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Section 1: 10-K (FY1819 10-K)

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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 10-K
(Mark one)
[x]
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2019
OR
[ ]
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     
Commission File No. 1-434
THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY
One Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
Telephone (513) 983-1100
IRS Employer Identification No. 31-0411980
State of Incorporation: Ohio
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, without Par Value
PG
New York Stock Exchange
4.125% EUR notes due December 2020
PG20A
New York Stock Exchange
0.275% Notes due 2020
PG20
New York Stock Exchange
2.000% Notes due 2021
PG21
New York Stock Exchange
2.000% Notes due 2022
PG22B
New York Stock Exchange
1.125% Notes due 2023
PG23A
New York Stock Exchange
0.500% Notes due 2024
PG24A
New York Stock Exchange
0.625% Notes due 2024
PG24B
New York Stock Exchange
1.375% Notes due 2025
PG25
New York Stock Exchange
4.875% EUR notes due May 2027
PG27A
New York Stock Exchange
1.200% Notes due 2028
PG28
New York Stock Exchange
1.250% Notes due 2029
PG29B
New York Stock Exchange
1.800% Notes due 2029
PG29A
New York Stock Exchange
6.250% GBP notes due January 2030
PG30
New York Stock Exchange
5.250% GBP notes due January 2033
PG33
New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2038
PG38
New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filed," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
þ
 
 
Accelerated filer
¨
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
¨
 
(Do not check if smaller reporting company)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Smaller reporting company
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No þ
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates amounted to $226 billion on December 31, 2018.
There were 2,502,259,668 shares of Common Stock outstanding as of July 31, 2019.
 
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which will be filed within one hundred and twenty days of the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019 (2019 Proxy Statement), are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report to the extent described herein.



FORM 10-K TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I
Item 1.
 
Item 1A.
 
Item 1B.
 
Item 2.
 
Item 3.
 
Item 4.
 
 
PART II
Item 5.
 
Item 6.
 
Item 7.
 
Item 7A.
 
Item 8.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 9.
 
Item 9A.
 
Item 9B.
PART III
Item 10.
 
Item 11.
 
Item 12.
 
Item 13.
 
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
 
Item 16.
 
 
 
 


The Procter & Gamble Company 1

PART I

Item 1. Business.
Additional information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A); and Notes 1 and 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms the "Company," "P&G," "we," "our" or "us" as used herein refer to The Procter & Gamble Company (the registrant) and its subsidiaries.
The Procter & Gamble Company is focused on providing branded products of superior quality and value to improve the lives of the world's consumers, now and for generations to come. The Company was incorporated in Ohio in 1905, having been built from a business founded in 1837 by William Procter and James Gamble. Today, our products are sold in more than 180 countries and territories.
Throughout this Form 10-K, we incorporate by reference information from other documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
The Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments thereto, are filed electronically with the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains these reports at: www.sec.gov. You can also access these reports through links from our website at: www.pginvestor.com.
Copies of these reports are also available, without charge, by contacting EQ Shareowner Services, 1100 Centre Pointe Curve, Suite 101, Mendota, MN 55120-4100.
Financial Information about Segments
Information about our reportable segments can be found in the MD&A and Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Narrative Description of Business
Business Model. Our business model relies on the continued growth and success of existing brands and products, as well as the creation of new innovative products. The markets and industry segments in which we offer our products are highly competitive. Our products are sold in more than 180 countries and territories through numerous channels as well as direct-to-consumer. Our growth strategy is to deliver meaningful and noticeable superiority in all elements of our consumer proposition - product, packaging, brand communication, retail execution and value equation. We use our research and development and consumer insights to provide superior products and packaging. We utilize our marketing and online presence to deliver superior brand messaging to our consumers. We work collaboratively with our customers to deliver superior retail execution, both in-store and online. In conjunction with the above elements, we provide superior value to consumers and our retail customers, in each price tier where we compete.
Key Product Categories. Information on key product categories can be found in Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
Key Customers. Our customers include mass merchandisers, e-commerce, grocery stores, membership club stores, drug stores, department stores, distributors, wholesalers, baby stores, specialty beauty stores, high-frequency stores and pharmacies. We also sell direct to consumers. Sales to Walmart Inc. and its affiliates represent approximately 15% of our total sales in 2019 and 2018 and 16% in 2017. No other customer represents more than 10% of our total sales. Our top ten customers accounted for approximately 36% of our total sales in 2019 and 2018, and 35% in 2017. The nature of our business does not result in material backlog orders or contracts with the government. We believe our practices related to working capital items for customers and suppliers are consistent with the industry segments in which we compete.
Sources and Availability of Materials. Almost all of the raw and packaging materials used by the Company are purchased from others, some of whom are single-source suppliers. We produce certain raw materials, primarily chemicals, for further use in the manufacturing process. In addition, fuel, natural gas and derivative products are important commodities consumed in our manufacturing process and in the transportation of input materials and finished products to customers. The prices we pay for materials and other commodities are subject to fluctuation. When prices for these items change, we may or may not pass the change to our customers. The Company purchases a substantial variety of other raw and packaging materials, none of which is material to our business taken as a whole.
Trademarks and Patents. We own or have licenses under patents and registered trademarks, which are used in connection with our activity in all businesses. Some of these patents or licenses cover significant product formulation and processes used to manufacture our products. The trademarks are important to the overall marketing and branding of our products. All major trademarks in each business are registered. In part, our success can be attributed to the existence and continued protection of these trademarks, patents and licenses.
Competitive Condition. The markets in which our products are sold are highly competitive. Our products compete against similar products of many large and small companies, including well-known global competitors. In many of the markets and industry segments in which we sell our products we compete against other branded products as well as retailers' private-label brands. We are well positioned in the industry segments and markets in which we operate, often holding a leadership or significant market share position. We support our products with advertising, promotions and other marketing vehicles to build awareness and trial of our brands and products in conjunction with our sales force. We believe this combination provides the most efficient method of marketing for these types of products. Product quality, performance, value and packaging are also important differentiating factors.
Expenditures for Environmental Compliance. Expenditures for compliance with federal, state and local environmental laws


2 The Procter & Gamble Company

and regulations are fairly consistent from year to year and are not material to the Company. No material change is expected in fiscal year 2020.
Employees. Total number of employees is an estimate of total Company employees excluding interns, co-ops, contractors and employees of joint ventures as of the years ended June 30. The number of employees includes manufacturing and non-manufacturing employees. The number of employees is not restated to exclude employees of discontinued operations.
 
Total Number of Employees
2019
97,000
2018
92,000
2017
95,000
2016
105,000
2015
110,000
2014
118,000

Item 1A. Risk Factors.
We discuss our expectations regarding future performance, events and outcomes, such as our business outlook and objectives in this Form 10-K, quarterly and annual reports, press releases and other written and oral communications. All statements, except for historical and present factual information, are “forward-looking statements” and are based on financial data and business plans available only as of the time the statements are made, which may become outdated or incomplete. We assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or other factors. Forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain, and investors must recognize that events could significantly differ from our expectations.
The following discussion of “risk factors” identifies significant factors that may adversely affect our business, operations, financial position or future financial performance. This information should be read in conjunction with the MD&A and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes incorporated in this report. The following discussion of risks is not all inclusive, but is designed to highlight what we believe are important factors to consider when evaluating our expectations. These and other factors could cause our future results to differ from those in the forward-looking statements and from historical trends.
Our business is subject to numerous risks as a result of our having significant operations and sales in international markets, including foreign currency fluctuations, currency exchange or pricing controls and localized volatility.
We are a global company, with operations in approximately 70 countries and products sold in more than 180 countries and territories around the world. We hold assets, incur liabilities, earn revenues and pay expenses in a variety of currencies other than the U.S. dollar, and our operations outside the U.S. generate more than fifty percent of our net revenue. Fluctuations in exchange rates for foreign currencies may
 
reduce the U.S. dollar value of revenues, profits and cash flows we receive from non-U.S. markets, increase our supply costs (as measured in U.S. dollars) in those markets, negatively impact our competitiveness in those markets or otherwise adversely impact our business results or financial condition. Moreover, discriminatory or conflicting fiscal or trade policies in different countries, including changes to tariffs and existing trade policies and agreements, could adversely affect our results. See also the Results of Operations and Cash Flow, Financial Condition and Liquidity sections of the MD&A and Note 9 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
We also have businesses and maintain local currency cash balances in a number of countries with currency exchange, import authorization, pricing or other controls or restrictions, such as Nigeria, Algeria, Egypt and Turkey. Our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted if we are unable to successfully manage such controls and restrictions, continue existing business operations and repatriate earnings from overseas, or if new or increased tariffs, quotas, exchange or price controls, trade barriers or similar restrictions are imposed on our business.
Additionally, our business, operations or employees may be adversely affected by political volatility, labor market disruptions or other crises or vulnerabilities in individual countries or regions, including political instability or upheaval, broad economic instability or sovereign risk related to a default by or deterioration in the credit worthiness of local governments, particularly in emerging markets.
Uncertain global economic conditions may adversely impact demand for our products or cause our customers and other business partners to suffer financial hardship, which could adversely impact our business.
Our business could be negatively impacted by reduced demand for our products related to one or more significant local, regional or global economic disruptions, such as: a slow-down in the general economy; reduced market growth rates; tighter credit markets for our suppliers, vendors or customers; a significant shift in government policies; the deterioration of economic relations between countries or regions, including potential negative consumer sentiment toward non-local products or sources; or the inability to conduct day-to-day transactions through our financial intermediaries to pay funds to or collect funds from our customers, vendors and suppliers. Additionally, economic conditions may cause our suppliers, distributors, contractors or other third-party partners to suffer financial difficulties that they cannot overcome, resulting in their inability to provide us with the materials and services we need, in which case our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. Customers may also suffer financial hardships due to economic conditions such that their accounts become uncollectible or are subject to longer collection cycles. In addition, if we are unable to generate sufficient income and cash flow, it could affect the Company’s ability to achieve expected share repurchase and dividend payments.




The Procter & Gamble Company 3

Disruptions in credit markets or changes to our credit ratings may reduce our access to credit.
A disruption in the credit markets or a downgrade of our current credit rating could increase our future borrowing costs and impair our ability to access capital and credit markets on terms commercially acceptable to us, which could adversely affect our liquidity and capital resources or significantly increase our cost of capital.
Disruption in our global supply chain may negatively impact our business results.
Our ability to meet our customers’ needs and achieve cost targets depends on our ability to maintain key manufacturing and supply arrangements, including execution of supply chain optimizations and certain sole supplier or sole manufacturing plant arrangements. The loss or disruption of such manufacturing and supply arrangements, including for issues such as labor disputes, loss or impairment of key manufacturing sites, discontinuity in our internal information and data systems, inability to procure sufficient raw or input materials, significant changes in trade policy, natural disasters, increasing severity or frequency of extreme weather events due to climate change or otherwise, acts of war or terrorism or other external factors over which we have no control, could interrupt product supply and, if not effectively managed and remedied, have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our businesses face cost fluctuations and pressures that could affect our business results.
Our costs are subject to fluctuations, particularly due to changes in the prices of commodities and raw materials and the costs of labor, transportation, energy, pension and healthcare. Therefore, our business results are dependent, in part, on our continued ability to manage these fluctuations through pricing actions, cost saving projects and sourcing decisions, while maintaining and improving margins and market share. Failure to manage these fluctuations could adversely impact our financial results.
Our ability to meet our growth targets depends on successful product, marketing and operations innovation and successful responses to competitive innovation and changing consumer habits.
We are a consumer products company that relies on continued global demand for our brands and products. Achieving our business results depends, in part, on successfully developing, introducing and marketing new products and on making significant improvements to our equipment and manufacturing processes. The success of such innovation depends on our ability to correctly anticipate customer and consumer acceptance and trends, to obtain, maintain and enforce necessary intellectual property protections and to avoid infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others. We must also successfully respond to technological advances made by, and intellectual property rights granted to, competitors. Failure to continually innovate, improve and respond to competitive moves and changing consumer habits could compromise our competitive position and adversely impact our results.
 
The ability to achieve our business objectives is dependent on how well we can compete with our local and global competitors in new and existing markets and channels.
The consumer products industry is highly competitive. Across all of our categories, we compete against a wide variety of global and local competitors. As a result, we experience ongoing competitive pressures in the environments in which we operate, which may result in challenges in maintaining profit margins. To address these challenges, we must be able to successfully respond to competitive factors and emerging retail trends, including pricing, promotional incentives, product delivery windows and trade terms. In addition, evolving sales channels and business models may affect customer and consumer preferences as well as market dynamics, which, for example, may be seen in the growing consumer preference for shopping online, ease of competitive entry into certain categories, and growth in hard discounter channels. Failure to successfully respond to competitive factors and emerging retail trends, and effectively compete in growing sales channels and business models, particularly e-commerce and mobile commerce applications, could negatively impact our results.
A significant change in customer relationships or in customer demand for our products could have a significant impact on our business.
We sell most of our products via retail customers, which include mass merchandisers, e-commerce, grocery stores, membership club stores, drug stores, department stores, distributors, wholesalers, baby stores, specialty beauty stores, high-frequency stores and pharmacies. Our success is dependent on our ability to successfully manage relationships with our retail trade customers, which includes our ability to offer trade terms that are mutually acceptable and are aligned with our pricing and profitability targets. Continued concentration among our retail customers could create significant cost and margin pressure on our business, and our business performance could suffer if we cannot reach agreement with a key customer on trade terms and principles. Our business could also be negatively impacted if a key customer were to significantly reduce the inventory level or shelf space of our products as a result of increased offerings of private label brands and generic non-branded products or for other reasons, significantly tighten product delivery windows or experience a significant business disruption.
If the reputation of the Company or one or more of our brands erodes significantly, it could have a material impact on our financial results.
The Company's reputation, and the reputation of our brands, form the foundation of our relationships with key stakeholders and other constituencies, including consumers, customers and suppliers. The quality and safety of our products are critical to our business. Many of our brands have worldwide recognition and our financial success is directly dependent on the success of our brands. The success of our brands can suffer if our marketing plans or product initiatives do not have the desired impact on a brand's image or its ability to attract consumers. Our results could also be negatively impacted if


4 The Procter & Gamble Company

one of our brands suffers substantial harm to its reputation due to a significant product recall, product-related litigation, defects or impurities in our products, product misuse, changing consumer perceptions of certain ingredients or environmental impacts, allegations of product tampering or the distribution and sale of counterfeit products. Additionally, negative or inaccurate postings or comments on social media or networking websites about the Company or one of its brands could generate adverse publicity that could damage the reputation of our brands or the Company. If we are unable to effectively manage real or perceived issues, including concerns about safety, quality, ingredients, efficacy, environmental impacts or similar matters, sentiments toward the Company or our products could be negatively impacted and our financial results could suffer. Our Company also devotes time and resources to citizenship efforts that are consistent with our corporate values and are designed to strengthen our business and protect and preserve our reputation, including programs driving ethics and corporate responsibility, strong communities, diversity and inclusion, gender equality and environmental sustainability. If these programs are not executed as planned or suffer negative publicity, the Company's reputation and financial results could be adversely impacted.
We rely on third parties in many aspects of our business, which creates additional risk.
Due to the scale and scope of our business, we must rely on relationships with third parties, including our suppliers, contract manufacturers, distributors, contractors, commercial banks, joint venture partners and external business partners, for certain functions. If we are unable to effectively manage our third-party relationships and the agreements under which our third-party partners operate, our financial results could suffer. Additionally, while we have policies and procedures for managing these relationships, they inherently involve a lesser degree of control over business operations, governance and compliance, thereby potentially increasing our financial, legal, reputational and operational risk.
An information security or operational technology incident, including a cybersecurity breach, or the failure of one or more key information or operations technology systems, networks, hardware, processes, and/or associated sites owned or operated by the Company or one of its service providers could have a material adverse impact on our business or reputation.
As part of the Company’s regular review of potential risks, we maintain an information and operational technology (“IT/OT”) risk management program that is primarily supervised by information technology management and reviewed by internal cross-functional stakeholders. As part of this program, analyses of emerging cybersecurity threats as well as the Company’s plans and strategies to address them are regularly prepared and presented to senior management, the Audit Committee and the Board of Directors. Despite our policies, procedures and programs, including this IT/OT risk management program, we may not be effective in identifying and mitigating every risk to which we are exposed.
 
We rely extensively on IT/OT systems, networks and services, including internet and intranet sites, data hosting and processing facilities and technologies, physical security systems and other hardware, software and technical applications and platforms, many of which are managed, hosted, provided and/or used by third parties or their vendors, to assist in conducting our business. The various uses of these IT/OT systems, networks and services include, but are not limited to:
ordering and managing materials from suppliers;
converting materials to finished products;
shipping products to customers;
marketing and selling products to consumers;
collecting, transferring, storing and/or processing customer, consumer, employee, vendor, investor, and other stakeholder information and personal data, including such data from persons covered by an expanding landscape of privacy and data regulations, such as citizens of the European Union who are covered by the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”);
summarizing and reporting results of operations, including financial reporting;
managing our banking and other cash liquidity systems and platforms;
hosting, processing and sharing, as appropriate, confidential and proprietary research, business plans and financial information;
collaborating via an online and efficient means of global business communications;
complying with regulatory, legal and tax requirements;
providing data security; and
handling other processes necessary to manage our business.
Numerous and evolving information security threats, including advanced persistent cybersecurity threats, pose a risk to the security of our services, systems, networks and supply chain, as well as to the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data and of our critical business operations. As cybersecurity threats rapidly evolve in sophistication and become more prevalent across the industry globally, the Company is continually increasing its attention to these threats. We assess potential threats and vulnerabilities and make investments seeking to address them, including ongoing monitoring and updating of networks and systems, increasing specialized information security skills, deploying employee security training, and updating security policies for the Company and its third-party providers. However, because the techniques, tools and tactics used in cyber-attacks frequently change and may be difficult to detect for periods of time, we may face difficulties in anticipating and implementing adequate preventative measures or fully mitigating harms after such an attack.
Our IT/OT databases and systems and our third-party providers’ databases and systems have been, and will likely continue to be, subject to advanced computer viruses or other malicious codes, ransomware, unauthorized access attempts, denial of service attacks, phishing, social engineering, hacking and other cyber-attacks. Such attacks may originate from


The Procter & Gamble Company 5

outside parties, hackers, criminal organizations or other threat actors, including nation states. In addition, insider actors-malicious or otherwise-could cause technical disruptions and/or confidential data leakage. To date, we have seen no material impact on our business or operations from these attacks; however, we cannot guarantee that our security efforts or the security efforts of our third-party providers will prevent material breaches, operational incidents or other breakdowns to our or our third-party providers’ IT/OT databases or systems.
Periodically, we also need to upgrade our IT/OT systems or adopt new technologies. If such a new system or technology does not function properly or otherwise exposes us to increased cybersecurity breaches and failures, it could affect our ability to order materials, make and ship orders, and process payments in addition to other operational and information integrity and loss issues. Further, if the IT/OT systems, networks or service providers we rely upon fail to function properly or cause operational outages or aberrations, or if we or one of our third-party providers suffer significant unavailability of key operations, or inadvertent disclosure of, lack of integrity of, or loss of our sensitive business or stakeholder information, due to any number of causes, ranging from catastrophic events or power outages to improper data handling, security incidents or employee error or malfeasance, and our business continuity plans do not effectively address these failures on a timely basis, we may be exposed to reputational, competitive, operational, financial and business harm as well as litigation and regulatory action. The costs and operational consequences of responding to the above items and implementing remediation measures could be significant and could adversely impact our results.
Changing political conditions could adversely impact our business and financial results.
Changes in the political conditions in markets in which we manufacture, sell or distribute our products may be difficult to predict and may adversely affect our business and financial results. For example, the United Kingdom’s pending withdrawal from the European Union ("Brexit") has created uncertainty regarding, among other things, the U.K.'s future legal and economic framework and how the U.K. will interact with other countries, including with respect to the free movement of goods, services, capital and people. In addition, results of elections, referendums or other political processes in certain markets in which our products are manufactured, sold or distributed could create uncertainty regarding how existing governmental policies, laws and regulations may change, including with respect to sanctions, taxes, the movement of goods, services, capital and people between countries and other matters. The potential implications of such uncertainty, which include, among others, exchange rate fluctuations, tariffs, trade barriers and market contraction, could adversely affect the Company’s business and financial results.
We must successfully manage compliance with laws and regulations, as well as manage new and pending legal and regulatory matters in the U.S. and abroad.
Our business is subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations across the countries in which we do business, including those laws and regulations involving intellectual property, product
 
liability, product composition or formulation, packaging content or disposability, marketing, antitrust, data protection, environmental (including climate, water, waste), employment, anti-bribery, anti-corruption, tax, accounting and financial reporting or other matters. Rapidly changing laws, regulations, policies and related interpretations, as well as increased enforcement actions, create challenges for the Company, including our compliance and ethics programs, may alter the environment in which we do business and may increase the ongoing costs of compliance, which could adversely impact our financial results. If we are unable to continue to meet these challenges and comply with all laws, regulations, policies and related interpretations, it could negatively impact our reputation and our business results. Failure to successfully manage regulatory and legal matters and resolve such matters without significant liability or damage to our reputation may materially adversely impact our results of operations and financial position. Furthermore, if pending legal or regulatory matters result in fines or costs in excess of the amounts accrued to date, that may also materially impact our results of operations and financial position.
Changes in applicable tax regulations and resolutions of tax disputes could negatively affect our financial results.
The Company is subject to taxation in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Changes in the various tax laws can and do occur. For example, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “U.S. Tax Act”). The changes included in the U.S. Tax Act are broad and complex.  The ongoing impacts of the U.S. Tax Act may differ from the estimates provided elsewhere in this report, possibly materially, due to, among other things, changes in interpretations, any regulatory guidance or legislative action to address questions that arise or any updates or changes to estimates the Company has used to calculate the impacts. 
Additionally, longstanding international tax norms that determine each country’s jurisdiction to tax cross-border international trade are subject to potential evolution. An outgrowth of the original Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (“BEPS") project is a new project undertaken by the 129 member countries of the expanded OECD Inclusive Framework focused on "Addressing the Challenges of the Digitalization of the Economy." The breadth of this project extends beyond pure digital businesses and is likely to impact all multinational businesses by potentially redefining jurisdictional taxation rights. As this and other tax laws and related regulations change or evolve, our financial results could be materially impacted. Given the unpredictability of these possible changes, it is very difficult to assess whether the overall effect of such potential tax changes would be cumulatively positive or negative for our earnings and cash flow, but such changes could adversely impact our financial results.
Furthermore, we are subject to regular review and audit by both foreign and domestic tax authorities. While we believe our tax positions will be sustained, the final outcome of tax audits and related litigation, including maintaining our intended tax treatment of divestiture transactions such as the fiscal 2017


6 The Procter & Gamble Company

Beauty Brands transaction with Coty, may differ materially from the tax amounts recorded in our Consolidated Financial Statements, which could adversely impact our cash flows and financial results.
We must successfully manage ongoing acquisition, joint venture and divestiture activities.
As a company that manages a portfolio of consumer brands, our ongoing business model includes a certain level of acquisition, joint venture and divestiture activities. We must be able to successfully manage the impacts of these activities, while at the same time delivering against our business objectives. Specifically, our financial results could be adversely impacted by the dilutive impacts from the loss of earnings associated with divested brands or dissolution of joint ventures. Our financial results could also be impacted by acquisitions or joint venture activities, such as the integration of Merck KGaA's Consumer Health business acquired in fiscal 2019, if: 1) changes in the cash flows or other market-based assumptions cause the value of acquired assets to fall below book value, or 2) we are not able to deliver the expected cost and growth synergies associated with such acquisitions and joint ventures, including as a result of integration and collaboration challenges, which could also have an impact on goodwill and intangible assets.
Our business results depend on our ability to successfully manage productivity improvements and ongoing organizational change.
Our financial projections assume certain ongoing productivity improvements and cost savings, including staffing adjustments as well as employee departures. Failure to deliver these planned productivity improvements and cost savings, while continuing to invest in business growth, could adversely impact our financial results. Additionally, successfully executing organizational change, including the move to a new organizational structure in fiscal 2020, management transitions at leadership levels of the Company and motivation and retention of key employees, is critical to our business success. Factors that may affect our ability to attract and retain sufficient numbers of qualified employees include employee morale, our reputation, competition from other employers and availability of qualified personnel. Our success is dependent on identifying, developing and retaining key employees to provide uninterrupted leadership and direction for our business. This includes developing and retaining organizational capabilities in key growth markets where the depth of skilled or experienced employees may be limited and competition for these resources is intense, as well as continuing the development and execution of robust leadership succession plans.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2. Properties.
In the U.S., we own and operate 24 manufacturing sites located in 18 different states. In addition, we own and operate 85 manufacturing sites in 37 other countries. Many of the domestic and international sites manufacture products for
 
multiple businesses. Beauty products are manufactured at 24 of these locations; Grooming products at 19; Health Care products at 21; Fabric & Home Care products at 39; and Baby, Feminine & Family Care at 37. We own our Corporate headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. We own or lease our principal regional general offices in Switzerland, Panama, Singapore and China. We own or lease our principal regional shared service centers in Costa Rica, the United Kingdom and the Philippines. Management believes that the Company's sites are adequate to support the business and that the properties and equipment have been well maintained.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
The Company is subject, from time to time, to certain legal proceedings and claims arising out of our business, which cover a wide range of matters, including antitrust and trade regulation, product liability, advertising, contracts, environmental issues, patent and trademark matters, labor and employment matters and tax. See Note 12 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for information on certain legal proceedings for which there are contingencies.
This item should be read in conjunction with the Company's Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A for additional information.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure.
Not applicable.



The Procter & Gamble Company 7

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The names, ages and positions held by the Executive Officers of the Company on August 6, 2019, are:
Name
 
Position
 
Age
 
First Elected to
Officer Position
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
David S. Taylor
 
Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer
 
61
 
2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jon R. Moeller
 
Vice Chairman, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer
 
55
 
2009
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Steven D. Bishop
 
Chief Executive Officer - Health Care
 
55
 
2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mary Lynn Ferguson-McHugh
 
Chief Executive Officer - Family Care and P&G Ventures
 
59
 
2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carolyn M. Tastad
 
Group President - North America and Chief Sales Officer
 
58
 
2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gary A. Coombe
 
Chief Executive Officer - Grooming
 
55
 
2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kathleen B. Fish
 
Chief Research, Development and Innovation Officer
 
62
 
2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fama Francisco
 
Chief Executive Officer - Baby and Feminine Care
 
51
 
2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
M. Tracey Grabowski
 
Chief Human Resources Officer
 
51
 
2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shailesh Jejurikar
 
Chief Executive Officer - Fabric and Home Care
 
52
 
2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
R. Alexandra Keith
 
Chief Executive Officer - Beauty
 
51
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Deborah P. Majoras
 
Chief Legal Officer and Secretary
 
55
 
2010
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marc S. Pritchard
 
Chief Brand Officer
 
59
 
2008
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Valarie L. Sheppard
 
Controller and Treasurer and Executive Vice President - Company Transition Leader
 
55
 
2005
All the Executive Officers named above have been employed by the Company for more than the past five years.


8 The Procter & Gamble Company

PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Period
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased (1)
 
Average Price
Paid per Share (2)
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs (3)
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under Our Share Repurchase Program
4/1/2019 - 4/30/2019
 
5,739,213
 
$104.54
 
5,739,213
 
(3) 
5/1/2019 - 5/31/2019
 
6,125,301
 
106.12
 
6,125,301
 
(3) 
6/1/2019 - 6/30/2019
 
4,567,568
 
109.47
 
4,567,568
 
(3) 
Total
 
16,432,082
 
$106.50
 
16,432,082
 
(3) 
(1) 
All transactions were made in the open market with large financial institutions. This table excludes shares withheld from employees to satisfy minimum tax withholding requirements on option exercises and other equity-based transactions. The Company administers cashless exercises through an independent third party and does not repurchase stock in connection with cashless exercises.
(2) 
Average price paid per share is calculated on a settlement basis and excludes commission.
(3) 
On April 23, 2019, the Company stated that in fiscal year 2019 the Company expected to reduce outstanding shares through direct share repurchases at a value of approximately $5 billion, notwithstanding any purchases under the Company's compensation and benefit plans. The share repurchases were authorized pursuant to a resolution issued by the Company's Board of Directors and were financed through a combination of operating cash flows and issuance of long-term and short-term debt. The total value of the shares purchased under the share repurchase plan was $5.0 billion. The share repurchase plan ended on June 30, 2019.
Additional information required by this item can be found in Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K.
SHAREHOLDER RETURN PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
Market and Dividend Information
P&G has been paying a dividend for 129 consecutive years since its original incorporation in 1890 and has increased its dividend for 63 consecutive years. Over the past five years, the dividend has increased at an annual compound average rate of 3%. Nevertheless, as in the past, further dividends will be considered after reviewing dividend yields, profitability expectations and financing needs and will be declared at the discretion of the Company's Board of Directors.

399077938_dividend.jpg

(in dollars; split-adjusted)
1959
1969
1979
1989
1999
2009
2019
Dividends per share
$
0.02
$
0.04
$
0.10
$
0.19
$
0.57
$
1.64
$
2.90



The Procter & Gamble Company 9

Common Stock Information
P&G trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol PG. There were approximately 3.3 million common stock shareowners, including shareowners of record, participants in P&G stock ownership plans, participants in the P&G Direct Stock Purchase Plan, and beneficial owners with accounts at banks and brokerage firms, as of June 30, 2019.
Shareholder Return
The following graph compares the cumulative total return of P&G’s common stock for the five-year period ended June 30, 2019, against the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Stock Index (broad market comparison) and the S&P 500 Consumer Staples Index (line of business comparison). The graph and table assume $100 was invested on June 30, 2014, and that all dividends were reinvested.
399077938_tsra03.jpg

 
Cumulative Value of $100 Investment, through June 30
Company Name/Index
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
P&G
$
100

$
103

$
115

$
122

$
113

$
164

S&P 500 Stock Index
100

107

112

132

151

166

S&P 500 Consumer Staples Index
100

109

130

134

129

150



10 The Procter & Gamble Company

Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to Note 1 and Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements. For further details behind the business drivers for recent results presented below, see the Management's Discussion and Analysis.
Financial Summary (Unaudited)
Amounts in millions, except per share amounts
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net sales
$
67,684

 
$
66,832

 
$
65,058

 
$
65,299

 
$
70,749

 
$
74,401

Gross profit
32,916

 
32,400

 
32,420

 
32,275

 
33,649

 
35,356

Operating income
5,487

 
13,363

 
13,766

 
13,258

 
11,056

 
13,958

Net earnings from continuing operations
3,966

 
9,861

 
10,194

 
10,027

 
8,287

 
10,658

Net earnings/(loss) from discontinued operations

 

 
5,217

 
577

 
(1,143
)
 
1,127

Net earnings attributable to Procter & Gamble
$
3,897

 
$
9,750

 
$
15,326

 
$
10,508

 
$
7,036

 
$
11,643

Net earnings margin from continuing operations
5.9
%
 
14.8
%
 
15.7
%
 
15.4
%
 
11.7
%
 
14.3
%
Basic net earnings per common share: (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings from continuing operations
$
1.45

 
$
3.75

 
$
3.79

 
$
3.59

 
$
2.92

 
$
3.78

Earnings/(loss) from discontinued operations

 

 
2.01

 
0.21

 
(0.42
)
 
0.41

Basic net earnings per common share
$
1.45

 
$
3.75

 
$
5.80

 
$
3.80

 
$
2.50

 
$
4.19

Diluted net earnings per common share: (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings from continuing operations
$
1.43

 
$
3.67

 
$
3.69

 
$
3.49

 
$
2.84

 
$
3.63

Earnings/(loss) from discontinued operations

 

 
1.90

 
0.20

 
(0.40
)
 
0.38

Diluted net earnings per common share
$
1.43

 
$
3.67

 
$
5.59

 
$
3.69

 
$
2.44

 
$
4.01

Dividends per common share
$
2.90

 
$
2.79

 
$
2.70

 
$
2.66

 
$
2.59

 
$
2.45

Research and development expense
$
1,861

 
$
1,908

 
$
1,874

 
$
1,879

 
$
1,991

 
$
1,910

Advertising expense
6,751

 
7,103

 
7,118

 
7,243

 
7,180

 
7,867

Total assets
115,095

 
118,310

 
120,406

 
127,136

 
129,495

 
144,266

Capital expenditures
3,347

 
3,717

 
3,384

 
3,314

 
3,736

 
3,848

Long-term debt
20,395

 
20,863

 
18,038

 
18,945

 
18,327

 
19,807

Shareholders' equity
$
47,579

 
$
52,883

 
$
55,778

 
$
57,983

 
$
63,050

 
$
69,976

(1) 
Basic net earnings per common share and Diluted net earnings per common share are calculated based on Net earnings attributable to Procter & Gamble.



The Procter & Gamble Company 11

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Management's Discussion and Analysis
Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements in this report, other than purely historical information, including estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives, and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report, including without limitation, the following sections: “Management's Discussion and Analysis” and “Risk Factors.” These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believe,” “project,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “strategy,” “future,” “opportunity,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions, which are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. A detailed discussion of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those projected herein is included, without limitation, in the section titled "Economic Conditions and Uncertainties" and the section titled “Risk Factors” (Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K). We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether because of new information, future events or otherwise.
The purpose of Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) is to provide an understanding of Procter & Gamble's financial condition, results of operations and cash flows by focusing on changes in certain key measures from year to year. The MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. The MD&A is organized in the following sections:
Overview
Summary of 2019 Results
Economic Conditions and Uncertainties
Results of Operations
Segment Results
Cash Flow, Financial Condition and Liquidity
Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
Other Information
Throughout the MD&A we refer to measures used by management to evaluate performance, including unit volume growth, net sales and net earnings. We also refer to a number of financial measures that are not defined under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP), including organic sales growth, core earnings per share (Core EPS), adjusted free cash flow and adjusted free cash flow productivity. Organic sales growth is net sales
 
growth excluding the impacts of acquisitions, divestitures, foreign exchange and the fiscal 2019 adoption of new accounting standards for "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" (see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements) from year-over-year comparisons. Core EPS is diluted net earnings per share from continuing operations excluding certain items that are not judged to be part of the Company's sustainable results or trends. Adjusted free cash flow is operating cash flow less capital spending and transitional tax payments related to the U.S. Tax Act. Adjusted free cash flow productivity is the ratio of adjusted free cash flow to net earnings excluding certain one-time items. We believe these measures provide our investors with additional information about our underlying results and trends, as well as insight to some of the metrics used to evaluate management. The explanation at the end of the MD&A provides more details on the use and the derivation of these measures.
Management also uses certain market share and market consumption estimates to evaluate performance relative to competition despite some limitations on the availability and comparability of share and consumption information. References to market share and consumption in the MD&A are based on a combination of vendor purchased traditional brick-and-mortar and online data in key markets as well as internal estimates. All market share references represent the percentage of sales in dollar terms on a constant currency basis of our products, relative to all product sales in the category. The Company measures fiscal-year-to-date market shares through the most recent period for which market share data is available, which typically reflects a lag time of one or two months.
OVERVIEW
Procter & Gamble is a global leader in the fast-moving consumer goods industry, focused on providing branded consumer packaged goods of superior quality and value to our consumers around the world. Our products are sold in more than 180 countries and territories primarily through mass merchandisers, e-commerce, grocery stores, membership club stores, drug stores, department stores, distributors, wholesalers, baby stores, specialty beauty stores, high-frequency stores and pharmacies. We also sell direct to consumers. We have on-the-ground operations in approximately 70 countries.
Our market environment is highly competitive with global, regional and local competitors. In many of the markets and industry segments in which we sell our products, we compete against other branded products, as well as retailers' private-label brands. Additionally, many of the product segments in which we compete are differentiated by price tiers (referred to as super-premium, premium, mid-tier and value-tier products). We are well positioned in the industry segments and markets in which we operate, often holding a leadership or significant market share position.



12 The Procter & Gamble Company

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
In fiscal 2019, our organizational structure was comprised of Global Business Units (GBUs), Selling and Market Operations (SMOs), Global Business Services (GBS) and Corporate Functions (CF).
Global Business Units
Our GBUs are organized into ten product categories. Under U.S. GAAP, the GBUs underlying the ten product categories are aggregated into five reportable segments: Beauty; Grooming; Health Care; Fabric & Home Care; and Baby, Feminine & Family Care. The GBUs are responsible for developing overall brand strategy, new product upgrades and innovations and marketing plans. The following provides additional detail on our reportable segments and the ten product categories and brand composition within each segment.
Reportable Segments
% of
Net Sales (1)
% of Net
Earnings (1)
Product Categories (Sub-Categories)
Major Brands
Beauty
19%
22%
Hair Care (Conditioner, Shampoo, Styling Aids, Treatments)
Head & Shoulders, Herbal Essences, Pantene, Rejoice
Skin and Personal Care (Antiperspirant and Deodorant, Personal Cleansing, Skin Care)
Olay, Old Spice, Safeguard, SK-II, Secret
Grooming
9%
13%
Grooming (2) (Shave Care - Female Blades & Razors, Male Blades & Razors, Pre- and Post-Shave Products, Other Shave Care; Appliances)
Braun, Gillette, Venus
Health Care
12%
13%
Oral Care (Toothbrushes, Toothpaste, Other Oral Care)
Crest, Oral-B
Personal Health Care (Gastrointestinal, Rapid Diagnostics, Respiratory,
Vitamins/Minerals/Supplements, Pain Relief, Other Personal Health Care)
Metamucil, Neurobion, Pepto Bismol, Vicks
Fabric & Home Care
33%
29%
Fabric Care (Fabric Enhancers, Laundry Additives, Laundry Detergents)
Ariel, Downy, Gain, Tide
Home Care (Air Care, Dish Care, P&G Professional, Surface Care)
Cascade, Dawn, Fairy, Febreze, Mr. Clean, Swiffer
Baby, Feminine & Family Care
27%
23%
Baby Care (Baby Wipes, Taped Diapers and Pants)
Luvs, Pampers
Feminine Care (Adult Incontinence, Feminine Care)
Always, Always Discreet, Tampax
Family Care (Paper Towels, Tissues, Toilet Paper)
Bounty, Charmin, Puffs
(1) 
Percent of Net sales and Net earnings from continuing operations for the year ended June 30, 2019 (excluding results held in Corporate).
(2) 
The Grooming product category is comprised of the Shave Care and Appliances GBUs.  

Recent Developments:
During fiscal 2019, the Company completed the acquisition of the over the counter (OTC) healthcare business of Merck KGaA (Merck OTC) for $3.7 billion (based on exchange rates at the time of closing). This business primarily sells OTC consumer healthcare products, mainly in Europe, Latin America and Asia markets. Total sales for the business during Merck OTC's most recent fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 were approximately $1 billion.
During fiscal 2019, the Company also dissolved our PGT Healthcare partnership, a venture between the Company and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd (Teva) in the OTC consumer healthcare business. Pursuant to the agreement, PGT product assets were returned to the original respective parent companies to reestablish independent OTC businesses. This transaction was accounted for as a sale of the Teva portion of the PGT business. The Company recorded an after-tax gain on the sale of $353 million.

 
During fiscal 2017, the Company completed the divestiture of four product categories, which included 43 of the Company's beauty brands ("Beauty Brands"), including the global salon professional hair care and color, retail hair color, cosmetics and the fine fragrance businesses, along with select hair styling brands. The Beauty Brands had historically been part of the Company’s Beauty reportable segment. The results of the Beauty Brands are presented as discontinued operations and, as such, are excluded from both continuing operations and segment results for all periods presented.
Refer to Notes 13 and 14 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for more details on each of these transactions.
Organization Design Changes:
The Company recently announced changes to our organization design effective July 1, 2019. In the new design, the ten product categories are being organized into six Sector Business Units (SBUs). The SBUs will be responsible for global brand strategy, innovation and supply chain. They will have direct profit responsibility for markets representing the large majority


The Procter & Gamble Company 13

of the Company's sales and earnings (referred to as Focus Markets) and will be responsible for innovation plans, supply plans and operating frameworks to drive growth and value creation in the remaining markets (referred to as Enterprise Markets). For segment reporting purposes, the categories will continue to be aggregated into the same five external reporting segments.
Beauty: We are a global market leader in the beauty category. Most of the beauty markets in which we compete are highly fragmented with a large number of global and local competitors. We compete in skin and personal care and in hair care. In skin and personal care, we offer a wide variety of products, ranging from deodorants to personal cleansing to skin care, such as our Olay brand, which is one of the top facial skin care brands in the world with nearly 6% global market share. We are the global market leader in the retail hair care market with over 20% global market share primarily behind our Pantene and Head & Shoulders brands.
Grooming: We compete in shave care and appliances. In shave care, we are the global market leader in the blades and razors market. Our global blades and razors market share is over 60%, primarily behind the Gillette franchise, including our Fusion, Mach3, Prestobarba and Venus brands. Our appliances, such as electric shavers and epilators, are sold under the Braun brand in a number of markets around the world where we compete against both global and regional competitors. We hold nearly 25% of the male electric shavers market and over 50% of the female epilators market.
Health Care: We compete in oral care and personal health care. In oral care, there are several global competitors in the market and we have the number two market share position with nearly 20% global market share behind our Oral-B and Crest brands. In personal health care, we are a top ten competitor in a large, highly fragmented industry, primarily behind respiratory treatments (Vicks brand) and digestive wellness products (Metamucil, Pepto Bismol and Align brands). As discussed above, in fiscal 2019, we dissolved the PGT Healthcare partnership with Teva, which previously managed nearly all of our personal health care sales outside the U.S., and reestablished independent OTC businesses. We also acquired Merck OTC as discussed above.
Fabric & Home Care: This segment is comprised of a variety of fabric care products, including laundry detergents, additives and fabric enhancers; and home care products, including dishwashing liquids and detergents, surface cleaners and air fresheners. In fabric care, we generally have the number one or number two market share position in the markets in which we compete and are the global market leader with over 25% global market share, primarily behind our Tide, Ariel and Downy brands. Our global home care market share is over 20% across the categories in which we compete.
Baby, Feminine & Family Care: In baby care, we are the global market leader and compete mainly in taped diapers, pants and baby wipes with over 25% global market share. We have the number one or number two market share position in most of the key markets in which we compete, primarily behind Pampers, the Company's largest brand, with annual net sales
 
of nearly $8 billion. We are the global market leader in the feminine care category with 25% global market share, primarily behind Always. We also compete in the adult incontinence category in certain markets behind Always Discreet, achieving nearly 10% market share in most of the markets where we compete. Our family care business is predominantly a North American business comprised largely of the Bounty paper towel and Charmin toilet paper brands. U.S. market shares are over 40% for Bounty and over 25% for Charmin.
Selling and Market Operations
Our SMOs are responsible for developing and executing go-to-market plans at the local level. The SMOs include dedicated retail customer, trade channel and country-specific teams. Our SMOs are organized under six regions, comprised of North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, Greater China and India, Middle East and Africa (IMEA). Throughout the MD&A, we reference business results in developed markets, which are comprised of North America, Western Europe and Japan, and developing markets, which are all other markets not included in developed. As a result of the above-mentioned changes in our organization design effective July 1, 2019, we will be organized under five regions, with Asia Pacific and IMEA being combined into a single region.
Corporate Functions
Corporate Functions provides company-level strategy and portfolio analysis, corporate accounting, treasury, tax, external relations, governance, human resources and legal, as well as other centralized functional support.
Global Business Services
GBS provides technology, processes and standard data tools to enable the GBUs, the SMOs and Corporate Functions to better understand the business and better serve consumers and customers. The GBS organization is responsible for providing world-class solutions at a low cost and with minimal capital investment.
STRATEGIC FOCUS
Procter & Gamble aspires to serve the world’s consumers better than our best competitors in every category and in every country in which we compete, and, as a result, deliver total shareholder return in the top one-third of our peer group.  Delivering and sustaining leadership levels of shareholder value creation requires balanced top-line growth, bottom-line growth and strong cash generation.
Our strategic choices are focused on winning with consumers.  The consumers who purchase and use our products are at the center of everything we do.  We win with consumers by delivering superiority across the five key elements of product, packaging, brand communication, retail execution and value equation.
Winning with consumers around the world and against our best competitors requires innovation.  Innovation has always been, and continues to be, P&G’s lifeblood.  Innovation requires consumer insights and technology advancements that lead to product improvements, improved marketing and


14 The Procter & Gamble Company

merchandising programs and game-changing inventions that create new brands and categories. 
Productivity improvement is critical to delivering our balanced top-line growth, bottom-line growth and value creation objectives.  Productivity improvement and sales growth reinforce and fuel each other.  We are driving productivity improvement across all elements of cost, including cost of goods sold, marketing and promotional expenses and non-manufacturing overhead.  Productivity improvements and cost savings are being reinvested in product and packaging improvements, brand awareness-building advertising and trial-building sampling programs, increased sales coverage and R&D programs.
We are improving operational effectiveness and organizational culture through enhanced clarity of roles and responsibilities, accountability and incentive compensation programs.
The Company has undertaken an effort to focus and strengthen its business portfolio to compete in categories and with brands that are structurally attractive and that play to P&G's strengths. The ongoing portfolio of businesses consists of 10 product
 
categories. These are categories where P&G has leading market positions, strong brands and consumer-meaningful product technologies.
We believe these strategies are right for the long-term health of the Company and our objective of delivering total shareholder return in the top one-third of our peer group.
The Company expects the delivery of the following long-term annual financial targets will result in total shareholder returns in the top third of the competitive peer group:
Organic sales growth above market growth rates in the categories and geographies in which we compete;
Core EPS growth of mid-to-high single digits; and
Adjusted free cash flow productivity of 90% or greater.
In periods with significant macroeconomic pressures, we intend to maintain a disciplined approach to investing so as not to sacrifice the long-term health of our businesses to meet short-term objectives in any given year.


SUMMARY OF 2019 RESULTS
Amounts in millions, except per share amounts
2019
 
2018
 
Change vs. Prior Year
Net sales
$
67,684

 
$
66,832

 
1
 %
Operating income
5,487

 
13,363

 
(59
)%
Net earnings
3,966

 
9,861

 
(60
)%
Net earnings attributable to Procter & Gamble
3,897

 
9,750

 
(60
)%
Diluted net earnings per common share
1.43

 
3.67

 
(61
)%
Core earnings per share
4.52

 
4.22

 
7
 %
Cash flow from operating activities
15,242

 
14,867

 
3
 %

Net sales increased 1% to $67.7 billion on a 3% increase in unit volume. Foreign exchange had a negative 4% impact on net sales. Net sales growth was driven by mid-single digit increases in Beauty and Health Care and a low single digit increase in Fabric & Home Care, partially offset by a low single digit decline in Baby, Feminine & Family Care and a mid-single digit decline in Grooming.
Organic sales increased 5% on a 2% increase in organic volume. Organic sales increased high single digits in Beauty and Fabric & Home Care, increased mid-single digits in Health Care and increased low single digits in Grooming and Baby, Feminine & Family Care.
Unit volumes increased 3%. Volume increased mid-single digits in Health Care and Fabric & Home Care and increased low single digits in Beauty and Baby, Feminine & Family Care. Volume decreased low single digits in Grooming.
Operating income decreased $7.9 billion, or 59%, due primarily to non-cash impairment charges of $8.3 billion related to Shave Care goodwill and Gillette indefinite-lived intangible assets (Shave Care impairment), partially offset by the benefit from the net sales increase. For a more detailed discussion on the Shave Care impairment refer to
 
the Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates section in the MD&A and Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Net earnings decreased $5.9 billion or 60% due to the after-tax impact of the Shave Care impairment, partially offset by a reduction in current year income tax expense, a current year gain on the dissolution of the PGT Healthcare partnership and the base period charges for the early extinguishment of debt. The reduction in current year income tax expense was driven by the impacts of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted in December 2017 (U.S. Tax Act), comprised of the reduction in tax rate on the current year earnings and the base period charges related to the transitional impacts of the U.S. Tax Act. Foreign exchange impacts negatively affected net earnings by approximately $900 million.
Net earnings attributable to Procter & Gamble were $3.9 billion, a decrease of $5.9 billion or 60% versus the prior year primarily due to the aforementioned items.
Diluted net earnings per share decreased 61% to $1.43.
Core EPS increased 7% to $4.52.
Cash flow from operating activities was $15.2 billion.
Adjusted free cash flow was $12.1 billion.
Adjusted free cash flow productivity was 105%.


The Procter & Gamble Company 15

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND UNCERTAINTIES
We discuss expectations regarding future performance, events and outcomes, such as our business outlook and objectives, in annual and quarterly reports, press releases and other written and oral communications. All such statements, except for historical and present factual information, are "forward-looking statements" and are based on financial data and our business plans available only as of the time the statements are made, which may become out-of-date or incomplete. We assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or other factors. Forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain and investors must recognize that events could be significantly different from our expectations. For more information on risk factors that could impact our results, please refer to “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Global Economic Conditions. Our products are sold in numerous countries across North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa, with more than half our sales generated outside the United States. As such, we are exposed to and impacted by global macro-economic factors, U.S. and foreign government policies and foreign exchange fluctuations. Current macroeconomic factors remain dynamic, and any causes of market size contraction, such as reduced GDP in commodity-dependent economies, greater political unrest in the Middle East, Central & Eastern Europe and the Korean peninsula, economic uncertainty related to the execution of the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union, political instability in certain Latin American and Asian markets and overall economic slowdowns, could reduce our sales or erode our operating margin, in either case reducing our earnings.
Changes in Costs. Our costs are subject to fluctuations, particularly due to changes in commodity prices, transportation costs and our own productivity efforts. We have significant exposures to certain commodities, in particular certain oil-derived materials like resins and paper-based materials like pulp, and volatility in the market price of these commodity input materials has a direct impact on our costs. If we are unable to manage commodity and other cost fluctuations through pricing actions, cost savings projects and sourcing decisions, as well as through consistent productivity improvements, it may adversely impact our gross margin, operating margin and net earnings. Sales could also be adversely impacted following pricing actions if there is a negative impact on consumption of our products. We strive to implement, achieve and sustain cost improvement plans, including outsourcing projects, supply chain optimization and general overhead and workforce optimization. As discussed later in this MD&A, in 2012 we initiated overhead and supply chain cost improvement projects. In fiscal 2017, we communicated specific elements of an additional multi-year cost reduction program which is resulting in enrollment reductions and other savings. If we are not successful in executing and sustaining these changes, there could be a negative impact on our operating margin and net earnings.
Foreign Exchange. We have both translation and transaction exposure to the fluctuation of exchange rates. Translation
 
exposures relate to exchange rate impacts of measuring income statements of foreign subsidiaries that do not use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. Transaction exposures relate to 1) the impact from input costs that are denominated in a currency other than the local reporting currency and 2) the revaluation of transaction-related working capital balances denominated in currencies other than the functional currency. In four of the past five years, including fiscal 2019, the U.S. dollar has strengthened versus a number of foreign currencies, leading to lower sales and earnings from these foreign exchange impacts. Certain countries experiencing significant exchange rate fluctuations, like Argentina, Russia, Turkey, Brazil, China and the United Kingdom have had, and could continue to have, a significant impact on our sales, costs and earnings. Increased pricing in response to certain fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates may offset portions of the currency impacts but could also have a negative impact on consumption of our products, which would affect our sales and profits.
Government Policies. Our net earnings could be affected by changes in U.S. or foreign government tax policies, for example, the U.S. Tax Act, the implications and uncertainties of which are disclosed elsewhere in this report. Additionally, we attempt to carefully manage our debt, currency and other exposures in certain countries with currency exchange, import authorization and pricing controls, such as Nigeria, Algeria, Egypt and Turkey. Further, our earnings and sales could be affected by changes to international trade agreements in North America and elsewhere, including increases of import tariffs, both currently effective and future potential changes. Changes in government policies in these areas might cause an increase or decrease in our sales, operating margin and net earnings.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The key metrics included in the discussion of our consolidated results of operations include net sales, gross margin, selling, general and administrative costs (SG&A), other non-operating items and income taxes. The primary factors driving year-over-year changes in net sales include overall market growth in the categories in which we compete, product initiatives, competitive activities (the level of initiatives, pricing and other activities by competitors), marketing spending, retail executions, both in-store and online and acquisition and divestiture activity, all of which drive changes in our underlying unit volume, as well as our pricing actions (which can also indirectly impact volume), changes in product and geographic mix and foreign currency impacts on sales outside the U.S.
Most of our cost of products sold and SG&A are to some extent variable in nature. Accordingly, our discussion of these operating costs focuses primarily on relative margins rather than the absolute year-over-year changes in total costs. The primary drivers of changes in gross margin are input costs (energy and other commodities), pricing impacts, geographic mix (for example, gross margins in developed markets are generally higher than in developing markets for similar products), product mix (for example, the Beauty segment has higher gross margins than the Company average), foreign exchange rate fluctuations (in situations where certain input


16 The Procter & Gamble Company

costs may be tied to a different functional currency than the underlying sales), the impacts of manufacturing savings projects and reinvestments (for example, product or package improvements) and to a lesser extent scale impacts (for costs that are fixed or less variable in nature). The primary components of SG&A are marketing-related costs and non-manufacturing overhead costs. Marketing-related costs are primarily variable in nature, although we may achieve some level of scale benefit over time due to overall growth and other marketing efficiencies. While overhead costs are variable to some extent, we generally experience more scale-related impacts for these costs due to our ability to leverage our organization and systems infrastructures to support business growth.
A detailed discussion of the fiscal 2018 year-over-year changes can be found in the MD&A section in the Form 8-K filed October 22, 2018, which updated our Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2018, to revise disclosures to reflect the adoption of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) ASU 2017-07 and 2016-18. For more information on the adoption of this standard, refer to Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 
Net Sales
Net sales increased 1% to $67.7 billion in 2019 on a 3% increase in unit volume versus the prior year. Volume increased mid-single digits in Health Care and Fabric & Home Care and increased low single digits in Beauty and Baby, Feminine & Family Care. Volume decreased low single digits in Grooming.
Volume increased mid-single digits in developed regions and low single digits in developing regions. Excluding the impact of acquisitions and divestitures, organic volume increased low single digits in developed regions. Unfavorable foreign exchange reduced net sales by 4%. Pricing had a positive 2% impact on net sales. Product mix had a positive 1% impact on net sales driven by the slightly higher organic growth of the Skin and Personal Care and Personal Health Care categories and developed regions, all of which have higher than company average selling prices. Organic sales grew 5% driven by a 2% increase in organic volume.



Operating Costs
Comparisons as a percentage of net sales; Years ended June 30
2019
 
2018
 
Basis Point Change
Gross margin
48.6
%
 
48.5
%
 
10

Selling, general and administrative expense
28.2
%
 
28.5
%
 
(30
)
Operating margin
8.1
%
 
20.0
%
 
(1,190
)
Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes
9.0
%
 
19.9
%
 
(1,090
)
Net earnings
5.9
%
 
14.8
%
 
(890
)
Net earnings attributable to Procter & Gamble
5.8
%
 
14.6
%
 
(880
)

Gross margin increased 10 basis points to 48.6% of net sales in 2019. Gross margin benefited 160 basis points from total manufacturing cost savings (130 basis points net of product and packaging reinvestments), 60 basis points of positive pricing impacts and 50 basis points from lower restructuring costs. These were offset by:
a 100 basis-point decline from unfavorable product mix and other impacts (primarily mix within segments due to the growth of lower margin product forms and the club channel in certain categories and due to the disproportionate growth of the Fabric Care category, which is one of our largest categories and has lower than company-average gross margins),
an 80 basis-point negative impact due to higher commodity costs and
a 50 basis-point negative impact from unfavorable foreign exchange.
Total SG&A was relatively unchanged at $19.1 billion, as a decrease in marketing spending was offset by an increase in overhead costs and in other net operating expenses. SG&A as a percentage of net sales decreased 30 basis points to 28.2%. Reductions in marketing spending as a percentage of net sales
 
were partially offset by an increase in overhead costs and other net operating expenses as a percentage of sales.
Marketing spending as a percentage of net sales decreased 80 basis points due to the positive scale impacts of the organic net sales increase, reductions in agency compensation and the impact of adopting the new standard on "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" which prospectively reclassified certain customer spending from marketing (SG&A) expense to a reduction of net sales.
Overhead costs as a percentage of net sales increased 30 basis points, as productivity savings and fixed cost leverage from the increased organic net sales, were more than offset by the impact of inflation, higher incentive compensation costs and other cost increases, including the ongoing and integration-related overhead costs of the Merck OTC acquisition.
Other net operating expenses as a percentage of net sales increased 20 basis points primarily due to an increase in foreign exchange transactional charges and the net impact of changes in indirect tax reserves, partially offset by the gain on sale of real estate in the current year.


The Procter & Gamble Company 17

Operating margin decreased 1,190 basis points to 8.1% for fiscal 2019 primarily due to the one-time, non-cash before-tax impairment charge of $8.3 billion for Shave Care.
Non-Operating Items
Interest expense was $509 million in 2019, a marginal increase of $3 million versus the prior year due to an increase in average debt balances and an increase in U.S. interest rates.
Interest income was $220 million in 2019, a reduction of $27 million versus the prior year due to a reduction in average investment securities balances.
Other non-operating income, which consists primarily of divestiture gains, investment income and other non-operating items increased $649 million to $871 million, primarily due to a $355 million before-tax gain from the dissolution of the PGT Healthcare partnership in the current year (discussed earlier in the Recent Developments section) and $346 million of base year charges for the early extinguishment of debt, partially offset by higher minor brand divestiture gains in the base year.
Income Taxes
Income taxes decreased $1.4 billion to $2.1 billion. The effective tax rate increased 870 basis points to 34.7% in 2019. The current year Shave Care impairment charges caused a 1,750 basis-point increase in the effective tax rate, as there is no tax benefit related to the goodwill portion of the impairment. Excluding this impact, the effective tax rate declined 880 basis points, primarily due to the impacts of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "U.S. Tax Act") in December 2017. The U.S. Tax Act, among other things, lowered the U.S. corporate income tax rates, but also imposed a one-time repatriation tax on deemed repatriation of historical earnings of foreign subsidiaries and caused us to adjust our U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities to the lower federal base rate of 21%. These transitional impacts resulted in a provisional net charge of $602 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, comprised of an estimated repatriation tax charge of $3.8 billion (comprised of U.S. repatriation taxes and foreign withholding taxes) and an estimated net deferred tax benefit of $3.2 billion. In addition, because the Company has a June 30 fiscal year-end, the lower corporate income tax rate was phased in, resulting in a U.S. statutory federal rate of approximately 28% for our fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, and 21% for our fiscal year ended June 30, 2019 and subsequent fiscal years. Combined, these impacts reduced the current year effective tax rate by 950 basis points, consisting of:
a 500 basis-point reduction from the impact of the lower blended U.S. federal tax rate on current year earnings versus the prior year rate, and
a 450 basis-point reduction due to prior year transitional impacts from the U.S. Tax Act.
 
The remaining 70 basis point net increase in the current year income tax rate was driven by:
a 160 basis-point increase from unfavorable impacts of geographic mix of earnings,
a 10 basis-point increase from reduced favorable discrete impacts related to uncertain tax positions (which netted to approximately 15 basis points in the current year versus 25 basis points in the prior year), and
a 100 basis-point reduction from increased excess tax benefits of share-based compensation (160 basis points in the current year versus 60 basis points in the prior year).
Net Earnings
Operating income decreased $7.9 billion, or 59%, primarily due to the $8.3 billion before tax impairment charge for Shave Care. This was partially offset by the net sales increase, along with the marginal increase in gross margin and decrease in SG&A spending as a percentage of sales, all of which are discussed above.
Earnings before income taxes decreased $7.3 billion or 54% to $6.1 billion, as the reduction in operating income discussed in the preceding paragraph was partially offset by the current year gain from the dissolution of the PGT Healthcare partnership and the base year charges for the early extinguishment of debt, each of which was discussed earlier. Net earnings decreased $5.9 billion, or 60% to $4.0 billion. Net earnings declined less than earnings before income taxes due to the above discussed reduction in income taxes. Foreign exchange impacts reduced net earnings by approximately $900 million in 2019 due to weakening of certain currencies against the U.S. dollar, including those in Argentina, Russia, Turkey, Brazil, China and the United Kingdom. This impact includes both transactional charges and translational impacts from converting earnings from foreign subsidiaries to U.S. dollars.
Net earnings attributable to Procter & Gamble decreased $5.9 billion, or 60%, to $3.9 billion.
Diluted net earnings per share decreased $2.24, or 61%, to $1.43 due primarily to the reduction in net earnings.
Core EPS increased 7% to $4.52. Core EPS represents diluted net earnings per share from continuing operations, excluding the current year charge for the Shave Care impairment, the current year gain on the dissolution of the PGT Healthcare partnership, the base year charges for both the net transitional impact of the U.S. Tax Act and for early extinguishment of debt and incremental restructuring charges in both years related to our productivity and cost savings plans. The increase was primarily driven by the lower effective tax rate on core earnings, resulting from the U.S. Tax Act and the net sales increase.




18 The Procter & Gamble Company


SEGMENT RESULTS
Segment results reflect information on the same basis we use for internal management reporting and performance evaluation. The results of these reportable segments do not include certain non-business unit specific costs. These costs, including the Shave Care impairment in fiscal 2019, are reported in our Corporate segment and are included as part of our Corporate segment discussion. Additionally, we apply blended statutory tax rates in the segments. See Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on items included in the Corporate segment. Eliminations to adjust segment results to arrive at our consolidated effective tax rate, including the impacts of the U.S. Tax Act in fiscal 2018, are included in Corporate.

Net Sales Change Drivers 2019 vs. 2018 (1)
 
Volume with Acquisitions & Divestitures
 
Volume Excluding Acquisitions & Divestitures
 
Foreign Exchange
 
Price
 
Mix
 
Other (2)
 
Net Sales Growth
Beauty
3
 %
 
2
 %
 
(4
)%
 
2
%
 
4
%
 
(1
)%
 
4
 %
Grooming
(1
)%
 
(1
)%
 
(5
)%
 
2
%
 
%
 
(1
)%
 
(5
)%
Health Care
5
 %
 
4
 %
 
(3
)%
 
1
%
 
2
%
 
 %
 
5
 %
Fabric & Home Care
4
 %
 
5
 %
 
(3
)%
 
1
%
 
1
%
 
 %
 
3
 %
Baby, Feminine & Family Care
1
 %
 
1
 %
 
(4
)%
 
1
%
 
%
 
 %
 
(2
)%
TOTAL COMPANY
3
 %
 
2
 %
 
(4
)%
 
2
%
 
1
%
 
(1
)%
 
1
 %
(1)    Net sales percentage changes are approximations based on quantitative formulas that are consistently applied.
(2)    Other includes the sales mix impact from acquisitions and divestitures, the impact from the adoption of the new accounting standard for "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" in fiscal 2019 and rounding impacts necessary to reconcile volume to net sales.

BEAUTY
($ millions)
2019
 
2018
 
Change vs. 2018
Volume
N/A
 
N/A
 
3%
Net sales
$12,897
 
$12,406
 
4%
Net earnings
$2,637
 
$2,320
 
14%
% of net sales
20.4%
 
18.7%
 
170 bps
Beauty net sales increased 4% to $12.9 billion in 2019 on a 3% increase in unit volume. Unfavorable foreign exchange impacts reduced net sales by 4%. Higher pricing increased net sales by 2%. Favorable product mix added 4% to net sales, primarily due to the disproportionate growth of the Skin and Personal Care category, including the super-premium SK-II and premium Olay Skin brands which have higher than segment average selling prices. Organic sales increased 8%. Global market share of the Beauty segment decreased 0.1 points. Volume increased low single digits in both developed and developing regions.
Volume in Hair Care increased low single digits. Volume in developed regions increased low single digits due to product innovation and increased distribution. Developing regions volume increased low single digits due to product innovation and market growth. Global market share of the hair care category was unchanged.
Volume in Skin and Personal Care increased high single digits. Excluding the impact of minor brand acquisitions, organic volume increased mid-single digits. Developed regions volume increased mid-single digits. Excluding the impact of minor brand acquisitions, developed regions
 
volume was unchanged. Volume increased double digits in developing regions due to premium innovation, continued growth of SK-II, increased marketing spending and market growth. Global market share of the skin and personal care category was unchanged.
Net earnings increased 14% to $2.6 billion in 2019 due to the increase in net sales and a 170 basis-point increase in net earnings margin. Net earnings margin increased due to a reduction in U.S. income tax rates and a decrease in SG&A as a percentage of net sales, partially offset by a decrease in gross margin. Gross margin decreased slightly mainly due to unfavorable foreign exchange impacts. SG&A as a percentage of sales decreased primarily due to a reduction in marketing spending driven by the positive scale impacts of the net sales increase and the impacts of adopting the new accounting standard on "Revenue from Contracts with Customers". The reduction in the tax rate was due to the impacts of the U.S. Tax Act, both from overall rate reduction and the manner in which the impacts were allocated between the business and corporate segments in the prior year, as discussed in the Corporate segment below.
GROOMING
($ millions)
2019
 
2018
 
Change vs. 2018
Volume
N/A
 
N/A
 
(1)%
Net sales
$6,199
 
$6,551
 
(5)%
Net earnings
$1,529
 
$1,432
 
7%
% of net sales
24.7%
 
21.9%
 
280 bps


The Procter & Gamble Company 19

Grooming net sales decreased 5% to $6.2 billion in 2019 on a 1% decrease in unit volume. Unfavorable foreign exchange impacts reduced net sales by 5%. Increased pricing had a 2% positive impact to net sales. Organic sales increased 1%. Global market share of the Grooming segment decreased 0.9 points. Volume increased low single digits in developed regions and decreased low single digits in developing regions.
Shave Care volume decreased low single digits. Volume increased low single digits in developed regions due to increased competitiveness following price reductions in the prior year and product innovation. Volume in developing regions decreased low single digits due to reduced demand following devaluation related price increases and competitive activity. Global market share of the shave care category decreased half a point.
Appliances volume increased low single digits. Volume increased mid-single digits in developed regions due to innovation and market growth. Volume in developing regions was unchanged. Global market share of the appliances category decreased more than half a point.
Net earnings increased 7% to $1.5 billion in 2019 due to a 280 basis-point increase in net earnings margin, which more than offset the net sales decrease. The net earnings margin increased primarily due to a reduction in U.S. income tax rates and a reduction in SG&A as a percentage of net sales, partially offset by a decrease in gross margin. Gross margin declined due to the negative impact of unfavorable mix (due to the disproportionate growth of disposable razors, lower tier products in the Appliances category and large count packs all of which have lower than segment average margins), unfavorable foreign exchange impacts and increased commodity costs, partially offset by the positive impacts of manufacturing cost savings and increased pricing. SG&A as a percentage of net sales decreased due to a current year gain on the sale of operating real estate, reductions in overhead costs and marketing spending and the impacts from adoption of the new accounting standard on "Revenue from Contracts with Customers". The reduction in the tax rate was primarily due to the impacts of the U.S. Tax Act, both from the overall rate reduction and the manner in which the impacts were allocated between the business and corporate segments in the prior year, as discussed in the Corporate segment below.
HEALTH CARE
($ millions)
2019
 
2018
 
Change vs. 2018
Volume
N/A
 
N/A
 
5%
Net sales
$8,218
 
$7,857
 
5%
Net earnings
$1,519
 
$1,283
 
18%
% of net sales
18.5%
 
16.3%
 
220 bps
Health Care net sales increased 5% to $8.2 billion in 2019 on a 5% increase in unit volume. Unfavorable foreign exchange impacts reduced net sales by 3%. Higher pricing increased net sales by 1%. Favorable mix increased net sales by 2% due to the disproportionate growth of the Personal Health Care category and developed regions, both of which have higher
 
than segment average selling prices. Organic sales increased 6% on a 4% increase in organic volume, which excludes the impact of the PGT Healthcare partnership dissolution and the Merck OTC consumer healthcare acquisition. Global market share of the Health Care segment increased 0.5 points. Volume increased mid-single digits in developed and developing regions. Excluding the impact of the PGT Healthcare partnership dissolution and the Merck OTC consumer healthcare acquisition, organic volume increased low single digits in developing regions.
Oral Care volume increased low single digits. Volume increased mid-single digits in developed regions due to product innovation. Volume increased low single digits in developing regions due to product innovation, partially offset by competitive activity. Global market share of the oral care category increased nearly half a point.
Volume in Personal Health Care increased double digits. Excluding the impacts of the acquisition and dissolution described above, organic volume increased mid-single digits. Developed regions volume was unchanged, while organic volume grew mid-single digits due to product innovation. Volume in developing regions increased double digits, while organic volume was up high single digits due to innovation and market growth. Global market share of the personal health care category increased more than half a point.
Net earnings increased 18% to $1.5 billion in 2019 due to the increase in net sales and a 220 basis-point increase in net earnings margin. Net earnings margin increased due to a decrease in U.S. income tax rates, partially offset by a reduction in gross margin. Gross margin decreased due to unfavorable mix impact (from the disproportionate growth of club channel and products with lower than segment-average margins, partially offset by the net impacts of the acquisition and dissolution in personal health care) and increases in commodity costs, partially offset by manufacturing cost savings and positive pricing impacts. SG&A as a percentage of net sales was unchanged as an increase in overhead costs was offset by a reduction in marketing spending. Overhead costs as a percentage of net sales increased due to the net impacts of the personal health care acquisition and dissolution, including both integration-related spending and higher relative levels of selling costs in the acquired business, partially offset by the positive scale impacts of the net sales increase. Marketing spending as a percentage of net sales declined primarily due to the positive scale impacts of the net sales increase and the impacts from adoption of the new accounting standard on "Revenue from Contracts with Customers". The reduction in the tax rate was due to the impacts of the U.S. Tax Act, both from the overall rate reduction and the manner in which the impacts were allocated between the business and corporate segments in the prior year, as discussed in the Corporate segment below.






20 The Procter & Gamble Company

FABRIC & HOME CARE
($ millions)
2019
 
2018
 
Change vs. 2018
Volume
N/A
 
N/A
 
4%
Net sales
$22,080
 
$21,441
 
3%
Net earnings
$3,518
 
$2,708
 
30%
% of net sales
15.9%
 
12.6%
 
330 bps
Fabric & Home Care net sales increased 3% to $22.1 billion in 2019 on a 4% increase in unit volume. Unfavorable foreign exchange impacts reduced net sales by 3%. Higher pricing increased net sales by 1%. Positive mix impacts increased net sales by 1% due to the disproportionate growth of premium products. Organic sales increased 7% on a 5% increase in organic volume. Global market share of the Fabric & Home Care segment increased 0.5 points. Volume increased mid-single digits in developed regions and low single digits in developing regions. Excluding the impact of minor brand divestitures, organic volume increased mid-single digits in developing regions.
Fabric Care volume increased mid-single digits. Volume increased mid-single digits in both developed and developing regions, due to product innovation and market growth. Global market share of the Fabric Care category increased less than half a point.
Home Care volume increased mid-single digits. Volume in developed regions increased mid-single digits driven by product innovation and market growth. Volume in developing regions increased low single digits driven by product innovation, partially offset by volume declines following devaluation related price increases. Global market share of the Home Care category increased nearly a point.
Net earnings increased 30% to $3.5 billion in 2019 due to the increase in net sales and a 330 basis-point increase in net earnings margin. Net earnings margin increased due to a decrease in U.S. income tax rates and a reduction in SG&A as a percentage of sales partially offset by a marginal reduction in gross margin. Gross margin decreased due to unfavorable product mix (driven by the disproportionate growth of large sizes and club channel, both of which have lower than average margins, and new innovation with higher than segment-average product costs), unfavorable foreign exchange impacts and increased commodity costs, partially offset by manufacturing cost savings and increased pricing. SG&A as a percentage of net sales decreased due to reductions in both overhead costs and marketing spending, driven by productivity savings, fixed cost leverage from increased net sales and the impacts from adoption of the new accounting standard on "Revenue from Contracts with Customers". The reduction in the tax rate was due to the impacts of the U.S. Tax Act, both from the overall rate reduction and the manner in which the impacts were allocated between the business and corporate segments in the prior year, as discussed in the Corporate segment below.

 
BABY, FEMININE & FAMILY CARE
($ millions)
2019
 
2018
 
Change vs. 2018
Volume
N/A
 
N/A
 
1%
Net sales
$17,806
 
$18,080
 
(2)%
Net earnings
$2,734
 
$2,251
 
21%
% of net sales
15.4%
 
12.5%
 
290 bps
Baby, Feminine & Family Care net sales decreased 2% to $17.8 billion in 2019 on a 1% increase in unit volume. Unfavorable foreign exchange impacts reduced net sales by 4%. Increased pricing had a positive 1% impact on net sales. Organic sales increased 2%. Global market share of the Baby, Feminine & Family Care segment increased 0.1 points. Volume increased low single digits in developed regions. Volume in developing regions decreased low single digits
Baby Care volume decreased mid-single digits. Volume in developed regions decreased low single digits due to competitive activity, including competitive pricing activity in certain markets, and category contraction. Volume in developing regions decreased high single digits due to competitive activity, volume declines following devaluation related price increases and category contraction in certain markets. Global market share of the baby care category decreased more than half a point.
Feminine Care volume increased mid-single digits. Volume in developed regions increased mid-single digits. Excluding a minor brand acquisition, organic volume increased low single digits due to product innovation and adult incontinence category growth. Volume in developing regions increased mid-single digits due to product innovation. Global market share of the feminine care category increased nearly half a point.
Volume in Family Care, which is predominantly a North American business, increased mid-single digits driven by product innovation and market growth. In the U.S., all-outlet share of the family care category increased more than half a point.
Net earnings in 2019 increased 21% to $2.7 billion due to a 290 basis-point increase in net earnings margin, partially offset by the reduction in net sales. Net earnings margin increased primarily due to a reduction in U.S. income tax rates and a decrease in SG&A as a percentage of net sales, partially offset by a marginal decrease in gross margin. The gross margin decrease was driven by an increase in commodity costs and unfavorable foreign exchange impacts partially offset by manufacturing cost savings and increased pricing. SG&A as a percentage of net sales decreased due to reduced marketing spending and overhead costs, driven by productivity savings and the impacts from adoption of the new accounting standard on "Revenue from Contracts with Customers". The reduction in the tax rate was due to the impacts of the U.S. Tax Act, both from the overall rate reduction and the manner in which the impacts were allocated between business and corporate segments in the prior year, as discussed in the Corporate segment below.


The Procter & Gamble Company 21

CORPORATE
($ millions)
2019
 
2018
 
Change vs. 2018
Net sales
$484
 
$497
 
(3)%
Net earnings/(loss)
$(7,971)
 
$(133)
 
N/A
Corporate includes certain operating and non-operating activities not allocated to specific business segments. These include: the incidental businesses managed at the corporate level; financing and investing activities; certain employee benefit costs; other general corporate items; gains and losses related to certain divested brands and categories; certain asset impairment charges; and certain restructuring-type activities to maintain a competitive cost structure, including manufacturing and workforce optimization. Corporate also includes reconciling items to adjust the accounting policies used in the segments to U.S. GAAP. The most significant ongoing reconciling item is income taxes, to adjust from blended statutory rates that are reflected in the segments to the overall Company effective tax rate. For 2018, the tax impact also includes the impacts of the U.S. Tax Act, which were included in the corporate segment.
Corporate net sales decreased 3% to $484 million in 2019 due to a decrease in the incidental businesses managed at the corporate level. Corporate net loss increased by $7.8 billion in 2019 primarily due to the $8.0 billion after tax ($8.3 billion before tax) charge for the Shave Care impairment as well as the impact of the allocation methodology of the lower U.S. Tax rates. The U.S. Tax Act was enacted in the middle of fiscal 2018; therefore, the net benefit was held in Corporate. Beginning in fiscal 2019, the lower rates are included in the reporting segments. These impacts were partially offset by the following benefits, each of which was discussed earlier:
the base period net charge for the transitional impacts of the U.S. Tax Act,
the base period loss on early debt extinguishment,
lower restructuring charges in fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year and
higher current year divestiture gains (primarily driven by gain on the dissolution of the PGT healthcare partnership)
Restructuring Program to deliver Productivity and Cost Savings
In 2012, the Company initiated a productivity and cost savings plan to reduce costs and better leverage scale in the areas of supply chain, research and development, marketing and overheads. The plan was designed to accelerate cost reductions by streamlining management decision making, manufacturing and other work processes to fund the Company's growth strategy. In 2017, the Company communicated specific elements of an additional multi-year productivity and cost savings program.
The current productivity and cost savings plan will further reduce costs in the areas of supply chain, certain marketing activities and overhead expenses. As part of this plan, the Company incurred approximately $1.8 billion in total before- tax restructuring costs across 2018 and 2019, with an additional
 
amount of approximately $0.6 billion expected in 2020. This program is expected to result in additional enrollment reductions, along with further optimization of the supply chain and other manufacturing processes. Savings generated from restructuring costs are difficult to estimate, given the nature of the activities, the timing of the execution and the degree of reinvestment. However, we estimate that through 2019, the underlying restructuring costs incurred since 2012 (approximately $7.4 billion), along with other non-manufacturing enrollment reductions since 2012 have delivered approximately $3.6 billion in annual before-tax gross savings.
Restructuring accruals of $468 million as of June 30, 2019 are classified as current liabilities. Approximately 67% of the restructuring charges incurred in fiscal 2019 either have been or will be settled with cash. Consistent with our historical policies for ongoing restructuring-type activities, the resulting charges are funded by and included within Corporate for segment reporting.
In addition to our restructuring programs, we have additional ongoing savings efforts in our supply chain, marketing and overhead areas that yield additional benefits to our operating margins.
Refer to Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more details on the restructuring program and to the Operating Costs section of the MD&A for more information about the total benefit to operating margins from our total savings efforts.
CASH FLOW, FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY
We believe our financial condition continues to be of high quality, as evidenced by our ability to generate substantial cash from operations and to readily access capital markets at competitive rates.
Operating cash flow provides the primary source of cash to fund operating needs and capital expenditures. Excess operating cash is used first to fund shareholder dividends. Other discretionary uses include share repurchases and acquisitions to complement our portfolio of businesses, brands and geographies. As necessary, we may supplement operating cash flow with debt to fund these activities. The overall cash position of the Company reflects our strong business results and a global cash management strategy that takes into account liquidity management, economic factors and tax considerations.
Operating Cash Flow
Operating cash flow was $15.2 billion in 2019, a 3% increase from the prior year. Net earnings, adjusted for non-cash items (depreciation and amortization, share-based compensation, deferred income taxes, gain on sale of assets and goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible impairment charges) generated approximately $14.6 billion of operating cash flow. Working capital and other impacts generated $0.7 billion of operating cash flow as summarized below.
An increase in accounts receivable used $276 million of cash due to increased sales and the timing of the end of the fiscal year (which fell on a weekend, resulting in fewer


22 The Procter & Gamble Company

days collection). The number of days sales outstanding increased approximately one day versus prior year.
Higher inventory used $239 million of cash mainly due to inventory increases to support initiatives and business growth across all segments. Inventory days on hand increased approximately 2 days primarily due to initiative support and foreign exchange impacts.
Accounts payable, accrued and other liabilities increased, generating $1.9 billion of cash. This was primarily driven by extended payment terms with our suppliers and an increase in fourth quarter marketing activity versus the prior year. These factors, along with foreign exchange, drove an approximate 8 day increase in days payable outstanding. Although difficult to project due to market and other dynamics, we anticipate incremental cash flow benefits from the extended payment terms with suppliers could decline in fiscal 2020.
Other operating assets and liabilities used $1.0 billion of cash, primarily driven by the payment of the current year portion of taxes due related to the U.S. Tax Act repatriation charge and statutory pension contributions.
Adjusted Free Cash Flow. We view adjusted free cash flow as an important measure because it is a factor impacting the amount of cash available for dividends, share repurchases, acquisitions and other discretionary investment. It is defined as operating cash flow less capital expenditures and excluding payments for the transitional tax resulting from the U.S. Tax Act, and it is one of the measures used to evaluate senior management and determine their at-risk compensation.
Adjusted free cash flow was $12.1 billion in 2019, an increase of 9% versus the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by the increase in operating cash flows as discussed above. Adjusted free cash flow productivity, defined as the ratio of adjusted free cash flow to net earnings, excluding the Shave Care impairment charges and the gain on dissolution of the PGT Healthcare partnership, was 105% in 2019.
Investing Cash Flow
Net investing activities consumed $3.5 billion in cash in 2019, mainly due to capital spending and business acquisitions, partially offset by proceeds from sales and maturities of short-term investments.
Capital Spending. Capital expenditures, primarily to support capacity expansion, innovation and cost efficiencies, were $3.3 billion in 2019, a decrease of 10% versus prior year. Capital spending as a percentage of net sales decreased 70 basis points to 4.9% in 2019.
Acquisitions. Acquisition activity used cash of $3.9 billion in 2019, primarily related to the Merck OTC acquisition. Acquisition activity used $109 million in 2018, primarily related to acquisitions in the Beauty segment.
Proceeds from Divestitures and Other Asset Sales. Proceeds from asset sales were $394 million in 2019 primarily from minor brand divestitures and the sale of real estate. Proceeds from asset sales contributed $269 million in cash in 2018 primarily from minor brand divestitures.
Short-term investments. Short-term investments generated net cash of $3.5 billion in 2019, primarily from sales and
 
maturities of available-for-sale investments. Net cash flow from short-term investments was not material in 2018.
Financing Cash Flow
Net financing activities consumed $10.0 billion in cash in 2019, mainly due to dividends to shareholders and treasury stock purchases, partially offset by the impact of stock options.
Dividend Payments. Our first discretionary use of cash is dividend payments. Dividends per common share increased 4% to $2.90 per share in 2019. Total dividend payments to common and preferred shareholders were $7.5 billion in 2019 and $7.3 billion in 2018. In April 2019, the Board of Directors declared an increase in our quarterly dividend from $0.7172 to $0.7459 per share on Common Stock and Series A and B ESOP Convertible Class A Preferred Stock. This represents a 4% increase compared to the prior quarterly dividend and is the 63rd consecutive year that our dividend has increased. We have paid a dividend for 129 consecutive years, every year since our incorporation in 1890.
Long-Term and Short-Term Debt. We maintain debt levels we consider appropriate after evaluating a number of factors, including cash flow expectations, cash requirements for ongoing operations, investment and financing plans (including acquisitions and share repurchase activities) and the overall cost of capital. Total debt was $30.1 billion as of June 30, 2019 and $31.3 billion as of June 30, 2018.
Treasury Purchases. Total share repurchases were $5.0 billion in 2019 and $7.0 billion in 2018.
Liquidity
At June 30, 2019, our current liabilities exceeded current assets by $7.5 billion, largely due to short-term borrowings under our commercial paper program. We anticipate being able to support our short-term liquidity and operating needs largely through cash generated from operations. The Company regularly assesses its cash needs and the available sources to fund these needs. As of June 30, 2019, $5.7 billion of the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities was related to foreign subsidiaries, primarily various Western European and Asian countries. Under current law, we do not expect restrictions or taxes on repatriation of cash held outside of the U.S. to have a material effect on our overall liquidity, financial condition or the results of operations for the foreseeable future. As of June 30, 2019, we did not have material cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances in any country subject to exchange controls that significantly restrict our ability to access or repatriate the funds.
We utilize short- and long-term debt to fund discretionary items, such as acquisitions and share repurchases. We have strong short- and long-term debt ratings, which have enabled, and should continue to enable, us to refinance our debt as it becomes due at favorable rates in commercial paper and bond markets. In addition, we have agreements with a diverse group of financial institutions that, if needed, should provide sufficient credit funding to meet short-term financing requirements.
On June 30, 2019, our short-term credit ratings were P-1 (Moody's) and A-1+ (Standard & Poor's), while our long-term


The Procter & Gamble Company 23

credit ratings were Aa3 (Moody's) and AA- (Standard & Poor's), all with a stable outlook.
We maintain bank credit facilities to support our ongoing commercial paper program. The current facility is an $8.0 billion facility split between a $3.2 billion four-year facility and a $4.8 billion 364-day facility, which expire in November 2022 and November 2019, respectively. Both facilities can be extended for certain periods of time as specified in the terms of the credit agreement. These facilities are currently undrawn and we anticipate that they will remain undrawn. These credit facilities do not have cross-default or ratings triggers, nor do they have material adverse events clauses, except at the time
 
of signing. In addition to these credit facilities, we have an automatically effective registration statement on Form S-3 filed with the SEC that is available for registered offerings of short- or long-term debt securities. For additional details on debt see Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Guarantees and Other Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have guarantees or other off-balance sheet financing arrangements, including variable interest entities, which we believe could have a material impact on our financial condition or liquidity.

Contractual Commitments
The following table provides information on the amount and payable date of our contractual commitments as of June 30, 2019.
Amounts in millions
Total
 
Less Than 1 Year
 
1-3 Years
 
3-5 Years
 
After 5 Years
RECORDED LIABILITIES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total debt
$
29,988

 
$
9,695

 
$
4,791

 
$
4,807

 
$
10,695

Capital leases
33

 
9

 
15

 
7

 
2

U.S. Tax Act transitional charge (1)
2,557

 
214

 
449

 
646

 
1,248

Uncertain tax positions (2)
143

 
143

 

 

 

OTHER
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest payments relating to long-term debt
4,682

 
572

 
979

 
737

 
2,394

Operating leases
1,218

 
255

 
375

 
300

 
288

Minimum pension funding (3)
471

 
153

 
318

 

 

Purchase obligations (4)
1,491

 
633

 
397

 
193

 
268

TOTAL CONTRACTUAL COMMITMENTS
$
40,583

 
$
11,674

 
$
7,324

 
$
6,690

 
$
14,895

(1) 
Represents the U.S. federal tax liability associated with the repatriation provisions of the U.S. Tax Act. Does not include any provisions made for foreign withholding taxes on expected repatriations as the timing of those payments is uncertain.
(2) 
As of June 30, 2019, the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet reflects a liability for uncertain tax positions of $617 million, including $150 million of interest and penalties. Due to the high degree of uncertainty regarding the timing of future cash outflows of liabilities for uncertain tax positions beyond one year, a reasonable estimate of the period of cash settlement beyond twelve months from the balance sheet date of June 30, 2019, cannot be made.
(3) 
Represents future pension payments to comply with local funding requirements. These future pension payments assume the Company continues to meet its future statutory funding requirements. Considering the current economic environment in which the Company operates, the Company believes its cash flows are adequate to meet the future statutory funding requirements. The projected payments beyond fiscal year 2022 are not currently determinable.
(4) 
Primarily reflects future contractual payments under various take-or-pay arrangements entered into as part of the normal course of business. Commitments made under take-or-pay obligations represent minimum commitments under take-or-pay agreements with suppliers and are in line with expected usage. This includes service contracts for information technology, human resources management and facilities management activities that have been outsourced. While the amounts listed represent contractual obligations, we do not believe it is likely that the full contractual amount would be paid if the underlying contracts were canceled prior to maturity. In such cases, we generally are able to negotiate new contracts or cancellation penalties, resulting in a reduced payment. The amounts do not include other contractual purchase obligations that are not take-or-pay arrangements. Such contractual purchase obligations are primarily purchase orders at fair value that are part of normal operations and are reflected in historical operating cash flow trends. We do not believe such purchase obligations will adversely affect our liquidity position.


SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
In preparing our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, there are certain accounting policies that may require a choice between acceptable accounting methods or may require substantial judgment or estimation in their application. These include revenue recognition, income taxes, certain employee benefits and goodwill and intangible assets. We believe these accounting policies, and others set forth in Note
 
1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, should be reviewed as they are integral to understanding the results of operations and financial condition of the Company.
The Company has discussed the selection of significant accounting policies and the effect of estimates with the Audit Committee of the Company's Board of Directors.
Revenue Recognition


24 The Procter & Gamble Company

Our revenue is primarily generated from the sale of finished product to customers. Those sales predominantly contain a single performance obligation and revenue is recognized at a single point in time when ownership, risks and rewards transfer, which can be on the date of shipment or the date of receipt by the customer. Trade promotions, consisting primarily of customer pricing allowances, in-store merchandising funds, advertising and other promotional activities, and consumer coupons, are offered through various programs to customers and consumers.  Sales are recorded net of trade promotion spending, which is recognized as incurred at the time of the sale.  Amounts accrued for trade promotions at the end of a period require estimation, based on contractual terms, sales volumes and historical utilization and redemption rates.  The actual amounts paid may be different from such estimates.  These differences, which have historically not been significant, are recognized as a change in management estimate in a subsequent period.  The Company adopted ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)” on July 1, 2018.  Adoption of this standard resulted in a change in the timing of recognition of certain trade promotional spending.   See Note 1 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Income Taxes
Our annual tax rate is determined based on our income, statutory tax rates and the tax impacts of items treated differently for tax purposes than for financial reporting purposes. Also inherent in determining our annual tax rate are judgments and assumptions regarding the recoverability of certain deferred tax balances, primarily net operating loss and other carryforwards, and our ability to uphold certain tax positions.
Realization of net operating losses and other carryforwards is dependent upon generating sufficient taxable income in the appropriate jurisdiction prior to the expiration of the carryforward periods, which involves business plans, planning opportunities and expectations about future outcomes. Although realization is not assured, management believes it is more likely than not that our deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowances, will be realized.
We operate in multiple jurisdictions with complex tax policy and regulatory environments. In certain of these jurisdictions, we may take tax positions that management believes are supportable, but are potentially subject to successful challenge by the applicable taxing authority. These interpretational differences with the respective governmental taxing authorities can be impacted by the local economic and fiscal environment.
A core operating principle is that our tax structure is based on our business operating model, such that profits are earned in line with the business substance and functions of the various legal entities. However, because of the complexity of transfer pricing concepts, we may have income tax uncertainty related to the determination of intercompany transfer prices for our various cross-border transactions. We have obtained and continue to prioritize the strategy of seeking advance rulings with tax authorities to reduce this uncertainty. We estimate that our current portfolio of advance rulings reduces this uncertainty with respect to over 70% of our global earnings. We evaluate our tax positions and establish liabilities in
 
accordance with the applicable accounting guidance on uncertainty in income taxes. We review these tax uncertainties in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the progress of tax audits, and adjust them accordingly. We have a number of audits in process in various jurisdictions. Although the resolution of these tax positions is uncertain, based on currently available information, we believe that the ultimate outcomes will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Because there are a number of estimates and assumptions inherent in calculating the various components of our tax provision, certain changes or future events such as changes in tax legislation, geographic mix of earnings, completion of tax audits or earnings repatriation plans could have an impact on those estimates and our effective tax rate. See Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details on the Company's income taxes.
Employee Benefits
We sponsor various post-employment benefits throughout the world. These include pension plans, both defined contribution plans and defined benefit plans, and other post-employment benefit (OPEB) plans, consisting primarily of health care and life insurance for retirees. For accounting purposes, the defined benefit pension and OPEB plans require assumptions to estimate the projected and accumulated benefit obligations, including the following variables: discount rate; expected salary increases; certain employee-related factors, such as turnover, retirement age and mortality; expected return on assets; and health care cost trend rates. These and other assumptions affect the annual expense and obligations recognized for the underlying plans. Our assumptions reflect our historical experiences and management's best judgment regarding future expectations. As permitted by U.S. GAAP, the net amount by which actual results differ from our assumptions is deferred. If this net deferred amount exceeds 10% of the greater of plan assets or liabilities, a portion of the deferred amount is included in expense for the following year. The cost or benefit of plan changes, such as increasing or decreasing benefits for prior employee service (prior service cost), is deferred and included in expense on a straight-line basis over the average remaining service period of the employees expected to receive benefits.
The expected return on plan assets assumption impacts our defined benefit expense since many of our defined benefit pension plans and our primary OPEB plan are partially funded. The process for setting the expected rates of return is described in Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. For 2019, the average return on assets assumptions for pension plan assets and OPEB assets was 6.6% and 8.3%, respectively. A change in the rate of return of 100 basis points for both pension and OPEB assets would impact annual after-tax benefit expense by approximately $115 million.
Since pension and OPEB liabilities are measured on a discounted basis, the discount rate impacts our plan obligations and expenses. Discount rates used for our U.S. defined benefit pension and OPEB plans are based on a yield curve constructed from a portfolio of high quality bonds for which the timing and amount of cash outflows approximate the estimated payouts


The Procter & Gamble Company 25

of the plan. For our international plans, the discount rates are set by benchmarking against investment grade corporate bonds rated AA or better. The average discount rate on the defined benefit pension plans of 1.9% represents a weighted average of local rates in countries where such plans exist. A 100 basis point change in the discount rate would impact annual after-tax benefit expense by approximately $200 million. The average discount rate on the OPEB plan of 3.7% reflects the higher interest rates generally applicable in the U.S., which is where a majority of the plan participants receive benefits. A 100 basis point change in the discount rate would impact annual after-tax OPEB expense by approximately $60 million. See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statement for additional details on our defined benefit pension and OPEB plans.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Significant judgment is required to estimate the fair value of our goodwill reporting units and intangible assets. Accordingly, we typically obtain the assistance of third-party valuation specialists for significant goodwill reporting units and intangible assets. The fair value estimates are based on available historical information and on future expectations. We typically estimate the fair value of these assets using the income method, which is based on the present value of estimated future cash flows attributable to the respective assets. The valuations used to establish and to test goodwill and intangible assets for impairment are dependent on a number of significant estimates and assumptions, including macroeconomic conditions, overall category growth rates, competitive activities, cost containment and margin progression, Company business plans and the discount rate applied to cash flows.
Indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill are not amortized, but are tested at least annually for impairment. Our ongoing annual impairment testing for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets occurs during the 3 months ended December 31. Assumptions used in our impairment evaluations, such as forecasted growth rates and cost of capital, are consistent with internal projections and operating plans. We believe these estimates and assumptions are reasonable and comparable to those that would be used by other marketplace participants. Unanticipated market or macroeconomic events and circumstances may occur, which could affect the accuracy or validity of the estimates and assumptions. For example, future changes in the judgments, assumptions and estimates that are used in our impairment testing for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, including discount and tax rates or future cash flow projections, could result in significantly different estimates of the fair values. In addition, changes to, or a failure to achieve business plans or deterioration of macroeconomic conditions could result in reduced cash flows or higher discount rates, leading to a lower valuation that would trigger an impairment of the goodwill and intangible assets of these businesses.
We test individual indefinite-lived intangible assets by comparing the book value of each asset to the estimated fair value. Our impairment testing for goodwill is performed separately from our impairment testing of indefinite-lived intangible assets. The test to evaluate goodwill for impairment is a two step process. In the first step (step one), we compare
 
the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we perform a second step (step two) to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill. The second step of the impairment analysis requires a valuation of a reporting unit's tangible and intangible assets and liabilities in a manner similar to the allocation of purchase price in a business combination. The difference between the step one fair value and the amounts allocated to the assets and liabilities in step two is the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill.
If this implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill is less than its carrying value, that difference represents an impairment.
Determining the useful life of an intangible asset also requires judgment. Certain brand intangible assets are expected to have indefinite lives based on their history and our plans to continue to support and build the acquired brands. Other acquired intangible assets (e.g., certain brands, all customer relationships, patents and technologies) are expected to have determinable useful lives. Our assessment as to brands that have an indefinite life and those that have a determinable life is based on a number of factors including competitive environment, market share, brand history, underlying product life cycles, operating plans and the macroeconomic environment of the countries in which the brands are sold. Determinable-lived intangible assets are amortized to expense over their estimated lives. An impairment assessment for determinable-lived intangibles is only required when an event or change in circumstances indicates that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable.
Most of our goodwill reporting units are comprised of a combination of legacy and acquired businesses and as a result have fair value cushions that, at a minimum, exceed two times their underlying carrying values. Certain of our goodwill reporting units, in particular Shave Care and Appliances, are comprised entirely of acquired businesses and as a result have fair value cushions that are not as high. The Appliances wholly-acquired reporting unit has a fair value that significantly exceeds the underlying carrying value. As previously disclosed, the fair value of the Shave Care reporting unit and the related Gillette indefinite-lived intangible asset have been reduced during the recent year to amounts that approximated carrying value. The fair value reductions were due in large part to significant currency devaluations in a number of countries relative to the U.S. dollar, a deceleration of category growth caused by changing grooming habits, primarily in the developed markets, and an increased competitive market environment in the U.S. and certain other markets, which collectively have resulted in reduced cash flow projections. The business continued to be impacted by these factors during the quarter ended June 30, 2019, which reduced previous estimates of earnings for both fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2020. Because of this, we re-performed our step one impairment tests for these assets as of June 30, 2019 and determined that the fair values have been reduced below their respective carrying values.
Therefore, we conducted a step t