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Section 1: 10-Q (10-Q)

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Table of Contents


 
United States
Securities and Exchange Commission
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
Form 10-Q
 
 
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2019

OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from         to     
Commission file number 000-24498
 
 
398989879_dhillogo.jpg

DIAMOND HILL INVESTMENT GROUP INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
  
 
Ohio
 
65-0190407
(State of
incorporation)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
325 John H. McConnell Blvd, Suite 200, Columbus, Ohio 43215
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(614) 255-3333
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes:  x    No:  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer
 
  
Accelerated filer
 
x
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
  
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes:      No:  x

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par value
 
DHIL
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
The number of shares outstanding of the issuer’s common stock, as of July 31, 2019, is 3,434,453 shares.
 


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DIAMOND HILL INVESTMENT GROUP, INC.
 
 
 
PAGE
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
 
Item 6.
 
 


2

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PART I:
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
ITEM 1:
Consolidated Financial Statements
Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
 
6/30/2019
 
12/31/2018
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
ASSETS
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
112,275,019

 
$
84,430,059

Investments
150,772,310

 
203,488,217

Accounts receivable
22,210,625

 
20,290,283

Prepaid expenses
2,630,933

 
2,372,712

Property and equipment, net of depreciation
5,973,071

 
3,680,472

Deferred taxes
12,289,983

 
11,466,100

Total assets
$
306,151,941

 
$
325,727,843

LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Liabilities
 
 
 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses
$
13,045,332

 
$
15,561,491

Accrued incentive compensation
11,020,000

 
26,754,167

Income taxes payable
2,255,368

 
2,768,681

Deferred compensation
28,060,153

 
22,387,874

Total liabilities
54,380,853

 
67,472,213

Redeemable noncontrolling interest
34,076,350

 
62,679,687

Permanent Shareholders’ equity
 
 
 
Common stock, no par value 7,000,000 shares authorized; 3,443,464 issued and outstanding at June 30, 2019 (inclusive of 225,625 unvested shares); 3,499,285 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2018 (inclusive of 211,575 unvested shares)
116,835,709

 
124,933,060

Preferred stock, undesignated, 1,000,000 shares authorized and unissued

 

Deferred equity compensation
(21,919,702
)
 
(22,008,054
)
Retained earnings
122,778,731

 
92,650,937

Total permanent shareholders’ equity
217,694,738

 
195,575,943

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
$
306,151,941

 
$
325,727,843

 
 
 
 
Book value per share
$
63.22

 
$
55.89

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

3

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Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Income (unaudited)
 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
REVENUES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Investment advisory
$
31,510,672

 
$
33,526,273

 
$
62,023,389

 
$
68,157,563

Mutual fund administration, net
2,034,344

 
2,401,442

 
4,101,000

 
5,552,154

Total revenue
33,545,016

 
35,927,715


66,124,389


73,709,717

OPERATING EXPENSES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Compensation and related costs
15,624,551

 
14,572,121

 
31,593,932

 
28,959,595

General and administrative
3,543,527

 
2,822,528

 
6,788,059

 
5,786,200

Sales and marketing
1,447,266

 
1,302,040

 
2,817,982

 
2,511,526

Mutual fund administration
849,676

 
881,487

 
1,710,717

 
1,898,906

Total operating expenses
21,465,020

 
19,578,176


42,910,690


39,156,227

NET OPERATING INCOME
12,079,996

 
16,349,539

 
23,213,699

 
34,553,490

Investment income, net
6,519,596

 
3,565,669

 
20,804,473

 
2,005,946

INCOME BEFORE TAXES
18,599,592

 
19,915,208


44,018,172


36,559,436

Income tax expense
(4,442,023
)
 
(5,017,185
)
 
(10,304,756
)
 
(8,719,285
)
NET INCOME
14,157,569

 
14,898,023


33,713,416


27,840,151

Net income attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interest
(962,417
)
 
(527,655
)
 
(3,585,622
)
 
(480,323
)
NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO COMMON SHAREHOLDERS
$
13,195,152

 
$
14,370,368


$
30,127,794


$
27,359,828

Earnings per share attributable to common shareholders
 
 
 
 

 
 
Basic
$
3.79

 
$
4.08

 
$
8.64

 
$
7.81

Diluted
$
3.79

 
$
4.08

 
$
8.64

 
$
7.81

Weighted average shares outstanding
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
3,478,307

 
3,518,665

 
3,486,032

 
3,503,379

Diluted
3,478,307

 
3,519,816

 
3,486,504

 
3,505,136

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

4

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Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity and Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest (unaudited)

 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2019
 
Shares
Outstanding
 
Common
Stock
 
Deferred Equity
Compensation
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Total
 
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
Balance at March 31, 2019
3,494,599

 
$
124,484,045

 
$
(23,656,774
)
 
$
109,583,579

 
$
210,410,850

 
$
36,249,454

Issuance of restricted stock grants
4,175

 
166,521

 
(166,521
)
 

 

 

Amortization of restricted stock grants

 

 
1,853,743

 

 
1,853,743

 

Issuance of common stock related to 401k plan match
4,190

 
589,565

 

 

 
589,565

 

Shares withheld related to employee tax withholding
(4,300
)
 
(602,000
)
 

 

 
(602,000
)
 

Forfeiture of restricted stock grants
(250
)
 
(49,850
)
 
49,850

 

 

 

Repurchase of common stock
(54,950
)
 
(7,752,572
)
 

 

 
(7,752,572
)
 

Net income

 

 

 
13,195,152

 
13,195,152

 
962,417

Net subscriptions of Consolidated Funds

 

 

 

 

 
6,880,706

Net deconsolidations of Company sponsored investments

 

 

 

 

 
(10,016,227
)
Balance at June 30, 2019
3,443,464

 
$
116,835,709

 
$
(21,919,702
)
 
$
122,778,731

 
$
217,694,738

 
$
34,076,350

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
Shares
Outstanding
 
Common
Stock
 
Deferred Equity
Compensation
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Total
 
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
Balance at March 31, 2018
3,518,957

 
$
128,441,231

 
$
(23,907,748
)
 
$
86,359,132

 
$
190,892,615

 
$
41,660,307

Issuance of restricted stock grants
29,600

 
5,162,829

 
(5,162,829
)
 

 

 

Amortization of restricted stock grants

 

 
1,637,312

 

 
1,637,312

 

Issuance of common stock related to 401k plan match
2,989

 
594,346

 

 

 
594,346

 

Shares withheld related to employee tax withholding
(2,012
)
 
(415,599
)
 

 

 
(415,599
)
 

Forfeiture of restricted stock grants
(16,900
)
 
(3,413,396
)
 
3,413,396

 

 

 

Net income

 

 

 
14,370,368

 
14,370,368

 
527,655

Net subscriptions of consolidated funds

 

 

 

 

 
8,589,839

Balance at June 30, 2018
3,532,634

 
$
130,369,411

 
$
(24,019,869
)
 
$
100,729,500

 
$
207,079,042

 
$
50,777,801




The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.









5

Table of Contents


Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity and Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest (unaudited) (Continued)

 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2019
 
Shares
Outstanding
 
Common
Stock
 
Deferred Equity
Compensation
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Total
 
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
Balance at December 31, 2018
3,499,285

 
$
124,933,060

 
$
(22,008,054
)
 
$
92,650,937

 
$
195,575,943

 
$
62,679,687

Issuance of restricted stock grants
29,050

 
4,025,821

 
(4,025,821
)
 

 

 

Amortization of restricted stock grants

 

 
3,375,716

 

 
3,375,716

 

Issuance of stock grants
24,048

 
3,655,296

 

 

 
3,655,296

 

Issuance of common stock related to 401k plan match
8,476

 
1,221,615

 

 

 
1,221,615

 

Shares withheld related to employee tax withholding
(4,300
)
 
(602,000
)
 

 

 
(602,000
)
 

Forfeiture of restricted stock grants
(4,500
)
 
(738,457
)
 
738,457

 

 

 

Repurchase of common stock
(108,595
)
 
(15,659,626
)
 

 

 
(15,659,626
)
 

Net income

 

 

 
30,127,794

 
30,127,794

 
3,585,622

Net subscriptions of Consolidated Funds

 

 

 

 

 
5,151,829

Net deconsolidations of Company sponsored investments

 

 

 

 

 
(37,340,788
)
Balance at June 30, 2019
3,443,464

 
$
116,835,709

 
$
(21,919,702
)
 
$
122,778,731

 
$
217,694,738

 
$
34,076,350

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
Shares
Outstanding
 
Common
Stock
 
Deferred Equity
Compensation
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Total
 
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
Balance at December 31, 2017
3,470,428

 
$
118,209,111

 
$
(19,134,963
)
 
$
73,369,672

 
$
172,443,820

 
$
20,076,806

Issuance of restricted stock grants
61,650

 
11,917,937

 
(11,917,937
)
 

 

 

Amortization of restricted stock grants

 

 
3,016,235

 

 
3,016,235

 

Issuance of stock grants
20,153

 
4,109,197

 

 

 
4,109,197

 

Issuance of common stock related to 401k plan match
5,242

 
1,067,125

 

 

 
1,067,125

 

Shares withheld related to employee tax withholding
(4,439
)
 
(917,163
)
 

 

 
(917,163
)
 

Forfeiture of restricted stock grants
(20,400
)
 
(4,016,796
)
 
4,016,796

 

 

 

Net income

 

 

 
27,359,828

 
27,359,828

 
480,323

Net subscriptions of consolidated funds

 

 

 

 

 
13,776,032

New consolidations of Company sponsored investments

 

 

 

 

 
16,444,640

Balance at June 30, 2018
3,532,634

 
$
130,369,411

 
$
(24,019,869
)
 
$
100,729,500

 
$
207,079,042

 
$
50,777,801

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.



6

Table of Contents


Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (unaudited)
 
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Net Income
$
33,713,416

 
$
27,840,151

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation
569,896

 
574,457

Share-based compensation
4,597,331

 
4,083,360

Increase in accounts receivable
(3,094,071
)
 
(1,608,910
)
Change in current income taxes
(513,313
)
 
4,554,773

Change in deferred income taxes
(823,883
)
 
(1,253,988
)
Net (gains) losses on investments
(16,091,598
)
 
644,680

Net change in securities held by Consolidated Funds
17,041,017

 
(46,416,866
)
Decrease in accrued incentive compensation
(12,078,871
)
 
(6,853,303
)
Increase in deferred compensation
5,672,279

 
3,968,960

Other changes in assets and liabilities
(182,455
)
 
7,129,382

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
28,809,748

 
(7,337,304
)
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Purchase of property and equipment
(131,734
)
 
(593,989
)
Purchase of Company sponsored investments
(5,973,680
)
 
(3,286,872
)
Proceeds from sale of Company sponsored investments
35,729,336

 
1,508,543

Net cash on deconsolidation of Company sponsored investments
(22,723,853
)
 

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
6,900,069

 
(2,372,318
)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
 
 
 
Value of shares withheld related to employee tax withholding
(602,000
)
 
(917,163
)
Net subscriptions received from redeemable noncontrolling interest holders
8,396,769

 
12,251,682

Repurchase of common stock
(15,659,626
)
 

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(7,864,857
)
 
11,334,519

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
 
 
 
Net change during the period
27,844,960

 
1,624,897

At beginning of period
84,430,059

 
76,602,108

At end of period
$
112,275,019

 
$
78,227,005

Supplemental cash flow information:
 
 
 
Income taxes paid
$
11,641,951

 
$
5,418,500

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash transactions:
 
 
 
Common stock issued as incentive compensation
$
3,655,296

 
$
4,109,197

Charitable donation of corporate investments

 
1,989,803

Net (redemptions) subscriptions of ETF shares for marketable securities
(3,244,940
)
 
1,524,350


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
Note 1 Business and Organization
Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc. (the "Company"), an Ohio corporation, derives its consolidated revenues and net income from investment advisory and fund administration services.
Diamond Hill Capital Management, Inc. ("DHCM"), an Ohio corporation, is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company and a registered investment adviser. DHCM is the investment adviser to the Diamond Hill Funds (the "Funds"), a series of open-end mutual funds, private investment funds, and other institutional accounts. DHCM is also administrator for the Funds.
Note 2 Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, and for the three- and six-month periods ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, for Diamond Hill Investment Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries (referred to in these notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements as "the Company," "management," "we," "us," and "our") have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals, considered necessary for a fair statement of the financial condition and results of operations at the dates and for the interim periods presented have been included. The results of operations for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be expected for any full fiscal year. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and footnotes should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements of the Company included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 (the "2018 Annual Report") as filed with the SEC.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions related to the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Reclassification
Certain prior period amounts and disclosures may have been reclassified to conform to the current period's financial presentation.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the operations of the Company and its controlled subsidiaries. All inter-company transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company holds certain investments in the Funds, and previously held investment in an exchange traded fund (the "ETF") advised by the Company, for general corporate investment purposes, to provide seed capital for newly formed strategies or to add capital to existing strategies. The Funds are organized in a series fund structure in which there are multiple mutual funds within one Trust. The Trust is an open-end investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the"1940 Act"). The ETF was an individual series of ETF Series Solutions which was also an open-end investment company registered under the 1940 Act. The ETF liquidated and its assets were distributed to its shareholders on April 5, 2019. Each of the individual mutual funds and the ETF represents a separate share class of a legal entity organized under the Trust. The Company performs its analysis at the individual mutual fund and ETF level and has concluded the mutual funds are, and the ETF was, voting rights entities ("VREs") because the structure of the investment product is such that the shareholders are deemed to have the power through voting rights to direct the activities that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance. To the extent material, these investment products are consolidated if Company ownership, directly or indirectly, represents a majority interest (greater than 50%). The Company records redeemable noncontrolling interests in consolidated investments for which the Company's ownership is less than 100%. The Company has consolidated the Diamond Hill Core

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Bond Fund and the Diamond Hill Global Fund (collectively the "Consolidated Funds") as of June 30, 2019. The Company deconsolidated the ETF and the Diamond Hill High Yield Fund during the six months ended June 30, 2019, as the Company's ownership declined to less than 50%.
DHCM is the managing member of Diamond Hill General Partner, LLC (the “General Partner”), which is the general partner of Diamond Hill Investment Partners, L.P. (“DHIP”) whose underlying assets consist primarily of marketable securities.
DHCM is wholly owned by the Company and is consolidated by us. Further, DHCM, through its control of the General Partner, has the power to direct DHIP's economic activities and the right to receive investment advisory fees that may be significant to DHIP.
The Company concluded it did not have a variable interest in DHIP as the fees paid to the General Partner are considered to contain customary terms and conditions as found in the market for similar products and the Company has no equity ownership in DHIP.
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
Redeemable noncontrolling interest represents third-party interests in the Consolidated Funds. This interest is redeemable at the option of the investors and therefore is not treated as permanent equity. Redeemable noncontrolling interest is recorded at redemption value, which approximates the fair value each reporting period.
Segment Information
Management has determined that the Company operates in one business segment, providing investment management and administration services to mutual funds, institutional accounts, and private investment funds. Therefore, no disclosures relating to operating segments are presented in the Company's annual or interim financial statements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include demand deposits and money market mutual funds held by DHCM.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable are recorded when they are due and are presented on the balance sheet net of any allowance for doubtful accounts. Accounts receivable are written off when they are determined to be uncollectible. Any allowance for doubtful accounts is estimated based on the Company’s historical losses, existing conditions in the industry, and the financial stability of the individual or entity that owes the receivable. No allowance for doubtful accounts was deemed necessary at June 30, 2019 or December 31, 2018. Accounts receivable from the Funds were $9.6 million as of June 30, 2019 and $9.4 million as of December 31, 2018.
Investments
Management determines the appropriate classification of its investments at the time of purchase and re-evaluates its determination at each reporting period.
Investments in the Funds we advise where the Company has neither control nor the ability to exercise significant influence, as well as securities held in the Consolidated Funds, are measured at fair value based on quoted market prices. Unrealized gains and losses are recorded as investment income (loss) in the Company's consolidated statements of income.
Investments classified as equity method investments represent investments in which the Company owns between 20-50% of the outstanding voting interests in the entity or when it is determined that the Company is able to exercise significant influence but not control over the investments. When using the equity method, the Company recognizes its respective share of the investee's net income or loss for the period, which is recorded as investment income in the Company's consolidated statements of income.

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Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, consisting of leasehold improvements, right-of use lease assets, computer equipment, furniture, and fixtures, are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated lives of the assets.
Revenue Recognition – General
Revenue is recognized when performance obligations under the terms of a contract with a client are satisfied. The Company earns substantially all of its revenue from investment advisory and fund administration contracts. Investment advisory and administration fees, generally calculated as a percentage of assets under management ("AUM"), are recorded as revenue as services are performed. In addition to fixed fees based on a percentage of AUM, certain client accounts also provide periodic variable rate fees.
Revenue earned during the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 under contracts with clients include:
 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2019
 
Investment advisory
 
Mutual fund
administration, net
 
Total revenue
Proprietary funds
$
24,335,369

 
$
2,034,344

 
$
26,369,713

Sub-advised funds and institutional accounts
7,175,303

 

 
7,175,303

 
$
31,510,672

 
$
2,034,344

 
$
33,545,016

 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
Investment advisory
 
Mutual fund
administration, net
 
Total revenue
Proprietary funds
$
26,294,908

 
$
2,401,442

 
$
28,696,350

Sub-advised funds and institutional accounts
7,231,365

 

 
7,231,365

 
$
33,526,273

 
$
2,401,442

 
$
35,927,715


Revenue earned during the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 under contracts with clients include:
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2019
 
Investment advisory
 
Mutual fund
administration, net
 
Total revenue
Proprietary funds
$
47,915,246

 
$
4,101,000

 
$
52,016,246

Sub-advised funds and institutional accounts
14,108,143

 

 
14,108,143

 
$
62,023,389

 
$
4,101,000

 
$
66,124,389

 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018
 
Investment advisory
 
Mutual fund
administration, net
 
Total revenue
Proprietary funds
$
53,600,106

 
$
5,552,154

 
$
59,152,260

Sub-advised funds and institutional accounts
14,557,457

 

 
14,557,457

 
$
68,157,563

 
$
5,552,154

 
$
73,709,717



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Revenue Recognition – Investment Advisory Fees
The Company's investment advisory contracts have a single performance obligation (the investment advisory services provided to the client) as the promised services are not separately identifiable from other promises in the contracts and, therefore, are not distinct. All performance obligations to provide advisory services are satisfied over time and the Company recognizes revenue as time passes.
The fees we receive for our services under our investment advisory contracts are based on our AUM, which changes based on the value of securities held under each advisory contract. These fees are thereby constrained and represent variable consideration, and are excluded from revenue until the AUM on which our client is billed is no longer subject to market fluctuations.
Revenue Recognition – Variable Rate Fees
The Company manages certain client accounts that provide for variable rate fees. These fees are calculated based on client investment results over rolling 5-year periods. The Company records variable rate fees at the end of the contract measurement period because the variable fees earned are constrained based on movements in the financial markets. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, the Company recorded no variable rate fees. The table below shows AUM subject to variable rate fees and the amount of variable rate fees that would be recognized based upon investment results as of June 30, 2019:
 
As of June 30, 2019
 
AUM subject to variable rate fees
 
Unearned variable rate fees
Contractual Period Ending:
 
 
 
Quarter Ending September 30, 2019
$
38,196,943

 
$
869,315

Quarter Ending December 31, 2019
63,035,149

 
578,365

Quarter Ending March 31, 2020
13,196,879

 

Quarter Ending September 30, 2021
281,012,898

 
5,759,671

Total
$
395,441,869

 
$
7,207,351


The contractual end dates highlight the time remaining until the variable rate fees are scheduled to be earned. The amount of variable rate fees that would be recognized based upon investment results as of June 30, 2019, will increase or decrease based on future client investment results through the contractual period end. There can be no assurance that the unearned amounts will ultimately be earned.
Revenue Recognition – Mutual Fund Administration
DHCM has an administrative and transfer agency services agreement with the Funds under which DHCM performs certain services for each Fund. These services include performance obligations, such as mutual fund administration, fund accounting, transfer agency, and other related functions. These services are performed concurrently under our agreement with the Funds, and all performance obligations to provide these administrative services are satisfied over time, and the Company recognizes revenue as time passes. For performing these services each Fund pays DHCM a fee, which is calculated using an annual rate times the average daily net assets of each respective share class. These fees are thereby constrained and represent variable consideration, and are excluded from revenue until the AUM on which we bill the Funds is no longer subject to market fluctuations.

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The Funds have selected and contractually engaged certain vendors to fulfill various services to benefit the Funds’ shareholders or to satisfy regulatory requirements of the Funds. These services include, among others, required shareholder mailings, federal and state registrations, and legal and audit services. DHCM, in fulfilling a portion of its role under the administration agreement with the Funds, acts as agent to pay these obligations of the Funds. Each vendor is independently responsible for fulfillment of the services it has been engaged to provide and negotiates fees and terms with the management and board of trustees of the Funds. The fee that each Fund pays to DHCM is reviewed annually by the Funds’ board of trustees and specifically takes into account the contractual expenses that DHCM pays on behalf of the Funds. As a result, DHCM is not involved in the delivery or pricing of these services and bears no risk related to these services. Revenue has been recorded net of these Fund related expenses. In addition, DHCM advances the upfront commissions that are paid to brokers who sell Class C shares of the Funds. These advances are capitalized and amortized over 12 months to correspond with the repayments DHCM receives from the principal underwriter to recoup this commission advancement.
Mutual fund administration gross and net revenue are summarized below:
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Mutual fund administration:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Administration revenue, gross
$
5,519,437

 
$
5,993,719

 
$
10,922,165

 
$
12,601,056

Fund related expense
(3,491,604
)
 
(3,595,555
)
 
(6,841,145
)
 
(7,063,880
)
Revenue, net of related expenses
2,027,833

 
2,398,164

 
4,081,020

 
5,537,176

DHCM C-Share financing:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Broker commission advance repayments
53,782

 
83,380

 
118,994

 
179,858

Broker commission amortization
(47,271
)
 
(80,102
)
 
(99,014
)
 
(164,880
)
Financing activity, net
6,511

 
3,278

 
19,980

 
14,978

Mutual fund administration revenue, net
$
2,034,344

 
$
2,401,442

 
$
4,101,000

 
$
5,552,154


Income Taxes
The Company accounts for current and deferred income taxes through an asset and liability approach. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
The Company is subject to examination by federal and applicable state and local jurisdictions for various tax periods. The Company’s income tax positions are based on research and interpretations of the income tax laws and rulings in each of the jurisdictions in which it does business. Due to the subjectivity of interpretations of laws and rulings in each jurisdiction, the differences and interplay in tax laws among those jurisdictions, and the inherent uncertainty in estimating the final resolution of complex tax audit matters, the Company’s estimates of income tax liabilities may differ from actual payments or assessments. The Company regularly assesses its position with regard to tax exposures and records liabilities for these uncertain tax positions and related interest and penalties, if any, according to the principles of Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 740, Income Taxes. The Company records interest and penalties within income tax expense on the income statement.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) excludes dilution and is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period, which includes participating securities. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution of EPS due to unvested restricted stock units. See Note 9.

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Newly Issued But Not Yet Adopted Accounting Guidance
In August 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurements.” This update makes certain removals from, changes to and additions to existing disclosure requirements for fair value measurement. ASU 2018-13 does not change fair value measurements already required or permitted by existing standards. ASU 2018-13 is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Management does not believe that adoption of ASU 2018-13 will materially impact the Company’s financial statements.
Note 3 Investments
The following table summarizes the carrying value of these investments as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018:
 
As of
 
June 30, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
Fair value investments:
 
 
 
Securities held in Consolidated Funds(a)
$
83,249,245

 
$
153,730,480

Company sponsored investments
22,859,833

 
33,418,088

Company sponsored equity method investments
44,663,232

 
16,339,649

Total Investments
$
150,772,310

 
$
203,488,217


(a) Of the securities held in the Consolidated Funds as of June 30, 2019, $50.5 million were held directly by the Company and $32.8 million were held by noncontrolling shareholders. Of the securities held in the Consolidated Funds as of December 31, 2018, $84.7 million were held directly by the Company and $69.0 million were held by noncontrolling shareholders.

The Company deconsolidated the ETF and the Diamond Hill High Yield Fund during the six months ended June 30, 2019. As of June 30, 2019, the Diamond Hill High Yield Fund was classified as an equity method investment. The ETF liquidated and its assets were distributed to its shareholders on April 5, 2019.

As of June 30, 2019, our equity method investments consisted of the Diamond Hill Research Opportunities Fund, the Diamond Hill High Yield Fund and the Diamond Hill International Fund, and our ownership percentage in each of these investments was 22%, 28%, and 30%, respectively. The following table includes the condensed summary financial information from the Company's equity method investments as of and for the period ended June 30, 2019:
 
 
 
As of
 
 
 
June 30, 2019
Total assets
 
 
$
218,298,706

Total liabilities
 
 
40,535,465

Net assets
 
 
177,763,241

DHCM's portion of net assets
 
 
44,663,232

 
 
 
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
For the Six Months Ended
 
June 30, 2019
 
June 30, 2019
Investment income
$
1,812,727

 
$
3,186,209

Expenses
359,106

 
650,208

Net realized gains
3,986,700

 
4,384,996

Net change in unrealized appreciation
1,857,772

 
10,063,039

Net income
7,298,093

 
16,984,036

DHCM's portion of net income
1,988,850

 
4,984,861


Note 4 Fair Value Measurements
The Company determines the fair value of our cash equivalents and certain investments using the following broad levels listed below:

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Level 1 - Unadjusted quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.
Level 2 - Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-driven valuations in which all significant inputs are observable.
Level 3 - Valuations derived from techniques in which significant inputs are unobservable. We do not value any investments using Level 3 inputs.
These levels are not necessarily an indication of the risk or liquidity associated with investments.
The following table summarizes investments that are recognized in our consolidated balance sheet using fair value measurements (excluding investments classified as equity method investments) determined based upon the differing levels as of June 30, 2019:
 
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Total
Cash equivalents
$
108,761,910

$

$

$
108,761,910

Fair value investments
 
 
 
 
     Securities held in Consolidated Funds(a)
16,344,662

66,904,583


$
83,249,245

     Company sponsored investments
22,859,833



$
22,859,833

(a) Of the securities held in the Consolidated Funds as of June 30, 2019, $50.5 million were held directly by the Company and $32.8 million were held by noncontrolling shareholders.
Level 1 investments are comprised of investments in registered investment companies (mutual funds) or equity securities held in the Consolidated Funds and $108.8 million of investments in money market mutual funds owned by DHCM that the Company classifies as cash equivalents.
Level 2 investments are comprised of investments in debt securities held in the Consolidated Funds, which are valued by an independent pricing service using pricing techniques which take into account factors such as trading activity, readily available market quotations, yield, quality, coupon rate, maturity, type of issue, trading characteristics, call features, credit rates and other observable inputs.
The Company determines transfers between fair value hierarchy levels at the end of the reporting period. There were no transfers in or out of the levels during the six months ended June 30, 2019.
Changes to fair values of the investments are recorded in the Company’s consolidated statements of income as investment income (loss), net.
Note 5 Line of Credit
The Company has a committed Line of Credit Agreement (the "Credit Agreement") with a commercial bank that matures in December of 2019 and permits the Company to borrow up to $25.0 million. Borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest at a rate equal to LIBOR plus 1.00%. The Company pays a commitment fee on the unused portion of the facility, accruing at a rate per annum of 0.10%.
The Company has not borrowed under the Credit Agreement as of and for the period ended June 30, 2019.
The proceeds of the Credit Agreement may be used by the Company and its subsidiaries for ongoing working capital needs, to seed new and existing investment strategies and for other general corporate purposes. The Credit Agreement contains representations, warranties and covenants that are customary for agreements of this type.
Note 6 Compensation Plans
Share-Based Payment Transactions
The Company issues restricted stock awards under its 2014 Equity and Cash Incentive Plan (the "2014 Plan"). Restricted stock awards represent common shares issued and outstanding upon grant subject to vesting restrictions. The following table represents a roll-forward of outstanding restricted stock and related activity during the six months ended June 30, 2019:

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Table of Contents


 
Shares
 
Weighted-Average
Grant Date Price
per Share
Outstanding restricted stock as of December 31, 2018
214,575

 
$
177.22

Grants issued
26,050

 
154.54

Grants vested
(10,500
)
 
125.14

Grants forfeited
(4,500
)
 
164.10

Total outstanding restricted stock as of June 30, 2019
225,625

 
$
177.29


As of June 30, 2019, there were 243,173 common shares available for awards under the 2014 Plan.
Total deferred equity compensation related to unvested restricted stock was $21.9 million as of June 30, 2019. Compensation expense related to restricted stock is calculated based upon the fair market value of the common shares on grant date. The Company's policy is to adjust compensation expense for forfeitures as they occur. The recognition of compensation expense related to deferred compensation over the remaining vesting periods is as follows:
Six Months 
 Remaining In
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Thereafter
 
Total
$
3,639,099

 
$
6,169,469

 
$
4,888,910

 
$
3,906,761

 
$
1,674,718

 
$
1,640,745

 
$
21,919,702


Stock Grant Transactions
The following table represents common shares issued as part of our incentive compensation program during the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018:
 
Shares Issued
 
Grant Date Value
June 30, 2019
24,048

 
$
3,655,296

June 30, 2018
20,153

 
4,109,197


Deferred Compensation Plans
The Company offers two deferred compensation plans, the Diamond Hill Fixed Term Deferred Compensation Plan and the Diamond Hill Variable Term Deferred Compensation Plan (collectively the “Plans”). Under the Plans, participants may elect to voluntarily defer, for a minimum of five years, certain incentive compensation, which the Company then contributes into the Plans. Each participant is responsible for designating investment options for assets they contribute, and the distribution paid to each participant reflects any gains or losses on the assets realized while in the Plans. Assets held in the Plans are included in the Company’s investment portfolio, and the associated obligation to participants is included in deferred compensation liability. Deferred compensation liability was $28.1 million and $22.4 million as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.
Note 7 Operating Lease
The Company currently leases office space of approximately 37,829 square feet at one location.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases", which, among other things, requires lessees to recognize most leases on-balance sheet. The Company adopted this ASU on its effective date, January 1, 2019, using a modified retrospective approach without restating prior comparative periods. Upon implementation, the Company recorded a right-of use asset of approximately $2.9 million, which includes the lease liability amount less deferred rent liabilities and lease incentives received, and a lease liability of approximately $3.6 million related to our office lease. As of June 30, 2019, the carrying value of the right-of use asset, which is included in property and equipment, net of deferred rent on the consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $2.7 million. As of June 30, 2019, the carrying value of the lease liability, which is included in accounts payable and accrued expenses on the consolidated balance sheets, was approximately $3.3 million The adoption of this ASU had no impact on our consolidated statements of income and cash flows and there was no cumulative-effect adjustment required to opening retained earnings.

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The following table summarizes the total lease and operating expenses for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018:
 
 
June 30,
2019
 
June 30,
2018
Three Months Ended
$
239,455

 
$
238,014

Six Months Ended
$
491,528

 
$
494,304

The approximate future minimum lease payments under the operating lease are as follows:
 
Future Minimum Lease Payments
Six Months 
 Remaining In
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Thereafter
 
Total
$
293,175

 
$
614,721

 
$
624,179

 
$
624,179

 
$
624,179

 
$
780,223

 
$
3,560,656


In addition to the above lease payments, the Company is also responsible for normal operating expenses of the property. These operating expenses were approximately $0.4 million in 2018, and are expected to be approximately the same in 2019.
Note 8 Income Taxes
The Company has determined its interim tax provision projecting an estimated annual effective tax rate.
For the six months ended June 30, 2019, the Company recorded income tax expense of $10.3 million, yielding an effective tax rate of 23.4%. The effective tax rate of 23.4% differed from the federal statutory tax rate of 21% due primarily to the additional income tax expense recorded in the state and city jurisdictions in which we do business, including new jurisdictions in which we are filing in 2019. This is partially offset by the benefit attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests. The provision for income taxes includes a benefit attributable to the fact that the Company's operations include the Consolidated Funds which are not subject to federal income taxes. Accordingly, a portion of the Company's earnings are not subject to corporate tax levels. Absent the benefit attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests, the effective tax rate ("unconsolidated effective tax rate") would have been 25.5%.
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recorded income tax expense of $8.7 million, yielding an effective tax rate of 23.8%. The effective tax rate of 23.8% differed from the federal statutory tax rate of 21% due primarily to the additional income tax expense recorded in the state and city jurisdictions in which we do business.
The net temporary differences incurred to date will reverse in future periods as the Company generates taxable earnings. The Company believes it is more likely than not that the results of future operations will generate sufficient taxable income to realize the net deferred tax assets recorded. The Company records a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. As of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, no valuation allowance was deemed necessary.
FASB ASC 740, Income Taxes, prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return and also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.  The Company recognizes tax benefits related to positions taken, or expected to be taken, on its tax returns, only if the positions are "more-likely-than-not" sustainable. Once this threshold has been met, the Company’s measurement of its expected tax benefits is recognized in its financial statements.
During the six months ended June 30, 2019, the Company completed our open examination for tax years 2014 through 2016 with the New York State Department of Finance and Taxation. During the period the Company also filed a Voluntary Disclosure Agreement with the New York City Department of Finance. The Company remains under audit with the California Franchise Tax Board for the Company's 2015 and 2016 tax years.

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The outcome of open examinations is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial statements. The Company believes that some of these audits and negotiations will conclude within the next 12 months and that any change in the amount of uncertain tax positions, including interest due to the settlement of audits, would be immaterial.
The amount of uncertain tax positions as of June 30, 2019, which would impact the Company’s effective tax rate if recognized and a reconciliation of the beginning and ending amounts of uncertain tax positions is as follows:
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2019
Uncertain tax positions, as of January 1, 2019
$
2,982,337

Gross addition for tax positions of the current year

Gross additions for tax positions of prior years

Reductions of tax positions of prior years for:

Lapses of applicable statutes of limitations

Settlements during the period
(2,331,711
)
Changes in judgment/excess reserve

Uncertain tax positions, as of June 30, 2019
$
650,626


The Company did not recognize additional interest and penalties during the six months ended June 30, 2019, related to uncertain tax positions.
Note 9 Earnings Per Share
The Company’s common shares outstanding consist of all shares issued and outstanding, including unvested restricted shares. Basic and diluted EPS are calculated under the two-class method. Restricted stock units are considered dilutive. The following table sets forth the computation for basic and diluted EPS and reconciliation between basic and diluted shares outstanding:
 
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Net Income
$
14,157,569

 
$
14,898,023

 
$
33,713,416

 
$
27,840,151

Less: Net income attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interest
(962,417
)
 
(527,655
)
 
(3,585,622
)
 
(480,323
)
Net income attributable to common shareholders
$
13,195,152

 
$
14,370,368

 
$
30,127,794

 
$
27,359,828

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average number of outstanding shares - Basic
3,478,307

 
3,518,665

 
3,486,032

 
3,503,379

Dilutive impact of restricted stock units

 
1,151

 
472

 
1,757

Weighted average number of outstanding shares - Diluted
3,478,307

 
3,519,816

 
3,486,504

 
3,505,136

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share attributable to common shareholders
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.79

 
$
4.08

 
$
8.64

 
$
7.81

Diluted
$
3.79

 
$
4.08

 
$
8.64

 
$
7.81


Note 10 Commitments and Contingencies
The Company indemnifies its directors, officers and certain of its employees for certain liabilities that might arise from their performance of their duties to the Company. From time to time, the Company is involved in legal matters relating to claims arising in the ordinary course of business. There are currently no such matters pending that the Company believes could have a material adverse effect on its consolidated financial statements.

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Additionally, in the normal course of business, the Company enters into agreements that contain a variety of representations and warranties and which provide general indemnifications. Certain agreements do not contain any limits on the Company’s liability and could involve future claims that may be made against the Company that have not yet occurred. Therefore, it is not possible to estimate the Company’s potential liability under these indemnities. Further, the Company maintains insurance policies that may provide coverage against certain claims under these indemnities.

ITEM 2:
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Forward-looking Statements
Throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and other publicly available documents, including the documents incorporated herein by reference, the Company may make forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, relating to such matters as anticipated operating results, prospects and levels of assets under management, technological developments, economic trends (including interest rates and market volatility), expected transactions and similar matters. The words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” "may," "will," "likely," "project," “should,” “hope,” “seek,” “plan,” “intend” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements that speak only as of the date thereof. While we believe that the assumptions underlying our forward-looking statements are reasonable, investors are cautioned that any of the assumptions could prove to be inaccurate and, accordingly, our actual results and experiences could differ materially from the anticipated results or other expectations expressed in our forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause such actual results or experiences to differ from results discussed in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: the adverse effect from a decline in the securities markets; a decline in the performance of our products; changes in interest rates; changes in national and local economic and political conditions; the continuing economic uncertainty in various parts of the world; changes in government policy and regulation, including monetary policy; our inability to attract or retain key employees; unforeseen costs and other effects related to legal proceedings or investigations of governmental and self-regulatory organizations; and other risks identified from time-to-time in other public documents on file with the SEC.
General
The Company derives its consolidated revenue and net income from investment advisory and fund administration services provided by DHCM. DHCM is registered with the SEC as an investment adviser under the 1940 Act. DHCM sponsors, distributes, and provides investment advisory and related services to various clients through the Funds, institutional accounts, and DHIP.
The Company’s primary objective is to fulfill our fiduciary duty to our clients. Our secondary objective is to grow the intrinsic value of the Company in order to achieve an adequate long-term return for our shareholders.
Assets Under Management
Our revenue is derived primarily from investment advisory and administration fees. Investment advisory and administration fees paid to the Company are generally based on the value of the investment portfolios we manage and fluctuate with changes in the total value of our AUM. A significant majority of our AUM (91.0%) is valued based on readily available market quotations. AUM in the fixed income strategies (9.0%) is valued using evaluated prices from independent third-party providers. Fees are recognized in the period that the Company manages these assets.

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Our revenues are highly dependent on both the value and composition of AUM. The following is a summary of our AUM by product and investment objective, and a roll-forward of the change in AUM, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018:
 
 
Assets Under Management
 
As of June 30,
(in millions, except percentages)
2019
 
2018
 
% Change
Proprietary funds
$
14,831

 
$
15,545

 
(5
)%
Sub-advised funds
1,776

 
1,628

 
9
 %
Institutional accounts
5,005

 
4,654

 
8
 %
Total AUM
$
21,612

 
$
21,827

 
(1
)%

 
Assets Under Management
by Investment Strategy
 
As of June 30,
(in millions, except percentages)
2019
 
2018
 
% Change
Small Cap
$
867

 
$
1,482

 
(41
)%
Small-Mid Cap
3,090

 
3,409

 
(9
)%
Mid Cap
394

 
130

 
203
 %
Large Cap
11,374

 
11,020

 
3
 %
All Cap Select
498

 
478

 
4
 %
Long-Short
3,541

 
4,248

 
(17
)%
Global/International
22

 
18

 
22
 %
Short Duration Fixed Income
661

 
425

 
56
 %
Core Fixed Income
217

 
52

 
317
 %
Long Duration Fixed Income
57

 
25

 
NM

Corporate Credit
962

 
712

 
35
 %
High Yield
94

 
50

 
88
 %
  (Less: Investments in affiliated funds)(a)
(165
)
 
(222
)
 
(26
)%
Total AUM
$
21,612

 
$
21,827

 
(1
)%
(a) Certain of the Funds own shares of the Diamond Hill Short Duration Total Return Fund. The Company reduces its total AUM by these investments held in this affiliated fund.
 
 
 
 
 
Change in Assets
Under Management
 
For the Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
(in millions)
2019
 
2018
AUM at beginning of the period
$
20,880

 
$
21,929

Net cash inflows (outflows)
 
 
 
proprietary funds
(531
)
 
(362
)
sub-advised funds
76

 
23

institutional accounts
38

 
(53
)
 
(417
)
 
(392
)
Net market appreciation and income
1,149

 
290

Increase (decrease) during the period
732

 
(102
)
AUM at end of the period
$
21,612

 
$
21,827


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Change in Assets
Under Management
 
For the Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
(in millions)
2019
 
2018
AUM at beginning of the period
$
19,108

 
$
22,317

Net cash inflows (outflows)
 
 
 
proprietary funds
(815
)
 
(174
)
sub-advised funds
135

 
126