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Section 1: 424B5 (424B5)

 

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration Statement No. 333-231338

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered 

Amount to be

Registered

   Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price(1)
   Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(1)(2)
   Amount of
Registration Fee(2)
 
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share   6,277,971   $16.38   $102,833,164.98   $12,463.38 

 

 

(1)Estimated in accordance with Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), solely for the purpose of calculating the amount of the registration fee. The maximum offering price per security and the maximum aggregate offering price are based on the average of the $16.42 (high) and $16.34 (low) sale price of Redwood Trust, Inc.’s common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on May 3, 2019.

 

(2)In accordance with Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the securities registered pursuant to this registration statement include 6,277,971 unsold shares of common stock of Redwood Trust, Inc. issuable under the Redwood Trust, Inc. Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan and any additional shares of common stock of Redwood Trust, Inc. which become issuable with respect thereto by reason of any stock dividend, stock split, recapitalization or other similar transaction, that were previously registered pursuant to registration statement no. 333-147604 initially filed on November 23, 2007, pursuant to a prospectus supplement thereunder filed on July 2, 2008, and subsequently by registration statement no. 333-168617 initially filed on August 6, 2010, registration no. 333-188420 initially filed on May 8, 2013 and registration no. 333-211267 initially filed on May 10, 2016 (collectively, the “Prior Registration Statements”), pursuant to prospectus supplements thereunder filed on November 4, 2010, September 5, 2012, May 17, 2013 and June 3, 2016, respectively (collectively, the “Prior Prospectus Supplements”). Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the registration fees previously paid with respect to such unsold securities under registration statement no. 333-147604 were carried forward to the Prior Registration Statements will continue to be applied to such unsold securities. The prospectus supplement filed hereby supersedes and replaces the Prior Prospectus Supplements with respect to the registration of the unsold shares of common stock issuable under the Redwood Trust, Inc. Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan.

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated May 9, 2019)

 

Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan

6,277,971 Shares

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

 

Please read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus
carefully before investing and retain it for your future reference.

 

 

 

We are offering existing holders of our common stock and new investors the opportunity to participate in our Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan. The Plan is designed to be an economical and convenient method for existing stockholders to increase their holdings of our common stock and for new investors to make an initial investment in our common stock. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “RWT”.

 

If you are currently enrolled in our Plan, you may withdraw by following the procedures described on page S-25 of this prospectus supplement. If you are not currently enrolled in our Plan but you are an existing holder of our common stock, you may elect to have all or a portion of your cash dividends automatically invested in additional shares of common stock. The shares purchased with your dividend reinvestments will be purchased on the open market or directly from us. We may, but will not be obligated to, establish a discount from market price for the purchases of up to 3%. If the shares are purchased on the open market, you will not be required to pay any per share or transaction fees to the extent the sum of the discount from market price, if any, and fees do not exceed 5% of the value of the common stock on the date of purchase.

 

If you are either an existing holder of our common stock, or a new investor, you may also purchase shares of common stock by making optional cash payments of at least $100 for existing holders, or $500 for new investors, and up to $10,000 per month. The shares purchased with those optional cash payments will be purchased on the open market or directly from us. We may, but will not be obligated to, establish a discount from market price for the purchases of up to 3%. If the shares are purchased on the open market, you will not be required to pay any per share or transaction fees to the extent the sum of the discount from market price, if any, and fees do not exceed 5% of the value of the common stock on the date of purchase. If we approve a sale or sales in excess of this $10,000 monthly limit, you may also invest optional cash payments in the amount we have approved in shares purchased directly from us and we may, but will not be obligated to, provide for a discount from market price for the purchase of up to 5%. Our determination of whether to provide for a discount from market price for purchases made under the Plan will be made from time to time based on an assessment of various factors.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the securities issued under the Plan or has determined if this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941, telephone (415) 389-7373.

 

This prospectus supplement supersedes and replaces our previous prospectus supplement with respect to the Plan, which previous prospectus supplement was dated June 3, 2016.

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is May 9, 2019.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

  Page
About This Prospectus Supplement S-1
Summary S-2
Forward-Looking Statements S-6
Risk Factors S-7
Redwood Trust, Inc. S-8
The Plan S-10
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations S-27
ERISA Investors S-54
Use of Proceeds S-55
Plan of Distribution S-56
Where You Can Find More Information S-57
Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference S-58
Legal Opinions S-59
Experts S-60
Glossary S-61

 

Prospectus

 

About This Prospectus 1
Risk Factors 2
Cautionary Statement 3
Redwood Trust, Inc. 4
Use of Proceeds 6
General Description of Securities 7
Description of Debt Securities 8
Description of Common Stock 16
Description of Preferred Stock 17
Description of Securities Warrants 18
Description of Rights to Purchase Shares of Common or Preferred Stock 19
Description of Units 20
Global Securities 21
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares 24
Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws 26
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations 29
Plan of Distribution 56
Validity of the Securities 58
Experts 59
Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference 60
Where You Can Find More Information 61

 

 

 

 

About This Prospectus Supplement

 

You should read both this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, together with additional information described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement on Form S-3 we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC, under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. We have omitted certain parts of the registration statement, as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. You may find the registration statement, including exhibits, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. See “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Unless otherwise mentioned or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus supplement to “Redwood,” “we,” “us,” “our” or similar references mean Redwood Trust, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

 

If the information set forth in this prospectus supplement differs in any way from the information set forth in the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information set forth in this prospectus supplement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement may be used only for the purpose for which it has been prepared. No one is authorized to give information other than that contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and in the accompanying prospectus.

 

We are not making an offer to sell our common stock in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate as of any date other than the date of the applicable document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since that date. Neither this prospectus supplement nor the accompanying prospectus constitutes an offer, or an invitation on our behalf, to subscribe for and purchase any of the securities, and may not be used for or in connection with an offer or solicitation by anyone, in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation.

 

 S-1 

 

 

Summary

 

The following summary description of our Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan is qualified by reference to the full text of the Plan which appears in this prospectus supplement. Capitalized terms have the meanings given to them in the Plan, including the Glossary of the Plan.

 

Our Company   Redwood Trust, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is a specialty finance company focused on making credit-sensitive investments in residential mortgages and related assets and engaging in mortgage banking activities. Our goal is to provide attractive returns to stockholders through a stable and growing stream of earnings and dividends, as well as through capital appreciation. We operate our business in two segments: Investment Portfolio and Mortgage Banking. Redwood Trust, Inc. has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or a REIT, under the Code.
     
Purpose of the Plan   The purpose of the Plan is to provide our existing stockholders and interested new investors with a convenient and less costly method of purchasing shares of our common stock and investing all or a percentage of their cash dividends in additional shares of our common stock. The Plan can also provide us with a means of raising additional capital through the sale of our common stock.
     
Source of Purchase of Shares   Shares of common stock purchased through the Plan with dividend reinvestments or Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less will be either newly issued shares or shares acquired by the Plan Administrator on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. Shares of common stock purchased through the Plan with pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 will be newly issued shares.
     
Investment Options   You may choose from the following options:
     
    Full Dividend Reinvestment: The Plan Administrator will apply all cash dividends paid on all shares of common stock registered in your name and all shares held for you under the Plan to the purchase of additional shares of our common stock.
     
    Partial Dividend Reinvestment: The Plan Administrator will apply the cash dividends paid on the number of shares of common stock specified by you on shares registered in your name and held for you under the Plan to the purchase of additional shares of our common stock. The Plan Administrator will pay the dividends paid on the remaining shares of common stock to you in cash.
     
    All Dividends Paid in Cash: You will continue to receive cash dividends paid on shares of common stock registered in your name and all shares held for you under the Plan in the usual manner. You may make Optional Cash Payments to invest in additional shares of our common stock, subject to monthly minimums and maximums.
     
    You may change your investment options at any time by contacting the Plan Administrator as indicated in Question 4 on page S-14 or by requesting a new enrollment form from the Plan Administrator, completing it, and returning it to the Plan Administrator.

 

 S-2 

 

 

Withdrawal   You may withdraw from the Plan with respect to all or a portion of the shares held in your Plan account at any time by notifying the
     
    Plan Administrator as indicated in Question 4 on page S-14 and following the procedures described in Question 28 on page S-25.
     
Optional Cash Payments   Optional Cash Payments may be made in any month when we have determined to permit Optional Cash Payments under the Plan for that month, or on any date on which we have granted same-day acceptance of a request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000. Each Optional Cash Payment is subject to a minimum per month purchase of $100 if you are an existing stockholder or $500 per month if you are a new investor, and a maximum per month purchase of $10,000. Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 may be made only with our approval (on a monthly or same-day basis, as appropriate).  
     
Threshold Price   Pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 will be used to purchase common stock directly from us, rather than in the open market. We may establish in our sole discretion a Threshold Price in respect of any trading days, which is a minimum price applicable for purchases to be made on that trading day with pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000. Your investment will be reduced, and a proportional amount of your Optional Cash Payment will be returned to you, without interest, for each trading day during the Investment Period on which the Market Price less the applicable discount, if any, does not equal or exceed the Threshold Price.
     
Maximum Price   As an investor in a pre-approved optional cash purchase that exceeds $10,000, or in submitting a request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 on any trading day, you may set a Maximum Price for the purchase. If the Market Price, less the applicable discount, if any, exceeds the Maximum Price specified by you, no purchase will be made and your Optional Cash Payment will be returned to you.
     
Cash Discounts   We may establish a discount of between 0% and 3% from the Market Price applicable to Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less or dividend reinvestments used to purchase shares, or between 0% and 5% from the Market Price applicable to pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000. The discount may vary from time to time and may be different for Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, dividend reinvestments, and Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, but once established will apply uniformly to all purchases made with Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, dividend reinvestments, or Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, as the case may be, on any given Investment Date or for any given Investment Period.
     
Investment Date   With respect to dividend reinvestment:
     
    The Investment Date will be the dividend payment date or such other date following the dividend payment date on which the Plan Administrator can, as promptly as practicable, purchase the shares with the cash dividends.

 

 S-3 

 

 

    With respect to Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less:
     
    The Investment Date is generally on or about the twenty-first (21st) day of each month or, in the case of open market purchases, the twenty-first (21st) day of each month, as market conditions permit.
     
    With respect to pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000:
     
   

The Investment Date will be each trading day during the Investment Period established by us, which Investment Period we will establish from time to time and which will generally range from one to twelve days on which our shares of common stock trade on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE.

 

With respect to same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000:

 

The Investment Date will be the trading day on which we receive and accept a request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000.

     
    The Company may establish other Investment Dates, however, as provided in the Plan.
     
Market Price   Shares will be purchased for the Plan at the applicable discount, if any, from the Market Price. In no event will the price paid, less any per share and transaction fees, if any, paid by us, be less than the Minimum Price, which is 95% of the fair market value of our common stock on the date of purchase.
     
   

The Market Price, in the case of shares purchased directly from us, will be the volume-weighted average stock price on the date of purchase, computed to four decimal places, of our common stock on the NYSE or other applicable securities exchange for trading hours between 9:30 a.m. and 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time, up to and including the last trade as reported by the NYSE or other applicable securities exchange; provided that, with respect to pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, we may establish as a condition to any such pre-approval an alternative means of determining the Market Price for all purchases made in respect of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 for an Investment Period, such as utilizing the “NYSE last trade” price on the Investment Date, computed to six decimal places, of our common stock on the NYSE, as reported by the NYSE.

     
    In the case of shares purchased on the open market, the Market Price will be the weighted average of the actual prices paid for each specific batch of the Participant's reinvested dividends or Optional Cash Payments, computed to six decimal places, for all of the common stock purchased by the Plan Administrator for the related investment.

 

 S-4 

 

 

Expenses  

With respect to shares of common stock purchased directly from us with reinvested dividends or Optional Cash Payments, we will pay expenses incurred in connection with those purchases. With respect to shares of common stock purchased in the open market, we will pay all per share and transaction fees so long as the fees, together with any discount from the Market Price, do not exceed 5% of the fair market value of our common stock on the Investment Date. We will pay all other costs of administering the Plan. If you request that the Plan Administrator sell all or any portion of your shares, however, you will pay a transaction fee of $25 per transaction to the Plan Administrator, any related per share fees, currently $0.12 , and applicable stock transfer taxes. All sales requests processed over the telephone will entail an additional fee of $15 if the assistance of a Customer Service Representative is required when selling shares. Per share fees include any applicable brokerage commissions the Plan Administrator is required to pay.

     
No Interest Pending Investment   No interest will be paid on cash dividends or Optional Cash Payments pending investment or reinvestment under the terms of the Plan.
     
Alternative Settlement   With respect to pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, settlement of purchases of common stock shall be made on a “T+1” basis following an Investment Date; provided that you may request that settlement of purchases of common stock be made on an alternative settlement cycle, such as settlement on a “T+2” basis following an Investment Date, which request may be granted upon consent of the Company and the Plan Administrator, in our and its sole discretion.

 

 S-5 

 

 

Forward-Looking Statements

 

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. You can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “plan,” “could,” “should,” “continue” or the negative of such terms or similar words or expressions. These forward-looking statements may also use different phrases.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. These forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, may include, among other things, statements that address our strategy and operating performance and events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future, including, but not limited to, our statements in “Summary” on page S-2 and “Use of Proceeds” on page S-57 regarding our intended use of the proceeds of the sale of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Plan.

 

These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict; therefore, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in any forward-looking statements. The risks and uncertainties include those described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC and in our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act as well as those referenced in “Risk Factors” below. These are factors that we think could cause our actual results to differ materially from expected results. Other factors besides those listed could also adversely affect us. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

 

Important factors, among others, that may affect our actual results include: the pace at which we redeploy our available capital into new investments and initiatives; our ability to scale our platform and systems, particularly with respect to specific initiatives; interest rate volatility, changes in credit spreads (the market value yield on a loan or security less the relevant risk-free benchmark interest rate), and changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; changes in the demand from investors for residential mortgages and investments, and our ability to distribute residential mortgages through our whole-loan distribution channel; our ability to finance our investments in securities and our acquisition of residential mortgages with short-term debt; the availability of assets for purchase at attractive risk-adjusted returns and our ability to reinvest cash and the proceeds from the potential sale of securities and investments we hold; changes in the values of assets we own; higher than expected operating expenses due to delays or decreases in the realization of expected operating expense reductions related to the repositioning of our conforming mortgage banking activities and commercial loan origination activities, and other unforeseen expenses; general economic trends, the performance of the housing, commercial real estate, mortgage, credit, and broader financial markets, and their effects on the prices of earning assets and the credit status of borrowers; the impact of changes to U.S. federal income tax laws on the U.S. housing market, mortgage finance markets, and our business; changes to fiscal, tax, and other federal policies by Congress or President Trump’s administration; developments related to the fixed income and mortgage finance markets and the Federal Reserve’s statements regarding its future open market activity and monetary policy; federal and state legislative and regulatory developments, and the actions of governmental authorities, including the new U.S. presidential administration, and in particular those affecting the mortgage industry or our business (including, but not limited to, the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s rules relating to FHLB membership requirements and the implications for our captive insurance subsidiary’s membership in the FHLB); strategic business and capital deployment decisions we make; our exposure to credit risk and the timing of credit losses within our portfolio; the concentration of the credit risks we are exposed to, including due to the structure of assets we hold and the geographical concentration of real estate underlying assets we own; our exposure to adjustable-rate mortgage loans; the efficacy and expense of our efforts to manage or hedge credit risk, interest rate risk, and other financial and operational risks; changes in credit ratings on assets we own and changes in the rating agencies’ credit rating methodologies; changes in interest rates; changes in mortgage prepayment rates; changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; our ability to finance the acquisition of real estate-related assets with short-term debt; the ability of counterparties to satisfy their obligations to us; our involvement in securitization transactions, the profitability of those transactions, and the risks we are exposed to in engaging in securitization transactions; exposure to claims and litigation, including litigation arising from our involvement in securitization transactions; litigation against various trustees of residential mortgage-backed securities transactions; whether we have sufficient liquid assets to meet short-term needs; our ability to successfully compete and retain or attract key personnel; our ability to adapt our business model and strategies to changing circumstances; changes in our investment, financing, and hedging strategies and new risks we may be exposed to if we expand our business activities; our exposure to a disruption or breach of the security of our technology infrastructure and systems; exposure to environmental liabilities; our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations; our failure to maintain appropriate internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures; the impact on our reputation that could result from our actions or omissions or from those of others; changes in accounting principles and tax rules; our ability to maintain our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; limitations imposed on our business due to our REIT status and our status as exempt from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940; decisions about raising, managing, and distributing capital; and other factors not presently identified.

 

 S-6 

 

 

Risk Factors

 

Investing in the shares of common stock being offered pursuant to the Plan described in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risk factors described below, the risk factors incorporated herein by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC and the risk factors contained in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occur, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flow. As a result, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we think are immaterial may also materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition and could result in a complete loss of your investment.

 

Risks Related to This Offering

 

Investing in our common stock may involve a high degree of risk. Investors in our common stock may experience losses, volatility and poor liquidity, and we may reduce our dividends in a variety of circumstances.

 

An investment in our common stock may involve a high degree of risk, particularly when compared to other types of investments. Risks related to the economy, the financial markets, our industry, our investing activity, our other business activities, our financial results, the amount of dividends we distribute, the manner in which we conduct our business and the way we have structured and limited our operations could result in a reduction in, or the elimination of, the value of our common stock. The level of risk associated with an investment in our common stock may not be suitable for the risk tolerance of many investors. Investors may experience volatile returns and material losses. In addition, the trading volume of our common stock (i.e., its liquidity) may be insufficient to allow investors to sell their common stock when they want to or at a price they consider reasonable.

 

Our earnings, cash flows, book value, and dividends can be volatile and difficult to predict. Investors in our common stock should not rely on our estimates, projections or predictions, or on management’s beliefs about future events. In particular, the sustainability of our earnings and our cash flows will depend on numerous factors, including our level of investment activity, our access to debt and equity financing, the returns we earn, the amount and timing of credit losses, payment rates on residential mortgage loans we invest in or that underlie the mortgage-backed securities we invest in, the expense of running our business and other factors, including the risk factors described herein and in documents incorporated by reference herein. As a consequence, although we seek to pay a regular common stock dividend rate that is sustainable, we may reduce our regular dividend rate, or stop paying dividends, in the future for a variety of reasons. We may not provide public warnings of dividend reductions prior to their occurrence. Although we have paid special dividends in the past, we have not paid a special dividend since 2007, and we may not do so in the future. Changes to the amount of dividends we distribute may result in a reduction in the value of our common stock. 

 

The actual price paid for shares acquired under the Plan may be higher than the price determined using the Market Price formula under the Plan.

 

Your taxable income attributable to discounts received under the Plan may be based on the value of our common stock as of the Investment Date, which value may differ from the Market Price determined under the Plan and may differ from the value of our stock on the dividend payment date or the date you elect to make an optional purchase under the Plan.

 

In addition, our Plan includes a requirement that all investments (including any brokerage commissions and service fees) be made at a price that is at least equal to 95% of the fair market value of our stock on the date of purchase. If the fair market value of our stock on the Investment Date significantly exceeds the value of our stock determined using the Market Price formula set forth in the Plan, the price paid under the Plan will be increased to ensure compliance with this requirement.

 

You will not know the price of the shares of our common stock you are purchasing under the Plan at the time you authorize the investment or elect to have your dividends reinvested.

 

The price of shares of our common stock may fluctuate between the time you decide to purchase shares under the Plan and the time of actual purchase. In addition, during this time period, you may become aware of additional information that might affect your investment decision, but you may not be able to change or cancel your purchase authorization.

 

 S-7 

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

 

Redwood Trust, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is a specialty finance company focused on making credit-sensitive investments in single-family residential and multifamily mortgages and related assets and engaging in mortgage banking activities. Our goal is to provide attractive returns to shareholders through a stable and growing stream of earnings and dividends, as well as through capital appreciation. We operate our business in two segments: Investment Portfolio and Mortgage Banking.

 

Our primary sources of income are net interest income from our investment portfolio and non-interest income from our mortgage banking activities. Net interest income consists of the interest income we earn on investments less the interest expense we incur on borrowed funds and other liabilities. Income from mortgage banking activities is generated through the acquisition of loans and their subsequent sale or securitization, as well as through the origination of business purpose residential loans.

 

Redwood Trust, Inc. has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or a REIT, under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, beginning with its taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We generally refer, collectively, to Redwood Trust, Inc. and those of its subsidiaries that are not subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “the REIT” or “our REIT.” We generally refer to subsidiaries of Redwood Trust, Inc. that are subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “our taxable REIT subsidiaries” or “TRS.” Our mortgage banking activities and investments in mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs, are generally carried out through our taxable REIT subsidiaries, while our portfolio of mortgage- and other real estate-related investments is primarily held at our REIT. We generally intend to retain profits generated and taxed at our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and to distribute as dividends at least 90% of the taxable income we generate at our REIT.

 

Our Investment Portfolio segment includes a portfolio of investments in residential mortgage-backed securities, or RMBS, retained from our Sequoia securitizations, as well as RMBS issued by third parties and other credit risk-related investments. In addition, this segment includes a subsidiary of Redwood Trust that is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago, or FHLBC, and that utilizes long-term financing from the FHLBC to make long-term investments directly in residential mortgage loans. This segment also includes residential bridge loans, which are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors rehabilitating and reselling or renting residential properties that we acquired from our affiliate, 5 Arches, LLC. The Investment Portfolio segment’s main sources of revenue are interest income from investment portfolio securities and loans held-for-investment. Additionally, this segment may realize gains and losses upon the sale of securities. Funding expenses, hedging expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax provisions associated with these activities are also included in this segment.

 

Our Mortgage Banking segment primarily consists of operating a mortgage loan conduit that acquires residential loans from third-party originators for subsequent sale, securitization, or transfer to our investment portfolio. We typically acquire prime, jumbo mortgages and the related mortgage servicing rights on a flow basis from our network of loan sellers and distribute those loans through our Sequoia private-label securitization program or to institutions that acquire pools of whole loans. We also supplement our flow purchases with bulk loan acquisitions. In addition, beginning in the third quarter of 2018, this segment began to acquire single-family rental loans from our affiliate 5 Arches, LLC, for subsequent sale or securitization. Single-family rental loans are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors in single-family (1-4 unit) rental properties. This segment also includes various derivative financial instruments that we utilize to manage certain risks associated with residential loans we acquire. Our Mortgage Banking segment’s main source of revenue is income from mortgage banking activities, which includes valuation increases (or gains) on loans we acquire and subsequently sell or securitize, and from hedges used to manage risks associated with these activities. Additionally, this segment may generate interest income on loans held pending securitization or sale. Funding expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax expenses associated with these activities are also included in this segment.

 

 S-8 

 

 

We sponsor our Sequoia securitization program, which we use for the securitization of residential mortgage loans. We are required under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States, or GAAP, to consolidate the assets and liabilities of certain securitization entities we have sponsored for financial reporting purposes. However, each of these entities is independent of Redwood and of each other, and the assets and liabilities of these entities are not owned by us or legal obligations of ours, respectively, although we are exposed to certain financial risks associated with our role as the sponsor or depositor of these entities and, to the extent we hold securities issued by, or other investments in, these entities, we are exposed to the performance of these entities and the assets they hold. We refer to certain of these securitization entities issued prior to 2012 as “consolidated Legacy Sequoia entities,” and the securitization entities formed in connection with the securitization of Redwood Choice expanded-prime loans as the “consolidated Sequoia Choice entities.” Additionally, during 2018, we consolidated certain third-party Freddie Mac K-Series and SLST securitization entities that we determined were VIEs and for which we determined we were the primary beneficiary. Where applicable, in analyzing our results of operations, we distinguish results from current operations “at Redwood” and from consolidated entities.

 

We were incorporated in the State of Maryland on April 11, 1994, and commenced operations on August 19, 1994. We operate so as to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941. Our telephone number is (415) 389-7373. Our website is www.redwoodtrust.com. Information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

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The Plan

 

The original Dividend Reinvestment Plan was adopted by our Board of Directors on September 15, 1995 and became effective on October 9, 1995. The Plan was amended by our Board of Directors as of December 13, 1996 to include the Stock Purchase Program and further amended as of September 30, 2002, January 6, 2005, November 23, 2007, July 2, 2008 and September 5, 2012.

 

The following series of questions and answers explains and constitutes the Plan in its entirety. Stockholders who do not participate in the Plan will receive cash dividends, as declared, and paid in the usual manner.

 

Purpose

 

1. What is the purpose of the Plan?

 

The primary purpose of the Plan is to provide eligible holders of shares of our common stock and interested new investors with a convenient and economical method of increasing their investment in us by investing cash dividends or Optional Cash Payments, or both, in additional shares of common stock. Shares purchased under the Plan may be purchased at a discount ranging from 0% to 3% from the Market Price for dividend reinvestments and for purchases made with Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, and from 0% to 5% of the Market Price for purchases made with pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000. We will pay any related share and transaction fees so long as they, together with any discount from Market Price applicable to the purchase, do not exceed, in the aggregate, 5% of the fair market value of the shares on the Investment Date.

 

We may also use the Plan to raise additional capital through the sale of shares under the Plan to owners of shares and interested new investors (including brokers or dealers) who, in connection with any resales of those shares, may be deemed to be underwriters. Our ability to waive limitations applicable to the amounts which Participants may purchase pursuant to the Plan’s Optional Cash Payment feature will allow for these sales.

 

Under the Plan, if you purchase shares directly from us, the net proceeds of the sale of those shares will be used to invest in additional real estate loans and securities and for general corporate purposes.

 

The Plan is intended for the benefit of our investors and not for individuals or investors who engage in transactions which may cause aberrations in the price or trading volume of shares of common stock. From time to time, financial intermediaries may engage in positioning transactions to benefit from the discount from the Market Price of the shares of common stock acquired through the reinvestment of dividends or Optional Cash Payments under the Plan. Those transactions may cause fluctuations in the price or trading volume of the shares of our common stock. We reserve the right to monitor activity in all Plan accounts, and to modify, suspend, or terminate participation in the Plan by otherwise eligible holders of shares of common or preferred stock or interested new investors to eliminate practices which are, in our sole discretion, not consistent with the purposes or operation of the Plan, including investment limits per account, or which adversely affect the price of the shares of common stock or which could adversely affect our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Available Options

 

2. What options are available under the Plan?

 

Stock Purchase Program.  Each month, you may elect to invest Optional Cash Payments in shares of common stock, subject to a minimum per month purchase of $100 if you are an existing stockholder at the time of election, or $500 if you are not a stockholder at the time of election, and a maximum per month purchase of $10,000. You may also submit a Request for Waiver or otherwise request to make Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 on any trading day. We may, in our sole discretion, waive the $10,000 limit and permit purchases to be made in excess of that limit in connection with any monthly (pre-approved) or trading day (same-day accepted) election to invest Optional Cash Payments in shares of Common Stock. You may make Optional Cash Payments even if you do not reinvest dividends. Optional Cash Payments may only be made during a period in which we have determined to permit Optional Cash Payments under the Plan for that period. You may contact our investor relations department at (866) 269-4976 to ask whether we have determined to permit Optional Cash Payments for any particular period.

   

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Dividend Reinvestment Program.  Holders of our stock who wish to participate in the Plan, whether Record Owners, Beneficial Owners, or interested new investors who make an initial investment through the Stock Purchase program described above may elect to have all, a portion, or none of the cash dividends paid on their shares of our stock automatically reinvested in additional shares of common stock through the Dividend Reinvestment Program. Cash dividends are paid on our common stock and on any other class of our equity securities that pays dividends, when and as authorized by our Board of Directors and declared by us. Cash dividends on our common stock are generally paid on a quarterly basis. Subject to the availability of shares of common stock registered for issuance under the Plan, there is generally no limitation on the amount of dividends you may reinvest under the dividend reinvestment feature of the Plan.

 

Benefits and Disadvantages

 

3. What are the benefits and disadvantages of the Plan?

 

Benefits

 

(a) Whether you are an eligible stockholder or a new investor, the Plan provides you with the opportunity to make monthly investments of Optional Cash Payments, subject to minimum and maximum amounts, for the purchase of additional shares of common stock. In addition, the Plan provides investors seeking to make monthly or same-day Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 with the opportunity to make payments, subject to minimum and maximum amounts, for the purchase of additional shares of common stock. Any decision to waive the $10,000 limit will be made in our sole discretion.

 

Shares purchased under the Optional Cash Payment program in an amount in any month of $10,000 or less, will be purchased either in the open market or directly from us. Shares purchased under the Optional Cash Payment program in a pre-approved or same-day accepted amount in excess of $10,000 will be purchased directly from us. The purchase price paid for shares with Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less will reflect a discount ranging from 0% to 3% from the Market Price. The purchase price paid for shares with pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 will reflect a discount ranging from 0% to 5% of Market Price. You will not pay any per share or transaction fees incurred in connection with the open market purchases to the extent they, together with any discount from Market Price applicable to the purchase, do not exceed 5% of the fair market value of the shares on the Investment Date.

 

(b) The Plan provides you with the opportunity to automatically reinvest cash dividends paid on all or a portion of your common stock in additional shares of common stock. Shares purchased with dividend reinvestments will be purchased either in the open market or directly from us. The purchase price paid for those shares will reflect a discount ranging from 0% to 3% of the Market Price. You will not pay any per share or transaction fees in connection with any purchase made on the open market to the extent the combined per share or transaction fees, plus any discount from Market Price applicable to the purchase, do not exceed 5% of the fair market value of the shares on the date of purchase.

 

(c) All cash dividends paid on Participants’ Plan shares enrolled in the Dividend Reinvestment Program can be fully invested in additional shares of common stock because the Plan permits fractional shares to be credited to Plan accounts. Dividends on the fractional shares, as well as on whole shares, will also be reinvested in additional shares which will be credited to Plan accounts.

 

(d) The Plan Administrator, at no charge to you and at your election, either sends certificates to you for optional full shares purchased or provides for the safekeeping of stock certificates for shares credited to each Plan account. Participants in the Plan who purchase shares through pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 may request that shares purchased be delivered through an alternative means of settlement, such as in book-entry form through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company, which request may be granted upon consent of the Plan Administrator in their sole discretion.

 

(e) As a Participant in the Plan, you may also elect to deposit with the Plan Administrator certificates for other common stock registered in your name for safekeeping without charge. Because you bear the risk of loss in sending certificates to the Plan Administrator, certificates should be sent by registered mail, return receipt requested, and properly insured to the address specified in Question 4 below. If certificates are later issued either upon your request or upon termination of your participation, new, differently numbered certificates will be issued.

 

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(f) Periodic statements reflecting all current activity, including purchases, sales and latest balances, will simplify your record keeping.

  

Disadvantages

 

(a) Neither we nor the Plan Administrator will pay interest on dividends or Optional Cash Payments held pending reinvestment or investment. In addition, Optional Cash Payments of less than $100 made by existing stockholders or less than $500 made by new investors, and that portion of any Optional Cash Payment which exceeds the maximum monthly purchase limit of $10,000 (unless the upper limit has been waived by us) may be subject to return to you without interest. In addition, for pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 used to purchase common stock directly from us, if the Threshold Price, if any, is not met or the Maximum Price you specified is exceeded, a portion or all of your Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 will be subject to return to you without interest.

 

(b) With respect to pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the actual number of shares to be issued to your Plan account will not be determined until after the end of the relevant Investment Period. In addition, with respect to same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the actual number of shares to be issued to your Plan account will not be determined until we have accepted your request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 on such trading day. Therefore, during the Investment Period you will not know the actual number of shares, if any, you have purchased.

 

(c) With respect to shares acquired from us, the Market Price may exceed the price at which shares of our common stock are trading on the Investment Date when the shares are issued. The fair market value on the Investment Date generally governs the amount of taxable income to stockholders and may affect the price at which your shares are purchased.

 

(d) Because Optional Cash Payments must be received by the Plan Administrator by the Optional Cash Payment Due Date, certain payments may be exposed to changes in market conditions for a longer period of time than in the case of typical secondary market transactions. In addition, Optional Cash Payments once received by the Plan Administrator will not be returned to you unless you send a written request to the Plan Administrator at least five business days before the relevant Investment Date (or in the case of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, at least five business days before commencement of the relevant Investment Period).

 

(e) There is a $25 fee per transaction, a per share fee of currently $0.12, and applicable share transfer taxes on resales that you may be required to pay to the Plan Administrator if you request that the Plan Administrator sell some or all or the shares of common stock credited to your Plan account.

 

(f) If you chose to reinvest cash dividends, you will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as having received a distribution in cash on the distribution payment date. You may have to use other funds (or sell a portion of the common stock received) to fund the resulting tax liability.

 

Prospective investors should carefully consider the matters described in the Risk Factors section of this prospectus supplement before making an investment in our common stock.

 

Administration

 

4. Who Administers the Plan?

 

We have retained Computershare Trust Company, N.A. as Plan Administrator to administer the Plan, keep records, send statements of account activity, and perform other duties relating to the Plan. The mailing address, telephone number, website, and email addresses of the Plan Administrator are:

 

Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
P.O. Box 505000
Louisville, KY 40233-5000
Telephone (888) 472-1955

http://www.computershare.com/investor
web.queries@computershare.com

 

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Certificates for Plan Shares purchased pursuant to the Stock Purchase Program will not be issued but will be held by the Plan Administrator free of charge. Plan Shares will be held by the Plan Administrator and registered in the Participant’s name. The Plan Administrator will receive dividends on all Plan Shares held on the dividend Record Date, will credit those dividends to Participants’ accounts on the basis of whole or fractional Plan Shares held in those accounts, and will automatically reinvest the dividends in additional shares of common stock according to the portion of the Participants’ shares of stock designated to participate in the Dividend Reinvestment Program. Any remaining portion of cash dividends not designated for reinvestment will be sent to you. If the Plan Administrator resigns or otherwise ceases to act as plan administrator, we will appoint a new plan administrator to administer the Plan, and advise you of the change.

 

The Plan Administrator also acts as dividend disbursing agent, transfer agent, and registrar for our common stock.

 

Participation

 

For purposes of this section, responses are generally directed (a) to existing stockholders, according to the method by which their shares are held, or (b) to investors who are not currently stockholders but would like to make an initial purchase of common stock to become a Participant.

 

5. Who is eligible to participate?

 

A Record Owner (which means a stockholder who owns shares of our stock in his or her own name) or a Beneficial Owner (which means a stockholder who beneficially owns shares of our stock that are registered in a name other than his or her own name, for example, in the name of a broker, bank, or other nominee) may participate in the Plan. A Record Owner may participate directly in the Plan. A Beneficial Owner must either become a Record Owner by having shares transferred into his or her own name or coordinating with his or her broker, bank, or other nominee to participate in the Plan on his or her behalf. A broker, bank, or other nominee acting on behalf of a Beneficial Owner must have a separate account for each Beneficial Owner who is a Participant in the Plan and for whom it acts as the broker, bank, or other nominee. In addition, interested investors who are not stockholders may participate in the Plan through the Optional Cash Payment feature.

 

We may terminate, by written notice, at any time, any Participant’s participation in the Plan if that participation would or could be in violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter. Those restrictions prohibit any person or group of persons from acquiring or holding, directly or indirectly, ownership of shares of our capital stock in excess of 9.8% (by number or value) of the outstanding shares of capital stock. The meanings given to the terms “group” and “beneficial ownership” may cause a person who individually owns less than 9.8% of the shares outstanding to be deemed to be holding shares in excess of the foregoing limitation. Our charter provides that in the event a person acquires shares of capital stock in excess of the foregoing limitation, the excess shares will be transferred to a trustee for the benefit of a beneficiary whose ownership of the shares would not violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. Under our charter, certain transfers or attempted transfers that would jeopardize our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be void to the fullest extent permitted by law. In addition, we reserve the right to modify, suspend, or terminate participation in the Plan by otherwise eligible holders of shares or new investors to eliminate practices which are, in our sole discretion, not consistent with the purposes or operation of the Plan, including investment limits per account, or which adversely affect the price of the shares of common stock or which could adversely affect our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

6. How does an eligible stockholder or interested new investor participate?

 

Record Owners may join the Plan by completing and signing an enrollment form and returning it to the Plan Administrator. Enrollment forms may be obtained at any time from the Plan Administrator.

 

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Beneficial Owners who wish to participate in the Dividend Reinvestment Program must instruct their bank, broker, or other nominee to arrange participation in the Plan on the Beneficial Owner’s behalf. The bank, broker, or other nominee should then make arrangements with its securities depository and the securities depository will provide the Plan Administrator with the information necessary to allow the Beneficial Owner to participate in the Plan. Alternatively, a Beneficial Owner may simply request that the number of shares the Beneficial Owner wishes to be enrolled in the Plan be reclassified or reregistered by the bank, broker, or other nominee in the Beneficial Owner’s own name as Record Owner to participate directly in the Plan. 

  

New investors may join the Plan and become Record Owners by making an initial investment in an amount of at least $500 and up to a maximum amount of $10,000 unless the maximum limit is specifically waived by us. The new investor may designate all, a portion, or none of the shares to be purchased to be enrolled in the Dividend Reinvestment Program. The enrollment form should be returned to the Plan Administrator, with payment, on or before the applicable dates discussed below.

 

Any Participant who returns a properly executed enrollment form to the Plan Administrator without specifying the number of shares to be included in the Dividend Reinvestment Program will be enrolled as having selected the Full Dividend Reinvestment Option described below.

 

If an enrollment form requesting reinvestment of dividends is received by the Plan Administrator before the Record Date established for a particular dividend, reinvestment will commence with that dividend. If an enrollment form is received on or after the Record Date established for a particular dividend, the reinvestment of dividends will begin on the dividend payment date following the next Record Date if the stockholder or the participating bank, broker, or other nominee is still a holder of record. Additionally, for Participants wishing to make Optional Cash Payments to purchase shares under the Stock Purchase Program, full payment must be received by the Plan Administrator by the Optional Cash Payment Due Date. In the case of a new investor making an initial investment to become a Participant, both the enrollment form and full payment of the designated initial investment must be received by the Optional Cash Payment Due Date.

 

7. What does the enrollment form provide?

 

The enrollment form appoints the Plan Administrator as your agent and directs us to pay to the Plan Administrator your cash dividends on all or a specified number of shares of common stock that you own on the applicable Record Date, as well as on all whole and fractional shares of common stock credited to your Plan account. The enrollment form directs the Plan Administrator to purchase for your account on the Investment Date additional shares of common stock with those dividends and Optional Cash Payments, if any, made by you. The enrollment form also directs the Plan Administrator to reinvest automatically all, a portion, or none of the subsequent dividends with respect to shares of common stock credited to your Plan account. Dividends will continue to be reinvested on the number of shares of common stock that you own on the applicable Record Date and on all shares of common stock credited to your Plan account until you withdraw from the Plan, or we suspend or terminate the Plan.

 

The enrollment form provides for the purchase of initial or additional shares of common stock through the following investment options:

 

(1)  If you elect “Full Dividend Reinvestment,” the Plan Administrator will apply all cash dividends on all shares of common stock then or subsequently registered in your name, and all cash dividends on all shares of common stock credited to your Plan account, together with any Optional Cash Payments, toward the purchase of additional shares of common stock.

 

(2)  If you elect “Partial Dividend Reinvestment,” the Plan Administrator will apply all cash dividends on a specified number of shares of common stock that you own on the applicable Record Date registered in your name and held in your Plan account as specified on the enrollment form toward the purchase of additional shares of common stock. The Plan Administrator will pay cash dividends on the remaining shares of common stock directly to you.

 

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(3)  If you elect “All Dividends Paid in Cash,” you will continue to receive cash dividends on shares of common stock registered in your name and held in your Plan account in the usual manner.

 

You may select any one of these three options. In each case, the Plan Administrator will reinvest dividends on all shares that you designate, if any, until you withdraw from the Plan altogether, or until we suspend or terminate the Plan.

 

You may change your investment options at any time by contacting the Plan Administrator as indicated in Question 4 or requesting a new enrollment form and returning it to the Plan Administrator at the address set forth in Question 4.

 

Any Participant who returns a properly executed enrollment form to the Plan Administrator without electing an investment option will be enrolled as having selected the Full Dividend Reinvestment Option.

 

8. How does an eligible stockholder or interested investor obtain an enrollment form?

 

You may obtain an enrollment form from the Plan Administrator or you may enroll online at www.computershare.com.

 

The mailing address, telephone number, website and email addresses of the Plan Administrator are:

 

Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
P.O. Box 505000
Louisville, KY 40233-5000
Telephone: (888) 472-1955

http://www.computershare.com/investor
web.queries@computershare.com

 

Our mailing address, telephone number, and website are:

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.
Attn: Investor Relations
One Belvedere Place, Suite 300
Mill Valley, CA 94941
Telephone: (866) 269-4976

www.redwoodtrust.com

 

Information contained on our website is not and should not be deemed a part of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, or any other report or filing filed with the SEC.

 

9. Is partial participation possible under the Plan?

 

Yes. New investors, Record Owners, or the bank, broker, or other nominee for Beneficial Owners may designate any desired number of their shares for which dividends are to be reinvested. Dividends will thereafter be reinvested only on the number of shares specified, and the Record Owner or Beneficial Owner, as the case may be, will continue to receive cash dividends on the remainder of the shares.

 

10. When may an eligible stockholder or interested new investor join the Plan?

 

A Record Owner or a Beneficial Owner may join the Plan at any time. A new investor may join the Plan by making an initial investment of at least $500 and up to $10,000 (or more with our permission) when returning the enrollment form. Once in the Plan, you remain in the Plan until you withdraw, we or the Plan Administrator terminate your participation or we terminate the Plan.

 

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11. When will dividends and Optional Cash Payments be invested?

 

When shares are purchased from us, the Plan Administrator will make those purchases on the Investment Date. The Investment Date will generally be the dividend payment date for dividends and, generally, the twenty-first (21st) day of a month for Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, unless that date is not a business day, in which case it will be the first business day immediately thereafter, or, in the case of open market purchases, typically on the twenty-first (21st) day of the month, as market conditions permit. For pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the Investment Date will be one or more days during a period of from one to twelve days we may designate during which our common stock is traded on the NYSE or other securities exchange. For same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the Investment Date will be the trading day on which we receive and accept a request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000. In addition, for Optional Cash Payments, we may designate other Investment Dates for any month, at our sole discretion.

 

When the Plan Administrator makes open market purchases, those purchases may be made on any securities exchange where the shares are traded, in the over-the-counter market, or in negotiated transactions, and may be subject to such terms with respect to price, delivery, and other matters as may be agreed to by the Plan Administrator. Neither we nor you will have any authorization or power to direct the time or price at which the Plan Administrator purchases shares or the selection of the broker or dealer through or from whom the Plan Administrator makes purchases.

 

If the Plan Administrator receives the enrollment form before the Record Date for a dividend payment, the election to reinvest dividends will begin with that dividend payment. If the Plan Administrator receives the enrollment form on or after the Record Date, reinvestment of dividends will begin on the dividend payment date following the next Record Date if you are still a stockholder of record.

 

The Plan Administrator will allocate shares and credit shares, computed to six decimal places, to your account as follows: (1) shares purchased from us will be allocated and credited as of the appropriate Investment Date or later settlement date, if applicable; and (2) shares purchased in open market transactions will be allocated and credited as of the date on which the Plan Administrator completes the purchases of the aggregate number of shares to be purchased on behalf of all Participants with dividends to be reinvested or Optional Cash Payments, as the case may be, during the month.

  

No interest will be paid on cash dividends or other cash held in the Plan pending investment or reinvestment under the terms of the Plan. Since no interest is paid on cash held by the Plan Administrator, it normally will be in your best interest to defer Optional Cash Payments until shortly before the Optional Cash Payments are due.

 

Purchases and Prices of Shares

 

12. What will be the price to Participants of shares purchased under the Plan?

 

Shares acquired with reinvested dividends will be acquired directly from us or on the open market, in our discretion. Shares will be purchased for the Plan at a discount of between 0% and 3% from the Market Price, as defined below. The discount may vary from time to time, but once the discount is established with respect to a particular dividend payment, it will apply uniformly to all purchases made with dividend reinvestments in respect of that dividend payment. We will pay any brokerage commissions and service charges incurred in connection with those purchases so long as they, together with any discount from Market Price applicable to the purchase, do not exceed, in the aggregate, 5% of the fair market value of the shares on the Investment Date.

 

Shares acquired with Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less will be acquired directly from us or on the open market, in our discretion. Shares acquired with pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 will be acquired directly from us. We may establish a discount of between 0% and 3% from the Market Price applicable to Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, or between 0% and 5% of the Market Price applicable to pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000. The amount of the discount, if any, applicable to open market purchases may differ from the discount, if any, applicable to purchases made directly from us. The discount may vary from time to time but once established, it will apply uniformly to all purchases made using those respective Optional Cash Payments for purchases made on the open market or directly from us, as the case may be, on any given Investment Date or during any given Investment Period. We will pay any brokerage commissions and service charges incurred in connection with those purchases so long as they, together with any discount from Market Price applicable to the purchase, do not exceed, in the aggregate, 5% of the fair market value of the shares on the Investment Date.

 

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In no event, however, will the price paid, less brokerage commissions and service fees, if any, paid by us, be less than the Minimum Price, which is 95% of the fair market value of our common stock on the Investment Date.

 

The Market Price, in the case of shares purchased directly from us, will be the volume-weighted average stock price on the date of purchase, computed to four decimal places, of our common stock on the NYSE or other applicable securities exchange for trading hours between 9:30 a.m. and 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time, up to and including the last trade as reported by the NYSE or other applicable securities exchange; provided that, with respect to pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, we may establish as a condition to any such pre-approval an alternative means of determining the Market Price for all purchases made in respect of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 for an Investment Period, such as utilizing the “NYSE last trade” price on the Investment Date, computed to six decimal places, of our common stock on the NYSE, as reported by the NYSE.

 

In the case of shares purchased directly from us with pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, we will establish an Investment Period generally consisting of from one to twelve days (or any other number of days otherwise designated by us in our sole discretion from time to time and disclosed in any waiver we may grant) on which our common stock is expected to trade on the NYSE or other applicable securities exchange. Each of the days in the Investment Period will be a separate Investment Date and an equal proportion of your pre-approved Optional Cash Payment will be invested on each of those days. If no trading occurs in our common stock on one or more of those Investment Dates, or if the Market Price (less the applicable discount, if any) on one or more of those Investment Dates does not equal or exceed any Threshold Price we may have established, or if the Market Price on one or more of those Investment Dates exceeds any Maximum Price that you may have established, no purchases of common stock will be made with your pre-approved Optional Cash Payment on that date and the proportional amount of your pre-approved Optional Cash Payment that would otherwise have been invested on that date will be returned to you.

 

In the case of shares purchased directly from us with same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, we will establish an Investment Period generally consisting of one to two days from (and including) the trading day on which we receive a request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 until the purchase is settled. We may accept or reject any request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 on any trading day in our sole discretion.

 

In the case of shares purchased on the open market, the Plan Administrator may combine your funds with funds of other participants and generally will batch purchase types (reinvested dividends and Optional Cash Payments) for separate execution by its broker. At the Plan Administrator’s discretion, these batches may be combined and executed by its broker. The Plan Administrator may also direct its broker to execute each purchase type in several batches throughout a trading day. Depending on the number of shares being purchased and current trading volume in shares of our common stock, the Plan Administrator’s broker may execute purchases for any batch or batches in multiple transactions and over more than one day. If different purchase types are batched, the price per share of our common stock purchased for each participant’s account, whether purchased with reinvested dividends or with Optional Cash Payments, shall be the weighted average price for each specific batch of the Participants’ reinvested dividends or Optional Cash Payments for shares of our common stock purchased by the Plan Administrator’s broker, computed up to six decimal places, on that investment date. The Administrator will purchase such shares as soon as is practical on or after an Investment Date. Neither we nor you will have any authorization or power to direct the time or price at which the Plan Administrator purchases shares or the selection of the broker or dealer through or from whom the Plan Administrator makes the purchases.

 

13. What are the Record Dates and Investment Dates for Dividend Reinvestment?

 

For the reinvestment of dividends, the Record Date is the date set by our Board of Directors for determination of the ownership of the common stock entitled to payment of a dividend on the dividend payment date. Likewise, the dividend payment date authorized by our Board of Directors constitutes the Investment Date applicable to the reinvestment of that dividend with respect to shares of common stock acquired directly from us. The Investment Date with respect to shares of common stock that the Plan Administrator purchases in open market transactions will typically be one or more days during the ten business day period beginning on the dividend payment date, as market conditions permit. Dividends will be reinvested on the Investment Date using the applicable Market Price.

 

 S-17 

 

 

14. How will the number of shares purchased for you be determined?

 

Your Plan account will be credited with the number of shares, including fractions computed to six decimal places, equal to the total amount to be invested on your behalf divided by the purchase price per share. The total amount to be invested will depend on the amount of any dividends paid on the number of shares of common stock that you own and shares of common stock credited to your Plan account on the applicable Record Date, or the amount of any Optional Cash Payments made by you and available for investment on the related Investment Date, and any withholding taxes you may be subject to. Subject to the availability of shares of common stock registered for issuance under the Plan, there is no limit to the number of shares available for issuance pursuant to the reinvestment of dividends or with Optional Cash Payments.

 

15. What is the source of shares of common stock purchased under the Plan?

 

Shares of common stock credited to your Plan account will be purchased either directly from us, in which event the shares will be authorized but unissued shares, or on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, or by a combination of the foregoing, at our option, after a review of current market conditions and our current and projected capital needs. We will determine the source of the shares of common stock to be purchased under the Plan at least one business day before the relevant Investment Date, and will notify the Plan Administrator of the same. Neither we nor the Plan Administrator will be required to provide any written notice to you as to the source of the shares of common stock to be purchased under the Plan, but information regarding the source of the shares of common stock may be obtained by contacting our investor relations department at (866) 269-4976.

 

16. How is the discount rate determined?

 

We may, at our discretion, offer discounts from Market Prices that could range from 0 – 3% (in the case of dividend reinvestments and Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less) and 0 – 5% (in the case of Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000). We reserve the right to periodically change or discontinue a discount rate or to offer different discount rates for different types of investments under the Plan. We generally determine the rate of discount to be offered based on a review of market conditions, the level of participation in the Plan, our current and projected capital needs and the alternative sources of capital available to us. We will determine the discount, if any, being offered at least one business day prior to an Investment Date or commencement of an Investment Period and you may call our investor relations department at (866) 269-4976 for information regarding the discount rates being offered with respect to a particular Investment Date or Investment Period.

 

17. How does the Optional Cash Payment feature of the Plan work?

 

All Record Owners and interested new investors who have enrolled in the Plan are eligible to make Optional Cash Payments, whether or not a dividend is declared. The Plan Administrator will apply any Optional Cash Payment received from you no later than the Optional Cash Payment Due Date (subject to the minimum and maximum investment limitations specified in the response to Question 18 below) (i) to the purchase of additional shares of common stock for your account on the following Investment Date, (ii) in the case of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the following Investment Dates, or (iii) in the case of same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the Investment Date or later settlement date, if applicable.

 

The Optional Cash Discount will be established by us and will range from 0% to 3% of the Market Price for purchases made with Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, and from 0% to 5% of the Market Price for purchases made with pre-approved and same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments of more than $10,000. You are not obligated to participate in the Optional Cash Payment feature of the Plan. Optional Cash Payments need not be in the same amount each month.

 

18. What limitations apply to Optional Cash Payments?

 

Each Optional Cash Payment is subject to a minimum per month purchase of $100 for existing stockholders and $500 for new investors and a maximum per month purchase of $10,000. For purposes of these limitations, all Plan accounts under your common control or management (which will be determined in our sole discretion) will be aggregated. Generally, Optional Cash Payments of less than $100 for existing stockholders or $500 for new investors, and that portion of any Optional Cash Payment which exceeds the monthly purchase limit of $10,000, unless that limit has been waived by us, will be returned to you without interest following the relevant Investment Date.

 

 S-18 

 

 

You may make Optional Cash Payments of up to $10,000 each month without our prior approval, subject to our right to modify, suspend, or terminate participation in the Plan by otherwise eligible holders of shares of common stock or interested new investors to eliminate practices which are, in our sole discretion, not consistent with the purposes or operation of the Plan or which adversely affect the price of the shares of common stock or our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

You may make Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 upon our acceptance of a completed Request for Waiver form from you and the Plan Administrator’s receipt of that form. There is no pre-established maximum limit applicable to Optional Cash Payments that may be made pursuant to accepted Requests for Waiver. A Request for Waiver form must be received by us no later than one business day prior to the first Investment Date and accepted by us, and notice of our acceptance must have been received by the Plan Administrator no later than 4:30 p.m. (Eastern time) on the applicable Investment Date, except as set forth below with respect to same-day Optional Cash Payments or as otherwise agreed by us and the Plan Administrator. Request for Waiver forms will be furnished at any time upon request to us at the address or telephone number specified in the response to Question 4. If you are interested in obtaining further information about a Request for Waiver, you should contact our investor relations department at (866) 269-4976.

 

You may also make Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 upon our acceptance of a same-day request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 on any trading day. There is no pre-established maximum limit applicable to Optional Cash Payments that may be made pursuant to accepted same-day requests. A same-day request must be received by us no later than 4:30 p.m. (Eastern time) on the Investment Date and accepted by us, and notice of our acceptance must have been received by the Plan Administrator no later than 5:00 p.m. (Eastern time) on the Investment Date, except as otherwise agreed by us and the Plan Administrator. If you are interested in obtaining further information about a same-day request, you should contact our investor relations department at (866) 269-4976.

 

In no event will an Optional Cash Payment purchase be made at a price that, when reduced by the amount of the related brokerage commissions and service fees, if any, paid by us, is below the Minimum Price.

 

Your written Request for Waiver must include the proposed investment amount(s), Investment Period(s), and Maximum Price, if any, prior to the commencement of the requested Investment Period(s). If Requests for Waiver are submitted for any period for an aggregate amount in excess of the amount we are willing to accept, we may honor the requests in order of receipt, pro rata, or by any other method which we determine to be appropriate.

 

Your written same-day request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 on any trading day must include the proposed investment amount and Maximum Price, if any.

 

Any waiver of the $10,000 limit will be considered on the basis of a variety of factors, which may include our current and projected capital needs, the alternatives available to us to meet those needs, prevailing market prices for shares of common stock and our other securities, general economic and market conditions, expected aberrations in the price or trading volume of the shares of common stock, the potential disruption of the price of the shares of common stock by a financial intermediary, the number of shares of common stock that you hold, your past actions under the Plan, the aggregate amount of Optional Cash Payments for which waivers have been submitted, and the administrative constraints associated with granting the waivers. Grants of waivers will be made in our absolute discretion.

 

Unless we waive our right to do so, we may establish for any Investment Period a minimum Threshold Price applicable only to the investment of Optional Cash Payments that exceed $10,000 and that are made pursuant to Requests for Waiver, to provide us with the ability to set a minimum price at which shares of common stock will be sold under the Plan each month pursuant to the Requests. The determination of whether to establish a Threshold Price and, if a Threshold Price is established, its amount, will be made by us in our sole discretion after consideration of current market conditions, the level of participation in the Plan, our current and projected capital needs and other factors we deem to be relevant. Neither we nor the Plan Administrator will be required to provide any written notice to you as to whether a Threshold Price has been established for any Investment Period, but information regarding the Threshold Price may be obtained by contacting our investor relations department at (866) 269-4976.

 

 S-19 

 

 

The Threshold Price, if any, for Optional Cash Payments made through Requests for Waivers, if established for an Investment Period, will be a stated dollar amount that the Market Price less the applicable discount, if any, must equal or exceed. In the event that the Threshold Price is not satisfied for a trading day during the Investment Period, then that day will not be an Investment Date and the proportional amount of your Optional Cash Payment that would otherwise have been invested on that date will not be invested and will be returned to you, without interest, as soon as practicable after the applicable Investment Date. For example, for a ten-day Investment Period, for each trading day on which the Threshold Price is not satisfied, 1/10 of each Optional Cash Payment made by you pursuant to a Request for Waiver will be returned to you, without interest, as soon as practicable after the applicable Investment Date. Thus, for example, if the Threshold Price is not satisfied for three of the ten trading days in an Investment Period, 3/10 of your Optional Cash Payment made pursuant to a Request for Waiver will be returned to you by check, without interest, as soon as practicable after the Investment Period. The Plan Administrator expects to mail such checks as soon as practicable after the applicable Investment Period. This return procedure will only apply when we have set a Threshold Price with respect to the relevant Investment Period.

 

Setting a Threshold Price for an Investment Period will not affect the setting of a Threshold Price for any subsequent Investment Period. The Threshold Price concept and return procedure discussed above apply only to Optional Cash Payments made through Requests for Waiver.

 

For any Investment Period, we may waive our right to set a Threshold Price for Optional Cash Payments made through Requests for Waiver. You may ascertain whether the Threshold Price applicable to a given Investment Period has been set or waived, as applicable, by calling our investor relations department at (866) 269-4976.

 

Your Optional Cash Payments made pursuant to a Request for Waiver may specify a Maximum Price per share that you are willing to pay — and if the Market Price less the applicable discount on a trading day during an Investment Period exceeds the specified Maximum Price, then that day will not be an Investment Date and the proportional amount of your Optional Cash Payment that would otherwise have been invested on that date will not be invested and will instead be returned to you without interest as soon as practicable after the applicable Investment Date.

 

We will establish the discount from the Market Price applicable to Optional Cash Payments with respect to the corresponding Investment Date or Investment Period, as the case may be, and will notify the Plan Administrator of the same. The discount may be from 0% to 3% of the Market Price for purchases made with Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, and from 0% to 5% of the Market Price for purchases made with pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments of more than $10,000. The amount of the discount, if any, applicable to open market purchases may differ from the discount, if any, applicable to purchases made directly from us.

 

The discount may vary from time to time, but once established will apply uniformly to all Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, or more than $10,000, as the case may be, used to purchase shares on the open market or directly from us, as the case may be, on any given Investment Date or for any given Investment Period. The discount will be established in our sole discretion after a review of current market conditions, the level of participation in the Plan, our current and projected capital needs, and the alternative sources of capital available to us. Neither we nor the Plan Administrator will be required to provide any written notice to you as to the discount, but information regarding the discount applicable to the next Investment Date or Investment Period, as the case may be, may be obtained by calling our investor relations department at (866) 269-4976. Setting a discount for an Investment Period will not affect the setting of a discount for any subsequent Investment Period.

 

 S-20 

 

 

19. What are the Due Dates and Investment Dates for Optional Cash Payments?

 

Optional Cash Payments will be invested on the related Investment Date or Investment Dates, as applicable. The Optional Cash Payment Due Date is one business day before (i) the relevant Investment Date, in the case of Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, and (ii) except as provided below, the commencement of the relevant Investment Period, in the case of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess $10,000. The Investment Date for Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less is generally on or about the twenty-first (21st) day of each month. The Investment Date for pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 will be each trading day in the Investment Period established by us, which may range from one to twelve days on which our shares of common stock trade on the New York Stock Exchange, typically beginning on the twenty-first (21st) day of the month. We may provide for more than one Investment Date per month, at our sole discretion. The Investment Date for same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 will be the trading day on which we receive and accept a request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000.

   

Optional Cash Payments that the Plan Administrator timely receives will be applied to the purchase of shares of common stock on the applicable Investment Dates. No interest will be paid by us or the Plan Administrator on Optional Cash Payments held pending investment.

 

With respect to pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, settlement of purchases of common stock shall generally be made on a “T+1” basis following an Investment Date; provided that you may request that settlement of purchases of common stock be made on an alternative settlement cycle, such as settlement on a “T+3” basis following an Investment Date, which request may be granted upon consent of the Company and the Plan Administrator, in our and its sole discretion. In the event that an alternative settlement cycle is consented to, and with respect to same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the Optional Cash Payment Due Date will generally be the first or second business day after the Investment Date, as specified when any such consent in granted, or otherwise as agreed to by us and the Plan Administrator.

 

20. How are Optional Cash Payments Made?

 

Each month the Plan Administrator will apply any Optional Cash Payment for which good funds are timely received to the purchase of shares of common stock for your account at the next Investment Date (or during the next Investment Period, in the case of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000). For funds to be invested at the next Investment Date or during the next Investment Period, as the case may be, the Plan Administrator must receive a check by the Optional Cash Payment Due Date. In the case of pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 wire transfers may be used. Checks should be made payable to “Computershare — Redwood Trust, Inc. DSPP” and submitted together with, initially, the enrollment form or, subsequently, the form for additional investments attached to your statements. The Plan Administrator will not accept cash, traveler’s checks, money orders, or third party checks. Checks returned for any reason will not be resubmitted for collection.

 

You can automatically invest a specified monthly amount (not less than $100, or $500 for the first investment by a new investor, and not more than $10,000 per month) deducted directly from your U.S. bank account by completing a direct debit authorization form and returning it to the Plan Administrator or by enrolling in automatic debits online at www.computershare.com/investor. Funds will be debited from your account on the third (3rd) day of each month, or the next business day if the 3rd is not a business day, prior to the Optional Cash Payment Due Date each month. You can change or stop automatic monthly investments by completing and returning a new direct debit authorization form or by contacting the Plan Administrator as indicated in Question 4. The Plan Administrator must receive your instructions and authorization ten business days prior to the monthly Optional Cash Payment Due Date.

 

No interest will be paid by us or the Plan Administrator on Optional Cash Payments held pending investment. Since no interest is paid on cash held by the Plan Administrator, it normally will be in your best interests to defer an Optional Cash Payment until shortly before the Optional Cash Payment is due.

 

In the event that any check or other deposit is returned unpaid for any reason or your pre-designated U.S. bank account does not have sufficient funds for an automatic withdrawal, the Plan Administrator will consider the request for investment of that purchase null and void. The Plan Administrator will immediately remove from your Plan account any common shares already purchased in anticipation of receiving those funds and will sell such common shares. If the net proceeds from the sale of those shares of our common stock are insufficient to satisfy the balance of the uncollected amounts, the Plan Administrator may sell additional common shares from your Plan account as necessary to satisfy the uncollected balance. There is a $35 charge for any check, electronic fund transfer or other deposit that is returned unpaid by your bank. This fee will be collected by the Plan Administrator through the sale of the number of shares of our common stock from your Plan account necessary to satisfy the fee. You will be responsible for customary fees incurred in connection with any such sale.

 

 S-21 

 

 

21. May Optional Cash Payments be returned?

 

Yes. Upon written request to the Plan Administrator received at least five business days before the Investment Date (or in the case of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, at least five business days before commencement of the Investment Period) with respect to which Optional Cash Payments have been delivered to the Plan Administrator, such Optional Cash Payments will be returned to you as soon as practicable. Requests received less than five business days before such date will not be returned but instead will be invested on the next related Investment Date.

  

22. Will you incur any expenses in connection with your participation under the Plan?

 

You will incur no per share or transaction fees in connection with the reinvestment of dividends or in connection with any purchases made pursuant to Optional Cash Payments under the Plan except in connection with purchases made on the open market (as opposed to purchases made directly from us) to the extent the per share and transaction fees, together with any discount from the Market Price, in the aggregate, exceed 5% of the fair market value of the common stock on the Investment Date. We will pay all other costs of administration of the Plan. Additionally, you may elect to send the certificates for your other shares of common stock to the Plan Administrator for safekeeping, and there is no fee for this service. Should you request that the Plan Administrator sell all or any portion of your shares, however, you will pay a $25 fee per transaction to the Plan Administrator, any related per share fee, currently $0.12 , and applicable stock transfer taxes. All sales requests processed over the telephone will entail an additional fee of $15 if the assistance of a Customer Service Representative is required when selling shares. Per share fees include any applicable brokerage commissions the Plan Administrator is required to pay.

 

Account Statements

 

23. What kind of reports will be sent to you?

 

You will receive a statement of your account following each purchase or sale transaction and following any withdrawal of shares. The statement will also include specific cost basis information in accordance with applicable law. These statements are your continuing record of the cost of your purchases and should be retained for income tax purposes. In addition, you will receive copies of other communications sent to holders of the shares of common stock, including our annual report to stockholders, the notice of annual meeting and proxy statement in connection with our annual meeting of stockholders, and Internal Revenue Service information for reporting dividends paid.

 

Dividends on Fractions

 

24. Will you be credited with dividends on fractions of shares?

 

Yes, fractional shares are computed to six decimal places and dividends are rounded to the nearest penny.

 

Certificates for Common Shares

 

25. Will certificates be issued for shares purchased?

 

No. Shares of common stock purchased for you will be held by the Plan Administrator in book-entry form. No certificates will be issued to you for shares in the Plan unless you submit a written, telephonic or Internet request to the Plan Administrator or until participation in the Plan is terminated. At any time, you may request that the Plan Administrator send you a certificate (or, subject to the approval of the Plan Administrator, deliver shares electronically in book-entry form) for some or all of the whole shares credited to your account by contacting the Plan Administrator as indicated in Question 4. You should mail this request to the Plan Administrator at the address set forth in the answer to Question 4. Any remaining whole shares and any fractions of shares will remain credited to your Plan account. Certificates for fractional shares will not be issued under any circumstances. Issuance of certificates may be subject to an additional fee. Please contact the Plan Administrator to determine if there is a certificate issuance fee.

 

26. In whose name will certificates be registered when issued?

 

Your Plan account is maintained in the name registered at the time of your enrollment in the Plan. Share certificates for whole shares purchased under the Plan will be similarly registered when issued upon your request. If you are a Beneficial Owner, you should place the request through your banker, broker, or other nominee. If you wish to pledge shares credited to your Plan account, you must first withdraw those shares from the Plan account. If you wish to withdraw your shares and have any or all of the full shares held in your Plan account issued and delivered to you in physical form, you may do so by contacting the Plan Administrator as indicated in Question 4. Registration of withdrawn shares in a name other than yours will require the Medallion Signature Guarantee of your signature.

 

 S-22 

 

 

Withdrawals and Termination

 

27. When may Participants withdraw from the Plan?

 

You may withdraw from the Plan with respect to all or a portion of the shares held in your Plan account at any time.

 

If the Plan Administrator receives your request to withdraw near a dividend Record Date set by our Board of Directors for determining stockholders of record entitled to receive a dividend, the Plan Administrator, in its sole discretion, may either pay the dividend in cash or reinvest it in shares for your account. If such dividend is reinvested, the Plan Administrator may sell the shares purchased and remit the proceeds to the Participant, less any applicable fees. The request for withdrawal will then be processed as promptly as possible following the dividend payment date. All dividends subsequent to the dividend payment date or Investment Date will be paid in cash unless you re-enroll in the Plan, which may be done at any time.

 

Any Optional Cash Payments which have been sent to the Plan Administrator before a request for withdrawal will also be invested on the next Investment Date unless you expressly request return of that payment in the request for withdrawal, and the Plan Administrator receives the request for withdrawal at least five business days before the Investment Date (or in the case of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, at least five business days before commencement of the Investment Period) with respect to which Optional Cash Payments have been delivered to the Plan Administrator.

 

28. How do you sell shares or withdraw from the Plan?

 

If you wish to withdraw from the Plan with respect to all or a portion of the shares held in your Plan account, you must notify the Plan Administrator as indicated in Question 4. Upon your withdrawal from the Plan or termination of the Plan by us, whole shares credited to your account under the Plan will be maintained in book-entry form through the direct registration system, or DRS, unless a certificate is requested. Registration of withdrawn shares in a name other than yours will require the guaranty of your signature. Cash will be paid in lieu of any fraction of a share, based on the prevailing market price as determined in the Plan Administrator’s sole discretion.

 

You have four choices when making a sale, depending on how you submit your sale request, as follows:

 

·Market Order: A market order is a request to sell shares promptly at the current market price. Market order sales are only available at www.computershare.com/investor through Investor Center or by calling the Plan Administrator directly at (888) 472-1955. Market order sale requests received at www.computershare.com/investor through Investor Centre or by telephone will be placed promptly upon receipt during market hours (normally 9:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time). Any orders received after 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time will be placed promptly on the next day the market is open. Depending on the number of shares being sold and current trading volume in the shares, a market order may only be partially filled or not filled at all on the trading day in which it is placed, in which case the order, or remainder of the order, as applicable, will be cancelled at the end of such day. To determine if your shares were sold, you should check your account online at www.computershare.com/investor or call the Plan Administrator directly at (888) 472-1955. If your market order sale was not filled and you still want the shares sold, you will need to re-enter the sale request. The price shall be the market price of the sale obtained by the Plan Administrator’s broker, less a transaction fee of $25 per sale and a per share fee of $0.12 for each share sold.

 

·Batch Order: A batch order is an accumulation of all sale requests for a security submitted together as a collective request. Batch orders are submitted on each market day, assuming there are sale requests to be processed. Sale instructions for batch orders received by the Plan Administrator will be processed no later than five business days after the date on which the order is received (except where deferral is required under applicable federal or state laws or regulations), assuming the applicable market is open for trading and sufficient market liquidity exists. All sale requests received in writing will be submitted as batch order sales. The Plan Administrator will seek to sell shares in round lot (100 shares) transactions. For this purpose, the Plan Administrator may combine each selling Plan Participant’s shares with those of other selling Participants. In every case of a batch order sale, the price to each selling Plan Participant shall be the weighted average sale price obtained by the Plan Administrator’s broker for each aggregate order placed by the Plan Administrator and executed by the broker, less a transaction fee of $25 per sale and a per share fee of $0.12 for each share sold.

 

·Day Limit Order: A day limit order is an order to sell securities when and if they reach a specific trading price on a specific day. The order is automatically cancelled if the price is not met by the end of that day (or, for orders placed after market hours, the next day the market is open). Depending on the number of securities being sold and the current trading volume in the securities, such an order may only be partially filled, in which case the remainder of the order will be cancelled. The order may be cancelled by the applicable stock exchange, by the Plan Administrator at its sole discretion or, if the Plan Administrator’s broker has not filled the order, at your request made online at www.computershare.com/investor or by calling the Plan Administrator directly at (888) 472-1955. Each day limit order sale will incur a transaction fee of $25 per sale and a per share fee of $0.12 for each share sold.

 

·Good-Til-Cancelled (“GTC”) Limit Order: A GTC limit order is an order to sell securities when and if the securities reach a specific trading price at any time while the order remains open (generally up to 30 days). Depending on the number of securities being sold and current trading volume in the securities, sales may be executed in multiple transactions and over more than one day. If shares are traded on more than one day during which the market is open, a separate fee will be charged for each such day. The order (or any unexecuted portion thereof) is automatically cancelled if the trading price is not met by the end of the order period. The order may be cancelled by the applicable stock exchange, by the Plan Administrator at its sole discretion or, if the Plan Administrator’s broker has not filled the order, at your request made online at www.computershare.com/investor or by calling the Plan Administrator directly at (888) 472-1955. Each GTC limit order sale will incur a transaction fee of $25 per sale and a per share fee of $0.12 for each share sold.

 

Per share fees include any applicable brokerage commissions the Plan Administrator is required to pay. Any fractional share will be rounded up to a whole share for purposes of calculating the per share fee. The Plan Administrator may, for various reasons, require a sales request to be submitted in writing. Please contact the Plan Administrator to determine if there are any limitations applicable to your particular sale request. An additional fee of $15 will be charged if the assistance of a Customer Service Representative is required when selling shares.

 

You should be aware that the price of our common stock may rise or fall during the period between a request for sale, its receipt by the Plan Administrator, and the ultimate sale on the open market. Instructions for a market order or a batch sale are binding and may not be rescinded.

 

If you elect to sell shares online at www.computershare.com/investor through the Investor Center, you may utilize the Plan Administrator’s international currency exchange service to convert your sale proceeds to your local currency prior to being sent to you. Receiving your sales proceeds in a local currency and having your check drawn on a local bank avoids the time consuming and costly “collection” process required for cashing U.S. dollar checks. This service is subject to additional terms and conditions and fees, which you must agree to online.

 

The Plan Administrator reserves the right to decline to process a sale if it determines, in its sole discretion, that supporting legal documentation is required. In addition, no one will have any authority or power to direct the time or price at which shares for the program are sold (except for prices specified for day limit orders or GTC limit orders), and no one, other than the Plan Administrator, will select the broker(s) or dealer(s) through or from whom sales are to be made.

 

Alternatively, you may choose to sell common shares in your Plan account through a stockbroker of your choice, in which case you should contact your broker about transferring shares from your plan account to your brokerage account. You may be charged a fee by your broker.

 

 S-23 

 

 

29. Are there any automatic termination provisions?

 

Yes. Participation in the Plan will be terminated if the Plan Administrator receives written notice of the death or adjudicated incompetence of a Participant, together with satisfactory supporting documentation of the appointment of a legal representative, at least five business days before (i) the next Record Date for purchases made through the reinvestment of dividends, or (ii) the Investment Date for Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, or (iii) the commencement of the Investment Period in the case of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, as applicable. In the event written notice of death or adjudicated incompetence and such supporting documentation is received by the Plan Administrator less than five business days before the next Record Date, Investment Date, or Investment Period, as applicable, shares will be purchased for the Participant with the related cash dividend or Optional Cash Payment and participation in the Plan will not terminate until after such dividend or payment has been invested. Thereafter, no additional purchase of shares will be made for the Participant’s account and the Participant’s shares and any cash dividends paid on those shares will be forwarded to the Participant’s legal representative.

 

Further, participation in the Plan may be terminated if all whole shares have been disbursed from your stockholder account and your Plan account, leaving only a fraction of a share.

 

Lastly, participation in the Plan may be terminated if we have reason to believe that your continued participation may cause your share ownership to violate our 9.8% charter limit on share ownership or you do not respond to our effort to determine compliance with share ownership limitation requirements.

 

We reserve the right to monitor activity in all Plan accounts, and to modify, suspend, or terminate participation in the Plan by otherwise eligible holders of shares of common stock or interested new investors to eliminate practices which are, in our sole discretion, not consistent with the purposes or operation of the Plan, including investment limits per account, or which adversely affect the price of the shares of common stock or our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Other Information

 

30. What happens if you sell or transfer all of the shares registered in your name?

 

If you dispose of all shares registered in your name and all shares held in your Plan account and are not shown as a Record Owner on a dividend Record Date, you may be terminated from the Plan as of that date and the termination treated as though a withdrawal notice had been received before the Record Date.

 

31. What happens if we declare a stock dividend or a stock split?

 

Any dividend payable in shares and any additional shares distributed by us in connection with a share split in respect of shares credited to your Plan account will be added to that account. Share dividends or split shares which are attributable to shares registered in your own name and not in your Plan account will be mailed directly to you as in the case of stockholders not participating in the Plan.

 

32. How will shares held by the Plan Administrator be voted at meetings of stockholders?

 

If you are a Record Owner, you will receive a proxy card covering both directly held shares and shares held in the Plan. If you are a Beneficial Owner, you will receive a proxy covering shares held in the Plan through your broker, bank, or other nominee. If a proxy is returned properly signed (or returned electronically) and marked for voting, all the shares covered by the proxy will be voted as marked. If a proxy is returned properly signed (or returned electronically) but no voting instructions are given, all of your shares will be voted in accordance with recommendations of our Board of Directors, unless applicable laws require otherwise. If the proxy is not returned, or if it is returned unexecuted or improperly executed or improperly completed, shares registered in your name may be voted only by you in person, or, if you are a Beneficial Owner, by your broker, bank or other nominee, if permitted by applicable laws and the rules of the NYSE; neither we nor the Plan Administrator will vote those shares.

 

 S-24 

 

 

33. What are our responsibilities and the Plan Administrator’s responsibilities under the Plan?

 

We and the Plan Administrator will not be liable in administering the Plan for any act done in good faith or required by applicable law or for any good faith omission to act, including, without limitation, any claim of liability arising out of failure to terminate a Participant’s account upon his or her death, with respect to the prices at which shares are purchased and/or the times when purchases are made or with respect to any fluctuation in the market value before or after purchase or sale of shares. Nothing contained in the Plan limits our liability with respect to violations of federal securities laws.

 

We and the Plan Administrator will be entitled to rely on completed forms and the proof of due authority to participate in the Plan, without further responsibility of investigation or inquiry.

 

34. May the Plan be changed or discontinued?

 

Yes. We may suspend, terminate, or amend the Plan at any time and for any reason. Notice will be sent to all current Plan Participants of any suspension or termination, or of any amendment that alters the Plan terms and conditions, as soon as practicable after such action by us.

 

We may appoint a successor administrator or agent in place of the Plan Administrator at any time. You will be promptly informed of any such appointment.

 

Any questions of interpretation arising under the Plan will be determined by us, in our sole discretion, and our determination will be final.

 

35. What provisions are made for non-U.S. residents?

 

Optional Cash Payments made by foreign (non-U.S.) investors must be made in United States currency and drawn on a U.S. bank and will be invested in the same manner as Optional Cash Payments made by U.S. investors. Each investor is responsible for reviewing and is urged to review the applicable laws of his or her country of residence prior to investing in our common stock.

 

36. What about taxes?

 

You should review the discussion on tax consequences of participating in the Plan that appears later in this prospectus supplement under the heading “Supplemental Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.” In addition, you should review the discussion in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

  

37. Who bears the risk of market fluctuations in our shares of common stock?

 

Your investment in shares held in the Plan account is no different from your investment in directly held shares. You bear the risk of any loss and enjoy the benefits of any gain from market price changes with respect to those shares.

 

38. Who should be contacted with questions about the Plan?

 

All correspondence regarding the Plan should be directed to the Plan Administrator at the address set forth in the answer to Question 4. Please mention Redwood Trust, Inc. and this Plan in all correspondence.

 

39. How is the Plan interpreted?

 

Any question of interpretation arising under the Plan will be determined by us and our determination will be final. We may adopt additional terms and conditions of the Plan and its operation will be governed by the laws of the State of California.

 

 S-25 

 

 

40. What are some of the Participants’ responsibilities under the Plan?

 

Shares of common stock credited to your Plan account are subject to escheat to the state in which you reside in the event the shares are deemed, under that state’s laws, to have been abandoned by you. You, therefore, should notify the Plan Administrator promptly in writing of any change of address. Account statements and other communications to you will be addressed to you at the last address of record that you provide to the Plan Administrator.

 

You will have no right to draw checks or drafts against your Plan account or to instruct the Plan Administrator with respect to any shares of common stock or cash held by the Plan Administrator except as expressly provided in the Plan.

 

 S-26 

 

 

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock and debt securities, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential tax effects. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the ownership of the securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. Your tax treatment will vary depending upon the terms of the specific securities you acquire, as well as your particular situation. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Redwood Trust, Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

·the Code;

 

·current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code, or the Treasury Regulations;

 

·the legislative history of the Code;

 

·administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS; and

 

·court decisions;

 

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

 

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

·the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

·our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

·potential changes in applicable tax laws.

 

 S-27 

 

 

Taxation of the Company

 

General

 

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and to operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our U.S. federal income tax status as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Additionally, to the extent we make certain investments, such as investments in commercial mortgage loan securitizations, the accuracy of such opinion will also depend on the accuracy of certain opinions rendered to us in connection with such transactions. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described in this discussion may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

 

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that we currently distribute to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

·We will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

 

·If we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Foreclosure Property.”

 

·We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

·If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

 S-28 

 

 

·If we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

·If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

·We will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

·If we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

 

·If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (1) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (2) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

·We will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any “excess inclusion income” derived from an investment in residual interests in certain mortgage loan securitization structures (i.e., a “taxable mortgage pool” or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit (a “REMIC”)) to the extent that our capital stock is held by specified types of tax-exempt organizations known as “disqualified organizations” that are not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a taxable REIT subsidiary (a “TRS”), we will not be subject to this tax. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Taxable Mortgage Pools.”

 

·Our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our TRSs, generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

·We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Penalty Tax.”

 

·We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

·If we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

 

 S-29 

 

 

We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

 

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

 

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

(1)that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

(2)that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

(3)that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

(4)that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

(5)that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

(6)not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

(7)that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

 

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least three hundred and thirty five days of a taxable year of twelve months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than twelve months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

 

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify.”

 

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

 

Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries

 

In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership, including such partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, would be treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. For purposes of the REIT qualification tests, the treatment of our ownership of partnerships or limited liability companies that are, in each case, treated as disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes is generally the same as described below with respect to qualified REIT subsidiaries.

 

 S-30 

 

 

We generally have control of our subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

 

From time to time, we may own wholly owned subsidiaries that are treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) qualifies as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a TRS, as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Asset Tests.”

 

Ownership of Interests in TRSs

 

From time to time, we may own interests in one or more TRSs. A TRS is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes), other than a REIT, in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a TRS. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a TRS may generally engage in any business. A TRS is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or as receiving any income that the TRS earns. Rather, the stock issued by the TRS is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the TRS. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a TRS is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our TRSs to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

 

Non-U.S. TRSs that are not engaged in trade or business in the United States for tax purposes generally are not subject to U.S. corporate income taxation. However, certain U.S. shareholders of such non-U.S. corporations may be required to include in their income currently their proportionate share of the earnings of such a corporation, whether or not such earnings are distributed. This could affect our ability to comply with the REIT income tests and distribution requirement. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests” and “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.” We currently do not own interests in any non-U.S. TRS, but we may acquire interests in such TRSs in the future.

 

 S-31 

 

 

We may hold a significant number of assets in one or more TRSs, subject to the limitation that securities in TRSs may not represent more than 20% of our total assets (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018). We may engage in securitization transactions through our TRSs, and to the extent that we acquire loans with an intention of selling such loans in a manner that might expose us to a 100% tax on “prohibited transactions,” such loans may be acquired by a TRS.

 

Certain restrictions imposed on TRSs are intended to ensure that such entities will be subject to appropriate levels of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, if amounts are paid to a REIT or deducted by a TRS due to transactions between a REIT, its tenants and/or the TRS, that exceed the amount that would be paid to or deducted by a party in an arm’s-length transaction, the REIT generally will be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of such excess. Furthermore, income of a TRS that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf generally will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Penalty Tax.”

 

Taxable Mortgage Pools

 

An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool (a “TMP”) under the Code if:

 

·substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

 

·more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

 

·the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

 

·the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

 

Under applicable Treasury Regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP. We may enter into financing and securitization arrangements that give rise to TMPs.

 

A TMP generally is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP. If a REIT owns directly, or indirectly through one or more qualified REIT subsidiaries or other entities that are disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, 100% of the equity interests in the TMP, the TMP will be a qualified REIT subsidiary and, therefore, disregarded as an entity separate from the REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and would not generally affect the tax qualification of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would generally be limited to the REIT’s shareholders. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.”

 

Excess Inclusion Income

 

A portion of income from a TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” A REIT’s excess inclusion income, including any excess inclusion income from a residual interest in a REMIC, must be allocated among its shareholders in proportion to dividends paid. We generally do not expect to generate excess inclusion income that would be allocated to our stockholders. In the event we do generate excess inclusion income, we are required to notify our stockholders of the amount of such income allocated to them. A shareholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

 

·cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the shareholder;

 

·in the case of a shareholder that is a REIT, a regulated investment company (a “RIC”), or a common trust fund or other pass-through entity, is considered excess inclusion income of such entity;

 

 S-32 

 

 

·is subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of shareholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax;

 

·results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption, to the extent allocable to most types of non-U.S. shareholders; and

 

·is taxable at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate, currently 21%, to the REIT, rather than its shareholders, to the extent allocable to the REIT’s shares held in record name by disqualified organizations (generally, tax-exempt entities not subject to unrelated business income tax, including governmental organizations).

 

The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to our stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make such determinations using a reasonable method.

 

Tax-exempt investors, RIC or REIT investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our capital stock.

 

If a subsidiary partnership of ours that we do not wholly own, directly or through one or more disregarded entities, were a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and potentially would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax or withholding tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we will have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT.

 

Income Tests

 

We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing.

 

Interest Income

 

Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property and, if an obligation is secured by a mortgage on both real property and personal property, the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property. In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and personal property, we may be required to apportion our interest on the loan between interest on an obligation that is secured by real property (or by an interest in real property) and interest on an obligation that is not so secured. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test.

 

To the extent that we derive interest income from a loan where all or a portion of the amount of interest payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales and not the net income or profits of any person. This limitation does not apply, however, to a mortgage loan where the borrower derives substantially all of its income from the property from the leasing of substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower would qualify as rents from real property had we earned it directly.

 

 S-33 

 

 

To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (or a shared appreciation provision), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that the property is not inventory or dealer property of the borrower or ours.

 

Any amount includible in our gross income with respect to a regular or residual interest in a REMIC generally is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as receiving directly our proportionate share of the income of the REMIC for purposes of determining the amount that is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property.

 

Among the assets we may hold are certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than a direct mortgage on the real property. The IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2003-65, or the Revenue Procedure, which provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. From time to time, we may own mezzanine loans that do not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of any mezzanine loans we may own as real estate assets or the interest generated by such loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test. If we acquire or make corporate mezzanine loans or other commercial real estate corporate loans, such loans will not qualify as real estate assets and interest income with respect to such loans will not be qualifying income for the 75% gross income test. To the extent that such non-qualification causes us to fail the 75% gross income test, we could be required to pay a penalty tax or fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

We expect that any commercial mortgage-backed securities, or CMBS, that we may invest in will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income, original issue discount and market discount from such CMBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. As discussed above, if less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our income derived from the REMIC interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce non-qualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest, original issue discount and market discount on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property and, if an obligation is secured by a mortgage on both real property and personal property, the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, as discussed above.

 

We believe that the interest income that we receive from our mortgage-related investments and securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. However, to the extent we own non-REMIC collateralized mortgage obligations or other debt instruments secured by mortgage loans (rather than by real property) or secured by non-real estate assets, or debt securities that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property, the interest income received with respect to such securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

 

Fee Income

 

We may receive various fees in connection with our operations. The fees generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if they are received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by the income or profits of any person. Other fees are not qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests.

 

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Dividend and Certain Foreign Income

 

We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally will be classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Any dividends we receive from a REIT will be qualifying income in our hands for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

 

Income inclusions from equity investments in certain foreign corporations, such as controlled foreign corporations and passive foreign investment companies, as defined in the Code, are technically neither dividends nor any of the other enumerated categories of income specified in the 95% gross income test for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, under IRS guidance, certain such income inclusions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test.

 

Hedging Transactions

 

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

 

Rents from Real Property

 

To the extent that we own real property or interests therein, rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income tests described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

·The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property if we earned such amounts directly;

 

·Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a TRS of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the TRS are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space;

 

·Rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a TRS; and

 

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·We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a TRS (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

 

We intend to structure any leases so that the rent payable thereunder will qualify as “rents from real property,” but there can be no assurance we will be successful in this regard.

 

Phantom Income

 

Due to the nature of the assets in which we may invest, from time to time we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income in early periods that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

 

If we were to acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount, the amount of such discount generally would be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions in a subsequent taxable year.

 

If we were to acquire securities issued with original issue discount, we would generally be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the securities, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though smaller or no cash payments were received on such debt instrument. As in the case of the market discount discussed in the preceding paragraph, the constant yield in question would be determined and we would be taxed based on the assumption that all future payments due on securities in question will be made, with consequences similar to those described in the previous paragraph if all payments on the securities are not made.

 

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or other securities we acquire are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinate mortgage-backed securities at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

 

We may also be required under the terms of indebtedness that we borrow from private lenders to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

Finally, we are required to recognize certain items of income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than when we would report such items on our financial statements. This requirement generally applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, but applies with respect to income from a debt instrument having original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes only for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2018.

 

Due to each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and the related cash receipts or disbursements, there is a risk that we may have taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

 

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Prohibited Transaction Income

 

Any gain that we realize on the sale of an asset (other than foreclosure property, as described below) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, either directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiaries or subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether an asset is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset we own will be held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, and that a sale of any assets we own will not be in the ordinary course of business. However, the IRS may successfully assert that some or all of the sales made by us, our qualified REIT subsidiaries or our subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a TRS, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

Foreclosure Property

 

Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate (currently 21%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. If we believe we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

 

Penalty Tax

 

Any redetermined deductions, excess interest, redetermined rents or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a TRS of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a TRS of ours, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a TRS of ours that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

We do not have any TRSs that provide tenant services, and we intend to set any amounts payable to us by our TRSs at arm’s length rates. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our TRSs.

 

Failure to Satisfy the Gross Income Tests.

 

We monitor our income and take actions intended to keep our nonqualifying income within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

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·following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

·our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

 

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our qualification as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

 

Asset Tests

 

At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. Regular or residual interests in REMICs are generally treated as a real estate asset. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets of the REMIC. In the case of any interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust.

 

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of TRSs), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

 

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and TRSs, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a TRS. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

 

Fourth, not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more TRSs. We currently own, directly or indirectly, interests in companies that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our TRSs, and we may acquire securities in additional TRSs in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a TRS of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our TRSs has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

 

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Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

 

We believe that the assets comprising our mortgage-related investments and securities that we own generally are qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, and that our ownership of TRSs and other assets have been structured in a manner that will comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we monitor compliance on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance, however, that we will always be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine compliance with these requirements, we need to estimate the value of our assets, and we do not expect to obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the total value of our assets or the value of any particular security or other asset. Moreover, values of some assets, including our interests in our TRSs, may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future. Although we will continue to be prudent in making these estimates, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we might not satisfy the REIT asset tests, and could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is not fully secured by real property, Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor under which the IRS has stated that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a loan as being, in part, a qualifying real estate asset in an amount equal to the lesser of: (1) the greater of (a) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan determined as of the date the REIT committed to acquire the loan or (b) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date; or (2) the fair market value of the loan on the date of the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date. We intend to invest in mortgage loans in a manner consistent with satisfying the asset tests and maintaining our qualification as a REIT.

 

The proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset tests. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not assert that our interests in subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers caused a violation of the REIT asset tests.

 

In addition, we intend to enter into repurchase agreements under which we will nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any repurchase agreement and that the repurchase agreement will be treated as a secured lending transaction notwithstanding that we may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could successfully assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiary or subsidiary partnership) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer may increase as a result of our capital contributions to, or the redemption of other partners’ or members’ interests in, a partnership in which we have an ownership interest. However, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within thirty days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the thirty-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

 

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Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the thirty-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the thirty-day cure period by taking steps including (1) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (2) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (3) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

 

Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our overall interest in an issuer (including in a TRS). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

 

Annual Distribution Requirements

 

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

·90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

·90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

·the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

 

For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

 

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation which was or had been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset was less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—General.”

 

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and except as provided below, a taxpayer’s deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of its taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We do not believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships will be eligible to make this election.

 

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the twelve-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential — i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its distribution rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a “publicly offered REIT.” To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount.

 

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We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Phantom Income.”

 

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

 

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

 

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

 

Failure to Qualify

 

If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to our stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to our stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

 

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Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities

 

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock or debt securities. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or debt securities as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

·U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

·persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

·U.S. Holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

·persons holding our capital stock or debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

·banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

·REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

·brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

·“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

·S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

·tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

·persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock or debt securities being taken into account in an “applicable financial statement” (as defined in the Code);

 

·persons deemed to sell our capital stock or debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

·persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

 

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

·an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

·a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

·an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

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·a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that is neither a U.S. Holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

 

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

Distributions Generally

 

Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. Holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. Holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

 

To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. Holder to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. Holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

 

U.S. Holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of our capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. Holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. Holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. Holder sells our capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. Holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. Holder that receives our capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such capital stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

 

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Capital Gain Dividends

 

Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. Holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. Holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in the long-term capital gains of our stockholders, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

 

Retention of Net Capital Gains

 

We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. Holder generally would:

 

·include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its U.S. federal income tax return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

·be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. Holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

·receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

·increase the adjusted tax basis of our capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

·in the case of a U.S. Holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

 

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations

 

Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. Holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. Holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. Holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions we make, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

 

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock

 

Except as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. Holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. Holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of our capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. Holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

 

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Redemption or Repurchase by Us

 

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

·is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. Holder,

 

·results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. Holder’s stock interest in us, or

 

·is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. Holder,

 

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

 

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. Holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. Holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. Holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. Holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

 

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. Holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Proposed Treasury Regulations issued in 2009, if enacted in their current form, would affect the basis recovery rules described above. It is not clear whether these proposed regulations will be enacted in their current form or at all. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

 

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

 

Tax Rates

 

The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” is generally 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” is generally 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its TRSs) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. Holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations.

 

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Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code or if we hold an asset that gives rise to “excess inclusion income.” See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.” Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

 

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our capital stock will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our stock. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

 

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to the holders of our capital stock. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

 

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by Non-U.S. Holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other U.S. federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a Non-U.S. Holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge Non-U.S. Holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

 

Distributions Generally

 

Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. In addition, any portion of the dividends paid to Non-U.S. Holders that are treated as excess inclusion income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding tax or a reduced treaty rate. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.” Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a Non-U.S. Holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business (through a U.S. permanent establishment, where applicable) generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. Holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

 

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Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a Non-U.S. Holder unless:

 

·a lower treaty rate applies and the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s trade or business.

 

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a Non-U.S. Holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s shares of our capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares, they will generally give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such shares, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain Non-U.S. Holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

 

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests

 

Distributions to a Non-U.S. Holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

·the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Holders with respect to such gain, except that a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for one hundred and eighty three days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the Non-U.S. Holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

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Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, or FIRPTA, distributions to a Non-U.S. Holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the Non-U.S. Holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. Holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. Holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to Non-U.S. Holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the Non-U.S. Holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements, or qualified shareholders, are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

Retention of Net Capital Gains

 

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to Non-U.S. Holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the Non-U.S. Holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax that we paid on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax that we paid exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

 

Sale of Our Capital Stock

 

Except as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a Non-U.S. Holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation” (a “USRPHC”) will constitute a USRPI unless certain exceptions apply. A domestic corporation will constitute a USRPHC if 50% or more of the corporation’s assets on any of certain testing dates during a prescribed testing period consist of interests in real property located within the United States, excluding for this purpose, interests in real property solely in a capacity as creditor. We do not believe we are currently, and do not anticipate becoming, a USRPHC. However, because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our USRPIs relative to the fair market value of our non-U.S. real property interests and our other business assets, there can be no assurance we currently are not a USRPHC or will not become one in the future.

 

Even if we were a USRPHC, our capital stock will not constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. Although we believe that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot make any assurance that we will remain a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

 

Even if we were a USRPHC and we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a Non-U.S. Holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a Non-U.S. Holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

 

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(1)such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, such as the New York Stock Exchange, and

 

(2)such Non-U.S. Holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period.

 

In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a Non-U.S. Holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Holders with respect to such gain, except that a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for one hundred and eighty three days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the Non-U.S. Holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a Non-U.S. Holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the Non-U.S. Holder (1) disposes of such stock within a thirty-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the sixty one-day period beginning with the first day of the thirty-day period described in clause (1), unless such class of stock is “regularly traded” and the Non-U.S. Holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

 

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the Non-U.S. Holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. Holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

 

Redemption or Repurchase by Us

 

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

 

 S-49 

 

 

Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities

 

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of our debt securities. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).

 

U.S. Holders

 

Payments of Interest

 

Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. Holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. Holder’s method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition

 

A U.S. Holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will be equal to the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. Holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

Payments of Interest

 

Interest paid on a debt security to a Non-U.S. Holder that is not effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax, or withholding tax, provided that:

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our voting stock;

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to us through actual or constructive stock ownership; and

 

·either (1) the Non-U.S. Holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the Non-U.S. Holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the Non-U.S. Holder, has received from the Non-U.S. Holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and provides the applicable withholding agent with a copy of such statement; or (3) the Non-U.S. Holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” (within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.

 

 S-50 

 

 

If a Non-U.S. Holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the Non-U.S. Holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.

 

If interest paid to a Non-U.S. Holder is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the Non-U.S. Holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the Non-U.S. Holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States.

 

Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular graduated rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.

 

The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. Holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

 

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition

 

A Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities—Non-U.S. Holders—Payments of Interest”) unless:

 

·the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for one hundred and eighty three days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.

 

Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

 

Gain described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

 

 S-51 

 

 

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

 

U.S. Holders

 

A U.S. Holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. Holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. Holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

·the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

·the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

·the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

·the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities paid to the Non-U.S. Holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of our capital stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

 

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

 

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

 

Certain U.S. Holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations, subject to certain limitations. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities.

 

 S-52 

 

 

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

 

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our debt securities, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

 

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019, recently proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

 

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or debt securities.

 

Other Tax Consequences

 

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or debt securities.

 

 S-53 

 

 

ERISA Investors

 

Because our common stock will qualify as a “publicly offered security,” employee benefit plans and individual retirement accounts may purchase shares of common stock and treat such shares, and not the underlying assets, as plan assets. Fiduciaries of ERISA plans should consider (i) whether an investment in our common stock satisfies ERISA diversification requirements, (ii) whether the investment is in accordance with the ERISA plans’ governing instruments and (iii) whether the investment is prudent.

 

 S-54 

 

 

Use of Proceeds

 

We do not know either the number of shares of common stock that ultimately will be sold pursuant to the Plan or the prices at which the shares will be sold. We will receive proceeds from the purchase of shares of common stock through the Plan only to the extent that the purchases are made directly from us and not from open market purchases by the Plan Administrator. We intend to use the net proceeds from our sale of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Plan to invest in additional real estate loans and securities and for general corporate purposes.

 

 S-55 

 

 

Plan of Distribution

 

Except to the extent the Plan Administrator purchases common stock in open market transactions for sale pursuant to the Plan, the common stock sold under the Plan will be sold directly by us. We may sell common stock to owners of shares (including brokers or dealers) who, in connection with any resales of those shares, may be deemed to be underwriters. The shares, including shares acquired pursuant to waivers granted with respect to the Stock Purchase Program of the Plan, may be resold in market transactions (including coverage of short positions) on any national security exchange on which shares of common stock trade or in privately negotiated transactions. Our common stock is currently listed on the NYSE.

 

Under certain circumstances, it is expected that a portion of the shares of common stock sold under the Plan will be sold pursuant to waivers of the investment limit applicable to Optional Cash Payments we may grant from time to time. The difference between the price such owners pay to us for shares of common stock acquired under the Plan, after deduction of the applicable discount from the Market Price, and the price at which those shares are resold, may be deemed to constitute underwriting commissions received by the owners in connection with the transactions.

 

Subject to the availability of shares of common stock registered for issuance under the Plan, there is no total maximum number of shares that can be issued pursuant to the reinvestment of dividends. From time to time, financial intermediaries may engage in positioning transactions to benefit from the discount from the Market Price of common stock acquired through the reinvestment of dividends under the Plan.

 

We will pay any and all per share and transaction fees incurred in connection with purchases of common stock under the Plan except to the extent the all per share and transaction fees, together with any discount from the Market Price, relating to the purchase exceed 5% of the fair market value of the common stock on the date of purchase. Upon withdrawal by a Participant from the Plan by the sale of common stock held under the Plan, the Participant will receive the proceeds of the sale less a $25 l fee per transaction paid to the Plan Administrator (if the resale is made by the Plan Administrator at the request of the Participant), a per share fee of $0.12 and any applicable transfer taxes. All sales requests processed over the telephone will entail an additional fee of $15 if the assistance of a Customer Service Representative is required when selling shares. Per share fees include any applicable brokerage commissions the Plan Administrator is required to pay.

 

Common stock may not be available under the Plan in all jurisdictions. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any common stock or other securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer in such jurisdiction.

 

 S-56 

 

 

Where You Can Find More Information

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. We file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov. Our public filings are also available to the public on our website at www.redwoodtrust.com. The information contained on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any other report or filing filed with the SEC.

 

 S-57 

 

 

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

  

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with them which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below:

 

·our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which was filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019;

 

·our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019, which was filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019;

 

·our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 28, 2019 and February 1, 2019;

 

·our Definitive Proxy Statement with respect to the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 5, 2019 (solely to the extent specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K);

 

·the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, which was filed with the SEC on January 7, 1998 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description; and

 

·all documents filed by Redwood Trust, Inc. with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering (but excluding any items, documents, or portions of items or documents which are deemed “furnished” and not filed with the SEC).

 

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. Requests should be directed to Redwood Trust, Inc., Attention: Investor Relations, at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941, telephone: (866) 269-4976.

 

 S-58 

 

 

Legal Opinions

 

The validity of the common stock offered and certain legal matters have been passed upon by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. Certain tax matters have been passed upon by Latham & Watkins LLP.

 

 S-59 

 

 

Experts

 

The audited consolidated financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

 S-60 

 

 

Glossary

 

Beneficial Owners” are stockholders who beneficially own shares of our stock that are registered in a name other than their own (for example, in the name of a bank, broker, or other nominee).

 

Business day” means any day other than Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday on which the New York Stock Exchange or another applicable securities exchange is closed or a day on which Redwood Trust, Inc. or the Plan Administrator is authorized or obligated by law to close.

 

Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Company” means Redwood Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation.

 

Company Stock” or “Company’s Stock” means Redwood Trust, Inc.’s common stock and any other classes of equity securities outstanding from time to time, collectively.

 

common stock” means Redwood Trust, Inc.’s common stock, $0.01 par value per share.

 

Dividend Reinvestment Program” refers to the provisions of the Plan pursuant to which a Participant in the Plan may elect to have all or a portion of the cash dividends paid on the Participant’s shares of our stock automatically reinvested in shares of our common stock.

 

Investment Date” means (i) with respect to common stock acquired pursuant to a dividend reinvestment, in the case of shares acquired directly from us, the dividend payment date authorized by our Board of Directors or, in the case of open market purchases, one or more days during the ten business day period beginning on the dividend payment date, as market conditions permit, (ii) with respect to common stock acquired pursuant to an Optional Cash Payment of $10,000 or less, in the case of shares acquired directly from us, on or about the twenty-first (21st) day of each month or, in the case of open market purchases, on the twenty-first (21st) day of the month, as market conditions permit, (iii) for pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, one or more days during the Investment Period, (iv) for same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the trading day on which we receive and accept a request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 or (v) such other date or dates as we may establish in our sole discretion.

 

Investment Period” is the period we will establish from time to time, which will generally consist of from one to twelve days, during which our common stock is traded on the NYSE or other securities exchange and during which purchases of our shares of common stock will be made with pre-approved or same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000. For same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, the Investment Period will generally consist of one to two days from the trading day on which we receive a request to make an Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 until the purchase is settled.

 

Market Price” means, with respect to shares purchased directly from us, the volume-weighted average stock price, computed to four decimal places, of our common stock on the NYSE or other applicable securities exchange on the date of purchase for trading hours between 9:30 a.m. and 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time, up to and including the last trade, as reported by the NYSE or other applicable securities exchange; provided that, with respect to pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, we may establish as a condition to any such pre-approval an alternative means of determining the Market Price for an Investment Period, such as the “NYSE last trade” price on the date of purchase, computed to six decimal places, of our common stock, as reported by the NYSE. “Market Price” means, with respect to shares purchased on the open market, the weighted average of the actual prices paid for each specific batch of the Participants’ reinvested dividends or Optional Cash Payments computed to six decimal places, for all of the common stock purchased by the Plan Administrator on the open market for the related month.

 

 S-61 

 

 

Maximum Price” means, with respect to Requests for Waiver or to make a same-day Optional Cash Payment in excess of $10,000 on any trading day, the amount established by you above which you will not purchase our common stock at the Investment Date. That is, should the Market Price, less applicable discount, exceed the Maximum Price you established, no purchases will be made.

 

Minimum Price” means 95% of the fair market value of our common stock on the date of purchase.

 

NYSE” means the New York Stock Exchange.

 

Optional Cash Discount” means the discount from the Market Price applicable to dividend reinvestments and Optional Cash Payments used to purchase shares. The discount will vary from 0% to 3% of the Market Price for dividend reinvestments and Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, and from 0% to 5% of the Market Price for pre-approved and same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000 (based, in each case, on a variety of potential considerations). The amount of the Optional Cash Discount may vary from month to month.

 

Optional Cash Payment” means a payment, other than a dividend reinvestment, made in accordance with the Plan by a Participant in the Plan to be applied to a purchase of shares of our common stock under the Plan.

 

Optional Cash Payment Due Date” means (i) one business day before the relevant Investment Date, in the case of Optional Cash Payments of $10,000 or less, and (ii) one business day before the commencement of the relevant Investment Period, in the case of pre-approved Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000; provided that, with respect to Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000, if an alternative settlement cycle is consented to, and with respect to same-day accepted Optional Cash Payments, the Optional Cash Payment Due Date will generally be the first or second business day after the Investment Date, as specified when any such consent is granted, or otherwise as agreed to by us and the Plan Administrator.

 

Participant” means a record owner of our common stock, the beneficial owner of our common stock whose bank, broker or other nominee participates on the beneficial owner’s behalf, or a new investor who wishes to participate in the Plan upon making an initial investment in our common stock.

 

Plan” means the Redwood Trust, Inc. Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan.

 

Plan Administrator” means a plan administrator that administers the Plan, keeps records, sends statements of account to each Participant, and performs other duties related to the Plan. Computershare Trust Company, N.A. currently serves as plan administrator of the Plan.

 

Plan Shares” are all shares of common stock held in a Participant’s account under the Plan, including shares purchased through the Stock Purchase Program and all whole and fractional shares credited to a Participant’s Plan account as the result of reinvestment of dividends on shares of our common stock enrolled in the Dividend Reinvestment Program.

 

Record Date” means, with respect to reinvestments of dividends, the date set by our Board of Directors for determination of the ownership of the common stock entitled to payment of such dividends.

 

Record Owner” refers to shareholders who own shares of our common stock in their own names.

 

Request for Waiver” means a written request from a Participant, that we waive the $10,000 Optional Cash Payment limitation and allow the Participant to make Optional Cash Payments in excess of $10,000.

 

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Stock Purchase Program” refers to the provisions of the Plan pursuant to which a Participant in the Plan may elect to invest Option Cash Payments in shares of our common stock.

 

 S-62 

 

 

Threshold Price” means the minimum price, if any, established by us that the Market Price less the applicable discount, if any, must equal or exceed on a trading day during the Investment Period for Optional Cash Payments made pursuant to Requests for Waiver to be used to purchase shares of our common stock on that trading day.

 

 S-63 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.
Debt Securities
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants
Stockholder Rights
Units

 

We may from time to time offer, in one or more classes or series, separately or together, and in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more supplements to this prospectus, the following securities:

 

·debt securities, which may consist of debentures, notes, or other types of debt;

 

·shares of our common stock;

 

·shares of our preferred stock;

 

·warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

·rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing; and

 

·units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.

 

We refer to the debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, warrants, rights and units registered hereunder collectively as the “securities” in this prospectus. The specific terms of each series or class of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and will include, among other things, where applicable:

 

·in the case of debt securities, the specific title, aggregate principal amount, currency, form (which may be certificated or global), authorized denominations, maturity, rate (or manner of calculating the rate) and time of payment of interest, terms for redemption at our option or repayment at the holder’s option, terms for sinking payments, terms for conversion into shares of our common stock or preferred stock, covenants, and any initial public offering price;

 

·in the case of preferred stock, the specific designation, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to transferability, dividends and other distributions, and terms and conditions of redemption and any initial public offering price;

 

·in the case of warrants or rights, the duration, offering price, exercise price, and detachability; and

 

·in the case of units, the constituent securities comprising the units, the offering price, and detachability.

 

 

 

 

In addition, the specific terms may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate, among other purposes, to preserve the status of our company as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The applicable prospectus supplement will also contain information, where applicable, about certain U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by such prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in any of our securities.

 

The securities may be offered directly by us or by any selling security holder, through agents designated from time to time by us or to or through underwriters or dealers. If any agents, dealers, or underwriters are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission, or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections entitled “Plan of Distribution” and “About This Prospectus” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such series of securities.

 

Our common stock currently trades on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “RWT”. On May 8, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $16.53 per share.

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement concerning factors you should consider before investing in our securities.

 

This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is May 9, 2019.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
   
About This Prospectus 1
   
Risk Factors 2
   
Cautionary Statement 3
   
Redwood Trust, Inc. 4
   
Use of Proceeds 6
   
General Description of Securities 7
   
Description of Debt Securities 8
   
Description of Common Stock 16
   
Description of Preferred Stock 17
   
Description of Securities Warrants 18
   
Description of Rights to Purchase Shares of Common or Preferred Stock 19
   
Description of Units 20
   
Global Securities 21
   
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares 24
   
Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws 26
   
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations 29
   
Plan of Distribution 56
   
Validity of the Securities 58
   
Experts 59
   
Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference 60
   
Where You Can Find More Information 61

 

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different or additional information. We are offering to sell the securities and seeking offers to buy the securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted.

 

i

 

 

We have not authorized any dealer or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying supplement to this prospectus. This prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus is delivered or securities are sold on a later date.

 

ii

 

  

About This Prospectus

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus sets forth certain terms of the securities that we may offer.

 

Each time we offer securities, we will attach a prospectus supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will contain the specific description of the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement will supersede this prospectus to the extent it contains information that is different from, or that conflicts with, the information contained in this prospectus.

 

It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information contained in the documents identified under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus.

 

Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our” or “Redwood” mean Redwood Trust, Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries, except where it is made clear that the terms mean Redwood Trust, Inc. only.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941; our telephone number is (415) 389-7373.

 

1

 

 

Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider any specific risks set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and under the caption “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, incorporated into this prospectus by reference, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. You should consider carefully those risk factors together with all of the other information included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you decide to purchase our securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

2

 

 

Cautionary Statement

 

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements within the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ from our beliefs, expectations, estimates, and projections and, consequently, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements are not historical in nature and can be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” and similar expressions or their negative forms, or by references to strategy, plans, or intentions. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including, among other things, those described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under the caption “Risk Factors.” Other risks, uncertainties, and factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected are summarized below and described from time to time in reports we file with the SEC, including under the heading “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

 

Important factors, among others, that may affect our actual results include: the pace at which we redeploy our available capital into new investments and initiatives; our ability to scale our platform and systems, particularly with respect to specific initiatives; interest rate volatility, changes in credit spreads (the market value yield on a loan or security less the relevant risk-free benchmark interest rate), and changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; changes in the demand from investors for residential mortgages and investments, and our ability to distribute residential mortgages through our whole-loan distribution channel; our ability to finance our investments in securities and our acquisition of residential mortgages with short-term debt; the availability of assets for purchase at attractive risk-adjusted returns and our ability to reinvest cash and the proceeds from the potential sale of securities and investments we hold; changes in the values of assets we own; higher than expected operating expenses due to delays or decreases in the realization of expected operating expense reductions related to the repositioning of our conforming mortgage banking activities and commercial loan origination activities, and other unforeseen expenses; general economic trends, the performance of the housing, commercial real estate, mortgage, credit, and broader financial markets, and their effects on the prices of earning assets and the credit status of borrowers; the impact of changes to U.S. federal income tax laws on the U.S. housing market, mortgage finance markets, and our business; changes to fiscal, tax, and other federal policies by Congress or President Trump’s administration; developments related to the fixed income and mortgage finance markets and the Federal Reserve’s statements regarding its future open market activity and monetary policy; federal and state legislative and regulatory developments, and the actions of governmental authorities, including the new U.S. presidential administration, and in particular those affecting the mortgage industry or our business (including, but not limited to, the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s rules relating to FHLB membership requirements and the implications for our captive insurance subsidiary’s membership in the FHLB); strategic business and capital deployment decisions we make; our exposure to credit risk and the timing of credit losses within our portfolio; the concentration of the credit risks we are exposed to, including due to the structure of assets we hold and the geographical concentration of real estate underlying assets we own; our exposure to adjustable-rate mortgage loans; the efficacy and expense of our efforts to manage or hedge credit risk, interest rate risk, and other financial and operational risks; changes in credit ratings on assets we own and changes in the rating agencies’ credit rating methodologies; changes in interest rates; changes in mortgage prepayment rates; changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; our ability to finance the acquisition of real estate-related assets with short-term debt; the ability of counterparties to satisfy their obligations to us; our involvement in securitization transactions, the profitability of those transactions, and the risks we are exposed to in engaging in securitization transactions; exposure to claims and litigation, including litigation arising from our involvement in securitization transactions; litigation against various trustees of residential mortgage-backed securities transactions; whether we have sufficient liquid assets to meet short-term needs; our ability to successfully compete and retain or attract key personnel; our ability to adapt our business model and strategies to changing circumstances; changes in our investment, financing, and hedging strategies and new risks we may be exposed to if we expand our business activities; our exposure to a disruption or breach of the security of our technology infrastructure and systems; exposure to environmental liabilities; our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations; our failure to maintain appropriate internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures; the impact on our reputation that could result from our actions or omissions or from those of others; changes in accounting principles and tax rules; our ability to maintain our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; limitations imposed on our business due to our REIT status and our status as exempt from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940; decisions about raising, managing, and distributing capital; and other factors not presently identified.

 

3

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

 

Redwood Trust, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is a specialty finance company focused on making credit-sensitive investments in single-family residential and multifamily mortgages and related assets and engaging in mortgage banking activities. Our goal is to provide attractive returns to shareholders through a stable and growing stream of earnings and dividends, as well as through capital appreciation. We operate our business in two segments: Investment Portfolio and Mortgage Banking.

 

Our primary sources of income are net interest income from our investment portfolio and non-interest income from our mortgage banking activities. Net interest income consists of the interest income we earn on investments less the interest expense we incur on borrowed funds and other liabilities. Income from mortgage banking activities is generated through the acquisition of loans and their subsequent sale or securitization, as well as through the origination of business purpose residential loans.

 

Redwood Trust, Inc. has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or a REIT, under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, beginning with its taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We generally refer, collectively, to Redwood Trust, Inc. and those of its subsidiaries that are not subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “the REIT” or “our REIT.” We generally refer to subsidiaries of Redwood Trust, Inc. that are subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “our taxable REIT subsidiaries” or “TRS.” Our mortgage banking activities and investments in mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs, are generally carried out through our taxable REIT subsidiaries, while our portfolio of mortgage- and other real estate-related investments is primarily held at our REIT. We generally intend to retain profits generated and taxed at our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and to distribute as dividends at least 90% of the taxable income we generate at our REIT.

 

Our Investment Portfolio segment includes a portfolio of investments in residential mortgage-backed securities, or RMBS, retained from our Sequoia securitizations, as well as RMBS issued by third parties and other credit risk-related investments. In addition, this segment includes a subsidiary of Redwood Trust that is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago, or FHLBC, and that utilizes long-term financing from the FHLBC to make long-term investments directly in residential mortgage loans. This segment also includes residential bridge loans, which are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors rehabilitating and reselling or renting residential properties that we acquired from our affiliate, 5 Arches, LLC. The Investment Portfolio segment’s main sources of revenue are interest income from investment portfolio securities and loans held-for-investment. Additionally, this segment may realize gains and losses upon the sale of securities. Funding expenses, hedging expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax provisions associated with these activities are also included in this segment.

 

Our Mortgage Banking segment primarily consists of operating a mortgage loan conduit that acquires residential loans from third-party originators for subsequent sale, securitization, or transfer to our investment portfolio. We typically acquire prime, jumbo mortgages and the related mortgage servicing rights on a flow basis from our network of loan sellers and distribute those loans through our Sequoia private-label securitization program or to institutions that acquire pools of whole loans. We also supplement our flow purchases with bulk loan acquisitions. In addition, beginning in the third quarter of 2018, this segment began to acquire single-family rental loans from our affiliate 5 Arches, LLC, for subsequent sale or securitization. Single-family rental loans are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors in single-family (1-4 unit) rental properties. This segment also includes various derivative financial instruments that we utilize to manage certain risks associated with residential loans we acquire. Our Mortgage Banking segment’s main source of revenue is income from mortgage banking activities, which includes valuation increases (or gains) on loans we acquire and subsequently sell or securitize, and from hedges used to manage risks associated with these activities. Additionally, this segment may generate interest income on loans held pending securitization or sale. Funding expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax expenses associated with these activities are also included in this segment.

 

4

 

 

We sponsor our Sequoia securitization program, which we use for the securitization of residential mortgage loans. We are required under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States, or GAAP, to consolidate the assets and liabilities of certain securitization entities we have sponsored for financial reporting purposes. However, each of these entities is independent of Redwood and of each other, and the assets and liabilities of these entities are not owned by us or legal obligations of ours, respectively, although we are exposed to certain financial risks associated with our role as the sponsor or depositor of these entities and, to the extent we hold securities issued by, or other investments in, these entities, we are exposed to the performance of these entities and the assets they hold. We refer to certain of these securitization entities issued prior to 2012 as “consolidated Legacy Sequoia entities,” and the securitization entities formed in connection with the securitization of Redwood Choice expanded-prime loans as the “consolidated Sequoia Choice entities.” Additionally, during 2018, we consolidated certain third-party Freddie Mac K-Series and SLST securitization entities that we determined were VIEs and for which we determined we were the primary beneficiary. Where applicable, in analyzing our results of operations, we distinguish results from current operations “at Redwood” and from consolidated entities.

 

We were incorporated in the State of Maryland on April 11, 1994, and commenced operations on August 19, 1994. We operate so as to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our principal executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941. Our telephone number is (415) 389-7373. Our website is www.redwoodtrust.com. Information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

5

 

 

Use of Proceeds

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement for any offering of securities, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities to fund our business and investment activity, which may include funding investment transactions, bridge loans, mortgage loans for single-family rental properties, residential and multifamily mortgage backed securities, as well as for our mortgage banking business and general corporate purposes.

 

6

 

 

General Description of Securities

 

The following is a brief description of the material terms of our securities that may be offered under this prospectus. This description does not purport to be complete and is subject in all respects to applicable Maryland law and to the provisions of our charter and bylaws, including any amendments or supplements thereto, copies of which are on file with the SEC as described under “Where You Can Find Information” and are incorporated by reference herein.

 

We, directly or through agents, dealers, or underwriters designated from time to time, may offer, issue, and sell, together or separately:

 

·debt securities, which may consist of debentures, notes, or other types of debt;

 

·shares of our common stock;

 

·shares of our preferred stock;

 

·warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

·rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing; and

 

·units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.

 

We may issue the debt securities as exchangeable for or convertible into shares of common stock, preferred stock, or other securities. The preferred stock may also be exchangeable for and/or convertible into shares of common stock, another series of preferred stock, or other securities. The debt securities, the preferred stock, the common stock, the warrants, the rights and the units are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the securities. When a particular series of securities is offered, a supplement to this prospectus will be delivered with this prospectus, which will set forth the terms of the offering and sale of the offered securities.

 

Our charter provides that we have authority to issue up to 180,000,000 shares of stock, par value $0.01 per share, all of which is currently classified as common stock. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and we intend to so list any additional shares of our common stock which are issued and sold hereunder. We may elect to list any future class or series of our securities issued hereunder on an exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not liable for our debts or obligations.

 

7

 

 

Description of Debt Securities

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

 

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

 

As used in this section only, “Redwood,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Redwood Trust, Inc., excluding our subsidiaries, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

 

General

 

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

 

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

·the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

·the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

·any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

·the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

 

·the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

·the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment);

 

·the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

8

 

 

·any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

·the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

·the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

·whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

·the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

·the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

·the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;

 

·if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

·the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

·any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

·any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

·any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

·any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

·the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

 

·any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

 

·whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.

 

9

 

 

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Transfer and Exchange

 

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

 

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.

 

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

 

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”

 

Covenants

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

 

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

 

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

 

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

·we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than Redwood) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and

 

10

 

 

·immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us.

 

Events of Default

 

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

·default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

·default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;

 

·default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, within 30 days when and as due in respect of any security of that series;

 

·default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Redwood and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

 

·certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Redwood;

 

·any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

 

We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

 

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The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

 

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

·that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

·the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.

 

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall send to each Securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after the trustee becomes aware or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.

 

Modification and Waiver

 

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

·to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

·to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

 

·to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

·to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

 

·to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

 

·to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

 

·to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

 

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·to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

 

·to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

·to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or

 

·to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

·reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

·reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

 

·reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

 

·reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

·waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

·make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

·make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or

 

·waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security.

 

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

 

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Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

 

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

 

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

 

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

·we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

 

·any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

 

The conditions include:

 

·depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

 

·delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.

 

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Securityholders

 

None of our past or present directors, officers, employees or securityholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

 

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Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed under, the laws of the State of New York.

 

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

 

The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

 

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Description of Common Stock

 

All shares of common stock offered by this prospectus will be duly authorized, fully paid, and nonassessable. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends if, as, and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends. They are also entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, after payment of or adequate provision for all of our known debts and liabilities. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on transfer of our stock.

 

Subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. Except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of our common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

 

Holders of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption, or, if listed on the New York Stock Exchange, appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities. Subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, all shares of common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation, and other rights.

 

Transfer Agent, Registrar, and Dividend Disbursing Agent

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is currently Computershare Trust Company, N.A. and its affiliate, Computershare Inc., acts as dividend disbursing agent.

 

Power to Reclassify Shares of Our Stock; Issuance of Additional Shares

 

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify from time to time any unissued shares of our stock into other classes or series of stock, including preferred stock, and to cause the issuance of such shares. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, the board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series. We believe that the power to issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock and thereafter to issue the classified or reclassified shares provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. These actions can be taken without stockholder approval, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although we have no present intention of doing so, we could issue a class or series of stock that could delay, defer, or prevent a transaction or a change in control of Redwood Trust that might involve a premium price for holders of common stock or otherwise be in their best interest. We have no shares of preferred stock presently outstanding.

 

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Description of Preferred Stock

 

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify from time to time any unissued shares of stock in one or more classes or series of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued preferred stock of any class or series in one or more classes or series. If we offer preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such preferred stock, including the following, where applicable:

 

·the designation of the shares and the number of shares that constitute the class or series;

 

·the dividend rate (or the method of calculating dividends), if any, on the shares of the class or series and the priority as to payment of dividends with respect to other classes or series of our shares of stock;

 

·whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate;

 

·the dividend periods (or the method of calculating the dividend periods);

 

·the voting rights of the preferred stock, if any;

 

·the liquidation preference and the priority as to payment of the liquidation preference with respect to other classes or series of our stock and any other rights of the shares of the class or series upon our liquidation or winding-up;

 

·the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such preferred stock;

 

·whether or not and on what terms the shares of the class or series will be subject to redemption or repurchase at our option;

 

·the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which such preferred stock will be converted into the common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);

 

·whether the shares of the class or series of preferred stock will be listed on a securities exchange or quoted on an inter-dealer quotation system;

 

·any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer applicable to the preferred stock, in addition to those already set forth in our charter, that may be necessary to preserve our status as a REIT; and

 

·the other rights and privileges and any qualifications, limitations, or restrictions of the rights or privileges of the class or series.

 

Transfer Agent, Registrar, and Dividend Disbursing Agent

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our preferred stock is currently Computershare Trust Company, N.A. and its affiliate, Computershare Inc., acts as dividend disbursing agent. If different, we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement the transfer agent, registrar, and dividend disbursing agent for any series of preferred stock offered by that prospectus supplement.

 

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Description of Securities Warrants

 

We may issue securities warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock, respectively referred to as common stock warrants and preferred stock warrants. Securities warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from such other securities. Each issuance of the securities warrants will be issued under a separate securities warrant agreement to be entered into by us and a bank or trust company, as securities warrant agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of offered securities warrants. Each issue of securities warrants will be evidenced by securities warrant certificates. The securities warrant agent will act solely as an agent of ours in connection with the securities warrant certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holder of securities warrant certificates or beneficial owners of securities warrants.

 

If we offer securities warrants pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such securities warrants, including the following, where applicable:

 

·the offering price;

 

·the aggregate number of shares purchasable upon exercise of such securities warrants, and in the case of securities warrants for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such securities warrants;

 

·the designation and terms of the securities with which such securities warrants are being offered, if any, and the number of such securities warrants being offered with each such security;

 

·the date on and after which such securities warrants and any related securities will be transferable separately;

 

·the number of shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of each of such securities warrants and the price at which such number of shares of preferred stock or common stock may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

·the date on which the right to exercise such securities warrants shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

 

·U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

·any other material terms of such securities warrants.

 

Holders of future securities warrants, if any, will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as stockholders of Redwood Trust.

 

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Description of Rights to Purchase Shares of Common or Preferred Stock

 

We may issue, as a dividend at no cost, to holders of record of our securities or any class or series thereof on the applicable record date, rights to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing. In this prospectus, we refer to such rights as “stockholder rights.” If stockholders rights are so issued to existing holders of securities, each stockholder right will entitle the registered holder thereof to purchase the securities issuable upon exercise of the rights pursuant to the terms set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

If stockholder rights are issued, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such stockholder rights including the following where applicable:

 

·record date;

 

·subscription price;

 

·subscription agent;

 

·aggregate number of shares of preferred stock, shares of common stock, warrants, or units purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights and in the case of stockholder rights for preferred stock or warrants exercisable for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights or warrants;

 

·the date on which the right to exercise such stockholder rights shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

 

·U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

·other material terms of such stockholder rights.

 

In addition to the terms of the stockholder rights and the securities issuable upon exercise thereof, the prospectus supplement may describe, for a holder of such stockholder rights who validly exercises all stockholder rights issued to such holder, how to subscribe for unsubscribed securities, issuable pursuant to unexercised stockholder rights issued to other holders, to the extent such stockholder rights have not been exercised.

 

Holders of stockholder rights will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as stockholders of Redwood Trust, except to the extent described in the related prospectus supplement.

 

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Description of Units

 

We may issue units consisting of two or more other constituent securities. These units may be issuable as, and for a specified period of time may be transferable only as, a single security, rather than as the separate constituent securities comprising such units. The statements made in this section relating to the units are summaries only. These summaries are not complete. When we issue units, we will provide the specific terms of the units in a prospectus supplement. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

 

When we issue units, we will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the units being issued:

 

·the title of any series of units;

 

·identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

·the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

·the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

·information with respect to any book-entry procedures;

 

·a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in the units; and

 

·any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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Global Securities

 

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

 

Unless we indicate differently in a prospectus supplement, the securities (other than warrant securities) initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

 

DTC has advised us that it is:

 

·a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

·a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

·a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

·a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

·a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

 

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

 

Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

 

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

 

So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

 

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Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

 

Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

 

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

 

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

 

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

 

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

 

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

 

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

 

As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

 

·DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

 

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·we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or

 

·an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities and upon request of a holder,

 

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

 

We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.

 

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Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares

 

In order that we may meet the requirements for qualification as a REIT at all times, among other purposes, our charter prohibits any person from acquiring or holding beneficial ownership of shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or collectively, capital stock, in excess of 9.8%, in number of shares or value, of the outstanding shares of the related class of capital stock. For this purpose, the term “beneficial ownership” means beneficial ownership, as determined under Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act, of capital stock by a person, either directly or constructively, including through application of the constructive ownership provisions of Section 544 of the Code and related provisions.

 

Under the constructive ownership rules of Section 544 of the Code, a holder of a warrant generally will be treated as owning the number of shares of capital stock into which such warrant may be converted. In addition, the constructive ownership rules generally attribute ownership of securities owned by a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust proportionately to its stockholders, partners, or beneficiaries, respectively. The rules may also attribute ownership of securities owned by family members to other members of the same family and may treat an option to purchase securities as actual ownership of the underlying securities by the optionholder. The rules further provide when securities constructively owned by a person will be considered to be actually owned for the further application of such attribution provisions. To determine whether a person holds or would hold capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit, a person will be treated as owning not only shares of capital stock actually owned, but also any shares of capital stock attributed to that person under the attribution rules described above. Accordingly, a person who directly owns less than 9.8% of the shares outstanding may nevertheless be in violation of the 9.8% ownership limit.

 

Any acquisition or transfer of shares of capital stock or warrants that would cause us to be disqualified as a REIT or that would create a direct or constructive ownership of shares of capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit, or result in the shares of capital stock being beneficially owned, within the meaning of Section 856(a) of the Code, by fewer than 100 persons, determined without any reference to any rules of attribution, or result in our being closely held within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code, will be null and void, and the intended transferee will acquire no rights to those shares or warrants. These restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.

 

If any purported transfer of shares of capital stock or warrants results in a purported transferee owning, directly or constructively, shares in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit due to the unenforceability of the transfer restrictions described above, the amount of shares causing the purported transferee to violate the 9.8% ownership limit will constitute excess securities. Excess securities will be transferred by operation of law to Redwood Trust as trustee for the exclusive benefit of the person or persons to whom the excess securities are ultimately transferred, until such time as the purported transferee retransfers the excess securities. While the excess securities are held in trust, a holder of such securities will not be entitled to vote or to share in any dividends or other distributions with respect to such securities and will not be entitled to exercise or convert such securities into shares of capital stock. Excess securities may be transferred by the purported transferee to any person (if such transfer would not result in excess securities) at a price not to exceed the price paid by the purported transferee (or, if no consideration was paid by the purported transferee, the Market Price (as defined in our charter) of the excess securities on the date of the purported transfer), at which point the excess securities will automatically be exchanged for the stock or warrants, as the case may be, to which the excess securities are attributable. If a purported transferee receives a higher price for designating an ultimate transferee, such purported transferee shall pay, or cause the ultimate transferee to pay, such excess to us. In addition, such excess securities held in trust are subject to purchase by us at a purchase price equal to the lesser of (a) the price per share or per warrant, as the case may be, in the transaction that created such excess securities (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the Market Price at the time of such devise or gift), reduced by the amount of any distributions received in violation of the charter that have not been repaid to us, and (b) the Market Price on the date we elect to purchase the excess securities, reduced by the amount of any distributions received in violation of the charter that have not been repaid to us.

 

Upon a purported transfer of excess securities, the purported transferee shall cease to be entitled to distributions, voting rights, and other benefits with respect to the shares of capital stock or warrants except the right to payment of the purchase price for the shares of capital stock or warrants on the retransfer of securities as provided above. Any dividend or distribution paid to a purported transferee on excess securities prior to our discovery that shares of capital stock have been transferred in violation of our charter shall be repaid to us upon demand. If these transfer restrictions are determined to be void, invalid, or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, then the purported transferee of any excess securities may be deemed, at our option, to have acted as an agent on our behalf in acquiring the excess securities and to hold the excess securities on our behalf.

 

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All certificates representing shares of capital stock and warrants will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

 

Any person who acquires shares or warrants in violation of our charter, or any person who is a purported transferee such that excess securities result, must immediately give written notice or, in the event of a proposed or attempted transfer that would be void as set forth above, give at least 15 days prior written notice to us of such event and shall provide us such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the transfer on our status as a REIT. In addition, as required under the REIT provisions of the Code, every record owner of more than 5.0%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is 2,000, or 1.0%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is greater than 200 but less than 2,000, or 1/2%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is 200 or less, of the number or value of our outstanding shares will receive a questionnaire from us by January 30 requesting information as to how the shares are held. In addition, our charter requires that such stockholders must provide written notice to us by 30 days after January 1 stating the name and address of the record stockholder, the number of shares beneficially owned and a description of how the shares are held. In practice, we have generally permitted our stockholders to comply with the foregoing charter requirement by responding to our annual REIT questionnaire. Further, each stockholder upon demand is required to disclose to us in writing such information with respect to the direct and constructive ownership of shares and warrants as our board of directors deems reasonably necessary to comply with the REIT provisions of the Code, to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental agency or to determine any such compliance.

 

Our board of directors may increase or decrease the 9.8% ownership limit. In addition, to the extent consistent with the REIT provisions of the Code, our board of directors may, pursuant to our charter, waive the 9.8% ownership limit for a purchaser of our stock. As a condition to such waiver the intended transferee must give written notice to the board of directors of the proposed transfer no later than the fifteenth day prior to any transfer which, if consummated, would result in the intended transferee owning shares in excess of the ownership limit. Our board of directors may also take such other action as it deems necessary or advisable to protect our status as a REIT. Pursuant to our charter, our board of directors has, from time to time, waived the ownership limit for certain of our stockholders.

 

The provisions described above may inhibit market activity and the resulting opportunity for the holders of our capital stock and warrants to receive a premium for their shares or warrants that might otherwise exist in the absence of such provisions. Such provisions also may make us an unsuitable investment vehicle for any person seeking to obtain ownership of more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock.

 

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Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws

 

We have summarized certain terms and provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter and bylaws. This summary is not complete and is qualified by the provisions of our charter and bylaws, and the Maryland General Corporation Law. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

For restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock contained in our charter, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares.”

 

Maryland Business Combination Act

 

Under the Maryland Business Combination Act, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder, as such terms are defined in the Act, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by provision in the charter of the corporation. Our charter provides that we elect not to be governed by the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act.

 

Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act

 

The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act causes persons who acquire beneficial ownership of stock at levels of 10%, 33%, and more than 50% (control share acquisitions) to lose the voting rights of such stock unless voting rights are restored by the stockholders at a meeting by vote of two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter (excluding stock held by the acquiring stockholder or the corporation’s officers or employee directors). The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act affords a cash-out election for stockholders other than the acquiring stockholder, at an appraised value (but not less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiring person in the control share acquisition), payable by the corporation, if voting rights for more than 50% of the outstanding stock are approved for the acquiring person. Under certain circumstances, the corporation may redeem shares acquired in a control share acquisition if voting rights for such shares have not been approved. The statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation, or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. A corporation’s board of directors has an “opt-out” power, exercisable through amendment of the corporation’s bylaws (which could be changed by the stockholders), to exempt in advance any control share acquisition from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act acquisitions by certain persons of shares of our common stock in accordance with waivers from the ownership limit in our charter granted to such persons by our board of directors.

 

The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act could have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire us and of increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers.

 

Board of Directors, Vacancies, and Removal of Directors

 

All directors are elected annually to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until their respective successors are duly elected and qualify.

 

Pursuant to our election to be subject to certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which such vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies. A director may be removed with or without cause by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast generally for the election of directors.

 

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Charter Amendments and Extraordinary Corporate Actions

 

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange, convert or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business, unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter provides for approval of these matters by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the total number of shares entitled to vote on the matter.

 

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

 

Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by the board of directors or (iii) by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of our bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting.

 

Exclusive Forum

 

Our bylaws provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any Internal Corporate Claim (as defined in the Maryland General Corporation Law), (b) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (c) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any director or officer or other employee of ours to us or our stockholders, (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours arising pursuant to any provision of the Maryland General Corporation Law or the our charter or our bylaws, or (e) any other action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

 

Subtitle 8

 

Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any of:

 

·a classified board of directors;

 

·a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

·a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

·a requirement that a vacancy on the board of directors be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or

 

·a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.

 

Pursuant to Subtitle 8, we have elected to provide that vacancies on the board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (a) vest in the board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (b) require, unless called by our chairman of the board, our president, the board of directors or a majority of independent directors, the request of holders of a majority of outstanding shares entitled to vote at the meeting to call a special meeting of stockholders.

 

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Meetings of Stockholders

 

Under our current bylaws and pursuant to Maryland law, annual meetings of stockholders will be held each year at a date and at the time in the month of May determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by our board of directors, the chairman of the board of directors, our president or a majority of independent directors. Additionally, subject to the provisions of our bylaws, special meetings of the stockholders to act on any matter must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder or stockholders must pay such estimated cost before our secretary may prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting.

 

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Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

 

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock and debt securities, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential tax effects. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the ownership of the securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. Your tax treatment will vary depending upon the terms of the specific securities you acquire, as well as your particular situation. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Redwood Trust, Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

·the Code;

 

·current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code, or Treasury Regulations;

 

·the legislative history of the Code;

 

·administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS; and

 

·court decisions;

 

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

 

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

·the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

·our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

·potential changes in applicable tax laws.

 

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Taxation of the Company

 

General

 

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and to operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our U.S. federal income tax status as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Additionally, to the extent we make certain investments, such as investments in commercial mortgage loan securitizations, the accuracy of such opinion will also depend on the accuracy of certain opinions rendered to us in connection with such transactions. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described in this discussion may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

 

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that we currently distribute to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

·We will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

 

·If we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Foreclosure Property.”

 

·We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

·If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

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·If we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

·If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

·We will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

·If we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

 

·If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (1) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (2) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

·We will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any “excess inclusion income” derived from an investment in residual interests in certain mortgage loan securitization structures (i.e., a “taxable mortgage pool” or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or a REMIC) to the extent that our capital stock is held by specified types of tax-exempt organizations known as “disqualified organizations” that are not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a taxable REIT subsidiary, or a TRS, we will not be subject to this tax. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Taxable Mortgage Pools.”

 

·Our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our TRSs, generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

·We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Penalty Tax.”

 

·We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

·If we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

 

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We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

 

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

 

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

(1)that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

(2)that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

(3)that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

(4)that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

(5)that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

(6)not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

(7)that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

 

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

 

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify.”

 

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

 

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Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries

 

In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership, including such partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, would be treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. For purposes of the REIT qualification tests, the treatment of our ownership of partnerships or limited liability companies that are, in each case, treated as disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes is generally the same as described below with respect to qualified REIT subsidiaries.

 

We generally have control of our subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

 

From time to time, we may own wholly owned subsidiaries that are treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) qualifies as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a TRS, as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Asset Tests.”

 

Ownership of Interests in TRSs

 

From time to time, we may own interests in one or more TRSs. A TRS is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes), other than a REIT, in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a TRS. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a TRS may generally engage in any business. A TRS is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or as receiving any income that the TRS earns. Rather, the stock issued by the TRS is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the TRS. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a TRS is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our TRSs to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

 

Non-U.S. TRSs that are not engaged in trade or business in the United States for tax purposes generally are not subject to U.S. corporate income taxation. However, certain U.S. shareholders of such non-U.S. corporations may be required to include in their income currently their proportionate share of the earnings of such a corporation, whether or not such earnings are distributed. This could affect our ability to comply with the REIT income tests and distribution requirement. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests” and “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.” We currently do not own interests in any non-U.S. TRS, but we may acquire interests in such TRSs in the future.

 

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We may hold a significant number of assets in one or more TRSs, subject to the limitation that securities in TRSs may not represent more than 20% of our total assets (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018). We may engage in securitization transactions through our TRSs, and to the extent that we acquire loans with an intention of selling such loans in a manner that might expose us to a 100% tax on “prohibited transactions,” such loans may be acquired by a TRS.

 

Certain restrictions imposed on TRSs are intended to ensure that such entities will be subject to appropriate levels of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, if amounts are paid to a REIT or deducted by a TRS due to transactions between a REIT, its tenants and/or the TRS, that exceed the amount that would be paid to or deducted by a party in an arm’s-length transaction, the REIT generally will be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of such excess. Furthermore, income of a TRS that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf generally will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Penalty Tax.”

 

Taxable Mortgage Pools

 

An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool, or a TMP, under the Code if:

 

·substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

 

·more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

 

·the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

 

·the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

 

Under applicable Treasury Regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP. We may enter into financing and securitization arrangements that give rise to TMPs.

 

A TMP generally is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP. If a REIT owns directly, or indirectly through one or more qualified REIT subsidiaries or other entities that are disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, 100% of the equity interests in the TMP, the TMP will be a qualified REIT subsidiary and, therefore, disregarded as an entity separate from the REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and would not generally affect the tax qualification of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would generally be limited to the REIT’s shareholders. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.”

 

Excess Inclusion Income

 

A portion of income from a TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” A REIT’s excess inclusion income, including any excess inclusion income from a residual interest in a REMIC, must be allocated among its shareholders in proportion to dividends paid. We generally do not expect to generate excess inclusion income that would be allocated to our stockholders. In the event we do generate excess inclusion income, we are required to notify our stockholders of the amount of such income allocated to them. A shareholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

 

·cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the shareholder;

 

·in the case of a shareholder that is a REIT, a regulated investment company, or a RIC, or a common trust fund or other pass-through entity, is considered excess inclusion income of such entity;

 

·is subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of shareholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax;

 

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·results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption, to the extent allocable to most types of non-U.S. shareholders; and

 

·is taxable at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate, currently 21%, to the REIT, rather than its shareholders, to the extent allocable to the REIT’s shares held in record name by disqualified organizations (generally, tax-exempt entities not subject to unrelated business income tax, including governmental organizations).

 

The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to our stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make such determinations using a reasonable method.

 

Tax-exempt investors, RIC or REIT investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our capital stock.

 

If a subsidiary partnership of ours that we do not wholly own, directly or through one or more disregarded entities, were a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and potentially would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax or withholding tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we will have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT.

 

Income Tests

 

We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing.

 

Interest Income

 

Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property and, if an obligation is secured by a mortgage on both real property and personal property, the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property. In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and personal property, we may be required to apportion our interest on the loan between interest on an obligation that is secured by real property (or by an interest in real property) and interest on an obligation that is not so secured. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test.

 

To the extent that we derive interest income from a loan where all or a portion of the amount of interest payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales and not the net income or profits of any person. This limitation does not apply, however, to a mortgage loan where the borrower derives substantially all of its income from the property from the leasing of substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower would qualify as rents from real property had we earned it directly.

 

To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (or a shared appreciation provision), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that the property is not inventory or dealer property of the borrower or ours.

 

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Any amount includible in our gross income with respect to a regular or residual interest in a REMIC generally is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as receiving directly our proportionate share of the income of the REMIC for purposes of determining the amount that is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property.

 

Among the assets we may hold are certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than a direct mortgage on the real property. The IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2003-65, or the Revenue Procedure, which provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. From time to time, we may own mezzanine loans that do not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of any mezzanine loans we may own as real estate assets or the interest generated by such loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test. If we acquire or make corporate mezzanine loans or other commercial real estate corporate loans, such loans will not qualify as real estate assets and interest income with respect to such loans will not be qualifying income for the 75% gross income test. To the extent that such non-qualification causes us to fail the 75% gross income test, we could be required to pay a penalty tax or fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

We expect that any commercial mortgage-backed securities, or CMBS, that we may invest in will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income, original issue discount and market discount from such CMBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. As discussed above, if less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our income derived from the REMIC interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce non-qualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest, original issue discount and market discount on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property and, if an obligation is secured by a mortgage on both real property and personal property, the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, as discussed above.

 

We believe that the interest income that we receive from our mortgage-related investments and securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. However, to the extent we own non-REMIC collateralized mortgage obligations or other debt instruments secured by mortgage loans (rather than by real property) or secured by non-real estate assets, or debt securities that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property, the interest income received with respect to such securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

 

Fee Income

 

We may receive various fees in connection with our operations. The fees generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if they are received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by the income or profits of any person. Other fees are not qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests.

 

Dividend and Certain Foreign Income

 

We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally will be classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Any dividends we receive from a REIT will be qualifying income in our hands for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

 

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Income inclusions from equity investments in certain foreign corporations, such as controlled foreign corporations and passive foreign investment companies, as defined in the Code, are technically neither dividends nor any of the other enumerated categories of income specified in the 95% gross income test for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, under IRS guidance, certain such income inclusions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test.

 

Hedging Transactions

 

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

 

Rents from Real Property

 

To the extent that we own real property or interests therein, rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income tests described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

·The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property if we earned such amounts directly;

 

·Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a TRS of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the TRS are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space;

 

·Rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a TRS; and

 

·We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a TRS (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

 

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We intend to structure any leases so that the rent payable thereunder will qualify as “rents from real property,” but there can be no assurance we will be successful in this regard.

 

Phantom Income

 

Due to the nature of the assets in which we may invest, from time to time we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income in early periods that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

 

If we were to acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount, the amount of such discount generally would be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions in a subsequent taxable year.

 

If we were to acquire securities issued with original issue discount, we would generally be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the securities, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though smaller or no cash payments were received on such debt instrument. As in the case of the market discount discussed in the preceding paragraph, the constant yield in question would be determined and we would be taxed based on the assumption that all future payments due on securities in question will be made, with consequences similar to those described in the previous paragraph if all payments on the securities are not made.

 

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or other securities we acquire are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinate mortgage-backed securities at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

 

We may also be required under the terms of indebtedness that we borrow from private lenders to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

Finally, we are required to recognize certain items of income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than when we would report such items on our financial statements. This requirement generally applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, but applies with respect to income from a debt instrument having original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes only for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2018.

 

Due to each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and the related cash receipts or disbursements, there is a risk that we may have taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

 

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Prohibited Transaction Income

 

Any gain that we realize on the sale of an asset (other than foreclosure property, as described below) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, either directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiaries or subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether an asset is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset we own will be held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, and that a sale of any assets we own will not be in the ordinary course of business. However, the IRS may successfully assert that some or all of the sales made by us, our qualified REIT subsidiaries or our subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a TRS, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

Foreclosure Property

 

Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate (currently 21%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. If we believe we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

 

Penalty Tax

 

Any redetermined deductions, excess interest, redetermined rents or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a TRS of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a TRS of ours, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a TRS of ours that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

We do not have any TRSs that provide tenant services, and we intend to set any amounts payable to us by our TRSs at arm’s length rates. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our TRSs.

 

Failure to Satisfy the Gross Income Tests.

 

We monitor our income and take actions intended to keep our nonqualifying income within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

·following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

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·our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

 

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our qualification as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

 

Asset Tests

 

At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. Regular or residual interests in REMICs are generally treated as a real estate asset. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets of the REMIC. In the case of any interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust.

 

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of TRSs), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

 

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and TRSs, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a TRS. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

 

Fourth, not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more TRSs. We currently own, directly or indirectly, interests in companies that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our TRSs, and we may acquire securities in additional TRSs in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a TRS of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our TRSs has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

 

Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

 

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We believe that the assets comprising our mortgage-related investments and securities that we own generally are qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, and that our ownership of TRSs and other assets have been structured in a manner that will comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we monitor compliance on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance, however, that we will always be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine compliance with these requirements, we need to estimate the value of our assets, and we do not expect to obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the total value of our assets or the value of any particular security or other asset. Moreover, values of some assets, including our interests in our TRSs, may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future. Although we will continue to be prudent in making these estimates, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we might not satisfy the REIT asset tests, and could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is not fully secured by real property, Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor under which the IRS has stated that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a loan as being, in part, a qualifying real estate asset in an amount equal to the lesser of: (1) the greater of (a) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan determined as of the date the REIT committed to acquire the loan or (b) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date; or (2) the fair market value of the loan on the date of the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date. We intend to invest in mortgage loans in a manner consistent with satisfying the asset tests and maintaining our qualification as a REIT.

 

The proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset tests. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not assert that our interests in subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers caused a violation of the REIT asset tests.

 

In addition, we intend to enter into repurchase agreements under which we will nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any repurchase agreement and that the repurchase agreement will be treated as a secured lending transaction notwithstanding that we may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could successfully assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiary or subsidiary partnership) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer may increase as a result of our capital contributions to, or the redemption of other partners’ or members’ interests in, a partnership in which we have an ownership interest. However, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

 

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Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (1) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (2) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (3) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

 

Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our overall interest in an issuer (including in a TRS). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

 

Annual Distribution Requirements

 

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

·90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

·90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

·the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

 

For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

 

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation which was or had been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset was less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—General.”

 

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and except as provided below, a taxpayer’s deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of its taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We do not believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships will be eligible to make this election.

 

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential — i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its distribution rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a “publicly offered REIT.” To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount.

 

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We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Phantom Income.”

 

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

 

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

 

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

 

Failure to Qualify

 

If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to our stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to our stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

 

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Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities

 

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock or debt securities. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or debt securities as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

·U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

·persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

·U.S. Holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

·persons holding our capital stock or debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

·banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

·REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

·brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

·“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

·S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

·tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

·persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock or debt securities being taken into account in an “applicable financial statement” (as defined in the Code);

 

·persons deemed to sell our capital stock or debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

·persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

 

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

·an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

·a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

·an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

·a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that is neither a U.S. Holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

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If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

 

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

Distributions Generally

 

Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. Holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. Holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

 

To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. Holder to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. Holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

 

U.S. Holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of our capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. Holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. Holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. Holder sells our capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. Holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. Holder that receives our capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such capital stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

 

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Capital Gain Dividends

 

Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. Holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. Holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in the long-term capital gains of our stockholders, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

 

Retention of Net Capital Gains

 

We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. Holder generally would:

 

·include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its U.S. federal income tax return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

·be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. Holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

·receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

·increase the adjusted tax basis of our capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

·in the case of a U.S. Holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

 

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations

 

Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. Holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. Holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. Holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions we make, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

 

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock

 

Except as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. Holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. Holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of our capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. Holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

 

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Redemption or Repurchase by Us

 

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

·is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. Holder,

 

·results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. Holder’s stock interest in us, or

 

·is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. Holder,

 

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

 

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. Holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. Holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. Holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. Holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

 

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. Holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

 

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

 

Tax Rates

 

The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” is generally 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” is generally 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its TRSs) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. Holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations.

 

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Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code or if we hold an asset that gives rise to “excess inclusion income.” See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.” Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

 

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our capital stock will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our stock. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

 

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to the holders of our capital stock. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

 

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by Non-U.S. Holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other U.S. federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a Non-U.S. Holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge Non-U.S. Holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

 

Distributions Generally

 

Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. In addition, any portion of the dividends paid to Non-U.S. Holders that are treated as excess inclusion income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding tax or a reduced treaty rate. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.” Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a Non-U.S. Holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business (through a U.S. permanent establishment, where applicable) generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. Holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

 

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Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a Non-U.S. Holder unless:

 

·a lower treaty rate applies and the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s trade or business.

 

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a Non-U.S. Holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s shares of our capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares, they will generally give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such shares, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain Non-U.S. Holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

 

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests

 

Distributions to a Non-U.S. Holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

·the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Holders with respect to such gain, except that a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the Non-U.S. Holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, or FIRPTA, distributions to a Non-U.S. Holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the Non-U.S. Holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. Holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. Holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to Non-U.S. Holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the Non-U.S. Holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements, or qualified shareholders, are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

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Retention of Net Capital Gains

 

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to Non-U.S. Holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the Non-U.S. Holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax that we paid on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax that we paid exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

 

Sale of Our Capital Stock

 

Except as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a Non-U.S. Holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation”, or a “USRPHC”, will constitute a USRPI unless certain exceptions apply. A domestic corporation will constitute a USRPHC if 50% or more of the corporation’s assets on any of certain testing dates during a prescribed testing period consist of interests in real property located within the United States, excluding for this purpose, interests in real property solely in a capacity as creditor. We do not believe we are currently, and do not anticipate becoming, a USRPHC. However, because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our USRPIs relative to the fair market value of our non-U.S. real property interests and our other business assets, there can be no assurance we currently are not a USRPHC or will not become one in the future.

 

Even if we were a USRPHC, our capital stock will not constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. Although we believe that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot make any assurance that we will remain a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

 

Even if we were a USRPHC and we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a Non-U.S. Holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a Non-U.S. Holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

 

(1)such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, such as the New York Stock Exchange, and

 

(2)such Non-U.S. Holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period.

 

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In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a Non-U.S. Holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Holders with respect to such gain, except that a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the Non-U.S. Holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a Non-U.S. Holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the Non-U.S. Holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such class of stock is “regularly traded” and the Non-U.S. Holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

 

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the Non-U.S. Holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. Holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

 

Redemption or Repurchase by Us

 

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

 

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Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities

 

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of our debt securities. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).

 

U.S. Holders

 

Payments of Interest

 

Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. Holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. Holder’s method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition

 

A U.S. Holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will be equal to the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. Holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

Payments of Interest

 

Interest paid on a debt security to a Non-U.S. Holder that is not effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax, or withholding tax, provided that:

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our voting stock;

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to us through actual or constructive stock ownership; and

 

·either (1) the Non-U.S. Holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the Non-U.S. Holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the Non-U.S. Holder, has received from the Non-U.S. Holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and provides the applicable withholding agent with a copy of such statement; or (3) the Non-U.S. Holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” (within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.

 

If a Non-U.S. Holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the Non-U.S. Holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.

 

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If interest paid to a Non-U.S. Holder is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the Non-U.S. Holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the Non-U.S. Holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States.

 

Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular graduated rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.

 

The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. Holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

 

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition

 

A Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities—Non-U.S. Holders—Payments of Interest”) unless:

 

·the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.

 

Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

 

Gain described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

 

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

 

U.S. Holders

 

A U.S. Holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. Holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. Holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

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·the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

·the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

·the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

·the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities paid to the Non-U.S. Holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of our capital stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

 

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

 

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

 

Certain U.S. Holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations, subject to certain limitations. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities.

 

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Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

 

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or “FATCA”) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our debt securities, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

 

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019, recently proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

 

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or debt securities.

 

Other Tax Consequences

 

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or debt securities.

 

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Plan of Distribution

 

We may sell the securities offered pursuant to any applicable prospectus supplement directly to one or more purchasers or through dealers, agents, or underwriters, or a combination of the foregoing. We may sell the securities offered pursuant to any applicable prospectus supplement in at-the-market equity offerings or on a negotiated or competitive bid basis through underwriters or dealers or directly to other purchasers or through agents, or a combination of the foregoing. We will name any underwriter, dealer, or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities in the applicable prospectus supplement. We reserve the right to sell the securities directly to investors on our own behalf in those jurisdictions where and in such manner as we are authorized to do so.

 

We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

·at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

·at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

·at prices related to prevailing market prices; or

 

·at negotiated prices.

 

We may also, from time to time, authorize underwriters, dealers, or other persons, acting as our agents, to offer and sell the securities upon the terms and conditions as are set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of the securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions, or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any underwriting compensation we pay to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions, or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements with any underwriters, dealers, and agents which may entitle them to indemnification against and contribution toward certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and to reimbursement for certain expenses. We will describe any indemnification agreements in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, any securities issued hereunder other than shares of our common stock will be a new issue with no established trading market. We may elect to list any of the securities issued hereunder on any exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters or agents may make a market in the securities issued hereunder, including our common stock, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you as to the liquidity of the trading market for the securities.

 

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may authorize underwriters, dealers, or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions or other suitable persons to purchase the securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in the prospectus supplement. We may make delayed delivery with various institutions, including commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, and educational and charitable institutions. Delayed delivery contracts will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities covered by the delayed delivery contracts will not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and agents will not have any responsibility with respect to the validity or performance of these contracts.

 

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To facilitate an offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover the over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

Certain of the underwriters, dealers, or agents and their respective associates may be customers of, and/or engage in transactions with, and perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

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Validity of the Securities

 

The validity of certain securities will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. The validity of the debt securities and certain tax matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP.

 

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Experts

 

The audited consolidated financial statements and management's assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

 

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

·our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which was filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019;

 

·our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019, which was filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019;

 

·our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 28, 2019 and February 1, 2019;

 

·our Definitive Proxy Statement with respect to the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 5, 2019 (solely to the extent specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K);

 

·the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, which was filed with the SEC on January 7, 1998 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description; and

 

·all documents filed by Redwood Trust, Inc. with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering (but excluding any items, documents, or portions of items or documents which are deemed “furnished” and not filed with the SEC, including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K).

 

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.
Attn: Investor Relations
One Belvedere Place, Suite 300
Mill Valley, CA 94941
(866) 269-4976

 

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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Where You Can Find More Information

 

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

 

Our website address is http://www.redwoodtrust.com. The information contained on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus or any other report or filing filed with the SEC.

 

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. We have omitted certain parts of the registration statement, as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided above. The indenture and forms of other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries, which are not necessarily complete, and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

 

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6,277,971 Shares

 

Direct Stock Purchase and Dividend Reinvestment Plan

 

 

May 9, 2019

 

 

 

 

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