Toggle SGML Header (+)


Section 1: S-3ASR (S-3ASR)

S-3ASR
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 16, 2019

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Maryland  

350 Park Avenue, 20th Floor

New York, New York 10022

(212) 207-6400

   13-3974868

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

  (Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)   

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

Craig L. Knutson

Chief Executive Officer

MFA Financial, Inc.

350 Park Avenue, 20th Floor

New York, New York 10022

(212) 207-6400

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Harold E. Schwartz, Esq.

MFA Financial, Inc.

350 Park Avenue, 20th Floor

New York, New York 10022

(212) 207-6400

 

Robert K. Smith, Esq.

James V. Davidson, Esq.

Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP

2200 Pennsylvania Ave NW

Washington, DC 20037
(202) 955-1500

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer      Non-accelerated filer  
Accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price (1)

  Amount of
Registration Fee (2)

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

       

Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share

       

Depositary Shares (3)

       

Warrants

       

Debt Securities

       

Rights

       

Units (4)

       

Total

      N/A

 

 

(1)

Pursuant to General Instruction II.E., this information is not required to be included. This registration statement registers an indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class of securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion of, or in exchange for, or upon exercise of, other securities or that are represented by depositary shares. The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of securities will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the securities hereunder.

(2)

In reliance on and in accordance with Rule 456(b) and Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of all of the registration fees.

(3)

Each depositary share will be issued under a deposit agreement, will represent a fractional interest in shares of preferred stock registered hereunder and will be evidenced by a depositary receipt.

(4)

Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement, indenture or other agreement and will represent an interest in one or more shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts or subscription rights, as well as debt or equity securities of third parties, in any combination.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

LOGO

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Warrants

Debt Securities

Rights

Units

 

 

We may offer, issue and sell from time to time, together or separately:

 

   

shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, or our common stock;

 

   

shares of our preferred stock, including our convertible preferred stock (which we may issue in one or more series), par value $0.01 per share, or our preferred stock;

 

   

depositary shares representing shares of our preferred stock;

 

   

warrants entitling the holders to purchase our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or units;

 

   

debt securities;

 

   

rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or units, to purchase our debt securities, to purchase depositary shares or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing; or

 

   

units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.

We will determine when we sell securities, the amounts of securities we will sell and the prices and other terms on which we will sell them. We may sell securities to or through underwriters, through agents or directly to purchasers.

We will describe in a prospectus supplement, which we will deliver with this prospectus, the terms of particular securities which we offer in the future. We may describe the terms of those securities in a term sheet which will precede the prospectus supplement.

In each prospectus supplement, we will include the following information:

 

   

the names of the underwriters or agents, if any, through which we will sell the securities;

 

   

the proposed amount of securities, if any, which the underwriters will purchase;

 

   

the compensation, if any, of those underwriters or agents;

 

   

the public offering price of the securities;

 

   

information about securities exchanges, electronic communications networks or automated quotation systems on which the securities will be listed or traded; and

 

   

any other material information about the offering and sale of the securities.

The New York Stock Exchange lists our common stock under the symbol “MFA”, our 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “MFA/PB” and our 8.00% Senior Notes due 2042 under the symbol “MFO.”

 

 

Investing in our securities involves certain risks. Before buying any of our securities, you should read the risks referenced under the caption “Risk Factors” on page 6 of this prospectus

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED THAT THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

August 16, 2019


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     2  

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK AND PREFERRED STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     14  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

     31  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     32  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     37  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     63  

LEGAL MATTERS

     65  

EXPERTS

     66  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     67  

INFORMATION WE FILE

     68  

 

-i-


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell any combination of our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares representing shares of our preferred stock, warrants entitling the holders to purchase our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or units, debt securities, rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or units, to purchase our debt securities, to purchase depositary shares or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing, or units consisting of two or more of the foregoing, in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. Before you buy any of our securities, it is important for you to consider the information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference.”

 

1


Table of Contents

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains or incorporates by reference certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (or the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (or the Exchange Act). When used, statements which are not historical in nature, including those containing words such as “will,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “may” and variations of these terms and similar expressions, or the negatives of these terms or similar expressions, are intended to identify forward-looking statements and, as such, may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions.

These forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those relating to:

 

   

changes in interest rates and the market (i.e., fair) value of our residential mortgage backed securities (or MBS), residential whole loans, CRT securities and other assets;

 

   

changes in the prepayment rates on residential mortgage assets, an increase of which could result in a reduction of the yield on certain investments in our portfolio and could require us to reinvest the proceeds received by us as a result of such prepayments in investments with lower coupons, while a decrease in which could result in an increase in the interest rate duration of certain investments in our portfolio making their valuation more sensitive to changes in interest rates and could result in lower forecasted cash flows or, in certain circumstances, other-than-temporary impairment on certain Legacy Non-Agency MBS, which include MBS issued prior to 2008, purchased at a discount;

 

   

credit risks underlying our assets, including changes in the default rates and management’s assumptions regarding default rates on the mortgage loans securing our MBS that are not guaranteed by any U.S. Government agency or any federally chartered corporation (or Non-Agency MBS) and relating to our residential whole loan portfolio;

 

   

our ability to borrow to finance our assets and the terms, including the cost, maturity and other terms of any such borrowings;

 

   

implementation of or changes in government regulations or programs affecting our business;

 

   

our estimates regarding taxable income, the actual amount of which is dependent on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, changes in the amount of interest income and financing costs, the method elected by us to accrete the market discount on Non-Agency MBS and residential whole loans and the extent of prepayments, realized losses and changes in the composition of our residential MBS that are issued or guaranteed as to principal and/or interest by a federally chartered corporation (or Agency MBS) such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or an agency of the U.S. Government, such as Ginnie Mae, Non-Agency MBS and residential whole loan portfolios that may occur during the applicable tax period, including gain or loss on any MBS disposals and whole loan modifications, foreclosures and liquidations;

 

   

the timing and amount of distributions to stockholders, which are declared and paid at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our taxable income, our financial results and overall financial condition and liquidity, maintenance of our real estate investment trust (or REIT) qualification and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant;

 

   

our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes;

 

   

our ability to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (or the Investment Company Act), including statements regarding the concept release issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (or the SEC) relating to interpretive issues under the Investment Company Act with respect to the status under the Investment Company Act of certain companies that are engaged in the business of acquiring mortgages and mortgage-related interests;

 

2


Table of Contents
   

our ability to continue growing our residential whole loan portfolio, which is dependent on, among other things, the supply of loans offered for sale in the market;

 

   

expected returns on our investments in nonperforming residential whole loans (or NPLs), which are affected by, among other things, the length of time required to foreclose upon, sell, liquidate or otherwise reach a resolution of the property underlying the NPL, home price values, amounts advanced to carry the asset (e.g., taxes, insurance, maintenance expenses, etc. on the underlying property) and the amount ultimately realized upon resolution of the asset;

 

   

targeted or expected returns on our investments in recently-originated loans, the performance of which is, similar to our other mortgage loan investments, subject to, among other things, prepayment risk, credit risk and financing cost associated with such investments; and

 

   

risks associated with our investments in mortgage servicing rights (or MSR) related assets, including servicing, regulatory and economic risks, and risks associated with investing in real estate assets, including changes in business conditions and the general economy.

These and other risks, uncertainties and factors, including those identified in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, and those discussed in any of our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected in any forward-looking statements we make. All forward-looking statements are based on beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time and it is not possible to predict those factors or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and are not undertaking to, update or revise any forward-looking statements.

 

3


Table of Contents

The following information is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information and financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We encourage you to read this prospectus, as well as the information which is incorporated by reference herein, in its entirety. You should carefully consider the material risks of investing in our securities referenced under the caption “Risk Factors” of this prospectus before making a decision to invest in our securities. All references to “we,” “us” or “our company” in this prospectus mean MFA Financial, Inc. The following defines certain of the terms used in this prospectus: MBS refers to mortgage-backed securities secured by pools of residential mortgage loans; Agency MBS refers to MBS that are guaranteed by a corporation under federal conservatorship, such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or issued by an agency of the U.S. Government, such as Ginnie Mae; Non-Agency MBS are MBS that are not guaranteed or issued by any agency of the U.S. Government or any corporation under federal conservatorship; Legacy Non-Agency MBS refers to Non-Agency MBS issued prior to 2008; and CRT securities refer to credit risk transfer securities which are general obligations of government-sponsored entities (e.g., Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac).

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.

Our Business

We are an internally-managed REIT primarily engaged in the real estate finance business. We engage in our business through subsidiaries that invest, on a leveraged basis, in residential mortgage assets, including residential whole loans, residential mortgage securities and MSR-related assets. Our principal business objective is to deliver shareholder value through the generation of distributable income and through asset performance linked to residential mortgage credit fundamentals. We selectively invest in residential mortgage assets with a focus on credit analysis, projected prepayment rates, interest rate sensitivity and expected return.

At June 30, 2019, we had total assets of approximately $13.2 billion, of which $5.9 billion, or approximately 45%, represents residential whole loans acquired through interests in certain trusts established to acquire the loans. Our purchased performing loans, which as of June 30, 2019 comprised approximately 62% of our residential whole loans, include : (i) loans to finance (or refinance) one-to-four family residential properties that are not considered to meet the definition of a “Qualified Mortgage” in accordance with guidelines adopted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, (ii) short-term business purpose loans collateralized by residential properties made to non-occupant borrowers who intend to rehabilitate and sell the property for a profit, (iii) loans to finance (or refinance) non-owner occupied one-to-four family residential properties that are rented to one or more tenants, and (iv) previously originated loans secured by residential real estate that is generally owner occupied. In addition, at June 30, 2019, we had approximately $5.4 billion in investments in residential mortgage securities, which represented approximately 41% of our total assets. At such date, our portfolio includes $2.3 billion of Agency MBS, $2.7 billion of Non-Agency MBS and $407.3 million of CRT securities. Non-Agency MBS is comprised of $1.7 billion of Legacy Non-Agency MBS and $1.0 billion of RPL/NPL MBS. These RPL/NPL MBS are backed by securitized re-performing and non-performing loans and are generally structured with a contractual coupon step-up feature where the coupon increases from 300-400 basis points at 36-48 months from issuance or sooner. At June 30, 2019, our investments in MSR-related assets were $1.2 billion, or 9% of our total assets. Our MSR-related assets include term notes whose cash flows are considered to be largely dependent on MSR collateral and loan participations to provide financing to mortgage originators who own MSRs. Our remaining investment-related assets, which represented approximately 4% of our total assets at June 30, 2019, were primarily comprised of real estate owned (or REO) and MBS and loan-related receivables.

Compliance with REIT Requirements and the Investment Company Act

We have elected to be treated as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must comply with a number of requirements under U.S. federal income tax law that

 

4


Table of Contents

are discussed under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in this prospectus. Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our capital stock that are intended to assist us in complying with the requirements for qualification as a REIT. Among other things, our charter provides that, subject to certain exceptions, no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (or the Code), more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our capital stock. See “Description of Common Stock and Preferred Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” In addition, we intend to conduct our business at all times so as to maintain our exempt status under, and not to become regulated as an investment company for purposes of, the Investment Company Act.

General Information

We were incorporated in Maryland on July 24, 1997, and began operations on April 10, 1998. Our principal executive offices are located at 350 Park Avenue, 20th Floor, New York, New York 10022. Our telephone number is (212) 207-6400. Our common stock, our 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock and our 8.00% Senior Notes due 2042 are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (or NYSE) under the symbols “MFA”, “MFA/PB” and “MFO”, respectively. We maintain a website at www.mfafinancial.com. Information contained on our website is not, and should not be interpreted to be, part of this prospectus.

 

5


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investment in our securities involves risk. Before choosing to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks of an investment in our company set forth under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” (or similar captions) in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” (or similar captions) in any of our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, which risks are incorporated herein by reference. In the future, you should also carefully consider the disclosures relating to the risks of an investment in our company contained in the reports or documents we subsequently file under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, which reports and documents will deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus upon their filing to the extent set forth under “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” below.

 

6


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as may be set forth in a particular prospectus supplement, we will add the net proceeds from sales of securities to our general corporate funds, which we may use for general working capital purposes, including to invest in additional residential mortgage-related assets, including but not limited to, residential whole loans, MBS, CRT securities and investments related to mortgage servicing rights, and for working capital, which may include, among other things, the repayment of amounts outstanding under our repurchase agreements.

 

7


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK AND PREFERRED STOCK

The following description of the terms of our stock is only a summary. This summary is not complete and is qualified by the provisions of our charter and bylaws, and the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL. See “Incorporation Of Certain Documents By Reference.”

General

Our charter provides that we may issue up to one billion shares of capital stock, all with a par value of $0.01 per share. As of June 30, 2019, 886,950,000 of these authorized shares were classified as common stock, par value $0.01 per share, 1,160,000 shares were classified as 8.50% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share (or the Series A Preferred Stock), 8,050,000 shares were classified as 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share (or the Series B Preferred Stock), 3,840,000 are classified as Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, without further designation and 100,000,000 shares were classified as excess stock, par value $0.01 per share. As of August 2, 2019, we had 450,555,570 shares of common stock, no shares of Series A Preferred Stock, 8,000,000 shares of Series B Preferred Stock and no shares of excess stock outstanding.

Pursuant to our charter, the board of directors of our company (or our board) is authorized to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our capital stock, to provide for the issuance of shares in other classes or series (including preferred stock in one or more series), to establish the number of shares in each class or series and to fix the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each class or series. Under Maryland law, stockholders are generally not liable for our debts or obligations.

Common Stock

All shares of our common stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. Holders of our common stock will be entitled to receive distributions on their shares of common stock if, as and when our board authorizes and we declare distributions out of legally available funds. However, rights to distributions may be subordinated to the rights of holders of our preferred stock, when preferred stock is issued and outstanding, or subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of stock. See “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” below. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, each outstanding share of our common stock will entitle its holder to a proportionate share of the assets that remain after we pay our liabilities and any preferential distributions owed to preferred stockholders.

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the common stockholders. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, sinking fund, redemption or exchange rights or any preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities and generally have no appraisal rights. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of stock, all shares of our common stock have equal dividend, distribution, liquidation and other rights.

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation cannot amend its charter, consolidate, convert, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a statutory share exchange or dissolve unless the action is advised by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides that these matters

 

8


Table of Contents

(other than certain amendments to the provisions of our charter related to our board, consideration of various factors when considering a change of control transaction, indemnification, exculpation, advance notice of stockholder proposals and the charter amendment section, which must be approved by the affirmative vote of not less than 80% of the aggregate vote entitled to be cast) may be approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the total number of shares of all classes outstanding and entitled to vote thereon.

Our charter grants our board the power to authorize the issuance of additional authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock. Our board may also classify or reclassify unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and authorize their issuance.

We believe that these powers of our board provide increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. Although our board does not intend to do so at the present time, it could authorize the issuance of a class or series that could delay, defer or prevent a change of control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for the common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Preferred Stock

We may issue preferred stock, including convertible preferred stock, in one or more classes or series with any rights and preferences which may be authorized by our board. The preferred stock, when issued, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. Because our board has the power to establish the preferences, powers and rights of each series of preferred stock, our board may afford the holders of any series of preferred stock preferences, powers and rights, voting or otherwise, senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock.

On June 30, 2019, there were 8,000,000 shares of our Series B Preferred Stock outstanding.

The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of each series of preferred stock will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such series. We will distribute a prospectus supplement with regard to each series of preferred stock. The prospectus supplement, relating to each such series, will specify the terms of the preferred stock, as follows:

 

   

the title and stated par value of the preferred stock;

 

   

the number of shares offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price per share of the preferred stock;

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s) and payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate, if applicable;

 

   

the voting rights, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for or any restriction on redemption or repurchase, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

   

the terms and provisions, if any, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation) and conversion period;

 

   

a discussion of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs;

 

9


Table of Contents
   

any limitation on issuance of any series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer of the preferred stock, in each case as may be appropriate to, among other purposes, preserve our qualification as a REIT; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preference rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred stock.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons for at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code), to include certain exempt entities) during the last half of a taxable year.

Our charter provides that, subject to certain exceptions, no stockholder or “group” (as defined in Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act) may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% of the number or value of the outstanding shares of our capital stock, whichever is more restrictive (or the Ownership Limit). Our board may waive the Ownership Limit if it is presented with evidence satisfactory to it that the waiver will not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT. As a condition to any such waiver, our board may require opinions of counsel satisfactory to it and must receive an undertaking from the applicant with respect to preserving our REIT qualification. The Ownership Limit will not apply if our board determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.

If shares of common stock and/or preferred stock (i) in excess of the Ownership Limit, (ii) which would cause us to be beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons or (iii) that cause us to become “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code, are issued or transferred to any person, the issuance or transfer shall be void as to the number of shares in violation of such restrictions and the intended transferee will acquire no rights to such shares of common stock and/or preferred stock. Shares issued or transferred that would cause any stockholder (or a Prohibited Owner) to own more than the Ownership Limit or cause us to become “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code will automatically be converted into an equal number of shares of excess stock. All excess stock will be automatically transferred, without action by the Prohibited Owner, to a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries that we select, and the Prohibited Owner will not acquire any rights in the shares of excess stock. Such automatic transfer shall be deemed to be effective as of the close of business on the day prior to the date of the transfer causing a violation. The trustee of the trust shall be appointed by us and must be independent of us and the Prohibited Owner. The Prohibited Owner shall have no right to receive dividends or other distributions with respect to, or be entitled to vote, any shares of excess stock held in the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid prior to the discovery by us that excess stock has been transferred to the trust must be paid by the recipient of the dividend or distribution to the trustee upon demand for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary, and any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid shall be paid when due to the trust. The trust shall have all dividend and voting rights with respect to the shares of excess stock held in the trust, which rights shall be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary. Any dividend or distribution so paid to the trust shall be held in trust for the charitable beneficiary.

Within 20 days of receipt of our notice that excess stock has been transferred to the trust, the trustee will sell the excess stock held in the trust to a person, designated by the trustee, whose ownership of the shares will not violate the ownership limitations set forth in our charter. Upon such sale, any interest of the charitable beneficiary in the excess stock sold shall terminate and the trustee shall distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the Prohibited Owner and to the charitable beneficiary as follows. The Prohibited Owner shall receive the lesser of (a) the price paid by the Prohibited Owner for the excess stock or, if the Prohibited Owner did not give value for the excess stock in connection with the event causing the excess stock to be held in the trust (e.g., a gift,

 

10


Table of Contents

devise or other such transaction), the Market Price (as defined in our charter) of the excess stock on the day of the event causing the excess stock to be held in the trust, and (b) the price per share received by the trustee from the sale or other disposition of the excess stock held in the trust. Any net sale proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the Prohibited Owner will be paid immediately to the charitable beneficiary. If, prior to our discovery that excess stock has been transferred to the trust, the excess stock is sold by a Prohibited Owner, then the excess stock will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the Prohibited Owner received an amount for the excess stock that exceeds the amount that such Prohibited Owner was entitled to receive pursuant to the aforementioned requirement, the excess shall be paid to the trustee upon demand.

The Ownership Limit provision will not be automatically removed even if the REIT provisions of the Code are changed so as to no longer contain any ownership concentration limitation or if the ownership concentration is increased. Any change in the Ownership Limit would require an amendment to our charter. Such an amendment will require the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock and any other class of capital stock with such voting rights. In addition to preserving our qualification as a REIT, the Ownership Limit may have the effect of precluding an acquisition of control of our company without the approval of our board.

To the extent our shares of stock are certificated, all certificates representing shares of our common stock or preferred stock will refer to the restrictions described above.

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire shares of our stock in violation of any of the foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will be required to give written notice immediately to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our qualification as a REIT.

All persons who own, directly or by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, 5% or more of our outstanding shares of stock (or such other percentage at the time prescribed by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) must file a written statement with us containing the information specified in our charter within 30 days after January 1 of each year. In addition, each stockholder must upon demand disclose to us such information as we deem necessary in order to determine our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the Ownership Limit.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock and preferred stock is Computershare Inc., 480 Washington Boulevard, Jersey City, NJ 07310-1900. Its telephone number is 866-249-2610 and its website is www.computershare.com. The information on such website is not, and should not be interpreted to be, part of this prospectus.

 

11


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

We may issue depositary receipts representing interests in shares of a particular series of preferred stock, which are called depositary shares. We will deposit the shares of preferred stock of a series which is the subject of depositary shares with a depositary, which will hold that preferred stock for the benefit of the holders of the depositary shares, in accordance with a deposit agreement between the depositary and us. The deposit agreement and form of depositary receipt will be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The holders of depositary shares will be entitled to all of the rights and preferences of the shares of preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate, including dividend, voting, conversion, redemption and liquidation rights, to the extent of their interests in that preferred stock.

While the deposit agreement relating to a particular series of preferred stock may have provisions applicable solely to that series of preferred stock, all deposit agreements relating to preferred stock we issue will include the following provisions:

Dividends and Other Distributions. Each time we pay a cash dividend or make any other type of cash distribution with regard to preferred stock held by a depositary, the depositary will distribute the dividend or other distribution to the holders of depositary shares in proportion to the depositary shares held by each of them. If there is a distribution of property other than cash, the depositary either will distribute the property to the holders of depositary shares in proportion to the depositary shares held by each of them, or the depositary will, if we approve, sell the property and distribute the net proceeds to the holders of the depositary shares in proportion to the depositary shares held by them.

Withdrawal of Preferred Stock. A holder of depositary shares will be entitled to receive, upon surrender of depositary receipts representing depositary shares, the number of whole or fractional shares of the applicable series of preferred stock, and any money or other property, to which the depositary shares relate.

Redemption of Depositary Shares. Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by a depositary, the depositary will be required to redeem, on the same redemption date, depositary shares constituting, in total, the number of shares of preferred stock held by the depositary which we redeem, subject to the depositary’s receiving the redemption price of those shares of preferred stock. If fewer than all the depositary shares relating to a series are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or by another method we determine to be equitable.

Voting. Any time we send a notice of meeting or other materials relating to a meeting to the holders of a series of preferred stock to which depositary shares relate, we will provide the depositary with sufficient copies of those materials so they can be sent to all holders of record of the applicable depositary shares, and the depositary will send those materials to the holders of record of the depositary shares on the record date for the meeting. The depositary will solicit voting instructions from holders of depositary shares and will vote or not vote the preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate in accordance with those instructions.

Liquidation Preference. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holder of each depositary share will be entitled to what the holder of the depositary share would have received if the holder had owned the number of shares (or fraction of a share) of preferred stock which is represented by the depositary share.

Conversion. If shares of a series of preferred stock are convertible into common stock or other of our securities or property, holders of depositary shares relating to that series of preferred stock will, if they surrender depositary receipts representing depositary shares and appropriate instructions to convert them, receive the shares of common stock or other securities or property into which the number of shares (or fractions of shares) of preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate could at the time be converted.

Amendment and Termination of a Deposit Agreement. We and the depositary may amend a deposit agreement, except that an amendment which materially and adversely affects the rights of holders of depositary

 

12


Table of Contents

shares, or would be materially and adversely inconsistent with the rights granted to the holders of the preferred stock to which they relate, must be approved by holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding depositary shares. No amendment will impair the right of a holder of depositary shares to surrender the depositary receipts evidencing those depositary shares and receive the preferred stock to which they relate, except as required to comply with law. We may terminate a deposit agreement with the consent of holders of a majority of the depositary shares to which it relates. Upon termination of a deposit agreement, the depositary will make the whole or fractional shares of preferred stock to which the depositary shares issued under the deposit agreement relate available to the holders of those depositary shares. A deposit agreement will automatically terminate if:

 

   

all outstanding depositary shares to which it relates have been redeemed or converted; or

 

   

the depositary has made a final distribution to the holders of the depositary shares issued under the deposit agreement upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up.

Miscellaneous. There will be provisions: (1) requiring the depositary to forward to holders of record of depositary shares any reports or communications from us which the depositary receives with respect to the shares of preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate; (2) regarding compensation of the depositary; (3) regarding resignation of the depositary; (4) limiting our liability and the liability of the depositary under the deposit agreement (usually to failure to act in good faith, gross negligence or willful misconduct); and (5) indemnifying the depositary against certain possible liabilities.

 

13


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

Each issue of warrants will be the subject of a warrant agreement which will contain the terms of the warrants. The warrant agreement and form of warrant will be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement of which this prospectus forms a part. We will distribute a prospectus supplement with regard to each issue of warrants. Each prospectus supplement will describe, as to the warrants to which it relates:

 

   

the securities which may be purchased by exercising the warrants (which may be common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities or units);

 

   

the exercise price of the warrants (which may be wholly or partly payable in cash or wholly or partly payable with other types of consideration);

 

   

the period during which the warrants may be exercised;

 

   

any provision adjusting the securities which may be purchased on exercise of the warrants and the exercise price of the warrants in order to prevent dilution or otherwise;

 

   

the place or places where warrants can be presented for exercise or for registration of transfer or exchange; and

 

   

any other material terms of the warrants.

 

14


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description of our debt securities describes general terms and provisions of a series of debt securities to which any prospectus supplement may relate. When we offer to sell a series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any particular terms of the debt securities of that series or the indenture described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described in this prospectus, then the terms described in the applicable prospectus supplement will supersede the terms described in this prospectus.

We may issue our debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. The debt securities will be unsubordinated and, unless otherwise expressly stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series. If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue debt securities that are secured by specified collateral. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, as used in this section, the term “secured debt securities” means any debt securities that, as described in the prospectus supplement relating thereto, are secured by collateral; the term “unsecured debt securities” means any debt securities that are not secured debt securities; and the term “debt securities” includes both unsecured debt securities and secured debt securities.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture to be entered into by us and a trustee. The trustee shall be Wilmington Trust, National Association or such other trustee as may be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise expressly stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue both secured and unsecured debt securities under the same indenture. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this section to the “indenture” and the “trustee” refer to the applicable indenture pursuant to which any particular series of debt securities is issued and to the trustee under that indenture. The terms of any series of debt securities will be those specified in or pursuant to the applicable indenture and in the certificates evidencing that series of debt securities and those made part of the indenture by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

The following summary of selected provisions of the indenture and the debt securities is not complete, and the summary of selected terms of a particular series of debt securities included in the applicable prospectus supplement also will not be complete. You should review the form of applicable indenture, the form of any applicable supplemental indenture and the form of certificate evidencing the applicable debt securities, which forms have been or will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or as exhibits to documents which have been or will be incorporated by reference in this prospectus. To obtain a copy of the form of indenture, the form of any such supplemental indenture or the form of certificate for any debt securities, see “Information We File” in this prospectus. The following summary and the summary in the applicable prospectus supplement are qualified in their entirety by reference to all of the provisions of the applicable indenture, any supplemental indenture and the certificates evidencing the applicable debt securities, which provisions, including defined terms, are incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Capitalized terms used in this section and not defined have the meanings assigned to those terms in the indenture.

General

The debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series. We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture. The indenture provides that debt securities of any series may be issued up to the aggregate principal amount which may be authorized from time to time by us. Please read the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the series of debt securities being offered for specific terms including, where applicable:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

15


Table of Contents
   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of debt securities of the series;

 

   

whether any debt securities of the series will be issued in temporary or permanent global form (global debt securities) and, if so, the name of the depositary for the global debt securities;

 

   

the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a temporary global debt security will be paid, if other than in the manner provided in the indenture;

 

   

the date or dates on which we will pay the principal of and premium, if any, on debt securities of the series, or the method or methods, if any, used to determine those dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, at which debt securities of the series will bear interest, if any, or the method or methods, if any, used to determine those rates;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, from which interest on the debt securities of the series will begin to accrue, or the method or methods, if any, used to determine those dates;

 

   

the dates on which the interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series will be payable and the record dates for the payment of interest;

 

   

the basis used to calculate interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series if other than a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

   

the place or places where amounts due on the debt securities of the series will be payable and where the debt securities of the series may be surrendered for registration of transfer and exchange, if other than the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we may, at our option, redeem debt securities of the series;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will repurchase or repay debt securities of the series at the option of the holders of debt securities of the series;

 

   

the authorized denominations in which the debt securities of the series will be issued, if other than minimum denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiples of $1,000;

 

   

the terms, if any, upon which debt securities of the series may be convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property;

 

   

the portion of the principal amount of the debt securities of the series which will be payable upon acceleration if other than the full principal amount;

 

   

if other than U.S. dollars, the foreign currency in which payment of the principal of, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts (as defined below) with respect to any of such Securities shall be payable;

 

   

if other than U.S. dollars, the currency in which the purchase price for the debt securities of the series will be payable, the currency in which payments on the debt securities of the series will be payable, and the ability, if any, of us or the holders of debt securities of the series to have payments made in any other currency or currencies;

 

   

if the amount of payments on the debt securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method or methods and the method used to determine those amounts;

 

   

any addition to, or modification or deletion of, any covenant or Event of Default with respect to debt securities of the series;

 

   

any addition to, or modification or deletion of, any term related to satisfaction or discharge, defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to debt securities of the series;

 

   

if any of such debt securities are to be issuable upon the exercise of warrants, and the time, manner and place for such debt securities to be authenticated and delivered;

 

16


Table of Contents
   

if any of such debt securities are issuable in global form and are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary debt security) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

   

if and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts (“Additional Amounts”) on the debt securities of the series to any Holder who is a United States Alien in respect of specified taxes, assessments or other governmental charges and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities of the series rather than pay the Additional Amounts;

 

   

if there is more than one trustee, the identity of the trustee and, if not the trustee, the identity of each registrar, paying agent or authenticating agent with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

the Person to whom any interest on a debt security of the series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name that debt security is registered on the applicable record date;

 

   

if the debt securities of the series will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and of some of the terms of any related security, pledge or other agreements;

 

   

whether such debt securities of the series will be guaranteed, if so, the names of the guarantors of the debt securities of the series and a description of the guarantees; and

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities of the series (whether or not such other terms are consistent or inconsistent with any other terms of the indenture).

As used in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement relating to the offering of debt securities of any series, references to the principal of and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series include the payment of Additional Amounts, if any, required by the debt securities of the series to be paid in that context.

Debt securities may be issued as original issue discount securities to be sold at a substantial discount below their principal amount. In the event of an acceleration of the maturity of any original issue discount security, the amount payable to the holder upon acceleration will be determined in the manner described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Certain U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to original issue discount securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, if applicable.

If the purchase price of any debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or if the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest, if any, on any debt securities is payable in a foreign currency, the specific terms of those debt securities and the applicable foreign currency will be specified in the prospectus supplement relating to those debt securities.

The terms of the debt securities of any series may differ from the terms of the debt securities of any other series, and the terms of particular debt securities within any series may differ from each other. Unless otherwise expressly provided in the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities, we may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of any series, reopen an existing series of debt securities and issue additional debt securities of that series.

Unless otherwise described in a prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities and except to the limited extent set forth below under “—Merger, Consolidation and Transfer of Assets,” the indenture does not contain any provisions that would limit our ability or the ability of any of our subsidiaries to incur indebtedness or other liabilities or that would afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of a business combination, takeover, recapitalization or highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us. Accordingly, we and our subsidiaries may in the future enter into transactions that could increase the amount of our consolidated indebtedness and other liabilities or otherwise adversely affect our capital structure or credit rating without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of any series.

 

17


Table of Contents

Registration, Transfer and Payment

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, each series of debt securities will be issued in registered form only, without coupons.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, debt securities will be issued in minimum denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiples of $1,000.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be payable and may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and, if applicable, for conversion into or exchange for other securities or property, at an office or agency maintained by us in the United States of America. However, we, at our option, may make payments of interest on any debt security by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled to receive that payment or by wire transfer to an account maintained by the payee with a bank located in the United States of America. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, no service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange, redemption or repayment of debt securities, or for any conversion or exchange of debt securities for other securities or property, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with that transaction.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of or exchange debt securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before any selection of debt securities of that series of like tenor and terms to be redeemed and ending at the close of business on the day of that selection;

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt security, or portion of any debt security, selected for redemption, except the unredeemed portion of any debt security being redeemed in part; or

 

   

issue, register the transfer of or exchange a debt security which has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the holder, except the portion, if any, of the debt security not to be repaid.

Book-entry Debt Securities

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global debt securities. Global debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary which, unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the series, will be The Depository Trust Company (or DTC). Global debt securities may be issued in either temporary or permanent form. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for individual certificates evidencing debt securities, a global debt security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

We anticipate that global debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC and that global debt securities will be registered in the name of DTC’s nominee, Cede & Co. All interests in global debt securities deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC will be subject to the operations and procedures of DTC and, in the case of any interests in global debt securities held through Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V. (“Euroclear”) or Clearstream Banking, société anonyme (“Clearstream, Luxembourg”), the operations and procedures of Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg, as the case may be. We also anticipate that the following provisions will apply to the depository arrangements with respect to global debt securities. Additional or differing terms of the depository arrangements may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

DTC has advised us that it is:

 

   

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

18


Table of Contents
   

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

   

a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

   

a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, including transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, which eliminates the need for physical movement of securities certificates. Direct participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, sometimes referred to in this prospectus as indirect participants, that clear transactions through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant either directly or indirectly. Indirect participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks and trust companies. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

Purchases of debt securities within the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the debt securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser or beneficial owner of a debt security is, in turn, recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases, but beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of the transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased the debt securities. Transfers of ownership interests in debt securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the debt securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all debt securities deposited by participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s nominee, Cede & Co. The deposit of debt securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. will not change the beneficial ownership of the debt securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the debt securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the debt securities are credited. Those participants may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

Redemption notices shall be delivered electronically to DTC or its nominee. If less than all of the debt securities of a series are being redeemed, DTC will reduce the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the debt securities under its procedures.

In any case where a vote may be required with respect to the debt securities of any series, neither DTC nor Cede & Co. will give consents for or vote the global debt securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the debt securities are credited on the record date identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

Principal and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the global debt securities will be paid to Cede & Co., as nominee of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts on the relevant payment date unless DTC has reason to believe that it will not receive payments on the payment date. Payments by direct and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of DTC’s direct and indirect participants and not of DTC, us, any trustee or any underwriters or

 

19


Table of Contents

agents involved in the offering or sale of any debt securities. Payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, to DTC is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

Except under the limited circumstances described below, beneficial owners of interests in a global debt security will not be entitled to have debt securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of debt securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC to exercise any rights under the debt securities and the indenture.

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. These laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global debt securities.

DTC is under no obligation to provide its services as depositary for the debt securities of any series and may discontinue providing its services at any time. Neither we nor any trustee nor any underwriters or agents involved in the offering or sale of any debt securities will have any responsibility for the performance by DTC or its participants or indirect participants under the rules and procedures governing DTC. As noted above, beneficial owners of interests in global debt securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the debt securities. However, if DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global debt securities of any series or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act (if so required by applicable law or regulation) and a successor depositary for the debt securities of such series is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be, we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have the debt securities of any series represented by one or more global debt securities, or an Event of Default under the indenture has occurred and is continuing with respect to the debt securities of any series, we will prepare and deliver certificates for the debt securities of that series in exchange for beneficial interests in the global debt securities of that series. Any beneficial interest in a global debt security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for debt securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names and in the authorized denominations that the depositary shall direct. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global debt securities.

Clearstream, Luxembourg and Euroclear hold interests on behalf of their participating organizations through customers’ securities accounts in Clearstream, Luxembourg’s and Euroclear’s names on the books of their respective depositaries, which hold those interests in customers’ securities accounts in the depositaries’ names on the books of DTC.

Clearstream, Luxembourg holds securities for its participating organizations (“Clearstream Participants”) and facilitates the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between Clearstream Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of Clearstream Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates. Clearstream, Luxembourg provides to Clearstream Participants, among other things, services for safekeeping, administration, clearance and settlement of internationally traded securities and securities lending and borrowing.

Clearstream, Luxembourg is registered as a bank in Luxembourg, and as such is subject to regulation by the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier and the Banque Centrale du Luxembourg, which supervise and oversee the activities of Luxembourg banks. Clearstream Participants are financial institutions including underwriters, securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies and clearing corporations, and may include any underwriters or agents involved in the offering or sale of any debt securities or their respective affiliates. Indirect access to Clearstream, Luxembourg is available to other institutions that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Clearstream Participant. Clearstream, Luxembourg has established an electronic bridge with Euroclear as the operator of the Euroclear System (the “Euroclear Operator”) in Brussels to facilitate settlement of trades between Clearstream, Luxembourg and the Euroclear Operator.

 

20


Table of Contents

Distributions with respect to global debt securities held beneficially through Clearstream, Luxembourg will be credited to cash accounts of Clearstream Participants in accordance with its rules and procedures, to the extent received by the U.S. Depositary for Clearstream, Luxembourg.

Euroclear holds securities and book-entry interests in securities for participating organizations (“Euroclear Participants”) and facilitates the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between Euroclear Participants, and between Euroclear Participants and participants of certain other securities intermediaries through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of such participants or other securities intermediaries. Euroclear provides Euroclear Participants, among other things, with safekeeping, administration, clearance and settlement, securities lending and borrowing, and related services. Euroclear Participants are investment banks, securities brokers and dealers, banks, central banks, supranationals, custodians, investment managers, corporations, trust companies and certain other organizations, and may include any underwriters or agents involved in the offering or sale of any debt securities or their respective affiliates. Non-participants in Euroclear may hold and transfer beneficial interests in a global debt security through accounts with a participant in the Euroclear System or another securities intermediary that holds a book-entry interest in a global debt security through one or more securities intermediaries standing between such other securities intermediary and Euroclear.

Securities clearance accounts and cash accounts with the Euroclear Operator are governed by the Terms and Conditions Governing Use of Euroclear and the related Operating Procedures of the Euroclear System, and applicable Belgian law (collectively, the “Terms and Conditions”). The Terms and Conditions govern transfers of securities and cash within Euroclear, withdrawals of securities and cash from Euroclear and receipts of payments with respect to securities in Euroclear. All securities in Euroclear are held on a fungible basis without attribution of specific certificates to specific securities clearance accounts. The Euroclear Operator acts under the Terms and Conditions only on behalf of Euroclear Participants, and has no record of or relationship with Persons holding through Euroclear Participants.

Distributions on interests in global debt securities held beneficially through Euroclear will be credited to the cash accounts of Euroclear Participants in accordance with the Terms and Conditions, to the extent received by the U.S. Depositary for Euroclear.

Transfers between Euroclear Participants and Clearstream Participants will be effected in the ordinary way in accordance with their respective rules and operating procedures.

Cross-market transfers between direct participants in DTC, on the one hand, and Euroclear Participants or Clearstream Participants, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg, as the case may be, by its U.S. Depositary; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the applicable rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. Depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in global debt securities in DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement applicable to DTC. Euroclear Participants and Clearstream Participants may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.

Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a Euroclear Participant or Clearstream Participant purchasing an interest in a global debt security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant Euroclear Participant or Clearstream Participant, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg as a result of sales of interests in a global debt security by or through a Euroclear Participant or Clearstream Participant to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be

 

21


Table of Contents

available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg following DTC’s settlement date.

Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg are under no obligation to perform or to continue to perform the foregoing procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time without notice. Neither we nor any trustee nor any underwriters or agents involved in the offering or sale of any debt securities will have any responsibility for the performance by Euroclear or Clearstream, Luxembourg or their respective participants of their respective obligations under the rules and procedures governing their operations.

The information in this section concerning DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg and their book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of that information.

Redemption and Repurchase

The debt securities of any series may be redeemable at our option or may be subject to mandatory redemption by us as required by a sinking fund or otherwise. In addition, the debt securities of any series may be subject to repurchase or repayment by us at the option of the holders. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms, the times and the prices regarding any optional or mandatory redemption by us or any repurchase or repayment at the option of the holders of any series of debt securities.

Conversion and Exchange

The terms, if any, on which debt securities of any series are convertible into or exchangeable for our common shares or any other securities or property will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Such terms may include provisions for conversion or exchange, either mandatory, at the option of the holders or at our option. Unless otherwise expressly stated in the applicable prospectus supplement or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to the conversion or exchange of debt securities of any series for other securities or property shall be deemed not to refer to or include any exchange of any debt securities of a series for other debt securities of the same series.

Secured Debt Securities

The debt securities of any series may be secured by collateral. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe any such collateral and the terms of such secured debt securities.

Merger, Consolidation and Transfer of Assets

The indenture provides that we will not, in any transaction or series of related transactions, consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our property and assets to, or merge with or into, any Person unless:

 

   

either (1) we shall be the continuing Person (in the case of a merger) or (2) the successor Person (if other than us) formed by or resulting from the consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of assets shall be an entity organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and shall expressly assume the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on all the debt securities outstanding under the indenture and the due and punctual performance and observance of all covenants and conditions in such outstanding debt securities and the indenture to be performed or satisfied by us (including, without limitation, the obligation to convert or exchange any debt securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property in accordance with the provisions of such debt securities and the indenture) by a supplemental indenture;

 

22


Table of Contents
   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction described above, no Event of Default under the indenture, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default under the indenture, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

the trustee shall have received the officers’ certificate and opinion of counsel called for by the indenture.

In the case of any such consolidation, sale, lease, conveyance or merger in which we are not the continuing entity and upon execution and delivery by the successor Person of the supplemental indenture described above, such successor Person shall succeed to, and be substituted for, us and may exercise every right and power of ours under the indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as us therein, and we shall be automatically released and discharged from all obligations and covenants under the indenture and the debt securities issued under that indenture.

Events of Default

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, an “Event of Default” with respect to the debt securities of any series is defined in the indenture as being:

 

  1.

default in payment of any interest, if any, on, or any Additional Amounts, if any, payable in respect of any interest, if any, on, any of the debt securities of that series when due, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days;

 

  2.

default in payment of any principal of or premium, if any, on, or any Additional Amounts, if any, payable in respect of any principal of or premium, if any, on, any of the debt securities of that series when due (whether at maturity, upon redemption, upon repayment or repurchase at the option of the holder or otherwise and whether payable in cash or in our common shares or other securities or property);

 

  3.

default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment or payment under any analogous provision when due with respect to any of the debt securities of that series;

 

  4.

default in the delivery when due of any securities, cash or other property (including, without limitation, any of our common shares) when required to be delivered upon conversion of any convertible debt security of that series or upon the exchange of any debt security of that series which is exchangeable for our common shares or other securities or property (other than an exchange of debt securities of that series for other debt securities of the same series);

 

  5.

default in the performance, or breach, of any other covenant or warranty applicable to us in the indenture or in any debt security of that series, other than a covenant or warranty included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series, and continuance of that default or breach (without that default or breach having been cured or waived in accordance with the indenture) for a period of 60 days after notice to us by the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series then outstanding;

 

  6.

default after the expiration of any applicable grace period in the payment of principal when due, or resulting in acceleration of, other indebtedness (other than Non-recourse Debt of us or any Significant Subsidiary of ours or indebtedness of any Structured Finance Subsidiary of ours) for borrowed money where the aggregate principal amount with respect to which the default or acceleration has occurred exceeds $100 million and such indebtedness has not been discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration has not been cured or rescinded, prior to written notice of acceleration of the debt securities of that series;

 

  7.

failure by us or any of our Subsidiaries to pay final judgments entered by a court or courts of competent jurisdiction aggregating in excess of $100 million, which judgments are not paid, discharged or stayed for a period of 30 calendar days after such judgments become final and non-appealable;

 

23


Table of Contents
  8.

specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization with respect to us or any Significant Subsidiary of ours; or

 

  9.

any other Event of Default established for the debt securities of that series.

No Event of Default with respect to any particular series of debt securities necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The indenture provides that, within 90 days after the occurrence of any default actually known to a responsible officer of the trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series, the trustee will mail or deliver electronically to all holders of the debt securities of that series notice of that default if known to the trustee, unless that default has been cured or waived. However, the indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice of a default with respect to the debt securities of that series, except a default in payment of principal, premium, if any, interest, if any, Additional Amounts, if any, or sinking fund payments, if any, if the trustee in good faith determines it in the interest of the holders to do so. As used in this paragraph, the term “default” means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of any series.

The indenture provides that if an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (8) of the second preceding paragraph with respect to us) occurs and is continuing with respect to any series of debt securities, either the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the debt securities of that series then outstanding may declare the principal of, or if debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities, such lesser amount as may be specified in the terms of that series of debt securities, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately. The indenture also provides that if an Event of Default specified in clause (8) of the second preceding paragraph with respect to us occurs with respect to any series of debt securities, then the principal of, or if debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities, such lesser amount as may be specified in the terms of that series of debt securities, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the debt securities of that series will automatically become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder of the debt securities of that series. However, upon specified conditions, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of a series then outstanding may rescind and annul an acceleration of the debt securities of that series and its consequences. For purposes of clarity, references to an Event of Default specified in clause (8) of the second preceding paragraph with respect to us shall not include any Event of Default specified in clause (8) of the second preceding paragraph with respect to any Significant Subsidiary of ours.

The trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of debt securities of any series unless those holders have offered the trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, fees and expenses and liabilities which might be incurred in compliance with such request or direction. Subject to the foregoing, holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series issued under the indenture have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee under the indenture with respect to that series. The indenture requires the annual filing by us with the trustee of a certificate which states whether or not we are in default under the terms of the indenture.

No holder of any debt securities of any series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

such holder has previously given written notice to the trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of such series;

 

   

the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series shall have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee under the indenture;

 

24


Table of Contents
   

such holder or holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, fees and expenses and liabilities which might be incurred in compliance with such request;

 

   

the trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

   

no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such 60 day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series.

Notwithstanding any other provision of the indenture, the holder of a debt security will have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on that debt security on the respective due dates for those payments and, in the case of any debt security which is convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, to convert or exchange, as the case may be, that debt security in accordance with its terms, and to institute suit for the enforcement of those payments and any right to effect such conversion or exchange, and this right shall not be impaired without the consent of the holder.

Modification, Waivers and Meetings

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indenture permits us and the trustee, with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series issued under the indenture and affected by a modification or amendment, to enter into an indenture or supplemental indentures for the purpose of modifying or amending any of the provisions of the indenture or of the debt securities of the applicable series or the rights of the holders of the debt securities of that series under the indenture. However, no such modification or amendment shall, among other things:

 

   

change the stated maturity of the principal of, or premium, if any, or any installment of interest, if any, on or any Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to any debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

reduce the principal of or any premium on any debt securities or reduce the rate of interest on any debt securities or reduce the price payable upon the redemption of any debt security, whether such redemption is mandatory or at our option, or upon the repurchase of any debt security at the option of the holder, or reduce any Additional Amounts with respect to any debt securities, or change our obligation to pay Additional Amounts;

 

   

reduce the amount of principal of any original issue discount securities that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

adversely affect any right of repayment or repurchase of any debt securities at the option of any holder;

 

   

change any place where or the currency in which debt securities are payable;

 

   

impair the holder’s right to institute suit to enforce the payment of any debt securities on or after their stated maturity or, in the case of any debt security which is convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, to institute suit to enforce the right to convert or exchange that debt security in accordance with its terms;

 

   

make any change that adversely affects the right, if any, to convert or exchange any debt securities for other securities or property;

 

   

reduce the percentage of debt securities of any series issued under the indenture whose holders must consent to any modification or amendment or any waiver of compliance with specific provisions of such indenture or specified defaults under the indenture and their consequences; or

 

   

reduce the requirements for a quorum or voting at a meeting of holders of the applicable debt securities,

without in each case obtaining the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security issued under such indenture affected by the modification or amendment.

 

25


Table of Contents

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indenture also contains provisions permitting us and the trustee, without the consent of the holders of any debt securities issued under the indenture, to modify or amend the indenture, among other things:

 

   

to evidence the succession of another Person to us and the assumption by that successor of our covenants contained in the indenture and in the debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

to add to our covenants for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities issued under the indenture or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture with respect to all or any series of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series including, without limitation, conversion and exchange provisions applicable to debt securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property and to establish any provisions with respect to any security or other collateral for such debt securities and to make any deletions from or additions or changes to the indenture in connection with any of the matters referred to in this bullet point so long as those deletions, additions and changes are not applicable to any other series of debt securities then outstanding;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of the appointment of a successor trustee in respect of the debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity or correct or supplement any provision in such indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with other provisions in the indenture, or to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under the indenture which shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series then outstanding in any material respect;

 

   

to add any additional Events of Default with respect to all or any series of debt securities;

 

   

to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to permit or facilitate defeasance, covenant defeasance and/or satisfaction and discharge of any series of debt securities, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interest of any holder of a debt security of such series or any other debt security in any material respect;

 

   

to add guarantees or guarantors in respect of all or any debt securities, to establish the forms and terms of the guarantees and to evidence the release and discharge of any guarantor from its obligations under its guarantee of any or all debt securities and its obligations under the indenture in respect of any or all debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture;

 

   

to secure or, if applicable, to provide additional security for all or any debt securities issued under the indenture and to provide for any and all matters relating thereto, and to provide for the release of any collateral as security for all or any debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture;

 

   

to make any change to the indenture or any debt securities to conform the terms thereof to the terms reflected in any prospectus (including this prospectus), prospectus supplement, offering memorandum or similar offering document used in connection with the initial offering or sale of any debt securities;

 

   

in the case of any series of debt securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for our common shares or other securities or property, to provide for the conversion or exchange rights of those debt securities in the event of any reclassification or change of our common shares or any of our other securities into which such debt securities are convertible or for which such debt securities are exchangeable or any similar transaction if expressly required by the terms of that series of debt securities; or

 

   

to amend or supplement any provision contained in the indenture or in any debt securities, provided that such amendment or supplement does not apply to any outstanding debt securities issued prior to the date of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefits of such provisions.

 

26


Table of Contents

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may waive our compliance with the provisions described above under “—Merger, Consolidation and Transfer of Assets” and certain other provisions of the indenture and, if specified in the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, any additional covenants applicable to the debt securities of such series. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may, on behalf of all holders of debt securities of that series, waive any past default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest, if any, on debt securities of that series or, in the case of any debt securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, a default in any such conversion or exchange, or a default in respect of a covenant or provision which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the affected series.

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, upon our direction, the indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to any series of debt securities issued under the indenture specified by us, subject to the survival of specified provisions of the indenture (including the obligation to pay Additional Amounts to the extent described below and the obligation, if applicable, to exchange or convert debt securities of that series into other securities or property in accordance with their terms) when:

 

   

either

 

  (A)

all outstanding debt securities of that series have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation, subject to exceptions, or

 

  (B)

all debt securities of that series have become due and payable or will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year and we have deposited with the trustee, in trust, funds in U.S. dollars or in the foreign currency in which the debt securities of that series are payable in an amount sufficient to pay the entire indebtedness on the debt securities of that series in respect of principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any (and, to the extent that (x) the debt securities of that series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts upon the occurrence of specified events of taxation, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on the debt securities and (y) the amount of any Additional Amounts which are or will be payable is at the time of deposit reasonably determinable by us, in the exercise of our sole and absolute discretion, those Additional Amounts) to the date of such deposit, if the debt securities of that series have become due and payable, or to the maturity or redemption date of the debt securities of that series, as the case may be;

 

   

we have paid all other sums payable under the indenture with respect to the debt securities of that series; and

 

   

the trustee has received an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel called for by the indenture.

If the debt securities of any series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts, we will remain obligated, following the deposit described above, to pay (on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable indenture) Additional Amounts with respect to those debt securities to the extent (and only to the extent) that they exceed the amount deposited in respect of those Additional Amounts as described above.

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may elect with respect to any series of debt securities either:

 

   

to defease and be discharged from all of our obligations with respect to that series of debt securities (“defeasance”), except for:

 

  (1)

the obligation to pay Additional Amounts, if any, upon the occurrence of specified events of taxation, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on that series of debt

 

27


Table of Contents
  securities to the extent (and only to the extent) that those Additional Amounts exceed the amount deposited in respect of those Additional Amounts as provided below,

 

  (2)

the obligation, if applicable, to exchange or convert debt securities of that series into other securities or property in accordance with their terms, and

 

  (3)

certain other limited obligations.

 

   

to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities of such series under such covenants as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, and any omission to comply with those obligations shall not constitute a default or an Event of Default with respect to that series of debt securities (“covenant defeasance”), in either case upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose, of an amount in U.S. dollars or in the foreign currency in which those debt securities are payable at stated maturity or, if applicable, upon redemption, and/or Government Obligations which through the payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money, in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of and any premium and any interest on (and, to the extent that (x) the debt

 

   

securities of that series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts and (y) the amount of the Additional Amounts which are or will be payable is at the time of deposit reasonably determinable by us, in the exercise of our sole and absolute discretion, the Additional Amounts with respect to) that series of debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments on that series of debt securities, on the due dates for those payments.

If we effect defeasance with respect to the debt securities of any series and those debt securities provide for the payment of Additional Amounts, we will remain obligated, following the effectiveness of such defeasance, to pay (on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the indenture) Additional Amounts with respect to those debt securities to the extent (and only to the extent) that they exceed the amount deposited in respect of those Additional Amount as described above.

The defeasance or covenant defeasance described above shall only be effective if, among other things:

 

   

it shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, the indenture;

 

   

in the case of defeasance, we shall have delivered to the trustee an opinion of independent counsel reasonably acceptable to the trustee confirming that (A) we have received from or there has been published by the IRS a ruling or (B) since the date of the indenture there has been a change in applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based on this ruling or change the opinion of counsel shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of the applicable series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the defeasance had not occurred;

 

   

in the case of covenant defeasance, we shall have delivered to the trustee an opinion of independent counsel reasonably acceptable to the trustee to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of the applicable series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the covenant defeasance had not occurred;

 

   

if the cash and Government Obligations deposited are sufficient to pay the outstanding debt securities of that series provided those debt securities are redeemed on a particular redemption date, we shall have given the trustee irrevocable instructions to redeem those debt securities on that date; and

 

   

no Event of Default or event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date

 

28


Table of Contents
 

of the deposit into trust; and, solely in the case of defeasance, no Event of Default arising from specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization with respect to us or event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default with respect to us shall have occurred and be continuing during the period through and including the 91st day after the date of the deposit into trust.

The applicable prospectus supplement may further describe the provisions, if any, permitting or restricting satisfaction and discharge, defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to the debt securities of a particular series.

Definitions

As used in the indenture, the following terms have the meanings specified below:

The term “Corporation” includes corporations, partnerships, associations, limited liability companies and other companies and business trusts. The term “corporation” means a corporation and does not include partnerships, associations, limited liability companies or other companies or business trusts.

“Equity Interests” means, with respect to any Person, all of the shares of capital stock of (or other ownership or profit interests in) such Person, all of the warrants, options or other rights for the purchase or acquisition from such Person of shares of capital stock of (or other ownership or profit interests in) such Person, all of the securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of capital stock of (or other ownership or profit interests in) such Person or warrants, rights or options for the purchase or acquisition from such Person of such shares (or such other interests), and all of the other ownership or profit interests in such Person (including partnership, member or trust interests therein), whether voting or nonvoting, and whether or not such shares, warrants, options, rights or other interests are outstanding on any date of determination.

“Governmental Authority” means the government of the United States or any other nation, or of any political subdivision thereof, whether state or local, and any agency, authority, instrumentality, regulatory body, court, central bank or other entity exercising executive, legislative, judicial, taxing, regulatory or administrative powers or functions of or pertaining to government.

“Non-recourse Debt” means an obligation for indebtedness that can only be satisfied out of the collateral securing the obligation and not out of the debtor’s other assets.

“Person” means any natural person, corporation, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, association, company, partnership, Governmental Authority or other entity.

“Significant Subsidiary” means, as of any date of determination, a Subsidiary of ours that would constitute a “significant subsidiary” as such term is defined under Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X of the SEC as in effect on the date of the indenture.

“Structured Finance Subsidiary” means a Subsidiary the primary function of which is to act as an issuer, depositor or special purpose entity in connection with issuances of obligations collateralized by loans, bonds, mortgages or other debt obligations issued by third parties.

“Subsidiary” of any Person means (a) any corporation, association or other business entity (other than a partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or similar entity) of which more than 50% of the aggregate ordinary voting power represented by the issued and outstanding Equity Interests or (b) any partnership, joint venture, limited liability company or similar entity of which more than 50% of the capital accounts, distribution rights, total equity and voting interests or general or limited partnership interests, as applicable, is, in the case of clauses (a) and (b), at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (1) such Person, (2) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person or (3) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

 

29


Table of Contents

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

Regarding the Trustee

The Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limits the rights of a trustee, if the trustee becomes a creditor of us, to obtain payment of claims or to realize on property received by it in respect of those claims, as security or otherwise. Any trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with us and our subsidiaries from time to time. However, if a trustee acquires any conflicting interest it must eliminate the conflict upon the occurrence of an Event of Default under the applicable indenture or resign as trustee.

Wilmington Trust, National Association may act as trustee under one or more of the indentures.

 

30


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement a description of any rights or units that may be offered pursuant to this prospectus.

 

31


Table of Contents

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following description of the terms of our stock and of certain provisions of Maryland law is only a summary. This summary is not complete and is qualified by the provisions of our charter and bylaws, and the MGCL. See “Incorporation Of Certain Documents By Reference.”

Classification of Our Board

Our bylaws provide that the number of directors may be established by our board but may not be fewer than the minimum number permitted by the MGCL nor more than fifteen. Any vacancy may be filled, at any regular meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose, only by a majority of the remaining directors. Any director elected to fill a vacancy by our board serves for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor is elected and qualifies.

Pursuant to our charter, our board is divided into three classes of directors. Directors of each class serve for three-year terms and each year one class of directors will be elected by the stockholders. The number of directors in each class and the expiration of the current term of each class term is as follows:

 

Class I

  3 Directors   Expires 2020

Class II

  2 Directors   Expires 2021

Class III

  3 Directors   Expires 2022

We believe that the classification of our board helps to assure the continuity and stability of our business strategies and policies as determined by our board. Common stockholders have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

The classified board provision of our charter could have the effect of making the replacement of incumbent directors more time-consuming and difficult. At least two annual meetings of stockholders, instead of one, will generally be required to effect a change in a majority of our board. Thus, the classified board provision could increase the likelihood that incumbent directors will retain their positions. The staggered terms of directors may delay, defer or prevent a tender offer or an attempt to change control of our company, even though the tender offer or change in control might be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that a director may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board to fill vacant directorships, precludes stockholders from removing incumbent directors except for cause and by a substantial affirmative vote and filling the vacancies created by the removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:

 

   

any person who, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns ten percent or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

32


Table of Contents
   

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, directly or indirectly, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of ten percent or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if our board approved in advance the transaction by which he or she otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving a transaction, our board may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by our board.

After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by our board of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

   

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

   

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

The business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.

Control Share Acquisitions

Maryland law provides that holders of control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquiror, by officers or by directors who are employees of the corporation are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. Control shares are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

   

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

 

   

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

 

   

a majority or more.

Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A control share acquisition means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel our board of the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

 

33


Table of Contents

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the corporation may redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. The right of the corporation to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of the shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction, or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. There can be no assurance that this provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors in office and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.

Without our having elected to be subject to Subtitle 8, our charter and bylaws already (1) provide for a classified board, (2) require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors for the removal of any director from our board, which removal will be allowed only for cause, and (3) vest in our board the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships. In addition, we have elected to be subject to the Subtitle 8 provision that requires a vacancy on our board to be filled only by the remaining directors in office and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred.

Meetings of Stockholders

Pursuant to our bylaws, a meeting of our stockholders for the election of directors and the transaction of any business will be held annually. In addition, our Chairman of our Board, Chief Executive Officer, President or our board may call a special meeting of our stockholders. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of our stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of our stockholders will also be called by our Secretary upon the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than 25% of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting.

Limitation and Indemnification of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting

 

34


Table of Contents

from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Our charter obligates us to indemnify, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, any director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at the request of our company, serves or has served another entity, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her status as a director or officer of our company and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. The charter also permits our company to indemnify and advance expenses to any employee or agent of our company if authorized by our board.

Maryland law requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. Maryland law permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services or (c) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. However, under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, Maryland law permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer only upon the corporation’s receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

Amendment to Our Charter

Our charter may be amended only by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter; provided, however, that certain amendments related to our board (including a declassification of the board or removal of directors), consideration of various factors when considering a change of control transaction, indemnification, exculpation, advance notice of stockholder proposals and the charter amendment section require the affirmative vote of not less than 80% of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matters.

Dissolution of Our Company

Our dissolution must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board and approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our charter provides that, with respect to annual meetings, timely notice of stockholder business proposals and stockholder nominees for directors must be received in accordance with the bylaws. The bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders may be made only pursuant to our notice of the meeting, by or at the direction of our board or by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time

 

35


Table of Contents

the stockholder provided the notice required by the bylaws and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or any such other business and who has complied with the advance notice requirements of and provided the information and other materials required by the bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, proposals of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only pursuant to our notice of the meeting, by our board or by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time the stockholder provided the notice required by the bylaws and at the time of the special meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions of the bylaws.

Exclusive Forum

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

The business combination provisions and the control share acquisition provisions of Maryland law, the provisions of our charter on classification of our board and removal of directors and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of common stock or otherwise be in their best interest.

 

36


Table of Contents

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following summary describes material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership of our capital stock as of the date hereof by U.S. holders and non-U.S. holders, each as defined below. Except where noted, this summary deals only with shares of our capital stock held as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes and does not deal with special situations, such as those of dealers in securities or currencies, financial institutions, regulated investment companies, tax-exempt entities (except as described in “—Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock” below), insurance companies, persons holding our capital stock as a part of a hedging, integrated, conversion or constructive sale transaction or a straddle, traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings, persons liable for alternative minimum tax, investors in pass-through entities or U.S. holders of our capital stock whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar. Furthermore, the discussion below is based upon the provisions of the Code and regulations, rulings and judicial decisions thereunder as of the date hereof, and such authorities may be repealed, revoked or modified, possibly with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those discussed below.

You should consult your tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences in light of your particular situation as well as consequences arising under the laws of any other taxing jurisdiction.

Our Taxation as a REIT

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the U.S. federal income tax laws beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 1998. We believe that we have operated in a manner qualifying us as a REIT since our election and intend to continue to so operate. In the opinion of Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP, we qualified to be taxed as a REIT under the U.S. federal income tax laws for our taxable years ended December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2018, and our organization and current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to qualify as a REIT for our taxable year ending December 31, 2019 and in the future. You should be aware that Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion is based on existing U.S. federal income tax law governing qualification as a REIT, which is subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis, is not binding on the IRS or any court, and speaks as of the date issued. In addition, Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion is based on customary assumptions and is conditioned upon certain representations made by us as to factual matters, including representations regarding the nature of our assets and the future conduct of our business, all of which are described in the opinion. Moreover, our continued qualification and taxation as a REIT depends on our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, through actual operating results, certain qualification tests in the U.S. federal income tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of our income that we earn from specified sources, the percentages of our assets that fall within specified categories, the diversity of our share ownership and the percentage of our earnings that we distribute. While Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP has reviewed those matters in connection with the foregoing opinion, Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP will not review our compliance with those tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion does not foreclose the possibility that we may have to use one or more of the REIT savings provisions described below, which would require us to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be material) in order to maintain our REIT qualification. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT, see “—Failure to Qualify,” below.

The sections of the Code and the corresponding regulations that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders are highly technical and complex. The following discussion is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and administrative interpretations thereof. In any year in which we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on that portion of our net taxable income that we distribute currently to our stockholders, although taxable income generated by domestic taxable REIT subsidiaries, if any, will be subject to regular corporate income tax. Our stockholders generally will be taxed on dividends that they receive

 

37


Table of Contents

at ordinary income rates unless such dividends are designated by us as capital gain dividends. Distributions we make are not eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations. We expect that ordinary dividends paid by us generally will not be eligible for the reduced rates that generally apply to distributions by non-REIT C corporations to certain U.S. individuals, trusts and estates, but may be eligible for the up to 20% pass-through deduction for such stockholders.

We are generally not subject to U.S. corporate income tax on income that we distribute currently to stockholders, but we will be subject to U.S. federal tax as follows:

 

   

We will pay U.S. federal corporate income tax on our taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders during, or within a specified time after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

 

   

For taxable years prior to 2018, under some circumstances, we may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” due to our undistributed items of tax preference and alternative minimum tax adjustments.

 

   

If we have net income from “prohibited transactions,” which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax.

 

   

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (a) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (b) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to U.S. corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate.

 

   

If due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect we fail to satisfy either the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, multiplied in either case by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test or the 10% vote or value test, as described below under “—Asset Tests”) as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, we dispose of the assets or otherwise comply with such asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure and we file a schedule with the IRS describing the assets that caused such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest federal income tax rate then applicable to U.S. corporations on the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy such asset tests.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, and the failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet recordkeeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s stockholders, as described below in “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

 

   

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of:

 

   

85% of our ordinary income for such calendar year;

 

   

95% of our capital gain net income for such calendar year; and

 

   

any undistributed taxable income from prior taxable years,

 

38


Table of Contents

we will pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amount we actually distributed, plus any retained amounts on which income tax has been paid at the corporate level.

 

   

We may elect to retain rather than distribute all or a portion of our net capital gains and pay income tax on the gains. In that case, a U.S. holder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed net long-term capital gains (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the holder) in income and receive a credit for its proportionate share of the tax paid by us.

 

   

We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on transactions between us and a taxable REIT subsidiary that are not conducted on an arm’s length basis.

 

   

With respect to an interest in a taxable mortgage pool or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or REMIC, the ownership of which is attributed to us or to a REIT in which we own an interest, although the law on the matter is unclear as to the ownership of an interest in a taxable mortgage pool, we may be taxable at the highest corporate rate on the amount of any excess inclusion income for the taxable year allocable to the percentage of our stock that is held in record name by “disqualified organizations.” To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a taxable REIT subsidiary, we will not be subject to this tax. A “disqualified organization” includes:

 

   

the U.S.;

 

   

any state or political subdivision of the U.S.;

 

   

any foreign government;

 

   

any international organization;

 

   

any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing;

 

   

any other tax-exempt organization, other than a farmer’s cooperative described in section 521 of the Code, that is exempt both from income taxation and from taxation under the unrelated business taxable income provisions of the Code; and

 

   

any rural electrical or telephone cooperative.

We do not currently intend to hold REMIC residual interests or engage in financing or other activities that would result in the allocation of excess inclusion to our shareholders. See “—Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income.”

If we acquire any appreciated assets from a non-REIT C corporation in a carry-over basis transaction, we could be liable for tax with respect to “built-in gain” in those assets if we recognize gain on the sale or disposition of any such assets during the 5-year period after we acquire the assets. Built-in gain is the amount by which an asset’s fair market value exceeds its adjusted tax basis at the time we acquire the asset.

In addition, notwithstanding our status as a REIT, we may also have to pay certain state, local, payroll, and foreign income taxes, because not all states and localities treat REITs in the same manner that they are treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Moreover, as further described below, any domestic taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own an interest will be subject to U.S. federal (and applicable state and local) corporate income tax on its taxable income.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for sections 856 through 859 of the Code;

 

39


Table of Contents
  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to certain provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

of which not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares are owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) after applying certain attribution rules;

 

  (7)

that makes an election to be a REIT for the current taxable year or has made such an election for a previous taxable year, which has not been terminated or revoked; and

 

  (8)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets.

Conditions (1) through (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year. Condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Condition (6) must be met during the last half of each taxable year. Neither conditions (5) nor (6) apply to the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT is made. For purposes of determining the stock ownership requirement described in condition (6) above, an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes. An “individual,” however, generally does not include a trust that is a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust under the U.S. federal income tax laws, and beneficiaries of such a trust will be treated as holding our shares in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of the requirement described in condition (6) above. We believe that we have maintained and will maintain sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to continue to satisfy conditions (5) and (6) above. In addition, our charter contains restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will be able to satisfy these share ownership requirements. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

If we comply with regulatory rules pursuant to which we are required to send annual letters to holders of our stock requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock (as discussed below), and we do not know, or exercising reasonable diligence would not have known, whether we failed to meet condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met the requirement.

To monitor compliance with the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above, we generally are required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of our stock. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of our stock pursuant to which the record holders must disclose the actual owners of the shares (i.e., the persons required to include our dividends in their gross income). We must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand as part of our records. We could be subject to monetary penalties if we fail to comply with these record-keeping requirements. If you fail or refuse to comply with the demands, you will be required by U.S. Treasury regulations to submit a statement with your tax return disclosing your actual ownership of our stock and other information. In addition, we must satisfy all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS to elect and maintain REIT status, use a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and comply with the record keeping requirements of the Code and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Disregarded Entities and Partnerships. An unincorporated domestic entity, such as a partnership or limited liability company, that has a single owner for U.S. federal income tax purposes generally is not treated as an entity separate from its parent for U.S. federal income tax purposes. An unincorporated domestic entity with two or more owners for U.S. federal income tax purposes generally is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in an entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, U.S. Treasury regulations provide that the REIT is deemed to own its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets and to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s gross income based on its pro

 

40


Table of Contents

rata share of capital interests in the partnership for purposes of the asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, as described below. However, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, described below (see “—Asset Tests”), the determination of a REIT’s interest in partnership assets will be based on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for these purposes, certain excluded securities as described in the Code. In addition, the assets and gross income of the partnership generally are deemed to retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of partnerships in which we own an equity interest is treated as assets and items of income of our company for purposes of applying the REIT requirements described below. Consequently, to the extent that we directly or indirectly hold a preferred or other equity interest in a partnership or limited liability company, the partnership’s or limited liability company’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control or only limited influence over the partnership. In such case, we may be forced to dispose of our interests in such entity.

Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. If a REIT owns a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” the separate existence of that subsidiary is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Generally, a qualified REIT subsidiary is a corporation, other than a taxable REIT subsidiary, all of the stock of which is owned directly or indirectly by the REIT. All assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the qualified REIT subsidiary will be treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT itself. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal corporate income taxation, although it may be subject to state and local taxation in some states.

In the event that a qualified REIT subsidiary or disregarded subsidiary ceases to be wholly owned by us (for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of us), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.”

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. A taxable REIT subsidiary is an entity that is taxable as a corporation in which we directly or indirectly own stock and that elects with us to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. In addition, if a taxable REIT subsidiary owns, directly or indirectly, securities representing 35% or more of the vote or value of a subsidiary corporation, that subsidiary will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. However, an entity will not qualify as a taxable REIT subsidiary if it directly or indirectly operates or manages a lodging or health care facility or, generally, provides to another person, under a franchise, license or otherwise, rights to any brand name under which any lodging facility or health care facility is operated. We generally may not own more than 10%, as measured by voting power or value, of the securities of a corporation that is not a qualified REIT subsidiary unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) may consist of stock or securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Income earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary is not attributable to the REIT. As a result, income that might not be qualifying income for purposes of the income tests applicable to REITs could be earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary without affecting our status as a REIT. Our domestic taxable REIT subsidiaries will be fully subject to corporate income tax on their taxable income.

Several provisions of the Code regarding the arrangements between a REIT and its taxable REIT subsidiaries ensure that a taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to an appropriate level of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, a taxable REIT subsidiary is limited in its ability to deduct interest payments made to affiliated REITs. In addition, we would be obligated to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that we receive from, or on certain expenses deducted by, a taxable REIT subsidiary if the IRS were to assert

 

41


Table of Contents

successfully that the economic arrangements between us and a taxable REIT subsidiary are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties. Any income earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary that is attributable to services provided to us, or on our behalf to any of our tenants, that is less than the amounts that would have been charged based upon arm’s length negotiations, will also be subject to a 100% penalty tax. We intend to scrutinize all of our transactions with any of our subsidiaries that are treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary in an effort to ensure that we do not become subject to this penalty tax; however, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in avoiding this penalty tax.

Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income. An entity, or a portion of an entity, that does not elect to be treated as a REMIC may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool, or TMP, under the Code if:

 

   

substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

 

   

more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

 

   

the entity has issued debt obligations (liabilities) that have two or more maturities; and

 

   

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

Under the U.S. Treasury regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consists of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a taxable mortgage pool.

A TMP generally is treated as a taxable corporation and it cannot file a consolidated U.S. federal income tax return with any other corporation. If, however, a REIT owns 100% of the equity interests in a TMP, then the TMP is a qualified REIT subsidiary and, as such, ignored as an entity separate from the REIT, but a portion of the REIT’s income will be treated as excess inclusion income and a portion of the dividends the REIT pays to U.S. shareholders will be treated as excess inclusion income.

Section 860E(c) of the Code defines the term “excess inclusion” with respect to a residual interest in a REMIC. The IRS has yet to issue guidance on the computation of excess inclusion income on equity interests in a TMP held by a REIT. Generally, however, excess inclusion income with respect to our investment in any TMP and any taxable year will equal the excess of (i) the amount of income we accrue on our investment in the TMP over (ii) the amount of income we would have accrued if our investment were a debt instrument having an issue price equal to the fair market value of our investment on the day we acquired it and a yield to maturity equal to 120% of the long-term applicable federal rate in effect on the date we acquired our interest. The term “applicable federal rate” refers to rates that are based on weighted average yields for U.S. Treasury securities and are published monthly by the IRS for use in various tax calculations. If we undertake securitization transactions that are TMPs, the amount of excess inclusion income we recognize in any taxable year could represent a significant portion of our total taxable income for that year.

Although we intend to structure our securitization and financing transactions so that we will not recognize any excess inclusion income, we cannot assure you that we will always be successful in this regard. If, notwithstanding our intent, we recognized excess inclusion income, then under guidance issued by the IRS we would be required to allocate the excess inclusion income proportionately among the dividends we pay to our stockholders and we must notify our stockholders of the portion of our dividends that represents excess inclusion income. The portion of any dividend you receive that is treated as excess inclusion income is subject to special rules. First, your taxable income can never be less than the sum of your excess inclusion income for the year; excess inclusion income cannot be offset with net operating losses or other allowable deductions. Second, if you are a tax-exempt organization and your excess inclusion income is subject to the unrelated business income tax, then the excess inclusion portion of any dividend you receive will be treated as unrelated business taxable income. Third, dividends paid to Non-U.S. holders who hold stock for investment and not in connection with a

 

42


Table of Contents

trade or business conducted in the U.S. will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax without regard to any reduction in rate otherwise allowed by any applicable income tax treaty.

If we recognize excess inclusion income, and one or more disqualified organizations are record holders of shares of capital stock, we will be taxable at the highest federal corporate income tax rate on the portion of any excess inclusion income equal to the percentage of our stock that is held by disqualified organizations. In such circumstances, we may reduce the amount of our distributions to a disqualified organization whose stock ownership gave rise to the tax. To the extent that our capital stock owned by disqualified organizations is held by a broker/dealer or other nominee, the broker/dealer or other nominee would be liable for a tax at the highest corporate tax rate on the portion of our excess inclusion income allocable to our capital stock held by the broker/dealer or other nominee on behalf of the disqualified organizations.

We do not currently intend to hold REMIC residual interests or engage in financing or other activities that would result in the allocation of excess inclusion to our shareholders.

Tax-exempt investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above and are urged to consult their tax advisors in connection with their decision to invest in our capital stock.

Income Tests

To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy two gross income requirements, each of which is applied on an annual basis. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year generally must be derived directly or indirectly from:

 

   

rents from real property;

 

   

interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property;

 

   

dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, stock in other REITs;

 

   

gain from the sale of real property or mortgage loans;

 

   

abatements and refunds of taxes on real property;

 

   

income and gain derived from foreclosure property (as described below);

 

   

amounts (other than amounts the determination of which depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person) received or accrued as consideration for entering into agreements (i) to make loans secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property or (ii) to purchase or lease real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property);

 

   

income derived from a REMIC in proportion to the real estate assets held by the REMIC, unless at least 95% of the REMIC’s assets are real estate assets, in which case all of the income derived from the REMIC; and

 

   

interest or dividend income from investments in stock or debt instruments attributable to the temporary investment of new capital during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt obligations with at least a five-year term.

Second, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must be derived from sources that qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, and from (i) dividends, (ii) interest and (iii) gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities.

Gross income from the following sources is excluded from both the numerator and the denominator in both gross income tests:

 

   

gain from a sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business;

 

43


Table of Contents
   

income and gain from hedging transactions to the extent described below under “Hedging Transactions”;

 

   

certain foreign currency gains; and

 

   

cancellation of indebtedness income.

We will monitor the amount of our non-qualifying income and we will seek to manage our portfolio to comply at all times with the gross income tests, but we cannot assure you that we will be successful in this effort. The following paragraphs discuss some of the specific applications of the gross income tests to us.

Interest. The term “interest,” as defined for purposes of both gross income tests, generally excludes any amount that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person, however, it generally includes the following: (i) an amount that is received or accrued based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales, and (ii) an amount that is based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt by leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by a REIT. We do not expect that any of our loans will be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person.

Interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, including, for this purpose, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees and late payment charges that are not compensation for services, generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. If a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of a loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property (including, for loans secured by real property and personal property where the fair market value of the personal property is less than 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, such personal property) securing the loan as of the date (i) we agreed to originate or acquire the loan or (ii) as discussed below, in the event of a “significant modification,” the date we modified the loan, a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. However, in the case of a loan that is secured by both real property and personal property, if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all property securing the loan, then the personal property securing the loan will be treated as real property for purposes of determining whether the interest on such loan is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test.

We expect that the MBS in which we invest generally will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income from such MBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of MBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property, as discussed above. In the case of MBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests generally will be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. If less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce non-qualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities.

To the extent that we hold mortgage-related assets that do not represent REMIC interests or grantor trusts representing ownership of mortgage loans, such assets may not qualify as real estate assets, and, consequently, the income generated from them might not qualify for purposes of either or both of the REIT income tests, depending on the circumstances and the specific structure of the investment. Our ability to invest in those assets may be limited.

 

44


Table of Contents

We may modify the terms of our mortgage loans. Under the Code, if the terms of a loan are modified in a manner constituting a “significant modification,” such modification triggers a deemed exchange of the original loan for the modified loan. IRS Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which we will not be required to redetermine the fair market value of the real property securing a loan for purposes of the gross income and asset tests in connection with a loan modification that is (i) occasioned by a borrower default or (ii) made at a time when we reasonably believe that the modification to the loan will substantially reduce a significant risk of default on the original loan. To the extent we significantly modify loans in a manner that does not qualify for that safe harbor, we will be required to redetermine the value of the real property securing the loan at the time it was significantly modified, which could result in a portion of the interest income on the loan being treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In determining the value of the real property securing such a loan, we generally will not obtain third-party appraisals but rather will rely on internal valuations.

The interest, original issue discount, and market discount income that we will receive from our mortgage-related assets generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests. Some of our investments will not be secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property. Our interest income from those investments will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

We have entered, and intend to enter, into financing arrangements that are structured as sale and repurchase agreements pursuant to which we would nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase these assets at a later date in exchange for a purchase price. Economically, these agreements are financings that are secured by the assets sold pursuant thereto. We believe that we would be treated for REIT asset and income test purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any such sale and repurchase agreement notwithstanding that such agreements may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the sale and repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

Hedging Transactions. We may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent provided by U.S. Treasury regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we enter into (i) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as specified in U.S. Treasury regulations before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, (ii) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income tests that is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into and satisfies other identification requirements, or (iii) in connection with the effective termination of certain hedging transactions described above, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT.

We may conduct some or all of our hedging activities through a taxable REIT subsidiary or other corporate entity, the income of which may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, rather than by participating in the arrangements directly or through pass-through subsidiaries.

Fee Income. Fee income generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if it is received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real

 

45


Table of Contents

property and the fees are not determined by income and profits. Other fees generally are not qualifying income for purposes of either gross income test. Any fees earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary will not be included for purposes of the gross income tests.

Rents from Real Property. To the extent that we own or acquire real property or an interest therein, rents we receive will qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if several conditions are met. These conditions relate to the identity of the tenant, the computation of the rent payable, and the nature of the property leased. First, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Second, rents we receive from a “related party tenant” will not qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income tests unless the tenant is a taxable REIT subsidiary, at least 90% of the property is leased to unrelated tenants, the rent paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space and the rent is not attributable to an increase in rent due to a modification of a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” (i.e., a taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock). A tenant is a related party tenant if the REIT, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of the REIT, actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the tenant. Third, if rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to the personal property will not qualify as rents from real property. Finally, for rents to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests, we are only allowed to provide services that are both usually or “customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of real property and not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant.” We may, however, render services to our tenants through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive revenue. We may also own a taxable REIT subsidiary that provides non-customary services to tenants without tainting our rental income from the related properties.

Even if a REIT furnishes or renders services that are non-customary with respect to a property, if the greater of (i) the amounts received or accrued, directly or indirectly, or deemed received by the REIT with respect to such services, or (ii) 150% of our direct cost in furnishing or rendering the services during a taxable year is not more than 1% of all amounts received or accrued, directly or indirectly by the REIT with respect to the property during the same taxable year, then only the amounts with respect to such non-customary services are not treated as rent for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.

Prohibited Transactions Tax. A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Whether a REIT holds an asset primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business depends, however, on the facts and circumstances in effect from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. Nevertheless, we generally intend to conduct our operations so that no asset that we own will be treated as, or as having been, held for sale to customers, and that a sale of any such asset will not be treated as having been in the ordinary course of our business. We cannot assure you that we will comply with certain safe harbor provisions or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a taxable REIT subsidiary or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates.

Foreclosure Property. Foreclosure property is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

 

   

that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid in such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law,

 

46


Table of Contents
 

after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;

 

   

for which the related loan was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and

 

   

for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.

However, a REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor.

Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury. This grace period terminates and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

 

   

on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

 

   

on which any construction takes place on the property (other than completion of a building, or any other improvement, where more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent); or

 

   

which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business that is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or a taxable REIT subsidiary.

We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. However, income from foreclosure property, including gain from the sale of foreclosure property held for sale in the ordinary course of a trade or business, will qualify for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

We may have the option to foreclose on mortgage loans when a borrower is in default. The foregoing rules could affect a decision by us to foreclose on a particular mortgage loan and could affect whether we choose to foreclose with regard to a particular mortgage loan.

Foreign Currency Gain. Certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. “Real estate foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Real estate foreign exchange gain generally includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations secured by mortgages on real property or an interest in real property and certain foreign currency gain attributable to certain “qualified business units” of a REIT that satisfies the 75% gross income test and 75% asset test on a stand-alone basis. “Passive foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Passive foreign exchange gain generally includes real estate foreign exchange gain as described above, and also includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations. These exclusions for real estate foreign exchange gain and passive foreign exchange gain do not apply to any foreign currency gain derived from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities. Such gain is treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

 

47


Table of Contents

Dividends. Our dividend income from stock in any corporation (other than any REIT) and from any taxable REIT subsidiary will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. If we own stock in other REITs, the dividends that we receive from those REITs and our gain on the sale of the stock in those REITs will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests. However, if a REIT in which we own stock fails to qualify as a REIT in any year, our income from such REIT would be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

Phantom income. Due to the nature of the assets in which we will invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from certain assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow from or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

We may acquire debt instruments or MBS in the secondary market for less than their face amount. The amount of such discount generally will be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions.

Some of the loans and debt securities that we acquire may have been issued with original issue discount. In general, we will be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the debt securities, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though such yield may exceed cash payments, if any, received on such debt instrument.

We generally will be required to take certain amounts in income no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. The application of this rule may require the accrual of income with respect to our debt instruments or MBS, such as original issue discount, earlier than would be the case under the general tax rules, although the precise application of this rule is unclear at this time. To the extent that this rule requires the accrual of income earlier than under the general tax rules, it could increase our phantom income, which may make it more likely that we could be required to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this phantom income is recognized. We currently do not expect that this rule will have a material impact on the timing of accrual of our income or on the amount of our distribution requirement. We will consider the potential effects of phantom income on our taxable stockholders in managing our investments.

We may agree to modify the terms of distressed or other loans we hold. These modifications may be considered “significant modifications” for U.S. federal income tax purposes that give rise to a deemed debt-for-debt exchange upon which we may recognize taxable income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash.

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or debt securities acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinated MBS at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

Finally, we may be required under the terms of indebtedness that we incur to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

48


Table of Contents

As a result of each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and cash receipts or disbursements, there is a significant risk that we may have substantial taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs.”

Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for that year if we are entitled to relief under the Code. That relief provision will be available if our failure to meet the tests is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we attach a schedule of the sources of our income to our U.S. federal income tax return. It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally recognize exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that the failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances, we will fail to qualify as a REIT. Even if these relief provisions apply, a penalty tax would be imposed based on the amount of nonqualifying income. See “—Our Taxation as a REIT” and “—Failure to Qualify.”

Asset Tests

At the close of each quarter of our taxable year, we must satisfy the following tests relating to the nature of our assets.

 

   

At least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by the following (or, the 75% asset class):

 

   

interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds, and, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, personal property to the extent such personal property is leased in connection with real property and rents attributable to such personal property are treated as “rents from real property” as a result of such rents not exceeding 15% of the total rent attributable to personal property and real property under such lease;

 

   

interests in mortgages on real property;

 

   

stock in other REITs and debt instruments issued by “publicly offered” REITs (i.e., a REIT that is required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act);

 

   

cash and cash items;

 

   

U.S. government securities;

 

   

investments in stock or debt instruments attributable to the temporary investment of new capital during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt obligations with at least a five-year term; and

 

   

regular or residual interests in a REMIC. However, if less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consist of assets that are qualifying real estate-related assets under the U.S. federal income tax laws, determined as if we held such assets directly, we will be treated as holding directly our proportionate share of the assets of such REMIC.

 

   

Not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by securities, other than those in the 75% asset class.

 

   

Except for securities in taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class, the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets (or, the 5% asset test).

 

49


Table of Contents
   

Except for securities in taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding voting securities (or, the 10% vote test).

 

   

Except for securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class, we may not own more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer, other than securities that qualify for the “straight debt” exception discussed below (or, 10% value test).

 

   

Not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

 

   

Not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of “publicly offered” REITs that are not secured by real property or interests in real property.

Securities, for the purposes of the asset tests, may include debt we hold from other issuers. However, debt we hold in an issuer that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% asset test will not be taken into account for purposes of the 10% value test if the debt securities meet the straight debt safe harbor. Debt will meet the “straight debt” safe harbor if the debt is a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money, the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, and the interest rate and the interest payment dates of the debt are not contingent on the profits, the borrower’s discretion or similar factors. In the case of an issuer that is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our “controlled taxable REIT subsidiaries” as defined in the Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer that (a) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (b) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, for the purposes of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

In addition, the following instruments will not be considered securities for purposes of the 10% value test: (i) a REIT’s interest as a partner in a partnership; (ii) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or any other excluded security) if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income is derived from sources that would qualify for the 75% REIT gross income test; (iii) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or any other excluded security) to the extent of the REIT’s interest as a partner in the partnership; (iv) any loan to an individual or an estate; (v) any “section 467 rental agreement,” other than an agreement with a related party tenant; (vi) any obligation to pay “rents from real property”; (vii) certain securities issued by governmental entities that are not dependent in whole or in part on the profits of (or payments made by) a non-governmental entity; and (viii) any security (including debt securities) issued by another REIT. For purposes of the 10% value test, our proportionate share of the assets of a partnership is our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, without regard to the securities described clause (i) and (ii) in the preceding sentence.

For purposes of the 75% asset test, mortgage loans generally will qualify as real estate assets to the extent that they are secured by real property. Where a mortgage covers both real property and other property, an apportionment may be required in the same manner as described under “—Income Tests—Interest.” IRS Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor under which the IRS has stated that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a loan as being, in part, a qualifying real estate asset in an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the fair market value of the loan on the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date or (ii) the greater of (a) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date or (b) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the date the REIT committed to originate or acquire the loan. We believe that all of the mortgage loans that we acquire at a discount under the circumstances contemplated by Revenue Procedure 2014-51 are secured only by real property, and no other property value is taken into account in our underwriting and pricing. Accordingly, we believe that apportionment does not apply to our portfolio.

We expect that our investments in MBS generally will be treated as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the case of MBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we

 

50


Table of Contents

would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. In the case of MBS treated as an interest in a REMIC, such interests generally will qualify as real estate assets, and income derived from REMIC interests generally will be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the REIT income tests described above. If less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest qualifies for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests.

We believe that most of the assets that we hold and those we expect to hold will be qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test. However, our investment in other asset-backed securities, bank loans and other instruments that are not secured by mortgages on real property will not be qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test.

We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will seek to manage our portfolio to comply at all times with such tests. There can be no assurances, however, that we will be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine our compliance with these requirements, we will need to estimate the value of the real estate securing our mortgage loans at various times. In addition, we will be required to value our investment in our other assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. Although we will seek to be prudent in making these estimates, no independent appraisals will be obtained to support our conclusions as to the value of our assets and securities, or in many cases, the real estate collateral for the mortgage loans that we hold. Moreover, values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination. As a result, there can be no assurances that the IRS may not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we may not satisfy the 75% and the other asset tests.

We will not lose our REIT status for a de minimis failure to meet the 5% or 10% asset requirements if the failure is due to ownership of assets the total value of which does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the total value of our assets or $10 million. If we fail to satisfy any of the asset requirements for a particular tax quarter, we may still qualify as a REIT if we (1) identify the failure on a separate schedule, (2) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (3) the assets causing the failure are disposed of (or the requirements are otherwise met) within six months of the last day of the quarter in which the failure was identified and (4) we pay a tax computed as the greater of either $50,000 or the net income generated by the assets causing the failure multiplied by the highest corporate income tax rate.

After initially meeting the asset tests after the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT if we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in the relative values of our assets. However, an acquisition of property by a REIT requires the REIT to revalue all of its assets. If the failure to satisfy the asset tests results from an increase in the value of our assets after the acquisition of securities or other property during a quarter, the failure can be cured by eliminating the discrepancy within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We intend to maintain adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests and to take any available action within 30 days after the close of any quarter as may be required to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests. We cannot ensure that these steps always will be successful. If we fail to cure the noncompliance with the asset tests within this 30-day period, we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs

To qualify as a REIT, we generally must distribute dividends (other than capital gain dividends) to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:

 

   

the sum of (i) 90% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain and (ii) 90% of our net income after tax, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

51


Table of Contents
   

the excess of the sum of specified items of non-cash income (including original issue discount on our mortgage loans) over 5% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain.

Distributions generally must be made during the taxable year to which they relate. Distributions may be made in the following year in two circumstances. First, if we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared. Second, distributions may be made in the following year if the dividends are declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if made before the first regular dividend payment made after such declaration. These distributions are taxable to our stockholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain or we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be subject to tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates.

If we cease to be a “publicly offered REIT,” then in order for distributions to be counted as satisfying the annual distribution requirements for REITs, and to provide us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if the distribution is (i) pro-rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class, and (ii) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in our organizational documents.

As described above, if we fail to distribute during a calendar year (or, in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, by the end of January following such calendar year) at least the sum of (i) 85% of our ordinary income for such year, (ii) 95% of our capital gain net income for such year and (iii) any undistributed taxable income from prior years, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior years) and (y) the amounts of income retained on which we have paid corporate income tax.

We may elect to retain rather than distribute all or a portion of our net capital gains and pay income tax on the gains. In that case, our stockholders would include their proportionate share of the undistributed net long-term capital gains in income and receive a credit for their proportionate share of the tax paid by us. For purposes of the 4% excise tax described above, any retained amounts for which we elect this treatment would be treated as having been distributed.

We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the distribution requirements. However, due to the nature of the assets in which we will invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets. For instance, we may be required to accrue interest and discount income on mortgage loans, MBS, and other types of debt securities or interests in debt securities before we receive any payments of interest or principal on such assets. See “—Income Tests—Phantom Income.” Moreover, in certain instances we may be required to accrue taxable income that we may not actually recognize as economic income. For example, if we own a residual equity position in a mortgage loan securitization, we may recognize taxable income that we will never actually receive due to losses sustained on the underlying mortgage loans. Although those losses would be deductible for tax purposes, they would likely occur in a year subsequent to the year in which we recognized the taxable income.

Although several types of non-cash income are excluded in determining the annual distribution requirement, we will incur corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax with respect to those non-cash income items if we do not distribute those items on a current basis. As a result of the foregoing, we may not have sufficient cash to distribute all of our taxable income and thereby avoid corporate income tax and the excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or issue additional common stock or preferred stock.

 

52


Table of Contents

We may satisfy the 90% distribution test with taxable distributions of our stock or debt securities. The IRS has issued a revenue procedure authorizing publicly offered REITs to treat certain distributions that are paid partly in cash and partly in stock as dividends that would satisfy the REIT annual distribution requirement and qualify for the dividends paid deduction for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We have no current intention to make a taxable dividend payable in cash and stock.

Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying deficiency dividends to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. However, we will be required to pay interest based upon the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

Failure to Qualify

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements of REIT qualification, other than the income tests or asset requirements, then we may still retain REIT qualification if the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each failure.

If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be subject to tax, including, for taxable years prior to 2018, any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. This would significantly reduce both our cash available for distribution to our stockholders and our earnings. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to make any distributions to stockholders and any distributions that are made will not be deductible by us. Moreover, all distributions to stockholders would be taxable as dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, whether or not attributable to capital gains of ours. Subject to certain limitations of the Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends received deduction with respect to those distributions, and individual, trust and estate distributees may be eligible for reduced income tax rates on such dividends. Unless we are entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we also will be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost.

Taxation of U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

U.S. Holder. As used in the remainder of this discussion, the term “U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of our capital stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

a citizen or resident of the U.S.;

 

   

a corporation (or an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the U.S., any of its States or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust if it (a) is subject to the primary supervision of a court within the U.S. and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (b) has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

If a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds our capital stock, the tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership holding our capital stock, you should consult your advisors. A “non-U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock that is neither a U.S. holder nor a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes).

Distributions Generally. As long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions made to taxable U.S. holders of our capital stock out of current or accumulated earnings and profits that are not designated as capital gain dividends

 

53


Table of Contents

will be taken into account by them as ordinary income taxable at ordinary income tax rates and will not qualify for the reduced capital gains rates that currently generally apply to distributions by non-REIT C corporations to certain non-corporate U.S. holders. In determining the extent to which a distribution constitutes a dividend for tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock and then to our common stock. Corporate stockholders will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction with respect to these distributions.

For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, individuals, trusts and estates may deduct up to 20% of certain pass-through income, including ordinary REIT dividends that are not “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income,” subject to certain limitations (the “pass-through deduction”). For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, the maximum tax rate for U.S. holders taxed at individual rates is 37%. For taxpayers qualifying for the full pass-through deduction, the effective maximum tax rate on ordinary REIT dividends for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026 would be 29.6%. To qualify for this deduction with respect to a dividend on shares of our common stock, a shareholder must hold such shares for more than 45 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such shares become ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (taking into account certain special holding period rules that may, among other consequences, reduce a shareholder’s holding period during any period in which the shareholder has diminished its risk of loss with respect to the shares). Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors as to their ability to claim this deduction.

Distributions in excess of both current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. holder to the extent that the distributions do not exceed the adjusted basis of the holder’s stock. Rather, such distributions will reduce the adjusted basis of the stock. To the extent that distributions exceed the adjusted basis of a U.S. holder’s stock, the distributions will be taxable as capital gains. A U.S. holder’s initial tax basis in a share of our capital stock is, in general, equal to the amount paid per share.

Distributions generally will be taxable, if at all, in the year of the distribution. However, if we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend, and the stockholder will be treated as having received the dividend, on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared.

Capital Gain Dividends. We may elect to designate distributions of our net capital gain as “capital gain dividends.” Capital gain dividends are taxed to U.S. holders of our stock as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than one year. This tax treatment applies regardless of the period during which the U.S. holders have held their stock. If we designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, the amount that will be taxable to the stockholder as capital gain will be indicated to U.S. holders on IRS Form 1099-DIV. Corporate U.S. holders, however, may be required to treat up to 20% of capital gain dividends as ordinary income. Capital gain dividends are not eligible for the dividends-received deduction for corporations.

Instead of paying capital gain dividends, we may elect to require U.S. holders to include our undistributed net capital gains in their income. If we make such an election, U.S. holders (i) will include in their income as long-term capital gains their proportionate share of such undistributed capital gains and (ii) will be deemed to have paid their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such undistributed capital gains and thereby receive a credit or refund for such amount. A U.S. holder of our capital stock will increase the basis in its shares of our capital stock by the difference between the amount of capital gain included in its income and the amount of tax it is deemed to have paid. Our earnings and profits will be adjusted appropriately.

We must classify portions of our designated capital gain dividend into the following categories:

 

   

a 20% gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders of our stock at a rate of up to 20%; or

 

54


Table of Contents
   

an unrecaptured section 1250 gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders of our stock at a maximum rate of 25%.

The IRS currently requires that distributions made to different classes of stock be composed proportionately of dividends of a particular type.

Passive Activity Loss and Investment Interest Limitation. Distributions and gain from the disposition of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income, and therefore U.S. holders will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses” against such income. Dividends paid by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment income limitation on the deduction of the investment interest.

Other Tax Considerations. U.S. holders of our capital stock may not include in their individual income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses. Our operating or capital losses would be carried over by us for potential offset against future income, subject to applicable limitations.

Sales of Our Capital Stock. Upon any taxable sale or other disposition of our capital stock, a U.S. holder of our capital stock will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes on the disposition of our capital stock in an amount equal to the difference between:

 

   

the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on such disposition; and

 

   

the U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in such REIT stock for tax purposes.

Gain or loss will be capital gain or loss. The applicable tax rate will depend on the holder’s holding period in the asset (generally, if an asset has been held for more than one year it will produce long-term capital gain) and the holder’s tax bracket.

Medicare Tax. Certain U.S. holders, including individuals and estates and trusts, are subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes net gain from a sale or exchange of our capital stock and income from dividends paid on our capital stock. U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the Medicare tax.

Redemption of Preferred Stock. A redemption of preferred stock will be treated under section 302 of the Code as a distribution that is taxable as dividend income (to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits), unless the redemption satisfies certain tests set forth in section 302(b) of the Code enabling the redemption to be treated as a sale of the preferred stock (in which case the redemption will be treated in the same manner as a sale described above in “—Taxation of U.S. Holders of our Capital Stock”). The redemption will satisfy such tests if it (i) is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder’s interest in our stock, (ii) results in a “complete termination” of the U.S. holder’s interest in all classes of our stock or (iii) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder, all within the meaning of section 302(b) of the Code. In determining whether any of these tests have been met, stock considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as stock actually owned, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the three alternative tests of section 302(b) of the Code described above will be satisfied with respect to any particular U.S. holder of preferred stock depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

If a redemption of preferred stock does not meet any of the three tests described above, the redemption proceeds will be taxable as a dividend, as described above in “—Taxation of U.S. Holders of our Capital Stock.” In that case, a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed preferred stock will be transferred to such U.S. holder’s remaining stockholdings in our company. If the U.S. holder does not retain any of our stock, such basis could be transferred to a related person that holds our stock or it may be lost.

 

55


Table of Contents

Conversion of Preferred Stock. Except as provided below, (i) a U.S. holder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon the conversion of preferred stock into our common stock, and (ii) a U.S. holder’s basis and holding period in our common stock received upon conversion generally will be the same as those of the converted preferred stock (but the basis will be reduced by the portion of adjusted tax basis allocated to any fractional share exchanged for cash). Any of our shares of common stock received in a conversion that are attributable to accumulated and unpaid dividends on the converted preferred stock will be treated as a distribution that is potentially taxable as a dividend. Cash received upon conversion in lieu of a fractional share generally will be treated as a payment in a taxable exchange for such fractional share, and gain or loss will be recognized on the receipt of cash in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash received and the adjusted tax basis allocable to the fractional share deemed exchanged. This gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the preferred stock for more than one year at the time of conversion. U.S. holders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such holder exchanges shares of our common stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

The rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of non-U.S. holders are complex. This section is only a summary of such rules. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state and local income tax laws on ownership of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions. Distributions by us to a non-U.S. holder of our capital stock that are neither attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of “U.S. real property interests” nor designated by us as capital gains dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. These distributions ordinarily will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a gross basis at a rate of 30%, or a lower rate as permitted under an applicable income tax treaty, unless the dividends are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a U.S. trade or business. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. Further, reduced treaty rates are not available to the extent the income allocated to the non-U.S. holder is excess inclusion income. Although we do not expect to recognize any excess inclusion income, if we did recognize excess inclusion income that exceeds our undistributed REIT taxable income in a particular year, it would be allocated to our stockholders. See “—Our Taxation as a REIT—Taxable Mortgage Pools.” Dividends that are effectively connected with a trade or business will be subject to tax on a net basis, that is, after allowance for deductions, at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. holders are taxed with respect to these dividends, and are generally not subject to withholding. Applicable certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exception. Any dividends received by a corporate non-U.S. holder that is engaged in a U.S. trade or business also may be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate, or lower applicable treaty rate. We expect to withhold U.S. income tax at the rate of 30% on any dividend distributions, not designated as (or deemed to be) capital gain dividends, made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

   

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder files an IRS Form W-8BEN or IRS Form W-8BEN-E, as applicable, with us evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate is filed with us; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder files an IRS Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

Distributions in excess of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that do not exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. holder in our capital stock will reduce the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in our capital stock and will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax. Distributions in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits that do exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. holder in our capital stock will be treated as gain from the sale of its stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sales of Our Capital Stock.” Because we generally cannot determine

 

56


Table of Contents

at the time we make a distribution whether or not the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we normally will withhold tax on the entire amount of any distribution at the same rate as we would withhold on a dividend.

We would be required to withhold at least 15% of any distribution to a non-U.S. holder in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if our capital stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest with respect to such non-U.S. holder, as described below under “—Sales of Our Capital Stock.” This withholding would apply even if a lower treaty rate applies or the non-U.S. holder is not liable for tax on the receipt of that distribution. However, a non-U.S. holder may seek a refund of these amounts from the IRS if the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. tax liability with respect to the distribution is less than the amount withheld.

Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are designated by us at the time of the distribution as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation unless:

 

   

the investment in our capital stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to any gain, except that a holder that is a foreign corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax, as discussed above; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S., in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gains.

Under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to certain non-U.S. holders that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of U.S. real property interests, whether or not designated as a capital gain dividend, will cause such non-U.S. holders to be treated as recognizing gain that is income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Such non-U.S. holders will be taxed on this gain at the same rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Also, this gain may be subject to a 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. Unless the non-U.S. holder is a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified foreign pension fund” (each as defined below), we will be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 21% of any distributions to non-U.S. holders that are designated as capital gain dividends, or, if greater, 21% of a distribution that could have been designated as a capital gain dividend, whether or not attributable to sales of U.S. real property interests. Distributions can be designated as capital gains to the extent of our net capital gain for the taxable year of the distribution. The amount withheld, which for individual non-U.S. holders may exceed the actual tax liability, is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability.

However, the 21% withholding tax will not apply to any capital gain dividend with respect to any class of our stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the U.S. if the non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of such dividend. Instead, any capital gain dividend to such holder will be treated as a distribution of ordinary income subject to the rules discussed above under “—Distributions.” Also, the branch profits tax will not apply to such a distribution.

Sales of Our Capital Stock. Gain recognized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale or exchange of our capital stock generally would not be subject to U.S. taxation unless:

 

   

the investment in our capital stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as domestic holders with respect to any gain;

 

57


Table of Contents
   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a tax home in the U.S., in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gains for the taxable year; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is not a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified foreign pension fund” and our capital stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest within the meaning of FIRPTA, as described below.

Our capital stock will not constitute a U.S. real property interest if we either are not a U.S. real property holding corporation or we are a domestically-controlled REIT. Whether we are a U.S. real property holding corporation will depend upon whether the fair market value of U.S. real property interests owned by us equals or exceeds 50% of the fair market value of these interests, any interests in real estate outside of the U.S., and our other trade and business assets. The term “U.S. real property interests” generally does not include mortgage loans or MBS. Even if we are a U.S. real property holding corporation, the disposition of our capital stock will not be subject to FIRPTA if we are a domestically-controlled REIT. Generally, a REIT is domestically controlled if, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% of the value of its shares is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. persons.

Because our common stock will be publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we are or will be a domestically-controlled REIT. Even if we were a U.S. real property holding corporation and were not a domestically-controlled REIT, a sale of capital stock by a non-U.S. holder would nevertheless not be subject to taxation under FIRPTA as a sale of a U.S. real property interest if:

 

   

the applicable class of our stock were “regularly traded” on an established securities market within the meaning of applicable U.S. Treasury regulations; and

 

   

the non-U.S. holder did not actually, or constructively under specified attribution rules under the Code, own more than 10% of the applicable class of our stock at any time during the shorter of the five-year period preceding the disposition or the holder’s holding period.

We believe that our common stock and our 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock is currently treated as being regularly traded on an established securities market. If gain on the sale or exchange of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be subject to regular U.S. income tax with respect to any gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. In such case, under FIRPTA, the purchaser of capital stock may be required to withhold 15% of the purchase price and remit this amount to the IRS.

Qualified Shareholders. Subject to the exception discussed below, any distribution to a “qualified shareholder” who holds REIT stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA. While a “qualified shareholder” will not be subject to FIRPTA withholding on REIT distributions, the portion of REIT distributions attributable to certain investors in a “qualified shareholder” (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the “qualified shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor), and directly or indirectly hold more than 10% of the applicable class of our stock (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”)) may be subject to FIRPTA withholding. REIT distributions received by a “qualified shareholder” that are exempt from FIRPTA withholding may still be subject to regular U.S. withholding tax.

In addition, a sale of our stock by a “qualified shareholder” who holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA. As with distributions, the portion of amounts realized attributable to certain investors in a “qualified shareholder” (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the “qualified shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor),

 

58


Table of Contents

and directly or indirectly hold more than 10% of the applicable class of our stock (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”)) may be subject to U.S. federal income taxation and FIRPTA withholding on a sale of our stock.

A “qualified shareholder” is a foreign person that (i) either is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty which includes an exchange of information program and whose principal class of interests is listed and regularly traded on one or more recognized stock exchanges (as defined in such comprehensive income tax treaty), or is a foreign partnership that is created or organized under foreign law as a limited partnership in a jurisdiction that has an agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes with the U.S. and has a class of limited partnership units representing greater than 50% of the value of all the partnership units that is regularly traded on the NYSE or Nasdaq markets, (ii) is a “qualified collective investment vehicle” (defined below), and (iii) maintains records on the identity of each person who, at any time during the foreign person’s taxable year, is the direct owner of 5% or more of the class of interests or units (as applicable) described in (i), above.

A qualified collective investment vehicle is a foreign person that (i) would be eligible for a reduced rate of withholding under the comprehensive income tax treaty described above, even if such entity holds more than 10% of the stock of such REIT, (ii) is publicly traded, is treated as a partnership under the Code, is a withholding foreign partnership, and would be treated as a “United States real property holding corporation” if it were a domestic corporation, or (iii) is designated as such by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury and is either (a) fiscally transparent within the meaning of section 894 of the Code, or (b) required to include dividends in its gross income, but is entitled to a deduction for distributions to its investors.

Qualified Foreign Pension Funds. Any distribution to a “qualified foreign pension fund” (or an entity all of the interests of which are held by a “qualified foreign pension fund”) who holds REIT stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA. REIT distributions received by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that are exempt from FIRPTA withholding may still be subject to regular U.S. withholding tax. In addition, a sale of our stock by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA.

A qualified foreign pension fund is any trust, corporation, or other organization or arrangement (i) which is created or organized under the law of a country other than the U.S., (ii) which is established by such country or an employer to provide retirement or pension benefits to participants or beneficiaries that are current or former employees (or persons designated by such employees) of one or more employers in consideration for services rendered, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary with a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and with respect to which annual information reporting about its beneficiaries is provided or otherwise available to the relevant tax authorities in the country in which it is established or operates, and (v) with respect to which, under the laws of the country in which it is established or operates, (a) contributions to such organization or arrangement that would otherwise be subject to tax under such laws are deductible or excluded from the gross income of such entity or taxed at a reduced rate, or (b) taxation of any investment income of such organization or arrangement is deferred or such income is taxed at a reduced rate.

Conversion of Preferred Stock. The conversion of our preferred stock into our common stock may be a taxable exchange for a non-U.S. holder if our preferred stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest. Even if our preferred stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest, provided our common stock also constitutes a U.S. real property interest, a non-U.S. holder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon a conversion of preferred stock into our common stock so long as certain FIRPTA-related reporting requirements are satisfied. If our preferred stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest and such requirements are not satisfied, however, a conversion will be treated as a taxable exchange of preferred stock for our common stock. Such a deemed taxable exchange will be subject to tax under FIRPTA at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital gains rates, that would apply to

 

59


Table of Contents

a U.S. holder of the same type (e.g., a corporate or a non-corporate stockholder, as the case may be) on the excess, if any, of the fair market value of such non-U.S. holder’s common stock received over such non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in its preferred stock. Collection of such tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding tax at a rate of 15% of the value of the common stock.

Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such non-U.S. holder exchanges shares of our common stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.

Redemption of Preferred Stock. For a discussion of the treatment of a redemption of preferred stock, see “Taxation of U.S. Holders of our Capital Stock—Redemption of Preferred Stock.”

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

Provided that a tax-exempt holder has not held its capital stock as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code, the dividend and interest income from us generally will not be unrelated business taxable income, referred to as UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder. Similarly, income from the sale of our capital stock will not constitute UBTI unless the tax-exempt holder has held its capital stock as debt-financed property within the meaning of the Code. Although we do not expect to recognize any excess inclusion income, to the extent that we, or a part of us, or a disregarded subsidiary of ours, is a taxable mortgage pool, a portion of the dividends paid to a tax-exempt stockholders that is allocable to excess inclusion income may be subject to tax as UBTI. See “—Our Taxation as a REIT—Taxable Mortgage Pools.”

Notwithstanding the above, however, social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts and qualified group legal services plans that are exempt from taxation under special provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions that they receive from us as UBTI. Moreover, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” are treated as UBTI as to any trust which is described in section 401(a) of the Code, is tax-exempt under section 501(a) of the Code, and holds more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. Tax-exempt pension funds that are described in section 401(a) of the Code are referred to below as “pension trusts.”

A REIT is a “pension-held REIT” if it meets the following two tests:

 

   

it would not have qualified as a REIT but for section 856(h)(3) of the Code, which provides that stock owned by pension trusts will be treated, for purposes of determining whether the REIT is closely held, as owned by the beneficiaries of the trust rather than by the trust itself; and

 

   

either (i) at least one pension trust holds more than 25% of the value of the interests in the REIT, or (ii) a group of pension trusts each individually holding more than 10% of the value of the REIT’s stock, collectively owns more than 50% of the value of the REIT’s stock.

The percentage of any REIT dividend from a “pension-held REIT” that is treated as UBTI is equal to the ratio of the UBTI earned by the REIT, treating the REIT as if it were a pension trust and therefore subject to tax on UBTI, to the total gross income of the REIT. An exception applies where the percentage is less than 5% for any year, in which case none of the dividends would be treated as UBTI. The provisions requiring pension trusts to treat a portion of REIT distributions as UBTI will not apply if the REIT is not a “pension-held REIT” (for example, if the REIT is able to satisfy the “not closely held requirement” without relying on the “look through” exception with respect to pension trusts). Our 9.8% ownership limit may make it less likely that a pension trust would hold more than 25% of the value of our capital stock or that a group of pension trusts each holding more than 10% of the value of our capital stock would hold more than 50% of the value of our capital stock. No assurance can be given, however, that we will not be a “pension-held REIT” because of ownership waivers or otherwise.

 

60


Table of Contents

Backup Withholding Tax and Information Reporting

U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock. In general, information-reporting requirements will apply to payments of dividends and interest on and payments of the proceeds of the sale of our capital stock held by U.S. holders, unless an exception applies. The payor is required to withhold tax on such payments if (i) the payee fails to furnish a taxpayer identification number, or TIN, to the payor or to establish an exemption from backup withholding, or (ii) the IRS notifies the payor that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect. In addition, a payor of the dividends or interest on our capital stock is required to withhold tax if (i) there has been a notified payee under-reporting with respect to interest, dividends or original issue discount described in section 3406(c) of the Code, or (ii) there has been a failure of the payee to certify under the penalty of perjury that the payee is not subject to backup withholding under the Code. A U.S. holder that does not provide us with a correct TIN may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any U.S. holders who fail to certify their U.S. status to us. Some U.S. holders of our capital stock, including corporations, may be exempt from backup withholding. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a stockholder will be allowed as a credit against the stockholder’s U.S. federal income tax and may entitle the stockholder to a refund, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS. The payor will be required to furnish annually to the IRS and to holders of our capital stock information relating to the amount of dividends paid on our capital stock, and that information reporting may also apply to payments of proceeds from the sale of our capital stock. Some holders, including corporations, financial institutions and certain tax-exempt organizations, are generally not subject to information reporting.

Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock. Generally, information reporting will apply to payments of interest and dividends on our capital stock, and backup withholding described above for a U.S. holder will apply, unless the payee certifies that it is not a U.S. person or otherwise establishes an exemption.

The payment of the proceeds from the disposition of our capital stock to or through the U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker will be subject to information reporting and backup withholding as described above for U.S. holders unless the non-U.S. holder satisfies the requirements necessary to be an exempt non-U.S. holder or otherwise qualifies for an exemption. The proceeds of a disposition by a non-U.S. holder of our capital stock to or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, if the broker is a U.S. person, a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. tax purposes, a foreign person 50% or more of whose gross income from all sources for specified periods is from activities that are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, a foreign partnership if partners who hold more than 50% of the interest in the partnership are U.S. persons, or a foreign partnership that is engaged in the conduct of a trade or business in the U.S., then information reporting generally will apply as though the payment was made through a U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker.

Applicable U.S. Treasury regulations provide presumptions regarding the status of a holder of our capital stock when payments to such holder cannot be reliably associated with appropriate documentation provided to the payer. Because the application of these U.S. Treasury regulations varies depending on the stockholder’s particular circumstances, you are advised to consult your tax advisor regarding the information reporting requirements applicable to you.

Additional Withholding Requirement. Under sections 1471 through 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as “Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act,” or “FATCA”), a 30% U.S. federal withholding tax will apply to dividends that we pay to certain foreign entities if such entities do not satisfy disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership. Foreign entities must provide documentation evidencing compliance with or an exemption from FATCA, typically provided on IRS Form W-8BEN-E, to avoid this withholding tax. We will not pay any additional amounts to stockholders in respect of any amounts withheld. If a payment is both subject to withholding under FATCA and subject to withholding tax discussed above, the withholding under FATCA may be credited against, and therefore reduce, such other withholding tax. Non-U.S. holders and U.S. holders holding through foreign accounts or intermediaries should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of FATCA in light of their individual circumstances.

 

61


Table of Contents

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial, or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. We cannot predict the long-term effect of any future law changes on REITs and their stockholders. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the effect of potential changes to the federal tax laws on an investment in our capital stock.

State, Local and Foreign Taxes

We and our stockholders may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various state, local or foreign jurisdictions, including those in which we or they transact business or reside. Our state, local or foreign tax treatment and that of our stockholders may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax treatment discussed above. Consequently, prospective stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect of state, local and foreign tax laws on an investment in our capital stock.

 

62


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities offered by this prospectus to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them or we may sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. Any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Underwriters may offer and sell the securities at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to these prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We also may, from time to time, authorize underwriters acting as agents to offer and sell the securities to purchasers upon the terms and conditions set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with the sale of securities, underwriters may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell securities to or through dealers and the dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

Securities may also be sold in one or more of the following transactions: (a) block transactions (which may involve crosses) in which a broker-dealer may sell all or a portion of the securities as agent but may position and resell all or a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; (b) purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to a prospectus supplement; (c) a special offering, an exchange distribution or a secondary distribution in accordance with applicable NYSE or other stock exchange rules; (d) ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker-dealer solicits purchasers; (e) sales “at the market” to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise, for shares; and (f) sales in other ways not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales to purchasers. Broker-dealers may also receive compensation from purchasers of these securities which is not expected to exceed that customary in the types of transactions involved.

Any underwriting compensation paid by us to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions, under the Securities Act. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification against and contribution toward civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

Any securities issued hereunder (other than capital stock) will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters or agents to or through whom such securities are sold by us for public offering and sale may make a market in such securities, but such underwriters or agents will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot assure you as to the liquidity of the trading market for any such securities.

In connection with the offering of the securities described in this prospectus and an accompanying prospectus supplement, certain underwriters and selling group members and their respective affiliates, may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the security being offered. These transactions may include stabilization transactions effected in accordance with Rule 104 of Regulation M promulgated by the SEC pursuant to which these persons may bid for or purchase securities for the purpose of stabilizing their market price.

The underwriters in an offering of these securities may also create a “short position” for their account by selling more equity securities in connection with the offering than they are committed to purchase from us. In that case, the underwriters could cover all or a portion of the short position by either purchasing the securities in

 

63


Table of Contents

the open market following completion of the offering or by exercising any over-allotment option granted to them by us. In addition, the managing underwriter may impose “penalty bids” under contractual arrangements with other underwriters, which means that they can reclaim from an underwriter (or any selling group member participating in the offering) for the account of the other underwriters, the selling concession for the securities that is distributed in the offering but subsequently purchased for the account of the underwriters in the open market. Any of the transactions described in this paragraph or comparable transactions that are described in any accompanying prospectus supplement may result in the maintenance of the price of our securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. None of the transactions described in this paragraph or in an accompanying prospectus supplement are required to be taken by any underwriters and, if they are undertaken, may be discontinued at any time.

Any underwriters and their affiliates may be customers of, engage in transactions with and perform services for us and our subsidiaries in the ordinary course of business.

 

64


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered hereby is being passed upon for us by Venable LLP. If the validity of any securities is also passed upon by counsel for the underwriters of an offering of those securities, that counsel will be named in the prospectus supplement relating to that offering. In addition, the description of federal income tax consequences contained in the section of this prospectus entitled “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” is based on the opinion of Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP.

 

65


Table of Contents

EXPERTS

The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

66


Table of Contents

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information we file with them, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC under the File Number 1-13991:

 

  (i)

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on February 21, 2019;

 

  (ii)

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 7, 2019;

 

  (iii)

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on August 7, 2019;

 

  (iv)

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 23, 2019 and June 3, 2019;

 

  (v)

portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 9, 2019 and incorporated by reference in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018;

 

  (vi)

the description of our common stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on March 26, 1998, including all amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating such description;

 

  (vii)

the description of the shares of our 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock contained on Form 8-A filed on April 15, 2013; and

 

  (viii)

the description of our 8.00% Senior Notes due 2042, included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on April 11, 2012.

In addition, we incorporate by reference into this prospectus any reports or documents that we file with the SEC (other than any portion of such filings that are furnished under applicable SEC rules rather than filed) under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of the applicable offering under this prospectus. If anything in a report or document we file after the date of this prospectus changes anything in (or incorporated by reference in) it, this prospectus will be deemed to be changed by that subsequently filed report or document beginning on the date the report or document is filed.

Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, by writing or telephoning us at: MFA Financial, Inc., 350 Park Avenue, 20th Floor, New York, New York 10022, Attention: Investor Relations Department; telephone: 212-207-6488.

 

67


Table of Contents

INFORMATION WE FILE

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other materials with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers (including us) that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

Reports, proxy statements and other information we file also can be inspected at the offices of the New York Stock Exchange, 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005.

We maintain a website at www.mfafinancial.com. Information contained on our website is not, and should not be interpreted to be, part of this prospectus.

 

68


Table of Contents

PART II

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The fees and expenses to be paid in connection with the distribution of the securities being registered hereby are estimated as follows:

 

SEC registration fee

   $             *  

Legal fees and expenses

         **  

Trustee fees and expenses

         **  

Accounting fees and expenses

         **  

Rating Agency Fees

         **  

Printing Fees and Expenses

         **  

Miscellaneous

         **  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $     **  
  

 

 

 

 

*

To be deferred pursuant to Rule 456(b) and calculated in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement pursuant to Rule 457(r).

**

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Officers and Directors.

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Our charter obligates us to indemnify, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, any director or officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at the request of our company, serves or has served another entity, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her status as a director or officer of our company and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. The charter also permits our company to indemnify and advance expenses to any employee or agent of our company if authorized by our board.

Maryland law requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. Maryland law permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services or (c) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. However, under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, Maryland law permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer only upon the corporation’s receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his

 

II-1


Table of Contents

or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

We maintain directors and officers insurance policies designed to reimburse us for any payments made by us pursuant to the foregoing indemnifications. Pursuant to employment agreements with our executive officers, we are required to maintain such policies during the officers’ employment and for six years thereafter.

Any underwriting agreement, placement agreement, sales agency agreement or other agreement with an underwriter or dealer that we enter into with respect to a sale of securities covered by this registration statement may provide that the underwriters are obligated, under certain circumstances, to indemnify our directors, officers, and controlling persons against certain liabilities. To the extent we enter into any such underwriting agreement, we will file it as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K, which will be incorporated by reference into this registration statement.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits.

 

Exhibit
Number

  

Exhibit Description

  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement.
  3.1    Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of the Company, dated April  8, 1998 (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated April 24, 1998 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  3.2    Articles of Amendment to the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of the Company, dated August  5, 2002 (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated August 13, 2002 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  3.3    Articles of Amendment to the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of the Company, dated August  13, 2002 (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.3 to the Company’s Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2002 (Commission File No.  1-13991)).
  3.4    Articles of Amendment to the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of the Company, dated December  29, 2008 (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated December 29, 2008 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  3.5    Articles of Amendment (Articles Supplementary) to the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of the Company, dated January  1, 2010 (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated January 5, 2010 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  3.6    Articles Supplementary of the Company, dated March  8, 2011 (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated March 11, 2011 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  3.7    Articles of Amendment to the Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation of the Company, dated May  24, 2011, (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated May 26, 2011 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  3.8    Articles Supplementary of the Company, dated April  12, 2013, designating the Company’s 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated April  15, 2013 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  3.9    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company (as amended through April  10, 2017) (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated April 12, 2017 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).

 

II-2


Table of Contents

Exhibit
Number

  

Exhibit Description

 

  4.1

  

 

Specimen of Common Stock Certificate of the Company (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-4, dated February 12, 1998 (Commission File No. 333-46179)).

  4.2    Specimen of Preferred Stock Certificate representing the 7.50% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock of the Company (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated April 15, 2013 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  4.3    Indenture, dated as of April  11, 2012, between the Company and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Trustee (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated April 11, 2012 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  4.4    First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of April  11, 2012, between the Company and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Trustee (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated April 11, 2012 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  4.5    Form of 8.00% Senior Notes due 2042 (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit A to the First Supplemental Indenture filed as Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated April 11, 2012 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  4.6    Indenture, dated June  3, 2019, between the Company and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Trustee (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated May 29, 2019 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  4.7    First Supplemental Indenture, dated June  3, 2019, between the Company and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as Trustee (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated May 29, 2019 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  4.8    Form of 6.25% Convertible Senior Notes Due 2024 of the Company (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit A to the First Supplemental Indenture filed as Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Form 8-K, dated May 29, 2019 (Commission File No. 1-13991)).
  4.9*    Form of Debt Securities.
  4.10*    Form of Deposit Agreement.
  4.11*    Form of Depositary Receipt.
  4.12*    Form of Warrant.
  4.13*    Form of Warrant Agreement.
  5.1    Opinion of Venable LLP as to legality of the securities being registered by this to Form S-3.
  8.1    Opinion of Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP as to tax matters.
23.1    Consent of Venable LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
23.2    Consent of Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP (included in Exhibit 8.1).
23.3    Consent of KPMG LLP.
24.1    Powers of Attorney (included on the signature page of the Registration Statement).
25.1    Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1.
25.2*    Statement of Eligibility of any other Trustee on Form T-1

 

*

To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offerings of the securities.

 

II-3


Table of Contents
Item 17.

Undertakings.

 

  (a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  1.

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement

 

  (i)

to include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

  (ii)

to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in the volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

 

  (iii)

to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

provided, however, that paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrants pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  2.

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offering therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  3.

To remove from registration by means of post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  4.

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchasers:

 

  (i)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement.

 

  (ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x), for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date it is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at the date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which the prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at the time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or

 

II-4


Table of Contents
  deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  5.

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrants will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer to sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of either of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrants;

 

  (iii)

the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrants or their securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (b)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

  (d)

That, insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is therefore unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question of whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

II-5


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, on August 16, 2019.

 

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.

By:  

/s/ Craig L. Knutson

  Name: Craig L. Knutson
  Title: President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Craig L. Knutson, Stephen D. Yarad and Harold E. Schwartz, and each of them, with full power to act without the other, such person’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign this Registration Statement, and any and all amendments thereto (including post-effective amendments), and to file the same, with exhibits and schedules thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the SEC, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Name and Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Craig L. Knutson

Craig L. Knutson

   President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)   August 16, 2019

/s/ Stephen D. Yarad

Stephen D. Yarad

   Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)   August 16, 2019

/s/ Kathleen A. Hanrahan

Kathleen A. Hanrahan

   Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer (Principal Accounting Officer)   August 16, 2019

/s/ George H. Krauss

George H. Krauss

   Chairman and Director   August 16, 2019

/s/ Stephen R. Blank

Stephen R. Blank

   Director   August 16, 2019

/s/ James A. Brodsky

James A. Brodsky

   Director   August 16, 2019

/s/ Richard J. Byrne

Richard J. Byrne

   Director   August 16, 2019

 

II-6


Table of Contents

Name and Signature

  

Title

 

Date

 

/s/ Laurie Goodman

Laurie Goodman

  

 

Director

 

 

August 16, 2019

/s/ Robin Josephs

Robin Josephs

   Director   August 16, 2019

/s/ Francis J. Oelerich III

Francis J. Oelerich III

   Director   August 16, 2019

 

II-7

(Back To Top)

Section 2: EX-5.1 (EX-5.1)

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

[LETTERHEAD OF VENABLE LLP]

August 16, 2019

MFA Financial, Inc.

350 Park Avenue, 20th Floor

New York, New York 10022

 

  Re:

MFA Financial, Inc.

      

Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have served as Maryland counsel to MFA Financial, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with certain matters of Maryland law arising out of the registration by the Company of the following securities having an indeterminate aggregate public offering price (collectively, the “Securities”): (i) shares of common stock, $.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”), of the Company; (ii) shares of preferred stock, $.01 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”), of the Company; (iii) depositary shares (“Depositary Shares”) of the Company, representing shares of the Preferred Stock; (iv) warrants (“Warrants”) entitling the holders to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, debt securities (“Debt Securities”) of the Company or Units (as defined below); (v) Debt Securities; (vi) rights (“Rights”) issuable to the Company’s stockholders to purchase shares of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants or Debt Securities or to purchase units consisting of two or more of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants and Debt Securities; and (vii) units (“Units”) consisting of two or more of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Debt Securities or Rights, each covered by the Registration Statement on Form S-3, and all amendments thereto (the “Registration Statement”), as filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) by the Company on or about the date hereof under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”).

In connection with our representation of the Company, and as a basis for the opinion hereinafter set forth, we have examined originals, or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of the following documents (hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Documents”):

1. The charter of the Company (the “Charter”), certified by the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (the “SDAT”);

2. The Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company (the “Bylaws”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;


MFA Financial, Inc.

August 16, 2019

Page 2

 

3. A certificate of the SDAT as to the good standing of the Company, dated as of a recent date;

4. Resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company (the “Board”), or a duly authorized committee thereof, relating to the registration of the Securities (the “Resolutions”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

5. A certificate executed by an officer of the Company, dated as of the date hereof;

6. The Registration Statement and the related form of prospectus included therein in the form in which it was transmitted to the Commission for filing under the 1933 Act; and

7. Such other documents and matters as we have deemed necessary or appropriate to express the opinion set forth in this letter, subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein.

In expressing the opinion set forth below, we have assumed the following:

1. Each individual executing any of the Documents, whether on behalf of such individual or another person, is legally competent to do so.

2. Each individual executing any of the Documents on behalf of a party (other than the Company) is duly authorized to do so.

3. Each of the parties (other than the Company) executing any of the Documents has duly and validly executed and delivered each of the Documents to which such party is a signatory, and such party’s obligations set forth therein are legal, valid and binding and are enforceable in accordance with all stated terms.

4. All Documents submitted to us as originals are authentic. The form and content of all Documents submitted to us as unexecuted drafts do not differ in any respect relevant to this opinion from the form and content of such Documents as executed and delivered. All Documents submitted to us as certified or photostatic copies conform to the original documents. All signatures on all Documents are genuine. All public records reviewed or relied upon by us or on our behalf are true and complete. All representations, warranties, statements and information contained in the Documents are true and complete. There has been no oral or written modification of or amendment to any of the Documents, and there has been no waiver of any provision of any of the Documents, by action or omission of the parties or otherwise.


MFA Financial, Inc.

August 16, 2019

Page 3

 

5. Upon the issuance of any Securities that are shares of Common Stock (“Common Securities”), including Common Securities that may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Securities, the total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

6. Upon the issuance of any Securities that are shares of Preferred Stock (“Preferred Securities”), including (i) Preferred Securities that may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exercisable for Preferred Securities and (ii) Preferred Securities represented by Depositary Shares, the total number of shares of Preferred Stock issued and outstanding and the total number of issued and outstanding shares of the applicable class or series of Preferred Stock designated pursuant to the Charter will not exceed the total number of shares of Preferred Stock or the number of shares of such class or series of Preferred Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

7. Any Securities convertible into or exercisable for other Securities will be duly converted or exercised in accordance with their terms.

8. The issuance of, and certain terms of, the Securities will be approved by the Board, or a duly authorized committee thereof, in accordance with the Maryland General Corporation Law, the Charter, the Bylaws, the Registration Statement and the Resolutions (with such approvals referred to hereinafter as the “Corporate Proceedings”) prior to the issuance thereof.

9. Articles Supplementary creating and designating the number of shares and terms of any class or series of Preferred Securities will be filed with and accepted for record by the SDAT prior to the issuance of such shares of Preferred Securities.

10. None of the Securities will be issued, sold or transferred in violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer set forth in Article Ninth of the Charter or any comparable provision in the Articles Supplementary creating any class or series of Preferred Stock.

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein, it is our opinion that:

1. The Company is a corporation duly incorporated and existing under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Maryland and is in good standing with the SDAT.

2. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Common Securities, the Common Securities will be duly authorized for issuance and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor and otherwise in accordance with the Corporate Proceedings, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.


MFA Financial, Inc.

August 16, 2019

Page 4

 

3. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Preferred Securities, the Preferred Securities will be duly authorized for issuance and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor and otherwise in accordance with the Corporate Proceedings, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

4. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Depositary Shares, the Depositary Shares will be duly authorized for issuance.

5. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Warrants, the Warrants will be duly authorized for issuance.

6. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Debt Securities, the Debt Securities will be duly authorized for issuance.

7. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Rights, the Rights will be duly authorized for issuance.

8. Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Units, the Units will be duly authorized for issuance.

The foregoing opinion is limited to the laws of the State of Maryland and we do not express any opinion herein concerning United States federal law or the laws of any other jurisdiction. We express no opinion as to the applicability or effect of federal or state securities laws, including the securities laws of the State of Maryland, federal or state laws regarding fraudulent transfers or the laws, codes or regulations of any municipality or other local jurisdiction. To the extent that any matter as to which our opinion is expressed herein would be governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of Maryland, we do not express any opinion on such matter. The opinion expressed herein is subject to the effect of any judicial decision which may permit the introduction of parol evidence to modify the terms or the interpretation of agreements.

The opinion expressed herein is limited to the matters specifically set forth herein and no other opinion shall be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated. We assume no obligation to supplement this opinion if any applicable law changes after the date hereof or if we become aware of any fact that might change the opinion expressed herein after the date hereof.

This opinion is being furnished to you for submission to the Commission as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of the name of our firm therein. In giving


MFA Financial, Inc.

August 16, 2019

Page 5

 

this consent, we do not admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the 1933 Act.

Very truly yours,

/s/ Venable LLP

(Back To Top)

Section 3: EX-8.1 (EX-8.1)

EX-8.1

Exhibit 8.1

 

LOGO     HUNTON ANDREWS KURTH LLP

RIVERFRONT PLAZA, EAST TOWER

951 EAST BYRD STREET

RICHMOND, VIRGINIA 23219-4074

 

                                                                                                                           TEL

FAX

 

804 • 788 • 8200

804 • 788 • 8218

   

 

FILE NO: 87566.25

August 16, 2019

MFA Financial, Inc.

350 Park Avenue, 20th Floor

New York, New York 10022

MFA Financial, Inc.

Qualification as

Real Estate Investment Trust

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as counsel to MFA Financial, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the preparation of a registration statement on Form S-3 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 16, 2019 (the “Registration Statement”), with respect to the offer and sale, from time to time, of shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company, shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company, debt securities of the Company, warrants, stockholder rights, and purchase contracts relating to any of the foregoing securities, and units comprising two or more of the preceding securities of the Company. You have requested our opinion regarding certain U.S. federal income tax matters.

In giving this opinion letter, we have examined the following:

 

  1.

the Registration Statement and the prospectus (the “Prospectus”) filed as part of the Registration Statement;

 

  2.

the Company’s Amended Articles of Incorporation filed on April 8, 1998, with the Department of Assessments and Taxation of the State of Maryland, as amended and supplemented;

 

  3.

the Company’s Bylaws;

 

  4.

the taxable REIT subsidiary elections for Crimson Residential Assets Corp (f.k.a. MFA Loan Acquisition Corp), Diplomat Property Holdings Corp, MFA Navigator LLC, MFA Kittiwake Investments Ltd., Sahara Property Management LLC, Alps Property Management, LLC, Redan Property Management, LLC, and Deepwood Residential Assets LLC; and

ATLANTA    AUSTIN    BANGKOK    BEIJING    BOSTON     BRUSSELS    CHARLOTTE    DALLAS    DUBAI    HOUSTON    LONDON

LOS ANGELES    MIAMI    NEW YORK    NORFOLK    RICHMOND    SAN FRANCISCO    THE WOODLANDS    TYSONS    WASHINGTON, DC

www.HuntonAK.com


MFA Financial, Inc.

August 16, 2019

Page 2

 

 

  5.

such other documents as we have deemed necessary or appropriate for purposes of this opinion.

In connection with the opinions rendered below, we have assumed, with your consent, that:

1. each of the documents referred to above has been duly authorized, executed, and delivered; is authentic, if an original, or is accurate, if a copy; and has not been amended;

2. during its taxable year ending December 31, 2019, and future taxable years, the Company has operated and will operate in a manner that will make the factual representations contained in a certificate, dated the date hereof and executed by a duly appointed officer of the Company (the “Officer’s Certificate”), true for such years;

3. the Company will not make any amendments to its organizational documents after the date of this opinion that would affect its qualification as a real estate investment trust (a “REIT”) for any taxable year; and

4. no action will be taken by the Company after the date hereof that would have the effect of altering the facts upon which the opinions set forth below are based.

In connection with the opinions rendered below, we also have relied upon the correctness, without regard to any qualification as to knowledge or belief, of the factual representations and covenants contained in the Officer’s Certificate. No facts have come to our attention that would cause us to question the accuracy and completeness of such factual representations. Furthermore, where such factual representations involve terms defined in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), the Treasury regulations thereunder (the “Regulations”), published rulings of the Internal Revenue Service (the “Service”), or other relevant authority, we have reviewed with the individuals making such representations the relevant provisions of the Code, the applicable Regulations and published administrative interpretations thereof.

Based solely on the documents and assumptions set forth above, the representations set forth in the Officer’s Certificate, and the discussions in the Prospectus under the caption “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” (which is incorporated herein by reference), we are of the opinion that:

(a) the Company qualified to be taxed as a REIT pursuant to sections 856 through 860 of the Code for its taxable years ended December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2018, and the Company’s organization and current and proposed


MFA Financial, Inc.

August 16, 2019

Page 3

 

method of operation will enable it to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code for its taxable year ending December 31, 2019 and thereafter; and

(b) the descriptions of the law and the legal conclusions in the Prospectus under the caption “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” are correct in all material respects.

We will not review on a continuing basis the Company’s compliance with the documents or assumptions set forth above, or the representations set forth in the Officer’s Certificate. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of the Company’s operations for any given taxable year will satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. Although we have made such inquiries and performed such investigations as we have deemed necessary to fulfill our professional responsibilities as counsel, we have not undertaken an independent investigation of all the facts referred to in this letter or the Officer’s Certificate. In particular, we note that the Company has engaged in transactions in connection with which we have not provided legal advice and may not have reviewed. Moreover, we note that we did not represent the Company as tax counsel prior to June 1, 2016.

The foregoing opinions are based on current provisions of the Code, the Regulations, published administrative interpretations thereof, and published court decisions. The Service has not issued Regulations or administrative interpretations with respect to various provisions of the Code relating to REIT qualification. No assurance can be given that the law will not change in a way that will prevent the Company from qualifying as a REIT.

The foregoing opinions are limited to the U.S. federal income tax matters addressed herein, and no other opinions are rendered with respect to other U.S. federal tax matters or to any issues arising under the tax laws of any other country, or any state or locality. We undertake no obligation to update the opinions expressed herein after the date of this letter. This opinion letter is solely for the information and use of the addressees, and it speaks only as of the date hereof. Except as provided in the next paragraph, this opinion letter may not be distributed, relied upon for any purpose by any other person, quoted in whole or in part or otherwise reproduced in any document, or filed with any governmental agency without our express written consent.


MFA Financial, Inc.

August 16, 2019

Page 4

 

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Prospectus. We also consent to the references to Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP under the captions “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” and “Legal Matters” in the Prospectus. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder by the SEC.

Very truly yours,

/s/ Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP

(Back To Top)

Section 4: EX-23.3 (EX-23.3)

EX-23.3

Exhibit 23.3

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

The Board of Directors

MFA Financial, Inc.:

We consent to the use of our reports with respect to the consolidated financial statements and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting incorporated by reference herein and to the reference to our firm under the heading “Experts” in the Registration Statement on Form S-3 and related Prospectus and Prospectus Supplement.

/s/ KPMG LLP

New York, New York

August 16, 2019

(Back To Top)

Section 5: EX-25.1 (EX-25.1)

EX-25.1

Exhibit 25.1

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM T-1

 

 

 

Check if an Application to Determine Eligibility of a Trustee Pursuant to Section 305(b)(2)

 

 

WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

(Exact name of trustee as specified in its charter)

 

 

16-1486454

(I.R.S. employer identification no.)

1100 North Market Street

Wilmington, DE 19890-0001

(Address of principal executive offices)

Karin Meis

Vice President

1100 North Market Street

Wilmington, Delaware 19890-0001

(302) 651-8311

(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)

 

 

MFA FINANCIAL, INC.

(Exact name of obligor as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Maryland   13-3974868

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

350 Park Avenue, 20th Floor

New York, New York 10022

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

 

 

Debt Securities

(Title of the indenture securities)

 

 

 


ITEM 1.

GENERAL INFORMATION.

Furnish the following information as to the trustee:

 

  (a)

Name and address of each examining or supervising authority to which it is subject.

Comptroller of Currency, Washington, D.C.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Washington, D.C.

 

  (b)

Whether it is authorized to exercise corporate trust powers.

The trustee is authorized to exercise corporate trust powers.

 

ITEM 2.

AFFILIATIONS WITH THE OBLIGOR.

If the obligor is an affiliate of the trustee, describe each affiliation:

Based upon an examination of the books and records of the trustee and information available to the trustee, the obligor is not an affiliate of the trustee.

ITEM 3 – 15. Not applicable

 

ITEM 16.

LIST OF EXHIBITS.

Listed below are all exhibits filed as part of this Statement of Eligibility and Qualification.

 

  1.

A copy of the Charter for Wilmington Trust, National Association.

 

  2.

The authority of Wilmington Trust, National Association to commence business was granted under the Charter for Wilmington Trust, National Association, incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 1 above.

 

  3.

The authorization to exercise corporate trust powers was granted under the Charter for Wilmington Trust, National Association, incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 1 above.

 

  4.

A copy of the existing By-Laws of Trustee, as now in effect, incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4 of this Form T-1.

 

  5.

Not applicable.

 

  6.

The consent of Wilmington Trust, National Association as required by Section 321(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, attached hereto as Exhibit 6 of this Form T-1.

 

  7.

Current Report of the Condition of Wilmington Trust, National Association, published pursuant to law or the requirements of its supervising or examining authority, attached hereto as Exhibit 7 of this Form T-1.

 

  8.

Not applicable.

 

  9.

Not applicable.


SIGNATURE

Pursuant to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, the trustee, Wilmington Trust, National Association, a national banking association organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, has duly caused this Statement of Eligibility to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, all in the City of Minneapolis and State of Minnesota on the 16th day of August, 2019.

 

WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
By:  

    /s/ Jane Schweiger

Name:   Jane Schweiger
Title:   Vice President


EXHIBIT 1

CHARTER OF WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION


ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

OF

WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

For the purpose of organizing an association to perform any lawful activities of national banks, the undersigned do enter into the following articles of association:

FIRST.     The title of this association shall be Wilmington Trust, National Association.

SECOND.    The main office of the association shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, State of Delaware. The general business of the association shall be conducted at its main office and its branches.

THIRD.    The board of directors of this association shall consist of not less than five nor more than twenty-five persons, unless the OCC has exempted the bank from the 25-member limit. The exact number is to be fixed and determined from time to time by resolution of a majority of the full board of directors or by resolution of a majority of the shareholders at any annual or special meeting thereof. Each director shall own common or preferred stock of the association or of a holding company owning the association, with an aggregate par, fair market or equity value $1,000. Determination of these values may be based as of either (i) the date of purchase or (ii) the date the person became a director, whichever value is greater. Any combination of common or preferred stock of the association or holding company may be used.

Any vacancy in the board of directors may be filled by action of a majority of the remaining directors between meetings of shareholders. The board of directors may not increase the number of directors between meetings of shareholders to a number which:

 

  1)

exceeds by more than two the number of directors last elected by shareholders where the number was 15 or less; or

 

  2)

exceeds by more than four the number of directors last elected by shareholders where the number was 16 or more, but in no event shall the number of directors exceed 25, unless the OCC has exempted the bank from the 25-member limit.

Directors shall be elected for terms of one year and until their successors are elected and qualified. Terms of directors, including directors selected to fill vacancies, shall expire at the next regular meeting of shareholders at which directors are elected, unless the directors resign or are removed from office. Despite the expiration of a director’s term, the director shall continue to serve until his or her successor is elected and qualifies or until there is a decrease in the number of directors and his or her position is eliminated.

Honorary or advisory members of the board of directors, without voting power or power of final decision in matters concerning the business of the association, may be appointed by resolution of a majority of the full board of directors, or by resolution of shareholders at any annual or special meeting. Honorary or advisory directors shall not be counted to determine the number of directors of the association or the presence of a quorum in connection with any board action, and shall not be required to own qualifying shares.

FOURTH.    There shall be an annual meeting of the shareholders to elect directors and transact whatever other business may be brought before the meeting. It shall be held at the main office or any


other convenient place the board of directors may designate, on the day of each year specified therefor in the bylaws, or, if that day falls on a legal holiday in the state in which the association is located, on the next following banking day. If no election is held on the day fixed, or in the event of a legal holiday on the following banking day, an election may be held on any subsequent day within 60 days of the day fixed, to be designated by the board of directors, or, if the directors fail to fix the day, by shareholders representing two-thirds of the shares issued and outstanding. In all cases at least 10 days advance notice of the time, place and purpose of a shareholders’ meeting shall be given to the shareholders by first class mail, unless the OCC determines that an emergency circumstance exists. The sole shareholder of the bank is permitted to waive notice of the shareholders’ meeting.

In all elections of directors, the number of votes each common shareholder may cast will be determined by multiplying the number of shares such shareholder owns by the number of directors to be elected. Those votes may be cumulated and cast for a single candidate or may be distributed among two or more candidates in the manner selected by the shareholder. If, after the first ballot, subsequent ballots are necessary to elect directors, a shareholder may not vote shares that he or she has already fully cumulated and voted in favor of a successful candidate. On all other questions, each common shareholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of stock held by him or her.

Nominations for election to the board of directors may be made by the board of directors or by any stockholder of any outstanding class of capital stock of the association entitled to vote for election of directors. Nominations other than those made by or on behalf of the existing management shall be made in writing and be delivered or mailed to the president of the association not less than 14 days nor more than 50 days prior to any meeting of shareholders called for the election of directors; provided, however, that if less than 21 days notice of the meeting is given to shareholders, such nominations shall be mailed or delivered to the president of the association not later than the close of business on the seventh day following the day on which the notice of meeting was mailed. Such notification shall contain the following information to the extent known to the notifying shareholder:

 

  1)

The name and address of each proposed nominee.

 

  2)

The principal occupation of each proposed nominee.

 

  3)

The total number of shares of capital stock of the association that will be voted for each proposed nominee.

 

  4)

The name and residence address of the notifying shareholder.

 

  5)

The number of shares of capital stock of the association owned by the notifying shareholder.

Nominations not made in accordance herewith may, in his/her discretion, be disregarded by the chairperson of the meeting, and the vote tellers may disregard all votes cast for each such nominee. No bylaw may unreasonably restrict the nomination of directors by shareholders.

A director may resign at any time by delivering written notice to the board of directors, its chairperson, or to the association, which resignation shall be effective when the notice is delivered unless the notice specifies a later effective date.

A director may be removed by shareholders at a meeting called to remove the director, when notice of the meeting stating that the purpose or one of the purposes is to remove the director is provided, if there is a failure to fulfill one of the affirmative requirements for qualification, or for cause; provided, however, that a director may not be removed if the number of votes sufficient to elect the director under cumulative voting is voted against the director’s removal.


FIFTH.     The authorized amount of capital stock of this association shall be ten thousand shares of common stock of the par value of one hundred dollars ($100) each; but said capital stock may be increased or decreased from time to time, according to the provisions of the laws of the United States.

No holder of shares of the capital stock of any class of the association shall have any preemptive or preferential right of subscription to any shares of any class of stock of the association, whether now or hereafter authorized, or to any obligations convertible into stock of the association, issued, or sold, nor any right of subscription to any thereof other than such, if any, as the board of directors, in its discretion, may from time to time determine and at such price as the board of directors may from time to time fix. Preemptive rights also must be approved by a vote of holders of two-thirds of the bank’s outstanding voting shares. Unless otherwise specified in these articles of association or required by law, (1) all matters requiring shareholder action, including amendments to the articles of association, must be approved by shareholders owning a majority voting interest in the outstanding voting stock, and (2) each shareholder shall be entitled to one vote per share.

Unless otherwise specified in these articles of association or required by law, all shares of voting stock shall be voted together as a class, on any matters requiring shareholder approval. If a proposed amendment would affect two or more classes or series in the same or a substantially similar way, all the classes or series so affected must vote together as a single voting group on the proposed amendment.

Shares of one class or series may be issued as a dividend for shares of the same class or series on a pro rata basis and without consideration. Shares of one class or series may be issued as share dividends for a different class or series of stock if approved by a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by the class or series to be issued, unless there are no outstanding shares of the class or series to be issued. Unless otherwise provided by the board of directors, the record date for determining shareholders entitled to a share dividend shall be the date authorized by the board of directors for the share dividend.

Unless otherwise provided in the bylaws, the record date for determining shareholders entitled to notice of and to vote at any meeting is the close of business on the day before the first notice is mailed or otherwise sent to the shareholders, provided that in no event may a record date be more than 70 days before the meeting.

If a shareholder is entitled to fractional shares pursuant to a stock dividend, consolidation or merger, reverse stock split or otherwise, the association may: (a) issue fractional shares; (b) in lieu of the issuance of fractional shares, issue script or warrants entitling the holder to receive a full share upon surrendering enough script or warrants to equal a full share; (c) if there is an established and active market in the association’s stock, make reasonable arrangements to provide the shareholder with an opportunity to realize a fair price through sale of the fraction, or purchase of the additional fraction required for a full share; (d) remit the cash equivalent of the fraction to the shareholder; or (e) sell full shares representing all the fractions at public auction or to the highest bidder after having solicited and received sealed bids from at least three licensed stock brokers; and distribute the proceeds pro rata to shareholders who otherwise would be entitled to the fractional shares. The holder of a fractional share is entitled to exercise the rights for shareholder, including the right to vote, to receive dividends, and to participate in the assets of the association upon liquidation, in proportion to the fractional interest. The holder of script or warrants is not entitled to any of these rights unless the script or warrants explicitly provide for such rights. The script or warrants may be subject to such additional conditions as: (1) that the script or warrants will become void if not exchanged for full shares before a specified date; and (2) that the shares for which the script or warrants are exchangeable may be sold at the option of the association and the proceeds paid to scriptholders.


The association, at any time and from time to time, may authorize and issue debt obligations, whether or not subordinated, without the approval of the shareholders. Obligations classified as debt, whether or not subordinated, which may be issued by the association without the approval of shareholders, do not carry voting rights on any issue, including an increase or decrease in the aggregate number of the securities, or the exchange or reclassification of all or part of securities into securities of another class or series.

SIXTH.     The board of directors shall appoint one of its members president of this association, and one of its members chairperson of the board and shall have the power to appoint one or more vice presidents, a secretary who shall keep minutes of the directors’ and shareholders’ meetings and be responsible for authenticating the records of the association, and such other officers and employees as may be required to transact the business of this association.

A duly appointed officer may appoint one or more officers or assistant officers if authorized by the board of directors in accordance with the bylaws.

The board of directors shall have the power to:

 

  1)

Define the duties of the officers, employees, and agents of the association.

 

  2)

Delegate the performance of its duties, but not the responsibility for its duties, to the officers, employees, and agents of the association.

 

  3)

Fix the compensation and enter into employment contracts with its officers and employees upon reasonable terms and conditions consistent with applicable law.

 

  4)

Dismiss officers and employees.

 

  5)

Require bonds from officers and employees and to fix the penalty thereof.

 

  6)

Ratify written policies authorized by the association’s management or committees of the board.

 

  7)

Regulate the manner in which any increase or decrease of the capital of the association shall be made, provided that nothing herein shall restrict the power of shareholders to increase or decrease the capital of the association in accordance with law, and nothing shall raise or lower from two-thirds the percentage required for shareholder approval to increase or reduce the capital.

 

  8)

Manage and administer the business and affairs of the association.

 

  9)

Adopt initial bylaws, not inconsistent with law or the articles of association, for managing the business and regulating the affairs of the association.

 

  10)

Amend or repeal bylaws, except to the extent that the articles of association reserve this power in whole or in part to shareholders.

 

  11)

Make contracts.

 

  12)

Generally perform all acts that are legal for a board of directors to perform.

SEVENTH.    The board of directors shall have the power to change the location of the main office to any other place within the limits of Wilmington, Delaware, without the approval of the shareholders, or with a vote of shareholders owning two-thirds of the stock of such association for a relocation outside such limits and upon receipt of a certificate of approval from the Comptroller of the Currency, to any other location within or outside the limits of Wilmington Delaware, but not more than 30 miles beyond such limits. The board of directors shall have the power to establish or change the location of any branch or branches of the association to any other location permitted under applicable law, without approval of shareholders, subject to approval by the Comptroller of the Currency.


EIGHTH.    The corporate existence of this association shall continue until termination according to the laws of the United States.

NINTH.    The board of directors of this association, or any one or more shareholders owning, in the aggregate, not less than 50 percent of the stock of this association, may call a special meeting of shareholders at any time. Unless otherwise provided by the bylaws or the laws of the United States, a notice of the time, place, and purpose of every annual and special meeting of the shareholders shall be given at least 10 days prior to the meeting by first-class mail, unless the OCC determines that an emergency circumstance exists. If the association is a wholly-owned subsidiary, the sole shareholder may waive notice of the shareholders’ meeting. Unless otherwise provided by the bylaws or these articles, any action requiring approval of shareholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting.

TENTH.    For purposes of this Article Tenth, the term “institution-affiliated party” shall mean any institution-affiliated party of the association as such term is defined in 12 U.S.C. 1813(u).

Any institution-affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) may be indemnified or reimbursed by the association for reasonable expenses actually incurred in connection with any threatened, pending or completed actions or proceedings and appeals therein, whether civil, criminal, governmental, administrative or investigative, in accordance with and to the fullest extent permitted by law, as such law now or hereafter exists; provided, however, that when an administrative proceeding or action instituted by a federal banking agency results in a final order or settlement pursuant to which such person: (i) is assessed a civil money penalty, (ii) is removed from office or prohibited from participating in the conduct of the affairs of the association, or (iii) is required to cease and desist from or to take any affirmative action described in 12 U.S.C. 1818(b) with respect to the association, then the association shall require the repayment of all legal fees and expenses advanced pursuant to the next succeeding paragraph and may not indemnify such institution-affiliated parties (or their heirs, executors or administrators) for expenses, including expenses for legal fees, penalties or other payments incurred. The association shall provide indemnification in connection with an action or proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by an institution-affiliated party (or by his or her heirs, executors or administrators) only if such action or proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the board of directors.

Expenses incurred by an institution-affiliated party (or by his or her heirs, executors or administrators) in connection with any action or proceeding under 12 U.S.C. 164 or 1818 may be paid by the association in advance of the final disposition of such action or proceeding upon (a) a determination by the board of directors acting by a quorum consisting of directors who are not parties to such action or proceeding that the institution-affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) has a reasonable basis for prevailing on the merits, (b) a determination that the indemnified individual (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) will have the financial capacity to reimburse the bank in the event he or she does not prevail, (c) a determination that the payment of expenses and fees by the association will not adversely affect the safety and soundness of the association, and (d) receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such institution-affiliated party (or by his or her heirs, executors or administrators) to repay such advancement in the event of a final order or settlement pursuant to which such person: (i) is assessed a civil money penalty, (ii) is removed from office or prohibited from participating in the conduct of the affairs of the association, or (iii) is required to cease and desist from or to take any affirmative action described in 12 U.S.C. 1818(b) with respect to the association. In all other instances, expenses incurred by an institution-affiliated party (or by his or her heirs, executors or administrators) in connection with any action or proceeding as to which indemnification may be given under these articles of association may be paid by the association in advance of the final disposition of such action or proceeding upon (a) receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such institution-affiliated party (or by or on behalf of his or her heirs, executors or administrators) to repay such advancement in the event that


such institution-affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) is ultimately found not to be entitled to indemnification as authorized by these articles of association and (b) approval by the board of directors acting by a quorum consisting of directors who are not parties to such action or proceeding or, if such a quorum is not obtainable, then approval by stockholders. To the extent permitted by law, the board of directors or, if applicable, the stockholders, shall not be required to find that the institution-affiliated party has met the applicable standard of conduct provided by law for indemnification in connection with such action or proceeding.

In the event that a majority of the members of the board of directors are named as respondents in an administrative proceeding or civil action and request indemnification, the remaining members of the board may authorize independent legal counsel to review the indemnification request and provide the remaining members of the board with a written opinion of counsel as to whether the conditions delineated in the first four paragraphs of this Article Tenth have been met. If independent legal counsel opines that said conditions have been met, the remaining members of the board of directors may rely on such opinion in authorizing the requested indemnification.

In the event that all of the members of the board of directors are named as respondents in an administrative proceeding or civil action and request indemnification, the board shall authorize independent legal counsel to review the indemnification request and provide the board with a written opinion of counsel as to whether the conditions delineated in the first four paragraphs of this Article Tenth have been met. If legal counsel opines that said conditions have been met, the board of directors may rely on such opinion in authorizing the requested indemnification.

To the extent permitted under applicable law, the rights of indemnification and to the advancement of expenses provided in these articles of association (a) shall be available with respect to events occurring prior to the adoption of these articles of association, (b) shall continue to exist after any restrictive amendment of these articles of association with respect to events occurring prior to such amendment, (c) may be interpreted on the basis of applicable law in effect at the time of the occurrence of the event or events giving rise to the action or proceeding, or on the basis of applicable law in effect at the time such rights are claimed, and (d) are in the nature of contract rights which may be enforced in any court of competent jurisdiction as if the association and the institution-affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) for whom such rights are sought were parties to a separate written agreement.

The rights of indemnification and to the advancement of expenses provided in these articles of association shall not, to the extent permitted under applicable law, be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which any such institution affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) may now or hereafter be otherwise entitled whether contained in these articles of association, the bylaws, a resolution of stockholders, a resolution of the board of directors, or an agreement providing such indemnification, the creation of such other rights being hereby expressly authorized. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the rights of indemnification and to the advancement of expenses provided in these articles of association shall not be deemed exclusive of any rights, pursuant to statute or otherwise, of any such institution-affiliated party (or of his or her heirs, executors or administrators) in any such action or proceeding to have assessed or allowed in his or her favor, against the association or otherwise, his or her costs and expenses incurred therein or in connection therewith or any part thereof.

If this Article Tenth or any part hereof shall be held unenforceable in any respect by a court of competent jurisdiction, it shall be deemed modified to the minimum extent necessary to make it enforceable, and the remainder of this Article Tenth shall remain fully enforceable.


The association may, upon affirmative vote of a majority of its board of directors, purchase insurance to indemnify its institution-affiliated parties to the extent that such indemnification is allowed in these articles of association; provided, however, that no such insurance shall include coverage to pay or reimburse any institution-affiliated party for the cost of any judgment or civil money penalty assessed against such person in an administrative proceeding or civil action commenced by any federal banking agency. Such insurance may, but need not, be for the benefit of all institution-affiliated parties.

ELEVENTH.    These articles of association may be amended at any regular or special meeting of the shareholders by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the stock of this association, unless the vote of the holders of a greater amount of stock is required by law, and in that case by the vote of the holders of such greater amount. The association’s board of directors may propose one or more amendments to the articles of association for submission to the shareholders.


EXHIBIT 4

BY-LAWS OF WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION


AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

OF

WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

(Effective as of April 17, 2018)

ARTICLE I

Meetings of Shareholders

Section 1. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of the shareholders to elect directors and transact whatever other business may properly come before the meeting shall be held at the main office of the association, Rodney Square North, 1100 Market Street, City of Wilmington, State of Delaware, at 1:00 o’clock p.m. on the first Tuesday in March of each year, or at such other place and time as the board of directors may designate, or if that date falls on a legal holiday in Delaware, on the next following banking day. Notice of the meeting shall be mailed by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 10 days and no more than 60 days prior to the date thereof, addressed to each shareholder at his/her address appearing on the books of the association. If, for any cause, an election of directors is not made on that date, or in the event of a legal holiday, on the next following banking day, an election may be held on any subsequent day within 60 days of the date fixed, to be designated by the board of directors, or, if the directors fail to fix the date, by shareholders representing two-thirds of the shares. In these circumstances, at least 10 days’ notice must be given by first class mail to shareholders.

Section 2. Special Meetings. Except as otherwise specifically provided by statute, special meetings of the shareholders may be called for any purpose at any time by the board of directors or by any one or more shareholders owning, in the aggregate, not less than fifty percent of the stock of the association. Every such special meeting, unless otherwise provided by law, shall be called by mailing, postage prepaid, not less than 10 days nor more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for the meeting, to each shareholder at the address appearing on the books of the association a notice stating the purpose of the meeting.

The board of directors may fix a record date for determining shareholders entitled to notice and to vote at any meeting, in reasonable proximity to the date of giving notice to the shareholders of such meeting. The record date for determining shareholders entitled to demand a special meeting is the date the first shareholder signs a demand for the meeting describing the purpose or purposes for which it is to be held.

A special meeting may be called by shareholders or the board of directors to amend the articles of association or bylaws, whether or not such bylaws may be amended by the board of directors in the absence of shareholder approval.

If an annual or special shareholders’ meeting is adjourned to a different date, time, or place, notice need not be given of the new date, time or place, if the new date, time or place is announced at the meeting before adjournment, unless any additional items of business are to be considered, or the association becomes aware of an intervening event materially affecting any matter to be voted on more than 10 days prior to the date to which the meeting is adjourned. If a new record date for the adjourned meeting is fixed, however, notice of the adjourned meeting must be given to persons who are shareholders as of the new record date. If, however, the meeting to elect the directors is adjourned before the election takes place, at least ten days’ notice of the new election must be given to the shareholders by first-class mail.

 

13


Section 3. Nominations of Directors. Nominations for election to the board of directors may be made by the board of directors or by any stockholder of any outstanding class of capital stock of the association entitled to vote for the election of directors. Nominations, other than those made by or on behalf of the existing management of the association, shall be made in writing and shall be delivered or mailed to the president of the association and the Comptroller of the Currency, Washington, D.C., not less than 14 days nor more than 50 days prior to any meeting of shareholders called for the election of directors; provided, however, that if less than 21 days’ notice of the meeting is given to shareholders, such nomination shall be mailed or delivered to the president of the association not later than the close of business on the seventh day following the day on which the notice of meeting was mailed. Such notification shall contain the following information to the extent known to the notifying shareholder:

 

  (1)

The name and address of each proposed nominee;

 

  (2)

The principal occupation of each proposed nominee;

 

  (3)

The total number of shares of capital stock of the association that will be voted for each proposed nominee;

 

  (4)

The name and residence of the notifying shareholder; and

 

  (5)

The number of shares of capital stock of the association owned by the notifying shareholder.

Nominations not made in accordance herewith may, in his/her discretion, be disregarded by the chairperson of the meeting, and upon his/her instructions, the vote tellers may disregard all votes cast for each such nominee.

Section 4. Proxies. Shareholders may vote at any meeting of the shareholders by proxies duly authorized in writing, but no officer or employee of this association shall act as proxy. Proxies shall be valid only for one meeting, to be specified therein, and any adjournments of such meeting. Proxies shall be dated and filed with the records of the meeting. Proxies with facsimile signatures may be used and unexecuted proxies may be counted upon receipt of a written confirmation from the shareholder. Proxies meeting the above requirements submitted at any time during a meeting shall be accepted.

Section 5. Quorum. A majority of the outstanding capital stock, represented in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at any meeting of shareholders, unless otherwise provided by law, or by the shareholders or directors pursuant to Article IX, Section 2, but less than a quorum may adjourn any meeting, from time to time, and the meeting may be held, as adjourned, without further notice. A majority of the votes cast shall decide every question or matter submitted to the shareholders at any meeting, unless otherwise provided by law or by the articles of association, or by the shareholders or directors pursuant to Article IX, Section 2. If a meeting for the election of directors is not held on the fixed date, at least 10 days’ notice must be given by first-class mail to the shareholders.

 

14


ARTICLE II

Directors

Section 1. Board of Directors. The board of directors shall have the power to manage and administer the business and affairs of the association. Except as expressly limited by law, all corporate powers of the association shall be vested in and may be exercised by the board of directors.

Section 2. Number. The board of directors shall consist of not less than five nor more than twenty-five members, unless the OCC has exempted the bank from the 25-member limit. The exact number within such minimum and maximum limits is to be fixed and determined from time to time by resolution of a majority of the full board of directors or by resolution of a majority of the shareholders at any meeting thereof.

Section 3. Organization Meeting. The secretary or treasurer, upon receiving the certificate of the judges of the result of any election, shall notify the directors-elect of their election and of the time at which they are required to meet at the main office of the association, or at such other place in the cities of Wilmington, Delaware or Buffalo, New York, to organize the new board of directors and elect and appoint officers of the association for the succeeding year. Such meeting shall be held on the day of the election or as soon thereafter as practicable, and, in any event, within 30 days thereof. If, at the time fixed for such meeting, there shall not be a quorum, the directors present may adjourn the meeting, from time to time, until a quorum is obtained.

Section 4. Regular Meetings. The Board of Directors may, at any time and from time to time, by resolution designate the place, date and hour for the holding of a regular meeting, but in the absence of any such designation, regular meetings of the board of directors shall be held, without notice, on the first Tuesday of each March, June and September, and on the second Tuesday of each December at the main office or other such place as the board of directors may designate. When any regular meeting of the board of directors falls upon a holiday, the meeting shall be held on the next banking business day unless the board of directors shall designate another day.

Section 5. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the board of directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board of the association, or at the request of two or more directors. Each member of the board of directors shall be given notice by telegram, first class mail, or in person stating the time and place of each special meeting.

Section 6. Quorum. A majority of the entire board then in office shall constitute a quorum at any meeting, except when otherwise provided by law or these bylaws, but a lesser number may adjourn any meeting, from time to time, and the meeting may be held, as adjourned, without further notice. If the number of directors present at the meeting is reduced below the number that would constitute a quorum, no business may be transacted, except selecting directors to fill vacancies in conformance with Article II, Section 7. If a quorum is present, the board of directors may take action through the vote of a majority of the directors who are in attendance.

Section 7. Meetings by Conference Telephone. Any one or more members of the board of directors or any committee thereof may participate in a meeting of such board or committees by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment allowing all persons participating in the meeting to hear each other at the same time. Participation in a meeting by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

 

15


Section 8. Procedures. The order of business and all other matters of procedure at every meeting of the board of directors may be determined by the person presiding at the meeting.

Section 9. Removal of Directors. Any director may be removed for cause, at any meeting of stockholders notice of which shall have referred to the proposed action, by vote of the stockholders. Any director may be removed without cause, at any meeting of stockholders notice of which shall have referred to the proposed action, by the vote of the holders of a majority of the shares of the Corporation entitled to vote. Any director may be removed for cause, at any meeting of the directors notice of which shall have referred to the proposed action, by vote of a majority of the entire Board of Directors.

Section 10. Vacancies. When any vacancy occurs among the directors, a majority of the remaining members of the board of directors, according to the laws of the United States, may appoint a director to fill such vacancy at any regular meeting of the board of directors, or at a special meeting called for that purpose at which a quorum is present, or if the directors remaining in office constitute fewer than a quorum of the board of directors, by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the directors remaining in office, or by shareholders at a special meeting called for that purpose in conformance with Section 2 of Article I. At any such shareholder meeting, each shareholder entitled to vote shall have the right to multiply the number of votes he or she is entitled to cast by the number of vacancies being filled and cast the product for a single candidate or distribute the product among two or more candidates. A vacancy that will occur at a specific later date (by reason of a resignation effective at a later date) may be filled before the vacancy occurs but the new director may not take office until the vacancy occurs.

ARTICLE III

Committees of the Board

The board of directors has power over and is solely responsible for the management, supervision, and administration of the association. The board of directors may delegate its power, but none of its responsibilities, to such persons or committees as the board may determine.

The board of directors must formally ratify written policies authorized by committees of the board of directors before such policies become effective. Each committee must have one or more member(s), and who may be an officer of the association or an officer or director of any affiliate of the association, who serve at the pleasure of the board of directors. Provisions of the articles of association and these bylaws governing place of meetings, notice of meeting, quorum and voting requirements of the board of directors, apply to committees and their members as well. The creation of a committee and appointment of members to it must be approved by the board of directors.

Section 1. Loan Committee. There shall be a loan committee composed of not less than 2 directors, appointed by the board of directors annually or more often. The loan committee, on behalf of the bank, shall have power to discount and purchase bills, notes and other evidences of debt, to buy and sell bills of exchange, to examine and approve loans and discounts, to exercise authority regarding loans and discounts, and to exercise, when the board of directors is not in session, all other powers of the board of directors that may lawfully be delegated. The loan committee shall keep minutes of its meetings, and such minutes shall be submitted at the next regular meeting of the board of directors at which a quorum is present, and any action taken by the board of directors with respect thereto shall be entered in the minutes of the board of directors.

 

16


Section 2. Investment Committee. There shall be an investment committee composed of not less than 2 directors, appointed by the board of directors annually or more often. The investment committee, on behalf of the bank, shall have the power to ensure adherence to the investment policy, to recommend amendments thereto, to purchase and sell securities, to exercise authority regarding investments and to exercise, when the board of directors is not in session, all other powers of the board of directors regarding investment securities that may be lawfully delegated. The investment committee shall keep minutes of its meetings, and such minutes shall be submitted at the next regular meeting of the board of directors at which a quorum is present, and any action taken by the board of directors with respect thereto shall be entered in the minutes of the board of directors.

Section 3. Examining Committee. There shall be an examining committee composed of not less than 2 directors, exclusive of any active officers, appointed by the board of directors annually or more often. The duty of that committee shall be to examine at least once during each calendar year and within 15 months of the last examination the affairs of the association or cause suitable examinations to be made by auditors responsible only to the board of directors and to report the result of such examination in writing to the board of directors at the next regular meeting thereafter. Such report shall state whether the association is in a sound condition, and whether adequate internal controls and procedures are being maintained and shall recommend to the board of directors such changes in the manner of conducting the affairs of the association as shall be deemed advisable.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the first paragraph of this section 3, the responsibility and authority of the Examining Committee may, if authorized by law, be given over to a duly constituted audit committee of the association’s parent corporation by a resolution duly adopted by the board of directors.

Section 4. Trust Audit Committee. There shall be a trust audit committee in conformance with Section 1 of Article V.

Section 5. Other Committees. The board of directors may appoint, from time to time, from its own members, compensation, special litigation and other committees of one or more persons, for such purposes and with such powers as the board of directors may determine.

However, a committee may not:

 

  (1)

Authorize distributions of assets or dividends;

 

  (2)

Approve action required to be approved by shareholders;

 

  (3)

Fill vacancies on the board of directors or any of its committees;

 

  (5)

Amend articles of association;

 

  (6)

Adopt, amend or repeal bylaws; or

 

  (6)

Authorize or approve issuance or sale or contract for sale of shares, or determine the designation and relative rights, preferences and limitations of a class or series of shares.

Section 6. Committee Members’ Fees. Committee members may receive a fee for their services as committee members and traveling and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in attending any meeting of a committee of which they are a member. The fee may be a fixed sum to be paid for attending each meeting or a fixed sum to be paid quarterly, or semiannually, irrespective of the number of meetings attended or not attended. The amount of the fee and the basis on which it shall be paid shall be determined by the board of directors.

 

17


ARTICLE IV

Officers and Employees

Section 1. Officers. The board of directors shall annually, at the Annual Reorganization Meeting of the board of directors following the annual meeting of the shareholders, appoint or elect a Chairperson of the Board, a Chief Executive Officer and a President, and one or more Vice Presidents, a Corporate Secretary, a Treasurer, a General Auditor, and such other officers as it may determine. At the Annual Reorganization Meeting, the board of directors shall also elect or reelect all of the officers of the association to hold office until the next Annual Reorganization Meeting. In the interim between Annual Reorganization Meetings, the board of directors may also elect or appoint a Chief Executive Officer, a President or such additional officers to the rank of Vice President, including (without limitation as to title or number) one or more Administrative Vice Presidents, Group Vice Presidents, Senior Vice Presidents and Executive Vice Presidents, and any other officer positions as they deem necessary and appropriate. The Chief Executive Officer of M&T Bank, the head of the Human Resources Department of M&T Bank, and any one executive Vice Chairman of M&T Bank, acting jointly, may appoint one or more officers to the rank of Executive Vice President or Senior Vice President. The head of the Human Resources Department of M&T Bank or his or her designee or designees, may appoint other officers up to the rank of Group Vice President, including (without limitation as to title or number) one or more Administrative Vice Presidents, Vice Presidents, Assistant Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers and Assistant Auditors, and any other officer positions as they deem necessary and appropriate. Each such person elected or appointed by the board of directors, the Chief Executive Officer of M&T Bank, the head of the Human Resources Department of M&T Bank, and an executive Vice Chairman of M&T Bank, acting jointly, or the head of the Human Resources Department of M&T Bank or his or her designee or designees, in between Annual Reorganization Meetings shall hold office until the next Annual Reorganization Meeting unless otherwise determined by the board of directors or such authorized officers.

Section 2. Chairperson of the Board. The board of directors shall appoint one of its members to be the chairperson of the board to serve at its pleasure. Such person shall preside at all meetings of the board of directors. The chairperson of the board shall supervise the carrying out of the policies adopted or approved by the board of directors; shall have general executive powers, as well as the specific powers conferred by these bylaws; and shall also have and may exercise such further powers and duties as from time to time may be conferred upon or assigned by the board of directors.

Section 3. President. The board of directors shall appoint one of its members to be the president of the association. In the absence of the chairperson, the president shall preside at any meeting of the board of directors. The president shall have general executive powers and shall have and may exercise any and all other powers and duties pertaining by law, regulation, or practice to the office of president, or imposed by these bylaws. The president shall also have and may exercise such further powers and duties as from time to time may be conferred or assigned by the board of directors.

Section 4. Vice President. The board of directors may appoint one or more vice presidents. Each vice president shall have such powers and duties as may be assigned by the board of directors. One vice president shall be designated by the board of directors, in the absence of the president, to perform all the duties of the president.

Section 5. Secretary. The board of directors shall appoint a secretary, treasurer, or other designated officer who shall be secretary of the board of directors and of the association and who shall keep accurate minutes of all meetings. The secretary shall attend to the giving of all notices required by these bylaws; shall be custodian of the corporate seal, records, documents and papers of the association; shall provide for the keeping of proper records of all transactions of the association; shall have and may exercise any and all other powers and duties pertaining by law, regulation or practice to the office of

 

18


treasurer, or imposed by these bylaws; and shall also perform such other duties as may be assigned from time to time, by the board of directors.

Section 6. Other Officers. The board of directors may appoint one or more assistant vice presidents, one or more trust officers, one or more assistant secretaries, one or more assistant treasurers, one or more managers and assistant managers of branches and such other officers and attorneys in fact as from time to time may appear to the board of directors to be required or desirable to transact the business of the association. Such officers shall respectively exercise such powers and perform such duties as pertain to their several offices, or as may be conferred upon or assigned to them by the board of directors, the chairperson of the board, or the president. The board of directors may authorize an officer to appoint one or more officers or assistant officers.

Section 7. Tenure of Office. The president and all other officers shall hold office for the current year for which the board of directors was elected, unless they shall resign, become disqualified, or be removed; and any vacancy occurring in the office of president shall be filled promptly by the board of directors.

Section 8. Resignation. An officer may resign at any time by delivering notice to the association. A resignation is effective when the notice is given unless the notice specifies a later effective date.

ARTICLE V

Fiduciary Activities

Section 1. Trust Audit Committee. There shall be a Trust Audit Committee composed of not less than 2 directors, appointed by the board of directors, which shall, at least once during each calendar year make suitable audits of the association’s fiduciary activities or cause suitable audits to be made by auditors responsible only to the board, and at such time shall ascertain whether fiduciary powers have been administered according to law, Part 9 of the Regulations of the Comptroller of the Currency, and sound fiduciary principles. Such committee: (1) must not include any officers of the bank or an affiliate who participate significantly in the administration of the bank’s fiduciary activities; and (2) must consist of a majority of members who are not also members of any committee to which the board of directors has delegated power to manage and control the fiduciary activities of the bank.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the first paragraph of this section 1, the responsibility and authority of the Trust Audit Committee may, if authorized by law, be given over to a duly constituted audit committee of the association’s parent corporation by a resolution duly adopted by the board of directors.

Section 2. Fiduciary Files. There shall be maintained by the association all fiduciary records necessary to assure that its fiduciary responsibilities have been properly undertaken and discharged.

Section 3. Trust Investments. Funds held in a fiduciary capacity shall be invested according to the instrument establishing the fiduciary relationship and applicable law. Where such instrument does not specify the character and class of investments to be made, but does vest in the association investment discretion, funds held pursuant to such instrument shall be invested in investments in which corporate fiduciaries may invest under applicable law.

 

19


ARTICLE VI

Stock and Stock Certificates

Section 1. Transfers. Shares of stock shall be transferable on the books of the association, and a transfer book shall be kept in which all transfers of stock shall be recorded. Every person becoming a shareholder by such transfer shall in proportion to such shareholder’s shares, succeed to all rights of the prior holder of such shares. The board of directors may impose conditions upon the transfer of the stock reasonably calculated to simplify the work of the association with respect to stock transfers, voting at shareholder meetings and related matters and to protect it against fraudulent transfers.

Section 2. Stock Certificates. Certificates of stock shall bear the signature of the president (which may be engraved, printed or impressed) and shall be signed manually or by facsimile process by the secretary, assistant secretary, treasurer, assistant treasurer, or any other officer appointed by the board of directors for that purpose, to be known as an authorized officer, and the seal of the association shall be engraved thereon. Each certificate shall recite on its face that the stock represented thereby is transferable only upon the books of the association properly endorsed.

The board of directors may adopt or use procedures for replacing lost, stolen, or destroyed stock certificates as permitted by law.

The association may establish a procedure through which the beneficial owner of shares that are registered in the name of a nominee may be recognized by the association as the shareholder. The procedure may set forth:

 

  (1)

The types of nominees to which it applies;

 

  (2)

The rights or privileges that the association recognizes in a beneficial owner;

 

  (3)

How the nominee may request the association to recognize the beneficial owner as the shareholder;

 

  (4)

The information that must be provided when the procedure is selected;

 

  (5)

The period over which the association will continue to recognize the beneficial owner as the shareholder;

 

  (6)

Other aspects of the rights and duties created.

ARTICLE VII

Corporate Seal

Section 1. Seal. The seal of the association shall be in such form as may be determined from time to time by the board of directors. The president, the treasurer, the secretary or any assistant treasurer or assistant secretary, or other officer thereunto designated by the board of directors shall have authority to affix the corporate seal to any document requiring such seal and to attest the same. The seal on any corporate obligation for the payment of money may be facsimile.

 

20


ARTICLE VIII

Miscellaneous Provisions

Section 1. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the association shall be the calendar year.

Section 2. Execution of Instruments. All agreements, indentures, mortgages, deeds, conveyances, transfers, certificates, declarations, receipts, discharges, releases, satisfactions, settlements, petitions, schedules, accounts, affidavits, bonds, undertakings, proxies and other instruments or documents may be signed, executed, acknowledged, verified, delivered or accepted on behalf of the association by the chairperson of the board, or the president, or any vice president, or the secretary, or the treasurer, or, if in connection with the exercise of fiduciary powers of the association, by any of those offices or by any trust officer. Any such instruments may also be executed, acknowledged, verified, delivered or accepted on behalf of the association in such other manner and by such other officers as the board of directors may from time to time direct. The provisions of this section 2 are supplementary to any other provision of these bylaws.

Section 3. Records. The articles of association, the bylaws and the proceedings of all meetings of the shareholders, the board of directors, and standing committees of the board of directors shall be recorded in appropriate minute books provided for that purpose. The minutes of each meeting shall be signed by the secretary, treasurer or other officer appointed to act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 4. Corporate Governance Procedures. To the extent not inconsistent with federal banking statutes and regulations, or safe and sound banking practices, the association may follow the Delaware General Corporation Law, Del. Code Ann. tit. 8 (1991, as amended 1994, and as amended thereafter) with respect to matters of corporate governance procedures.

Section 5. Indemnification. For purposes of this Section 5 of Article VIII, the term “institution-affiliated party” shall mean any institution-affiliated party of the association as such term is defined in 12 U.S.C. 1813(u).

Any institution-affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) may be indemnified or reimbursed by the association for reasonable expenses actually incurred in connection with any threatened, pending or completed actions or proceedings and appeals therein, whether civil, criminal, governmental, administrative or investigative, in accordance with and to the fullest extent permitted by law, as such law now or hereafter exists; provided, however, that when an administrative proceeding or action instituted by a federal banking agency results in a final order or settlement pursuant to which such person: (i) is assessed a civil money penalty, (ii) is removed from office or prohibited from participating in the conduct of the affairs of the association, or (iii) is required to cease and desist from or to take any affirmative action described in 12 U.S.C. 1818(b) with respect to the association, then the association shall require the repayment of all legal fees and expenses advanced pursuant to the next succeeding paragraph and may not indemnify such institution-affiliated parties (or their heirs, executors or administrators) for expenses, including expenses for legal fees, penalties or other payments incurred. The association shall provide indemnification in connection with an action or proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by an institution-affiliated party (or by his or her heirs, executors or administrators) only if such action or proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the board of directors.

Expenses incurred by an institution-affiliated party (or by his or her heirs, executors or administrators) in connection with any action or proceeding under 12 U.S.C. 164 or 1818 may be paid by the association in advance of the final disposition of such action or proceeding upon (a) a determination by the board of directors acting by a quorum consisting of directors who are not parties to such action or proceeding that the institution-affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) has a

 

21


reasonable basis for prevailing on the merits, (b) a determination that the indemnified individual (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) will have the financial capacity to reimburse the bank in the event he or she does not prevail, (c) a determination that the payment of expenses and fees by the association will not adversely affect the safety and soundness of the association, and (d) receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such institution-affiliated party (or by his or her heirs, executors or administrators) to repay such advancement in the event of a final order or settlement pursuant to which such person: (i) is assessed a civil money penalty, (ii) is removed from office or prohibited from participating in the conduct of the affairs of the association, or (iii) is required to cease and desist from or to take any affirmative action described in 12 U.S.C. 1818(b) with respect to the association. In all other instances, expenses incurred by an institution-affiliated party (or by his or her heirs, executors or administrators) in connection with any action or proceeding as to which indemnification may be given under these articles of association may be paid by the association in advance of the final disposition of such action or proceeding upon (a) receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such institution-affiliated party (or by or on behalf of his or her heirs, executors or administrators) to repay such advancement in the event that such institution- affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) is ultimately found not to be entitled to indemnification as authorized by these bylaws and (b) approval by the board of directors acting by a quorum consisting of directors who are not parties to such action or proceeding or, if such a quorum is not obtainable, then approval by stockholders. To the extent permitted by law, the board of directors or, if applicable, the stockholders, shall not be required to find that the institution-affiliated party has met the applicable standard of conduct provided by law for indemnification in connection with such action or proceeding.

In the event that a majority of the members of the board of directors are named as respondents in an administrative proceeding or civil action and request indemnification, the remaining members of the board may authorize independent legal counsel to review the indemnification request and provide the remaining members of the board with a written opinion of counsel as to whether the conditions delineated in the first four paragraphs of this Section 5 of Article VIII have been met. If independent legal counsel opines that said conditions have been met, the remaining members of the board of directors may rely on such opinion in authorizing the requested indemnification.

In the event that all of the members of the board of directors are named as respondents in an administrative proceeding or civil action and request indemnification, the board shall authorize independent legal counsel to review the indemnification request and provide the board with a written opinion of counsel as to whether the conditions delineated in the first four paragraphs of this Section 5 of Article VIII have been met. If legal counsel opines that said conditions have been met, the board of directors may rely on such opinion in authorizing the requested indemnification.

To the extent permitted under applicable law, the rights of indemnification and to the advancement of expenses provided in these articles of association (a) shall be available with respect to events occurring prior to the adoption of these bylaws, (b) shall continue to exist after any restrictive amendment of these bylaws with respect to events occurring prior to such amendment, (c) may be interpreted on the basis of applicable law in effect at the time of the occurrence of the event or events giving rise to the action or proceeding, or on the basis of applicable law in effect at the time such rights are claimed, and (d) are in the nature of contract rights which may be enforced in any court of competent jurisdiction as if the association and the institution-affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) for whom such rights are sought were parties to a separate written agreement.

The rights of indemnification and to the advancement of expenses provided in these bylaws shall not, to the extent permitted under applicable law, be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which any such institution-affiliated party (or his or her heirs, executors or administrators) may now or hereafter be otherwise entitled whether contained in the association’s articles of association, these bylaws, a resolution of stockholders, a resolution of the board of directors, or an agreement providing such indemnification, the creation of such other rights being hereby expressly authorized. Without limiting the generality of the

 

22


foregoing, the rights of indemnification and to the advancement of expenses provided in these bylaws shall not be deemed exclusive of any rights, pursuant to statute or otherwise, of any such institution-affiliated party (or of his or her heirs, executors or administrators) in any such action or proceeding to have assessed or allowed in his or her favor, against the association or otherwise, his or her costs and expenses incurred therein or in connection therewith or any part thereof.

If this Section 5 of Article VIII or any part hereof shall be held unenforceable in any respect by a court of competent jurisdiction, it shall be deemed modified to the minimum extent necessary to make it enforceable, and the remainder of this Section 5 of Article VIII shall remain fully enforceable.

The association may, upon affirmative vote of a majority of its board of directors, purchase insurance to indemnify its institution-affiliated parties to the extent that such indemnification is allowed in these bylaws; provided, however, that no such insurance shall include coverage for a final order assessing civil money penalties against such persons by a bank regulatory agency. Such insurance may, but need not, be for the benefit of all institution- affiliated parties.

 

23


ARTICLE IX

Inspection and Amendments

Section 1. Inspection. A copy of the bylaws of the association, with all amendments, shall at all times be kept in a convenient place at the main office of the association, and shall be open for inspection to all shareholders during banking hours.

Section 2. Amendments. The bylaws of the association may be amended, altered or repealed, at any regular meeting of the board of directors, by a vote of a majority of the total number of the directors except as provided below, and provided that the following language accompany any such change.

I,                                 , certify that: (1) I am the duly constituted (secretary or treasurer) of                      and secretary of its board of directors, and as such officer am the official custodian of its records; (2) the foregoing bylaws are the bylaws of the association, and all of them are now lawfully in force and effect.

I have hereunto affixed my official signature on this                    day of                        .

 

 
 

 

 

 

(Secretary or Treasurer)  

The association’s shareholders may amend or repeal the bylaws even though the bylaws also may be amended or repealed by the board of directors.


EXHIBIT 6

Section 321(b) Consent

Pursuant to Section 321(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, Wilmington Trust, National Association hereby consents that reports of examinations by Federal, State, Territorial or District authorities may be furnished by such authorities to the Securities and Exchange Commission upon requests therefor.

 

    WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
Dated: August 16, 2019     By:  

    /s/ Jane Schweiger

      Name:   Jane Schweiger
      Title:   Vice President


EXHIBIT 7

REPORT OF CONDITION

WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

As of the close of business on March 31, 2019

 

     Thousands of Dollars  

ASSETS

  

Cash and balances due from depository institutions:

     3,286,481  

Securities:

     5,571  

Federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreement to resell:

     0  

Loans and leases held for sale:

     0  

Loans and leases net of unearned income, allowance:

     151,885  

Premises and fixed asset

     16,678  

Other real estate owned:

     353  

Investments in unconsolidated subsidiaries and associated companies:

     0  

Direct and indirect investments in real estate ventures:

     0  

Intangible assets:

     1,847  

Other assets:

     66,784  

Total Assets:

     3,529,599  
     Thousands of Dollars  

LIABILITIES

  

Deposits

     2,859,814  

Federal funds purchased and securities sold under agreements to repurchase

     0  

Other borrowed money:

     0  

Other Liabilities:

     104,407  

Total Liabilities

     2,964,221  
     Thousands of Dollars  

EQUITY CAPITAL

  

Common Stock

     1,000  

Surplus

     399,594  

Retained Earnings

     165,157  

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     (373

Total Equity Capital

     565,378  

Total Liabilities and Equity Capital

     3,529,599  
(Back To Top)