
We intend to structure any leases so that the rent payable thereunder will qualify as “rents from real property,” but there can be no assurance we will be successful in this regard.
Phantom Income
Due to the nature of the assets in which we may invest, from time to time we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income in early periods that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.
If we were to acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount, the amount of such discount generally would be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions in a subsequent taxable year.
If we were to acquire securities issued with original issue discount, we would generally be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the securities, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though smaller or no cash payments were received on such debt instrument. As in the case of the market discount discussed in the preceding paragraph, the constant yield in question would be determined and we would be taxed based on the assumption that all future payments due on securities in question will be made, with consequences similar to those described in the previous paragraph if all payments on the securities are not made.
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In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or other securities we acquire are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinate mortgage-backed securities at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.
We may also be required under the terms of indebtedness that we borrow from private lenders to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Finally, we are required to recognize certain items of income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than when we would report such items on our financial statements. This requirement generally applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, but applies with respect to income from a debt instrument having original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes only for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2018.
Due to each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and the related cash receipts or disbursements, there is a risk that we may have taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Annual Distribution Requirements.”
Prohibited Transaction Income
Any gain that we realize on the sale of an asset (other than foreclosure property, as described below) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, either directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiaries or subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether an asset is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset we own will be held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, and that a sale of any assets we own will not be in the ordinary course of business. However, the IRS may successfully assert that some or all of the sales made by us, our qualified REIT subsidiaries or our subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a TRS, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.
Foreclosure Property
Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate (currently 21%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the
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property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. If we believe we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.
Penalty Tax
Any redetermined deductions, excess interest, redetermined rents or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a TRS of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a TRS of ours, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a TRS of ours that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.
We do not have any TRSs that provide tenant services, and we intend to set any amounts payable to us by our TRSs at arm’s length rates. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our TRSs.
Failure to Satisfy the Gross Income Tests.
We monitor our income and take actions intended to keep our nonqualifying income within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.
It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our qualification as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.
Asset Tests
At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent
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received under the lease. Regular or residual interests in REMICs are generally treated as a real estate asset. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets of the REMIC. In the case of any interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust.
Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of TRSs), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.
Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and TRSs, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a TRS. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.
Fourth, not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more TRSs. We currently own, directly or indirectly, interests in companies that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our TRSs, and we may acquire securities in additional TRSs in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a TRS of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our TRSs has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.
Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).
We believe that the assets comprising our mortgage-related investments and securities that we own generally are qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, and that our ownership of TRSs and other assets have been structured in a manner that will comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we monitor compliance on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance, however, that we will always be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine compliance with these requirements, we need to estimate the value of our assets, and we do not expect to obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the total value of our assets or the value of any particular security or other asset. Moreover, values of some assets, including our interests in our TRSs, may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future. Although we will continue to be prudent in making these estimates, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we might not satisfy the REIT asset tests, and could fail to qualify as a REIT.
In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is not fully secured by real property, Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor under which the IRS has stated that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a loan as being, in part, a qualifying real estate asset in an amount equal to the lesser of: (1) the greater of  (a) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan determined as of the date the REIT committed to acquire the loan or (b) the fair market value of the real property securing the
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loan on the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date; or (2) the fair market value of the loan on the date of the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date. We intend to invest in mortgage loans in a manner consistent with satisfying the asset tests and maintaining our qualification as a REIT.
The proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset tests. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not assert that our interests in subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers caused a violation of the REIT asset tests.
In addition, we intend to enter into repurchase agreements under which we will nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any repurchase agreement and that the repurchase agreement will be treated as a secured lending transaction notwithstanding that we may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could successfully assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.
The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiary or subsidiary partnership) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer may increase as a result of our capital contributions to, or the redemption of other partners’ or members’ interests in, a partnership in which we have an ownership interest. However, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.
Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (1) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (2) paying a tax equal to the greater of  (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (3) disclosing certain information to the IRS.
Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our overall interest in an issuer (including in a TRS). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.
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Annual Distribution Requirements
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

90% of our REIT taxable income; and

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.
For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.
In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation which was or had been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset was less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — General.”
For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and except as provided below, a taxpayer’s deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of its taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We do not believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships will be eligible to make this election.
We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential — i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its distribution rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a “publicly offered REIT.” To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount.
We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Income Tests — Phantom Income.”
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Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.
Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.
For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.
Failure to Qualify
If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to our stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to our stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities
The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock or debt securities. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or debt securities as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;
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persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

U.S. Holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

persons holding our capital stock or debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

REITs or regulated investment companies;

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock or debt securities being taken into account in an “applicable financial statement” (as defined in the Code);

persons deemed to sell our capital stock or debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.
THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.
For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
For purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that is neither a U.S. Holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.
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Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock
Distributions Generally
Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. Holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. Holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations —  Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.
To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. Holder to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. Holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.
U.S. Holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of our capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. Holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. Holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. Holder sells our capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. Holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. Holder that receives our capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such capital stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.
Capital Gain Dividends
Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. Holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. Holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the
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year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in the long-term capital gains of our stockholders, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.
Retention of Net Capital Gains
We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. Holder generally would:

include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its U.S. federal income tax return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. Holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

increase the adjusted tax basis of our capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

in the case of a U.S. Holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.
Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations
Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. Holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. Holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. Holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions we make, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.
Dispositions of Our Capital Stock
Except as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. Holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. Holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of our capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. Holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.
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Redemption or Repurchase by Us
A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. Holder,

results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. Holder’s stock interest in us, or

is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. Holder,
all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.
In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. Holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. Holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. Holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. Holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Distributions Generally.” A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. Holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”
Tax Rates
The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” is generally 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” is generally 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its TRSs) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. Holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than
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capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations.
Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock
Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code or if we hold an asset that gives rise to “excess inclusion income.” See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Excess Inclusion Income.” Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.
For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our capital stock will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our stock. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.
Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to the holders of our capital stock. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock
The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by Non-U.S. Holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other U.S. federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a Non-U.S. Holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge Non-U.S. Holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.
Distributions Generally
Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. In addition, any portion of the dividends paid to Non-U.S. Holders that are treated as excess inclusion income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding tax or a reduced treaty rate. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Taxation of the Company — Excess Inclusion Income.” Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a Non-U.S. Holder to be exempt from withholding under the
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effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business (through a U.S. permanent establishment, where applicable) generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. Holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.
Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a Non-U.S. Holder unless:

a lower treaty rate applies and the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s trade or business.
Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a Non-U.S. Holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s shares of our capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares, they will generally give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such shares, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain Non-U.S. Holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.
Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests
Distributions to a Non-U.S. Holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Holders with respect to such gain, except that a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the Non-U.S. Holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, or FIRPTA, distributions to a Non-U.S. Holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the Non-U.S. Holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. Holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. Holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to Non-U.S. Holders attributable to gain from
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sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the Non-U.S. Holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements, or qualified shareholders, are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Retention of Net Capital Gains
Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to Non-U.S. Holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the Non-U.S. Holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax that we paid on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax that we paid exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.
Sale of Our Capital Stock
Except as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a Non-U.S. Holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation”, or a “USRPHC”, will constitute a USRPI unless certain exceptions apply. A domestic corporation will constitute a USRPHC if 50% or more of the corporation’s assets on any of certain testing dates during a prescribed testing period consist of interests in real property located within the United States, excluding for this purpose, interests in real property solely in a capacity as creditor. We do not believe we are currently, and do not anticipate becoming, a USRPHC. However, because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our USRPIs relative to the fair market value of our non-U.S. real property interests and our other business assets, there can be no assurance we currently are not a USRPHC or will not become one in the future.
Even if we were a USRPHC, our capital stock will not constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. Although we believe that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot make any assurance that we will remain a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”
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Even if we were a USRPHC and we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a Non-U.S. Holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a Non-U.S. Holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:
(1)
such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, such as the New York Stock Exchange, and
(2)
such Non-U.S. Holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period.
In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a Non-U.S. Holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Holders with respect to such gain, except that a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the Non-U.S. Holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a Non-U.S. Holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the Non-U.S. Holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such class of stock is “regularly traded” and the Non-U.S. Holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).
If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the Non-U.S. Holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. Holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.
Redemption or Repurchase by Us
A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “Material
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U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations —  Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Sale of Our Capital Stock.”
Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities
The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of our debt securities. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).
U.S. Holders
Payments of Interest
Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. Holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. Holder’s method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition
A U.S. Holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will be equal to the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. Holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
Non-U.S. Holders
Payments of Interest
Interest paid on a debt security to a Non-U.S. Holder that is not effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax, or withholding tax, provided that:

the Non-U.S. Holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our voting stock;

the Non-U.S. Holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to us through actual or constructive stock ownership; and
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either (1) the Non-U.S. Holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the Non-U.S. Holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the Non-U.S. Holder, has received from the Non-U.S. Holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and provides the applicable withholding agent with a copy of such statement; or (3) the Non-U.S. Holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” (within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.
If a Non-U.S. Holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the Non-U.S. Holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.
If interest paid to a Non-U.S. Holder is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the Non-U.S. Holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the Non-U.S. Holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States.
Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular graduated rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.
The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. Holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition
A Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations — Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities — Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities — Non-U.S. Holders — Payments of Interest”) unless:

the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.
Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.
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Gain described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
U.S. Holders
A U.S. Holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. Holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. Holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.
Non-U.S. Holders
Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities paid to the Non-U.S. Holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of our capital stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.
Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.
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Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income
Certain U.S. Holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations, subject to certain limitations. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities.
Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts
Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or “FATCA”) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our debt securities, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.
Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019, recently proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.
Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or debt securities.
Other Tax Consequences
State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or debt securities.
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Plan of Distribution
We may sell the securities offered pursuant to any applicable prospectus supplement directly to one or more purchasers or through dealers, agents, or underwriters, or a combination of the foregoing. We may sell the securities offered pursuant to any applicable prospectus supplement in at-the-market equity offerings or on a negotiated or competitive bid basis through underwriters or dealers or directly to other purchasers or through agents, or a combination of the foregoing. We will name any underwriter, dealer, or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities in the applicable prospectus supplement. We reserve the right to sell the securities directly to investors on our own behalf in those jurisdictions where and in such manner as we are authorized to do so.
We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
We may also, from time to time, authorize underwriters, dealers, or other persons, acting as our agents, to offer and sell the securities upon the terms and conditions as are set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of the securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions, or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any underwriting compensation we pay to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions, or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements with any underwriters, dealers, and agents which may entitle them to indemnification against and contribution toward certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and to reimbursement for certain expenses. We will describe any indemnification agreements in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, any securities issued hereunder other than shares of our common stock will be a new issue with no established trading market. We may elect to list any of the securities issued hereunder on any exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters or agents may make a market in the securities issued hereunder, including our common stock, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you as to the liquidity of the trading market for the securities.
If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may authorize underwriters, dealers, or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions or other suitable persons to purchase the securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in the prospectus supplement. We may make delayed delivery with various institutions, including commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, and educational and charitable institutions. Delayed delivery contracts will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities covered by the delayed delivery contracts will not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and agents will not have any responsibility with respect to the validity or performance of these contracts.
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To facilitate an offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover the over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
Certain of the underwriters, dealers, or agents and their respective associates may be customers of, and/or engage in transactions with, and perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
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Validity of the Securities
The validity of certain securities will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. The validity of the debt securities and certain tax matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP.
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Experts
The audited consolidated financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
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Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference
The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which was filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019;

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019, which was filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 28, 2019 and February 1, 2019;

our Definitive Proxy Statement with respect to the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 5, 2019 (solely to the extent specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K);

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, which was filed with the SEC on January 7, 1998 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description; and

all documents filed by Redwood Trust, Inc. with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering (but excluding any items, documents, or portions of items or documents which are deemed “furnished” and not filed with the SEC, including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K).
You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
Redwood Trust, Inc.
Attn: Investor Relations
One Belvedere Place, Suite 300
Mill Valley, CA 94941
(866) 269-4976
Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
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Where You Can Find More Information
We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.
Our website address is http://www.redwoodtrust.com. The information contained on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus or any other report or filing filed with the SEC.
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. We have omitted certain parts of the registration statement, as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided above. The indenture and forms of other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries, which are not necessarily complete, and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.
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11,000,000 Shares
[MISSING IMAGE: 399452857_lg_redwoodtrust.jpg]
Common Stock
Prospectus
Joint Book-Running Managers
J.P. Morgan
Wells Fargo Securities
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
Credit Suisse
Co-managers
JMP Securities
Keefe, Bruyette & Woods
A Stifel Company​
September   , 2019

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