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Section 1: S-3ASR (S-3ASR)

 

 

 

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 9, 2019

 

Registration No. 333-

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Maryland 68-0329422
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

 

 

One Belvedere Place, Suite 300
Mill Valley, CA 94941
(415) 389-7373

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

 

Christopher J. Abate
Chief Executive Officer
Redwood Trust, Inc.
One Belvedere Place, Suite 300
Mill Valley, CA 94941
(415) 389-7373

Copies to:
William J. Cernius, Esq.

Brian D. Paulson, Esq.
Latham & Watkins LLP
650 Town Center Drive, 20th Floor
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
(714) 540-1235

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ¨

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  x

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer x Accelerated filer ¨
Non-accelerated filer ¨ Smaller reporting company ¨
    Emerging Growth Company ¨

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ¨

 

 

 

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of Securities
to be Registered
  Amount to be
Registered(1)(2)
   Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price Per
Unit(1)(2)
   Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price(1)(2)
   Amount of
Registration
Fee(3)
 
Debt Securities, Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Warrants, Stockholder Rights, Units                                                
Total                                                

 

 
(1)Omitted pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.E.
(2)An unspecified number of securities or aggregate principal amount, as applicable, is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices and, in addition, an unspecified number of additional shares of Common Stock is being registered as may be issued from time to time upon conversion of any Debt Securities that are convertible into Common Stock or pursuant to any anti-dilution adjustments with respect to any such convertible Debt Securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities or that are issued in units.
(3)In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, we are deferring payment of the entire registration fee.

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.
Debt Securities
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants
Stockholder Rights
Units

 

We may from time to time offer, in one or more classes or series, separately or together, and in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more supplements to this prospectus, the following securities:

 

·debt securities, which may consist of debentures, notes, or other types of debt;

 

·shares of our common stock;

 

·shares of our preferred stock;

 

·warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

·rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing; and

 

·units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.

 

We refer to the debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, warrants, rights and units registered hereunder collectively as the “securities” in this prospectus. The specific terms of each series or class of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement and will include, among other things, where applicable:

 

·in the case of debt securities, the specific title, aggregate principal amount, currency, form (which may be certificated or global), authorized denominations, maturity, rate (or manner of calculating the rate) and time of payment of interest, terms for redemption at our option or repayment at the holder’s option, terms for sinking payments, terms for conversion into shares of our common stock or preferred stock, covenants, and any initial public offering price;

 

·in the case of preferred stock, the specific designation, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to transferability, dividends and other distributions, and terms and conditions of redemption and any initial public offering price;

 

·in the case of warrants or rights, the duration, offering price, exercise price, and detachability; and

 

·in the case of units, the constituent securities comprising the units, the offering price, and detachability.

 

 

 

 

In addition, the specific terms may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate, among other purposes, to preserve the status of our company as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The applicable prospectus supplement will also contain information, where applicable, about certain U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by such prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in any of our securities.

 

The securities may be offered directly by us or by any selling security holder, through agents designated from time to time by us or to or through underwriters or dealers. If any agents, dealers, or underwriters are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission, or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections entitled “Plan of Distribution” and “About This Prospectus” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such series of securities.

 

Our common stock currently trades on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “RWT”. On May 8, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $16.53 per share.

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement concerning factors you should consider before investing in our securities.

 

This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is May 9, 2019.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
   
About This Prospectus 1
   
Risk Factors 2
   
Cautionary Statement 3
   
Redwood Trust, Inc. 4
   
Use of Proceeds 6
   
General Description of Securities 7
   
Description of Debt Securities 8
   
Description of Common Stock 16
   
Description of Preferred Stock 17
   
Description of Securities Warrants 18
   
Description of Rights to Purchase Shares of Common or Preferred Stock 19
   
Description of Units 20
   
Global Securities 21
   
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares 24
   
Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws 26
   
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations 29
   
Plan of Distribution 56
   
Validity of the Securities 58
   
Experts 59
   
Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference 60
   
Where You Can Find More Information 61

 

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different or additional information. We are offering to sell the securities and seeking offers to buy the securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted.

 

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We have not authorized any dealer or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying supplement to this prospectus. This prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus and any accompanying supplement to this prospectus is delivered or securities are sold on a later date.

 

ii

 

 

About This Prospectus

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus sets forth certain terms of the securities that we may offer.

 

Each time we offer securities, we will attach a prospectus supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will contain the specific description of the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement will supersede this prospectus to the extent it contains information that is different from, or that conflicts with, the information contained in this prospectus.

 

It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information contained in the documents identified under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus.

 

Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our” or “Redwood” mean Redwood Trust, Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries, except where it is made clear that the terms mean Redwood Trust, Inc. only.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941; our telephone number is (415) 389-7373.

 

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Risk Factors

 

You should carefully consider any specific risks set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement and under the caption “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, incorporated into this prospectus by reference, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. You should consider carefully those risk factors together with all of the other information included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you decide to purchase our securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

2

 

 

Cautionary Statement

 

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements within the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ from our beliefs, expectations, estimates, and projections and, consequently, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements are not historical in nature and can be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” and similar expressions or their negative forms, or by references to strategy, plans, or intentions. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including, among other things, those described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under the caption “Risk Factors.” Other risks, uncertainties, and factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected are summarized below and described from time to time in reports we file with the SEC, including under the heading “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

 

Important factors, among others, that may affect our actual results include: the pace at which we redeploy our available capital into new investments and initiatives; our ability to scale our platform and systems, particularly with respect to specific initiatives; interest rate volatility, changes in credit spreads (the market value yield on a loan or security less the relevant risk-free benchmark interest rate), and changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; changes in the demand from investors for residential mortgages and investments, and our ability to distribute residential mortgages through our whole-loan distribution channel; our ability to finance our investments in securities and our acquisition of residential mortgages with short-term debt; the availability of assets for purchase at attractive risk-adjusted returns and our ability to reinvest cash and the proceeds from the potential sale of securities and investments we hold; changes in the values of assets we own; higher than expected operating expenses due to delays or decreases in the realization of expected operating expense reductions related to the repositioning of our conforming mortgage banking activities and commercial loan origination activities, and other unforeseen expenses; general economic trends, the performance of the housing, commercial real estate, mortgage, credit, and broader financial markets, and their effects on the prices of earning assets and the credit status of borrowers; the impact of changes to U.S. federal income tax laws on the U.S. housing market, mortgage finance markets, and our business; changes to fiscal, tax, and other federal policies by Congress or President Trump’s administration; developments related to the fixed income and mortgage finance markets and the Federal Reserve’s statements regarding its future open market activity and monetary policy; federal and state legislative and regulatory developments, and the actions of governmental authorities, including the new U.S. presidential administration, and in particular those affecting the mortgage industry or our business (including, but not limited to, the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s rules relating to FHLB membership requirements and the implications for our captive insurance subsidiary’s membership in the FHLB); strategic business and capital deployment decisions we make; our exposure to credit risk and the timing of credit losses within our portfolio; the concentration of the credit risks we are exposed to, including due to the structure of assets we hold and the geographical concentration of real estate underlying assets we own; our exposure to adjustable-rate mortgage loans; the efficacy and expense of our efforts to manage or hedge credit risk, interest rate risk, and other financial and operational risks; changes in credit ratings on assets we own and changes in the rating agencies’ credit rating methodologies; changes in interest rates; changes in mortgage prepayment rates; changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities and loans; our ability to finance the acquisition of real estate-related assets with short-term debt; the ability of counterparties to satisfy their obligations to us; our involvement in securitization transactions, the profitability of those transactions, and the risks we are exposed to in engaging in securitization transactions; exposure to claims and litigation, including litigation arising from our involvement in securitization transactions; litigation against various trustees of residential mortgage-backed securities transactions; whether we have sufficient liquid assets to meet short-term needs; our ability to successfully compete and retain or attract key personnel; our ability to adapt our business model and strategies to changing circumstances; changes in our investment, financing, and hedging strategies and new risks we may be exposed to if we expand our business activities; our exposure to a disruption or breach of the security of our technology infrastructure and systems; exposure to environmental liabilities; our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations; our failure to maintain appropriate internal controls over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures; the impact on our reputation that could result from our actions or omissions or from those of others; changes in accounting principles and tax rules; our ability to maintain our status as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; limitations imposed on our business due to our REIT status and our status as exempt from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940; decisions about raising, managing, and distributing capital; and other factors not presently identified.

 

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Redwood Trust, Inc.

 

Redwood Trust, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is a specialty finance company focused on making credit-sensitive investments in single-family residential and multifamily mortgages and related assets and engaging in mortgage banking activities. Our goal is to provide attractive returns to shareholders through a stable and growing stream of earnings and dividends, as well as through capital appreciation. We operate our business in two segments: Investment Portfolio and Mortgage Banking.

 

Our primary sources of income are net interest income from our investment portfolio and non-interest income from our mortgage banking activities. Net interest income consists of the interest income we earn on investments less the interest expense we incur on borrowed funds and other liabilities. Income from mortgage banking activities is generated through the acquisition of loans and their subsequent sale or securitization, as well as through the origination of business purpose residential loans.

 

Redwood Trust, Inc. has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or a REIT, under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, beginning with its taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We generally refer, collectively, to Redwood Trust, Inc. and those of its subsidiaries that are not subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “the REIT” or “our REIT.” We generally refer to subsidiaries of Redwood Trust, Inc. that are subject to subsidiary-level corporate income tax as “our taxable REIT subsidiaries” or “TRS.” Our mortgage banking activities and investments in mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs, are generally carried out through our taxable REIT subsidiaries, while our portfolio of mortgage- and other real estate-related investments is primarily held at our REIT. We generally intend to retain profits generated and taxed at our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and to distribute as dividends at least 90% of the taxable income we generate at our REIT.

 

Our Investment Portfolio segment includes a portfolio of investments in residential mortgage-backed securities, or RMBS, retained from our Sequoia securitizations, as well as RMBS issued by third parties and other credit risk-related investments. In addition, this segment includes a subsidiary of Redwood Trust that is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago, or FHLBC, and that utilizes long-term financing from the FHLBC to make long-term investments directly in residential mortgage loans. This segment also includes residential bridge loans, which are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors rehabilitating and reselling or renting residential properties that we acquired from our affiliate, 5 Arches, LLC. The Investment Portfolio segment’s main sources of revenue are interest income from investment portfolio securities and loans held-for-investment. Additionally, this segment may realize gains and losses upon the sale of securities. Funding expenses, hedging expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax provisions associated with these activities are also included in this segment.

 

Our Mortgage Banking segment primarily consists of operating a mortgage loan conduit that acquires residential loans from third-party originators for subsequent sale, securitization, or transfer to our investment portfolio. We typically acquire prime, jumbo mortgages and the related mortgage servicing rights on a flow basis from our network of loan sellers and distribute those loans through our Sequoia private-label securitization program or to institutions that acquire pools of whole loans. We also supplement our flow purchases with bulk loan acquisitions. In addition, beginning in the third quarter of 2018, this segment began to acquire single-family rental loans from our affiliate 5 Arches, LLC, for subsequent sale or securitization. Single-family rental loans are business purpose residential mortgage loans to investors in single-family (1-4 unit) rental properties. This segment also includes various derivative financial instruments that we utilize to manage certain risks associated with residential loans we acquire. Our Mortgage Banking segment’s main source of revenue is income from mortgage banking activities, which includes valuation increases (or gains) on loans we acquire and subsequently sell or securitize, and from hedges used to manage risks associated with these activities. Additionally, this segment may generate interest income on loans held pending securitization or sale. Funding expenses, direct operating expenses, and tax expenses associated with these activities are also included in this segment.

 

4

 

 

We sponsor our Sequoia securitization program, which we use for the securitization of residential mortgage loans. We are required under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States, or GAAP, to consolidate the assets and liabilities of certain securitization entities we have sponsored for financial reporting purposes. However, each of these entities is independent of Redwood and of each other, and the assets and liabilities of these entities are not owned by us or legal obligations of ours, respectively, although we are exposed to certain financial risks associated with our role as the sponsor or depositor of these entities and, to the extent we hold securities issued by, or other investments in, these entities, we are exposed to the performance of these entities and the assets they hold. We refer to certain of these securitization entities issued prior to 2012 as “consolidated Legacy Sequoia entities,” and the securitization entities formed in connection with the securitization of Redwood Choice expanded-prime loans as the “consolidated Sequoia Choice entities.” Additionally, during 2018, we consolidated certain third-party Freddie Mac K-Series and SLST securitization entities that we determined were VIEs and for which we determined we were the primary beneficiary. Where applicable, in analyzing our results of operations, we distinguish results from current operations “at Redwood” and from consolidated entities.

 

We were incorporated in the State of Maryland on April 11, 1994, and commenced operations on August 19, 1994. We operate so as to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our principal executive offices are located at One Belvedere Place, Suite 300, Mill Valley, California 94941. Our telephone number is (415) 389-7373. Our website is www.redwoodtrust.com. Information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

5

 

 

Use of Proceeds

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement for any offering of securities, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities to fund our business and investment activity, which may include funding investment transactions, bridge loans, mortgage loans for single-family rental properties, residential and multifamily mortgage backed securities, as well as for our mortgage banking business and general corporate purposes.

 

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General Description of Securities

 

The following is a brief description of the material terms of our securities that may be offered under this prospectus. This description does not purport to be complete and is subject in all respects to applicable Maryland law and to the provisions of our charter and bylaws, including any amendments or supplements thereto, copies of which are on file with the SEC as described under “Where You Can Find Information” and are incorporated by reference herein.

 

We, directly or through agents, dealers, or underwriters designated from time to time, may offer, issue, and sell, together or separately:

 

·debt securities, which may consist of debentures, notes, or other types of debt;

 

·shares of our common stock;

 

·shares of our preferred stock;

 

·warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

·rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing; and

 

·units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.

 

We may issue the debt securities as exchangeable for or convertible into shares of common stock, preferred stock, or other securities. The preferred stock may also be exchangeable for and/or convertible into shares of common stock, another series of preferred stock, or other securities. The debt securities, the preferred stock, the common stock, the warrants, the rights and the units are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the securities. When a particular series of securities is offered, a supplement to this prospectus will be delivered with this prospectus, which will set forth the terms of the offering and sale of the offered securities.

 

Our charter provides that we have authority to issue up to 180,000,000 shares of stock, par value $0.01 per share, all of which is currently classified as common stock. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and we intend to so list any additional shares of our common stock which are issued and sold hereunder. We may elect to list any future class or series of our securities issued hereunder on an exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not liable for our debts or obligations.

 

7

 

 

Description of Debt Securities

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

 

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

 

As used in this section only, “Redwood,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Redwood Trust, Inc., excluding our subsidiaries, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

 

General

 

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

 

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

·the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

·the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

·any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

·the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

 

·the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

·the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment);

 

·the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

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·any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

·the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

·the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

·whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

·the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

·the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

·the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;

 

·if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

·the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

·any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

·any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

·any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

·any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

·the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

 

·any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

 

·whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.

 

9

 

 

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Transfer and Exchange

 

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

 

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.

 

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

 

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”

 

Covenants

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

 

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

 

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

 

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

·we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than Redwood) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and

 

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·immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us.

 

Events of Default

 

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

·default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

·default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;

 

·default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, within 30 days when and as due in respect of any security of that series;

 

·default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Redwood and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

 

·certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Redwood;

 

·any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

 

We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

 

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The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

 

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

·that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

·the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.

 

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall send to each Securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after the trustee becomes aware or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.

 

Modification and Waiver

 

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

·to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

·to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

 

·to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

·to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

 

·to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

 

·to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

 

·to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

 

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·to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

 

·to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

·to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or

 

·to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

·reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

·reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

 

·reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

 

·reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

·waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

·make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

·make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or

 

·waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security.

 

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

 

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Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

 

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

 

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

 

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

·we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

 

·any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

 

The conditions include:

 

·depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

 

·delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.

 

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Securityholders

 

None of our past or present directors, officers, employees or securityholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

 

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Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed under, the laws of the State of New York.

 

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

 

The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

 

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Description of Common Stock

 

All shares of common stock offered by this prospectus will be duly authorized, fully paid, and nonassessable. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends if, as, and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends. They are also entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, after payment of or adequate provision for all of our known debts and liabilities. These rights are subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on transfer of our stock.

 

Subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. Except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of our common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

 

Holders of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption, or, if listed on the New York Stock Exchange, appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities. Subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, all shares of common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation, and other rights.

 

Transfer Agent, Registrar, and Dividend Disbursing Agent

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is currently Computershare Trust Company, N.A. and its affiliate, Computershare Inc., acts as dividend disbursing agent.

 

Power to Reclassify Shares of Our Stock; Issuance of Additional Shares

 

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify from time to time any unissued shares of our stock into other classes or series of stock, including preferred stock, and to cause the issuance of such shares. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, the board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on transfer of our stock, the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series. We believe that the power to issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock and thereafter to issue the classified or reclassified shares provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. These actions can be taken without stockholder approval, unless stockholder approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although we have no present intention of doing so, we could issue a class or series of stock that could delay, defer, or prevent a transaction or a change in control of Redwood Trust that might involve a premium price for holders of common stock or otherwise be in their best interest. We have no shares of preferred stock presently outstanding.

 

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Description of Preferred Stock

 

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify from time to time any unissued shares of stock in one or more classes or series of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued preferred stock of any class or series in one or more classes or series. If we offer preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such preferred stock, including the following, where applicable:

 

·the designation of the shares and the number of shares that constitute the class or series;

 

·the dividend rate (or the method of calculating dividends), if any, on the shares of the class or series and the priority as to payment of dividends with respect to other classes or series of our shares of stock;

 

·whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate;

 

·the dividend periods (or the method of calculating the dividend periods);

 

·the voting rights of the preferred stock, if any;

 

·the liquidation preference and the priority as to payment of the liquidation preference with respect to other classes or series of our stock and any other rights of the shares of the class or series upon our liquidation or winding-up;

 

·the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such preferred stock;

 

·whether or not and on what terms the shares of the class or series will be subject to redemption or repurchase at our option;

 

·the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which such preferred stock will be converted into the common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);

 

·whether the shares of the class or series of preferred stock will be listed on a securities exchange or quoted on an inter-dealer quotation system;

 

·any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer applicable to the preferred stock, in addition to those already set forth in our charter, that may be necessary to preserve our status as a REIT; and

 

·the other rights and privileges and any qualifications, limitations, or restrictions of the rights or privileges of the class or series.

 

Transfer Agent, Registrar, and Dividend Disbursing Agent

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our preferred stock is currently Computershare Trust Company, N.A. and its affiliate, Computershare Inc., acts as dividend disbursing agent. If different, we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement the transfer agent, registrar, and dividend disbursing agent for any series of preferred stock offered by that prospectus supplement.

 

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Description of Securities Warrants

 

We may issue securities warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock, respectively referred to as common stock warrants and preferred stock warrants. Securities warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from such other securities. Each issuance of the securities warrants will be issued under a separate securities warrant agreement to be entered into by us and a bank or trust company, as securities warrant agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of offered securities warrants. Each issue of securities warrants will be evidenced by securities warrant certificates. The securities warrant agent will act solely as an agent of ours in connection with the securities warrant certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holder of securities warrant certificates or beneficial owners of securities warrants.

 

If we offer securities warrants pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such securities warrants, including the following, where applicable:

 

·the offering price;

 

·the aggregate number of shares purchasable upon exercise of such securities warrants, and in the case of securities warrants for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such securities warrants;

 

·the designation and terms of the securities with which such securities warrants are being offered, if any, and the number of such securities warrants being offered with each such security;

 

·the date on and after which such securities warrants and any related securities will be transferable separately;

 

·the number of shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of each of such securities warrants and the price at which such number of shares of preferred stock or common stock may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

·the date on which the right to exercise such securities warrants shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

 

·U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

·any other material terms of such securities warrants.

 

Holders of future securities warrants, if any, will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as stockholders of Redwood Trust.

 

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Description of Rights to Purchase Shares of Common or Preferred Stock

 

We may issue, as a dividend at no cost, to holders of record of our securities or any class or series thereof on the applicable record date, rights to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing. In this prospectus, we refer to such rights as “stockholder rights.” If stockholders rights are so issued to existing holders of securities, each stockholder right will entitle the registered holder thereof to purchase the securities issuable upon exercise of the rights pursuant to the terms set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

If stockholder rights are issued, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such stockholder rights including the following where applicable:

 

·record date;

 

·subscription price;

 

·subscription agent;

 

·aggregate number of shares of preferred stock, shares of common stock, warrants, or units purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights and in the case of stockholder rights for preferred stock or warrants exercisable for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights or warrants;

 

·the date on which the right to exercise such stockholder rights shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

 

·U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

·other material terms of such stockholder rights.

 

In addition to the terms of the stockholder rights and the securities issuable upon exercise thereof, the prospectus supplement may describe, for a holder of such stockholder rights who validly exercises all stockholder rights issued to such holder, how to subscribe for unsubscribed securities, issuable pursuant to unexercised stockholder rights issued to other holders, to the extent such stockholder rights have not been exercised.

 

Holders of stockholder rights will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as stockholders of Redwood Trust, except to the extent described in the related prospectus supplement.

 

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Description of Units

 

We may issue units consisting of two or more other constituent securities. These units may be issuable as, and for a specified period of time may be transferable only as, a single security, rather than as the separate constituent securities comprising such units. The statements made in this section relating to the units are summaries only. These summaries are not complete. When we issue units, we will provide the specific terms of the units in a prospectus supplement. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

 

When we issue units, we will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the units being issued:

 

·the title of any series of units;

 

·identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

·the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

·the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

·information with respect to any book-entry procedures;

 

·a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in the units; and

 

·any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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Global Securities

 

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

 

Unless we indicate differently in a prospectus supplement, the securities (other than warrant securities) initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

 

DTC has advised us that it is:

 

·a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

·a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

·a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

·a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

·a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

 

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

 

Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

 

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

 

So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

 

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Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

 

Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

 

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

 

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

 

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

 

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

 

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

 

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

 

As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

 

·DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

 

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·we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or

 

·an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities and upon request of a holder,

 

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

 

We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.

 

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Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares

 

In order that we may meet the requirements for qualification as a REIT at all times, among other purposes, our charter prohibits any person from acquiring or holding beneficial ownership of shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or collectively, capital stock, in excess of 9.8%, in number of shares or value, of the outstanding shares of the related class of capital stock. For this purpose, the term “beneficial ownership” means beneficial ownership, as determined under Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act, of capital stock by a person, either directly or constructively, including through application of the constructive ownership provisions of Section 544 of the Code and related provisions.

 

Under the constructive ownership rules of Section 544 of the Code, a holder of a warrant generally will be treated as owning the number of shares of capital stock into which such warrant may be converted. In addition, the constructive ownership rules generally attribute ownership of securities owned by a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust proportionately to its stockholders, partners, or beneficiaries, respectively. The rules may also attribute ownership of securities owned by family members to other members of the same family and may treat an option to purchase securities as actual ownership of the underlying securities by the optionholder. The rules further provide when securities constructively owned by a person will be considered to be actually owned for the further application of such attribution provisions. To determine whether a person holds or would hold capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit, a person will be treated as owning not only shares of capital stock actually owned, but also any shares of capital stock attributed to that person under the attribution rules described above. Accordingly, a person who directly owns less than 9.8% of the shares outstanding may nevertheless be in violation of the 9.8% ownership limit.

 

Any acquisition or transfer of shares of capital stock or warrants that would cause us to be disqualified as a REIT or that would create a direct or constructive ownership of shares of capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit, or result in the shares of capital stock being beneficially owned, within the meaning of Section 856(a) of the Code, by fewer than 100 persons, determined without any reference to any rules of attribution, or result in our being closely held within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code, will be null and void, and the intended transferee will acquire no rights to those shares or warrants. These restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.

 

If any purported transfer of shares of capital stock or warrants results in a purported transferee owning, directly or constructively, shares in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit due to the unenforceability of the transfer restrictions described above, the amount of shares causing the purported transferee to violate the 9.8% ownership limit will constitute excess securities. Excess securities will be transferred by operation of law to Redwood Trust as trustee for the exclusive benefit of the person or persons to whom the excess securities are ultimately transferred, until such time as the purported transferee retransfers the excess securities. While the excess securities are held in trust, a holder of such securities will not be entitled to vote or to share in any dividends or other distributions with respect to such securities and will not be entitled to exercise or convert such securities into shares of capital stock. Excess securities may be transferred by the purported transferee to any person (if such transfer would not result in excess securities) at a price not to exceed the price paid by the purported transferee (or, if no consideration was paid by the purported transferee, the Market Price (as defined in our charter) of the excess securities on the date of the purported transfer), at which point the excess securities will automatically be exchanged for the stock or warrants, as the case may be, to which the excess securities are attributable. If a purported transferee receives a higher price for designating an ultimate transferee, such purported transferee shall pay, or cause the ultimate transferee to pay, such excess to us. In addition, such excess securities held in trust are subject to purchase by us at a purchase price equal to the lesser of (a) the price per share or per warrant, as the case may be, in the transaction that created such excess securities (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the Market Price at the time of such devise or gift), reduced by the amount of any distributions received in violation of the charter that have not been repaid to us, and (b) the Market Price on the date we elect to purchase the excess securities, reduced by the amount of any distributions received in violation of the charter that have not been repaid to us.

 

Upon a purported transfer of excess securities, the purported transferee shall cease to be entitled to distributions, voting rights, and other benefits with respect to the shares of capital stock or warrants except the right to payment of the purchase price for the shares of capital stock or warrants on the retransfer of securities as provided above. Any dividend or distribution paid to a purported transferee on excess securities prior to our discovery that shares of capital stock have been transferred in violation of our charter shall be repaid to us upon demand. If these transfer restrictions are determined to be void, invalid, or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, then the purported transferee of any excess securities may be deemed, at our option, to have acted as an agent on our behalf in acquiring the excess securities and to hold the excess securities on our behalf.

 

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All certificates representing shares of capital stock and warrants will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

 

Any person who acquires shares or warrants in violation of our charter, or any person who is a purported transferee such that excess securities result, must immediately give written notice or, in the event of a proposed or attempted transfer that would be void as set forth above, give at least 15 days prior written notice to us of such event and shall provide us such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the transfer on our status as a REIT. In addition, as required under the REIT provisions of the Code, every record owner of more than 5.0%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is 2,000, or 1.0%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is greater than 200 but less than 2,000, or 1/2%, during any period in which the number of record stockholders is 200 or less, of the number or value of our outstanding shares will receive a questionnaire from us by January 30 requesting information as to how the shares are held. In addition, our charter requires that such stockholders must provide written notice to us by 30 days after January 1 stating the name and address of the record stockholder, the number of shares beneficially owned and a description of how the shares are held. In practice, we have generally permitted our stockholders to comply with the foregoing charter requirement by responding to our annual REIT questionnaire. Further, each stockholder upon demand is required to disclose to us in writing such information with respect to the direct and constructive ownership of shares and warrants as our board of directors deems reasonably necessary to comply with the REIT provisions of the Code, to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental agency or to determine any such compliance.

 

Our board of directors may increase or decrease the 9.8% ownership limit. In addition, to the extent consistent with the REIT provisions of the Code, our board of directors may, pursuant to our charter, waive the 9.8% ownership limit for a purchaser of our stock. As a condition to such waiver the intended transferee must give written notice to the board of directors of the proposed transfer no later than the fifteenth day prior to any transfer which, if consummated, would result in the intended transferee owning shares in excess of the ownership limit. Our board of directors may also take such other action as it deems necessary or advisable to protect our status as a REIT. Pursuant to our charter, our board of directors has, from time to time, waived the ownership limit for certain of our stockholders.

 

The provisions described above may inhibit market activity and the resulting opportunity for the holders of our capital stock and warrants to receive a premium for their shares or warrants that might otherwise exist in the absence of such provisions. Such provisions also may make us an unsuitable investment vehicle for any person seeking to obtain ownership of more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock.

 

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Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws

 

We have summarized certain terms and provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter and bylaws. This summary is not complete and is qualified by the provisions of our charter and bylaws, and the Maryland General Corporation Law. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

For restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock contained in our charter, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares.”

 

Maryland Business Combination Act

 

Under the Maryland Business Combination Act, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder, as such terms are defined in the Act, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by provision in the charter of the corporation. Our charter provides that we elect not to be governed by the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act.

 

Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act

 

The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act causes persons who acquire beneficial ownership of stock at levels of 10%, 33%, and more than 50% (control share acquisitions) to lose the voting rights of such stock unless voting rights are restored by the stockholders at a meeting by vote of two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter (excluding stock held by the acquiring stockholder or the corporation’s officers or employee directors). The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act affords a cash-out election for stockholders other than the acquiring stockholder, at an appraised value (but not less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiring person in the control share acquisition), payable by the corporation, if voting rights for more than 50% of the outstanding stock are approved for the acquiring person. Under certain circumstances, the corporation may redeem shares acquired in a control share acquisition if voting rights for such shares have not been approved. The statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation, or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. A corporation’s board of directors has an “opt-out” power, exercisable through amendment of the corporation’s bylaws (which could be changed by the stockholders), to exempt in advance any control share acquisition from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act acquisitions by certain persons of shares of our common stock in accordance with waivers from the ownership limit in our charter granted to such persons by our board of directors.

 

The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act could have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire us and of increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers.

 

Board of Directors, Vacancies, and Removal of Directors

 

All directors are elected annually to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until their respective successors are duly elected and qualify.

 

Pursuant to our election to be subject to certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which such vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies. A director may be removed with or without cause by the affirmative vote of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast generally for the election of directors.

 

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Charter Amendments and Extraordinary Corporate Actions

 

Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange, convert or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business, unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, a Maryland corporation may provide in its charter for approval of these matters by a lesser percentage, but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our charter provides for approval of these matters by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the total number of shares entitled to vote on the matter.

 

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

 

Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by the board of directors or (iii) by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of our bylaws. With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting.

 

Exclusive Forum

 

Our bylaws provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any Internal Corporate Claim (as defined in the Maryland General Corporation Law), (b) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (c) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any director or officer or other employee of ours to us or our stockholders, (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours arising pursuant to any provision of the Maryland General Corporation Law or the our charter or our bylaws, or (e) any other action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

 

Subtitle 8

 

Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any of:

 

·a classified board of directors;

 

·a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

·a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

·a requirement that a vacancy on the board of directors be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or

 

·a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.

 

Pursuant to Subtitle 8, we have elected to provide that vacancies on the board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (a) vest in the board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (b) require, unless called by our chairman of the board, our president, the board of directors or a majority of independent directors, the request of holders of a majority of outstanding shares entitled to vote at the meeting to call a special meeting of stockholders.

 

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Meetings of Stockholders

 

Under our current bylaws and pursuant to Maryland law, annual meetings of stockholders will be held each year at a date and at the time in the month of May determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by our board of directors, the chairman of the board of directors, our president or a majority of independent directors. Additionally, subject to the provisions of our bylaws, special meetings of the stockholders to act on any matter must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder or stockholders must pay such estimated cost before our secretary may prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting.

 

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Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

 

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock and debt securities, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential tax effects. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the ownership of the securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. Your tax treatment will vary depending upon the terms of the specific securities you acquire, as well as your particular situation. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Redwood Trust, Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

·the Code;

 

·current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code, or Treasury Regulations;

 

·the legislative history of the Code;

 

·administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS; and

 

·court decisions;

 

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

 

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

·the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

·our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

·potential changes in applicable tax laws.

 

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Taxation of the Company

 

General

 

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1994. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and to operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our U.S. federal income tax status as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Additionally, to the extent we make certain investments, such as investments in commercial mortgage loan securitizations, the accuracy of such opinion will also depend on the accuracy of certain opinions rendered to us in connection with such transactions. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described in this discussion may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

 

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that we currently distribute to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

·We will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

 

·If we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Foreclosure Property.”

 

·We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

·If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

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·If we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

·If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

·We will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

·If we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

 

·If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (1) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (2) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

·We will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any “excess inclusion income” derived from an investment in residual interests in certain mortgage loan securitization structures (i.e., a “taxable mortgage pool” or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or a REMIC) to the extent that our capital stock is held by specified types of tax-exempt organizations known as “disqualified organizations” that are not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a taxable REIT subsidiary, or a TRS, we will not be subject to this tax. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Taxable Mortgage Pools.”

 

·Our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our TRSs, generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

·We will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Penalty Tax.”

 

·We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

·If we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

 

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We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

 

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

 

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

(1)that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

(2)that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

(3)that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

(4)that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

(5)that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

(6)not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

(7)that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

 

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

 

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer and Repurchase of Shares.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify.”

 

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

 

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Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries

 

In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership, including such partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, would be treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. For purposes of the REIT qualification tests, the treatment of our ownership of partnerships or limited liability companies that are, in each case, treated as disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes is generally the same as described below with respect to qualified REIT subsidiaries.

 

We generally have control of our subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

 

From time to time, we may own wholly owned subsidiaries that are treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) qualifies as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a TRS, as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Asset Tests.”

 

Ownership of Interests in TRSs

 

From time to time, we may own interests in one or more TRSs. A TRS is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes), other than a REIT, in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a TRS. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a TRS may generally engage in any business. A TRS is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or as receiving any income that the TRS earns. Rather, the stock issued by the TRS is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the TRS. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a TRS is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our TRSs to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

 

Non-U.S. TRSs that are not engaged in trade or business in the United States for tax purposes generally are not subject to U.S. corporate income taxation. However, certain U.S. shareholders of such non-U.S. corporations may be required to include in their income currently their proportionate share of the earnings of such a corporation, whether or not such earnings are distributed. This could affect our ability to comply with the REIT income tests and distribution requirement. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests” and “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.” We currently do not own interests in any non-U.S. TRS, but we may acquire interests in such TRSs in the future.

 

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We may hold a significant number of assets in one or more TRSs, subject to the limitation that securities in TRSs may not represent more than 20% of our total assets (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018). We may engage in securitization transactions through our TRSs, and to the extent that we acquire loans with an intention of selling such loans in a manner that might expose us to a 100% tax on “prohibited transactions,” such loans may be acquired by a TRS.

 

Certain restrictions imposed on TRSs are intended to ensure that such entities will be subject to appropriate levels of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, if amounts are paid to a REIT or deducted by a TRS due to transactions between a REIT, its tenants and/or the TRS, that exceed the amount that would be paid to or deducted by a party in an arm’s-length transaction, the REIT generally will be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of such excess. Furthermore, income of a TRS that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf generally will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Penalty Tax.”

 

Taxable Mortgage Pools

 

An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool, or a TMP, under the Code if:

 

·substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

 

·more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

 

·the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

 

·the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

 

Under applicable Treasury Regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP. We may enter into financing and securitization arrangements that give rise to TMPs.

 

A TMP generally is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP. If a REIT owns directly, or indirectly through one or more qualified REIT subsidiaries or other entities that are disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, 100% of the equity interests in the TMP, the TMP will be a qualified REIT subsidiary and, therefore, disregarded as an entity separate from the REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and would not generally affect the tax qualification of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would generally be limited to the REIT’s shareholders. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.”

 

Excess Inclusion Income

 

A portion of income from a TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” A REIT’s excess inclusion income, including any excess inclusion income from a residual interest in a REMIC, must be allocated among its shareholders in proportion to dividends paid. We generally do not expect to generate excess inclusion income that would be allocated to our stockholders. In the event we do generate excess inclusion income, we are required to notify our stockholders of the amount of such income allocated to them. A shareholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

 

·cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the shareholder;

 

·in the case of a shareholder that is a REIT, a regulated investment company, or a RIC, or a common trust fund or other pass-through entity, is considered excess inclusion income of such entity;

 

·is subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of shareholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax;

 

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·results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption, to the extent allocable to most types of non-U.S. shareholders; and

 

·is taxable at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate, currently 21%, to the REIT, rather than its shareholders, to the extent allocable to the REIT’s shares held in record name by disqualified organizations (generally, tax-exempt entities not subject to unrelated business income tax, including governmental organizations).

 

The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to our stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make such determinations using a reasonable method.

 

Tax-exempt investors, RIC or REIT investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our capital stock.

 

If a subsidiary partnership of ours that we do not wholly own, directly or through one or more disregarded entities, were a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and potentially would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax or withholding tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we will have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT.

 

Income Tests

 

We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions, and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing.

 

Interest Income

 

Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property or on interests in real property and, if an obligation is secured by a mortgage on both real property and personal property, the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property. In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and personal property, we may be required to apportion our interest on the loan between interest on an obligation that is secured by real property (or by an interest in real property) and interest on an obligation that is not so secured. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test.

 

To the extent that we derive interest income from a loan where all or a portion of the amount of interest payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales and not the net income or profits of any person. This limitation does not apply, however, to a mortgage loan where the borrower derives substantially all of its income from the property from the leasing of substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower would qualify as rents from real property had we earned it directly.

 

To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (or a shared appreciation provision), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that the property is not inventory or dealer property of the borrower or ours.

 

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Any amount includible in our gross income with respect to a regular or residual interest in a REMIC generally is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as receiving directly our proportionate share of the income of the REMIC for purposes of determining the amount that is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property.

 

Among the assets we may hold are certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than a direct mortgage on the real property. The IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2003-65, or the Revenue Procedure, which provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. From time to time, we may own mezzanine loans that do not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of any mezzanine loans we may own as real estate assets or the interest generated by such loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test. If we acquire or make corporate mezzanine loans or other commercial real estate corporate loans, such loans will not qualify as real estate assets and interest income with respect to such loans will not be qualifying income for the 75% gross income test. To the extent that such non-qualification causes us to fail the 75% gross income test, we could be required to pay a penalty tax or fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

We expect that any commercial mortgage-backed securities, or CMBS, that we may invest in will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income, original issue discount and market discount from such CMBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. As discussed above, if less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our income derived from the REMIC interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce non-qualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest, original issue discount and market discount on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property and, if an obligation is secured by a mortgage on both real property and personal property, the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, as discussed above.

 

We believe that the interest income that we receive from our mortgage-related investments and securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. However, to the extent we own non-REMIC collateralized mortgage obligations or other debt instruments secured by mortgage loans (rather than by real property) or secured by non-real estate assets, or debt securities that are not secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property, the interest income received with respect to such securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

 

Fee Income

 

We may receive various fees in connection with our operations. The fees generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if they are received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by the income or profits of any person. Other fees are not qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests.

 

Dividend and Certain Foreign Income

 

We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally will be classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Any dividends we receive from a REIT will be qualifying income in our hands for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

 

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Income inclusions from equity investments in certain foreign corporations, such as controlled foreign corporations and passive foreign investment companies, as defined in the Code, are technically neither dividends nor any of the other enumerated categories of income specified in the 95% gross income test for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, under IRS guidance, certain such income inclusions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test.

 

Hedging Transactions

 

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

 

Rents from Real Property

 

To the extent that we own real property or interests therein, rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income tests described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

·The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property if we earned such amounts directly;

 

·Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a TRS of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the TRS are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space;

 

·Rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a TRS; and

 

·We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a TRS (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

 

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We intend to structure any leases so that the rent payable thereunder will qualify as “rents from real property,” but there can be no assurance we will be successful in this regard.

 

Phantom Income

 

Due to the nature of the assets in which we may invest, from time to time we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income in early periods that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

 

If we were to acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount, the amount of such discount generally would be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions in a subsequent taxable year.

 

If we were to acquire securities issued with original issue discount, we would generally be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the securities, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though smaller or no cash payments were received on such debt instrument. As in the case of the market discount discussed in the preceding paragraph, the constant yield in question would be determined and we would be taxed based on the assumption that all future payments due on securities in question will be made, with consequences similar to those described in the previous paragraph if all payments on the securities are not made.

 

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or other securities we acquire are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinate mortgage-backed securities at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

 

We may also be required under the terms of indebtedness that we borrow from private lenders to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

Finally, we are required to recognize certain items of income for U.S. federal income tax purposes no later than when we would report such items on our financial statements. This requirement generally applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, but applies with respect to income from a debt instrument having original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes only for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2018.

 

Due to each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and the related cash receipts or disbursements, there is a risk that we may have taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

 

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Prohibited Transaction Income

 

Any gain that we realize on the sale of an asset (other than foreclosure property, as described below) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, either directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiaries or subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether an asset is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset we own will be held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, and that a sale of any assets we own will not be in the ordinary course of business. However, the IRS may successfully assert that some or all of the sales made by us, our qualified REIT subsidiaries or our subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a TRS, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

Foreclosure Property

 

Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate (currently 21%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. If we believe we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

 

Penalty Tax

 

Any redetermined deductions, excess interest, redetermined rents or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a TRS of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a TRS of ours, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a TRS of ours that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

We do not have any TRSs that provide tenant services, and we intend to set any amounts payable to us by our TRSs at arm’s length rates. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our TRSs.

 

Failure to Satisfy the Gross Income Tests.

 

We monitor our income and take actions intended to keep our nonqualifying income within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

·following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

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·our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

 

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our qualification as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

 

Asset Tests

 

At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. Regular or residual interests in REMICs are generally treated as a real estate asset. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets of the REMIC. In the case of any interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust.

 

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of TRSs), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

 

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and TRSs, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a TRS. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

 

Fourth, not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more TRSs. We currently own, directly or indirectly, interests in companies that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our TRSs, and we may acquire securities in additional TRSs in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a TRS of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our TRSs has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

 

Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

 

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We believe that the assets comprising our mortgage-related investments and securities that we own generally are qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, and that our ownership of TRSs and other assets have been structured in a manner that will comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we monitor compliance on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance, however, that we will always be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine compliance with these requirements, we need to estimate the value of our assets, and we do not expect to obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the total value of our assets or the value of any particular security or other asset. Moreover, values of some assets, including our interests in our TRSs, may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future. Although we will continue to be prudent in making these estimates, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we might not satisfy the REIT asset tests, and could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

In the event that we invest in a mortgage loan that is not fully secured by real property, Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor under which the IRS has stated that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a loan as being, in part, a qualifying real estate asset in an amount equal to the lesser of: (1) the greater of (a) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan determined as of the date the REIT committed to acquire the loan or (b) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date; or (2) the fair market value of the loan on the date of the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date. We intend to invest in mortgage loans in a manner consistent with satisfying the asset tests and maintaining our qualification as a REIT.

 

The proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset tests. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not assert that our interests in subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers caused a violation of the REIT asset tests.

 

In addition, we intend to enter into repurchase agreements under which we will nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any repurchase agreement and that the repurchase agreement will be treated as a secured lending transaction notwithstanding that we may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could successfully assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiary or subsidiary partnership) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer may increase as a result of our capital contributions to, or the redemption of other partners’ or members’ interests in, a partnership in which we have an ownership interest. However, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

 

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Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (1) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (2) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (3) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

 

Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our overall interest in an issuer (including in a TRS). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

 

Annual Distribution Requirements

 

To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

·90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

·90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

·the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

 

For these purposes, our “REIT taxable income” is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

 

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation which was or had been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset was less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—General.”

 

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and except as provided below, a taxpayer’s deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of its taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We do not believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships will be eligible to make this election.

 

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential — i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its distribution rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a “publicly offered REIT.” To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount.

 

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We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Income Tests—Phantom Income.”

 

Under certain circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

 

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

 

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

 

Failure to Qualify

 

If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to our stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to our stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

 

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Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities

 

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock or debt securities. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or debt securities as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

·U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

·persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

·U.S. Holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

·persons holding our capital stock or debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

·banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

·REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

·brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

·“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

·S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

·tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

·persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock or debt securities being taken into account in an “applicable financial statement” (as defined in the Code);

 

·persons deemed to sell our capital stock or debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

·persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

 

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

·an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

·a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

·an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

·a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or debt securities that is neither a U.S. Holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

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If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

 

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

Distributions Generally

 

Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. Holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. Holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

 

To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. Holder to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. Holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

 

U.S. Holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of our capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. Holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. Holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. Holder sells our capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. Holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. Holder that receives our capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such capital stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

 

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Capital Gain Dividends

 

Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. Holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. Holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in the long-term capital gains of our stockholders, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

 

Retention of Net Capital Gains

 

We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. Holder generally would:

 

·include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its U.S. federal income tax return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

·be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. Holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

·receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

·increase the adjusted tax basis of our capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

·in the case of a U.S. Holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

 

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations

 

Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. Holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. Holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. Holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions we make, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

 

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock

 

Except as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. Holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be a long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. Holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of our capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. Holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

 

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Redemption or Repurchase by Us

 

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

·is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. Holder,

 

·results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. Holder’s stock interest in us, or

 

·is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. Holder,

 

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

 

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. Holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. Holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. Holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. Holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

 

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. Holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

 

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

 

Tax Rates

 

The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” is generally 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” is generally 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its TRSs) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. Holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations.

 

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Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code or if we hold an asset that gives rise to “excess inclusion income.” See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.” Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

 

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our capital stock will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our stock. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

 

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to the holders of our capital stock. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

 

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

 

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by Non-U.S. Holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other U.S. federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a Non-U.S. Holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge Non-U.S. Holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

 

Distributions Generally

 

Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. In addition, any portion of the dividends paid to Non-U.S. Holders that are treated as excess inclusion income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding tax or a reduced treaty rate. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of the Company—Excess Inclusion Income.” Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a Non-U.S. Holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business (through a U.S. permanent establishment, where applicable) generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. Holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

 

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Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a Non-U.S. Holder unless:

 

·a lower treaty rate applies and the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s trade or business.

 

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a Non-U.S. Holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s shares of our capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares, they will generally give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such shares, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain Non-U.S. Holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

 

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests

 

Distributions to a Non-U.S. Holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

·the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Holders with respect to such gain, except that a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the Non-U.S. Holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, or FIRPTA, distributions to a Non-U.S. Holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the Non-U.S. Holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. Holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. Holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to Non-U.S. Holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the Non-U.S. Holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements, or qualified shareholders, are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

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Retention of Net Capital Gains

 

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to Non-U.S. Holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the Non-U.S. Holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax that we paid on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax that we paid exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

 

Sale of Our Capital Stock

 

Except as described below under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a Non-U.S. Holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation”, or a “USRPHC”, will constitute a USRPI unless certain exceptions apply. A domestic corporation will constitute a USRPHC if 50% or more of the corporation’s assets on any of certain testing dates during a prescribed testing period consist of interests in real property located within the United States, excluding for this purpose, interests in real property solely in a capacity as creditor. We do not believe we are currently, and do not anticipate becoming, a USRPHC. However, because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our USRPIs relative to the fair market value of our non-U.S. real property interests and our other business assets, there can be no assurance we currently are not a USRPHC or will not become one in the future.

 

Even if we were a USRPHC, our capital stock will not constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. Although we believe that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot make any assurance that we will remain a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

 

Even if we were a USRPHC and we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a Non-U.S. Holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a Non-U.S. Holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

 

(1)such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, such as the New York Stock Exchange, and

 

(2)such Non-U.S. Holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the Non-U.S. Holder’s holding period.

 

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In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a Non-U.S. Holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Holders with respect to such gain, except that a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the Non-U.S. Holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a Non-U.S. Holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the Non-U.S. Holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such class of stock is “regularly traded” and the Non-U.S. Holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

 

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the Non-U.S. Holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. Holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

 

Redemption or Repurchase by Us

 

A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

 

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Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities

 

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of our debt securities. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).

 

U.S. Holders

 

Payments of Interest

 

Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. Holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. Holder’s method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition

 

A U.S. Holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will be equal to the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. Holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

Payments of Interest

 

Interest paid on a debt security to a Non-U.S. Holder that is not effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax, or withholding tax, provided that:

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our voting stock;

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to us through actual or constructive stock ownership; and

 

·either (1) the Non-U.S. Holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the Non-U.S. Holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the Non-U.S. Holder, has received from the Non-U.S. Holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and provides the applicable withholding agent with a copy of such statement; or (3) the Non-U.S. Holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” (within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.

 

If a Non-U.S. Holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the Non-U.S. Holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.

 

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If interest paid to a Non-U.S. Holder is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the Non-U.S. Holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the Non-U.S. Holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the Non-U.S. Holder of a trade or business within the United States.

 

Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular graduated rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.

 

The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. Holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

 

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition

 

A Non-U.S. Holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Federal Income Tax Considerations for Holders of Our Capital Stock and Debt Securities—Taxation of Holders of Our Debt Securities—Non-U.S. Holders—Payments of Interest”) unless:

 

·the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the Non-U.S. Holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

 

·the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.

 

Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates. A Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

 

Gain described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the Non-U.S. Holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the Non-U.S. Holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

Non-U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

 

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

 

U.S. Holders

 

A U.S. Holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. Holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. Holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

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·the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

·the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

·the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

·the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

 

Non-U.S. Holders

 

Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities paid to the Non-U.S. Holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of our capital stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

 

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the Non-U.S. Holder resides or is established.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

 

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

 

Certain U.S. Holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations, subject to certain limitations. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or debt securities.

 

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Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

 

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or “FATCA”) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our debt securities, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

 

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our debt securities. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019, recently proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

 

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or debt securities.

 

Other Tax Consequences

 

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or debt securities.

 

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Plan of Distribution

 

We may sell the securities offered pursuant to any applicable prospectus supplement directly to one or more purchasers or through dealers, agents, or underwriters, or a combination of the foregoing. We may sell the securities offered pursuant to any applicable prospectus supplement in at-the-market equity offerings or on a negotiated or competitive bid basis through underwriters or dealers or directly to other purchasers or through agents, or a combination of the foregoing. We will name any underwriter, dealer, or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities in the applicable prospectus supplement. We reserve the right to sell the securities directly to investors on our own behalf in those jurisdictions where and in such manner as we are authorized to do so.

 

We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

·at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

·at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

·at prices related to prevailing market prices; or

 

·at negotiated prices.

 

We may also, from time to time, authorize underwriters, dealers, or other persons, acting as our agents, to offer and sell the securities upon the terms and conditions as are set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of the securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions, or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any underwriting compensation we pay to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions, or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements with any underwriters, dealers, and agents which may entitle them to indemnification against and contribution toward certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and to reimbursement for certain expenses. We will describe any indemnification agreements in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, any securities issued hereunder other than shares of our common stock will be a new issue with no established trading market. We may elect to list any of the securities issued hereunder on any exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters or agents may make a market in the securities issued hereunder, including our common stock, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you as to the liquidity of the trading market for the securities.

 

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may authorize underwriters, dealers, or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions or other suitable persons to purchase the securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in the prospectus supplement. We may make delayed delivery with various institutions, including commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, and educational and charitable institutions. Delayed delivery contracts will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities covered by the delayed delivery contracts will not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and agents will not have any responsibility with respect to the validity or performance of these contracts.

 

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To facilitate an offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover the over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

Certain of the underwriters, dealers, or agents and their respective associates may be customers of, and/or engage in transactions with, and perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

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Validity of the Securities

 

The validity of certain securities will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. The validity of the debt securities and certain tax matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP.

 

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Experts

 

The audited consolidated financial statements and management's assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

  

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Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

 

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

·our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, which was filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019;

 

·our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2019, which was filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019;

 

·our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 28, 2019 and February 1, 2019;

 

·our Definitive Proxy Statement with respect to the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 5, 2019 (solely to the extent specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K);

 

·the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, which was filed with the SEC on January 7, 1998 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description; and

 

·all documents filed by Redwood Trust, Inc. with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering (but excluding any items, documents, or portions of items or documents which are deemed “furnished” and not filed with the SEC, including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K).

 

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.
Attn: Investor Relations
One Belvedere Place, Suite 300
Mill Valley, CA 94941
(866) 269-4976

 

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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Where You Can Find More Information

 

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

 

Our website address is http://www.redwoodtrust.com. The information contained on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus or any other report or filing filed with the SEC.

 

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. We have omitted certain parts of the registration statement, as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided above. The indenture and forms of other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries, which are not necessarily complete, and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

 

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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table itemizes the expenses incurred by the Registrant in connection with the issuance and registration of the securities being registered hereunder. All amounts shown are estimates except the Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee.

 

SEC registration fee  $     (1)
FINRA filing fee  $     (2)
Printing and engraving expenses  $     (2)
Legal fees and expenses  $     (2)
Accounting fees and expenses  $     (2)
Blue Sky, qualification fees and expenses  $     (2)
Fees of rating agencies  $     (2)
Trustee fees and expenses  $     (2)
Transfer agent fees and expenses  $     (2)
NYSE listing fees  $     (2)
Federal and state taxes and fees  $     (2)
Miscellaneous fees and expenses  $     (2)
      
Total  $ (2)

 

 
(1)Under SEC Rules 456(b) and 457(r), the SEC registration fee will be paid at the time of any particular offering of securities under the registration statement, and is therefore not currently determinable.
(2)These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property, or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action. The charter of the registrant contains such a provision which eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

 

The charter and bylaws of the registrant require it, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to (a) any present or former director or officer or (b) any individual who, while a director or officer of the registrant and at the request of the registrant, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan, or any other enterprise from and against any claim or liability to which such person may become subject or which such person may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity. The bylaws of the registrant establish certain procedures for indemnification and advance of expenses pursuant to applicable law and the registrant’s charter. The charter and bylaws also permit the registrant to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of the registrant in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of the registrant or a predecessor of the registrant.

 

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The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which the registrant’s charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that (a) the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (b) the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property, or services or (c) in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification, and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it shall ultimately be determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

 

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

Exhibit
Number
  Description
     
1.1   Underwriting Agreement(1)
     
3.1   Articles of Amendment and Restatement of the Registrant, effective July 6, 1994 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Exhibit 3.1, filed on August 6, 2008) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.2   Articles Supplementary of the Registrant, effective August 10, 1994 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Exhibit 3.1.1, filed on August 6, 2008) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.3   Articles Supplementary of the Registrant, effective August 11, 1995 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Exhibit 3.1.2, filed on August 6, 2008) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.4   Articles Supplementary of the Registrant, effective August 9, 1996 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Exhibit 3.1.3, filed on August 6, 2008) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.5   Certificate of Amendment of the Registrant, effective June 30, 1998 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Exhibit 3.1.4, filed on August 6, 2008) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.6   Articles Supplementary of the Registrant, effective April 7, 2003 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Exhibit 3.1.5, filed on August 6, 2008) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.7   Articles of Amendment of the Registrant, effective June 12, 2008 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, Exhibit 3.1.6, filed on August 6, 2008) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.8   Articles of Amendment of the Registrant, effective May 19, 2009 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, Exhibit 3.1, filed on May 21, 2009) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.8   Articles of Amendment of the Registrant, effective May 24, 2011 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, Exhibit 3.1, filed on May 20, 2011) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.10   Articles of Amendment of the Registrant, effective May 18, 2012 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, Exhibit 3.1, filed on May 21, 2012) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.11   Articles of Amendment of the Registrant, effective May 16, 2013 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, Exhibit 3.1, filed on May 21, 2013) (File No. 001-13759)

 

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Exhibit
Number
  Description
     
3.12   Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant, as adopted on March 5, 2008 (incorporated by reference to Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, Exhibit 3.1, filed on March 11, 2008) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.13   First Amendment to Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant, as adopted on May 17, 2012 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, Exhibit 3.2, filed on May 21, 2012) (File No. 001-13759)
     
3.14   Second Amendment to Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant, as adopted on May 22, 2018 (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, Exhibit 3.1, filed on May 23, 2018) (File No. 001-13759)
     
4.1   Form of Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 (No. 333-08363), Exhibit 4.3, filed on August 6, 1996) (File No. 333-08363)
     
4.2   Form of Preferred Stock Certificate(1)
     
4.3   Form of Debt Security(1)
     
4.4   Form of Indenture
     
4.5   Form of Warrant(1)
     
4.6   Form of Warrant Agreement(1)
     
5.1   Opinion of Venable LLP
     
5.2   Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP
     
8.1   Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP
     
23.1   Consent of Grant Thornton LLP
     
23.2   Consent of Venable LLP (contained in Exhibit 5.1)
     
23.3   Consent of Latham & Watkins LLP (contained in Exhibit 5.2)
     
23.5   Consent of Latham & Watkins LLP (contained in Exhibit 8.1)
     
24.1   Power of Attorney (included on signature page to this Registration Statement)
     
25.1   Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1

 

 

(1)To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of the securities.

 

Item 17. Undertakings.

 

(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

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(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information in the registration statement; and

 

(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 or Form F-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

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(5)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities: The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(h)Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, Redwood Trust, Inc. certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Mill Valley, State of California, on this ninth day of May, 2019.

 

  REDWOOD TRUST, INC.
     
  By: /s/ Christopher J. Abate
  Name: Christopher J. Abate
  Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENT, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Christopher J. Abate and Andrew P. Stone and each or either of them, his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments or any abbreviated registration statement and any amendments thereto filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) increasing the number of securities for which registration is sought) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his substitutes or substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:

 

Signature   Title   Date
         
/s/ Christopher J. Abate   Director and Chief Executive Officer   May 9, 2019
Christopher J. Abate   (Principal Executive Officer)    
         
/s/ Collin L. Cochrane   Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President   May 9, 2019
Collin L. Cochrane   (Principal Financial Officer)    
         
/s/ Lola Bondar   Controller   May 9, 2019
Lola Bondar   (Principal Accounting Officer)    
         
/s/ Richard D. Baum   Director, Chairman of the Board   May 9, 2019
Richard D. Baum        
         
/s/ Mariann Byerwalter   Director   May 9, 2019
Mariann Byerwalter        
         
/s/ Douglas B. Hansen   Director   May 9, 2019
Douglas B. Hansen        
         
/s/ Debora D. Horvath   Director   May 9, 2019
Debora D. Horvath        

 

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Signature   Title   Date
         
/s/ Greg H. Kubicek   Director   May 9, 2019
Greg H. Kubicek        
         
  Director  
Fred J. Matera        
         
/s/ Karen R. Pallotta   Director   May 9, 2019
Karen R. Pallotta        
         
/s/ Jeffrey T. Pero   Director   May 9, 2019
Jeffrey T. Pero        
         
/s/ Georganne C. Proctor   Director   May 9, 2019
Georganne C. Proctor        

 

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Section 2: EX-4.4 (EXHIBIT 4.4)

 

Exhibit 4.4

 

 

 

REDWOOD TRUST, INC.

 

as Issuer

 

AND

 

WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

 

as Trustee

 

 

 

Indenture

 

Dated as of                  , 2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 1
Section 1.1. Definitions. 1
Section 1.2. Other Definitions. 4
Section 1.3. Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. 4
Section 1.4. Rules of Construction. 5
     
ARTICLE II. THE SECURITIES 5
Section 2.1. Issuable in Series. 5
Section 2.2. Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities. 5
Section 2.3. Execution and Authentication. 7
Section 2.4. Registrar and Paying Agent. 8
Section 2.5. Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. 9
Section 2.6. Securityholder Lists. 9
Section 2.7. Transfer and Exchange. 9
Section 2.8. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. 10
Section 2.9. Outstanding Securities. 10
Section 2.10. Treasury Securities. 11
Section 2.11. Temporary Securities. 11
Section 2.12. Cancellation. 11
Section 2.13. Defaulted Interest. 11
Section 2.14. Global Securities. 11
Section 2.15. CUSIP Numbers. 13
     
ARTICLE III. REDEMPTION 13
Section 3.1. Notice to Trustee. 13
Section 3.2. Selection of Securities to be Redeemed. 13
Section 3.3. Notice of Redemption. 14
Section 3.4. Effect of Notice of Redemption. 14
Section 3.5. Deposit of Redemption Price. 15
Section 3.6. Securities Redeemed in Part. 15
     
ARTICLE IV. COVENANTS 15
Section 4.1. Payment of Principal and Interest. 15
Section 4.2. SEC Reports. 15
Section 4.3. Compliance Certificate. 15
Section 4.4. Stay, Extension and Usury Laws. 16
Section 4.5. Corporate Existence. 16
Section 4.6. Taxes. 16
     
ARTICLE V. SUCCESSORS 16
Section 5.1. When Company May Merge, Etc. 16
Section 5.2. Successor Corporation Substituted. 16
     
ARTICLE VI. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 17
Section 6.1. Events of Default. 17
Section 6.2. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment. 18
Section 6.3. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee. 18
Section 6.4. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. 19
Section 6.5. Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities. 20

 

i 

 

 

Section 6.6. Application of Money Collected. 20
Section 6.7. Limitation on Suits. 20
Section 6.8. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest. 21
Section 6.9. Restoration of Rights and Remedies. 21
Section 6.10. Rights and Remedies Cumulative. 21
Section 6.11. Delay or Omission Not Waiver. 21
Section 6.12. Control by Holders. 22
Section 6.13. Waiver of Past Defaults. 22
Section 6.14. Undertaking for Costs. 22
     
ARTICLE VII. TRUSTEE 23
Section 7.1. Duties of Trustee. 23
Section 7.2. Rights of Trustee. 24
Section 7.3. Individual Rights of Trustee. 25
Section 7.4. Trustee’s Disclaimer. 25
Section 7.5. Notice of Defaults. 25
Section 7.6. Reports by Trustee to Holders. 25
Section 7.7. Compensation and Indemnity. 26
Section 7.8. Replacement of Trustee. 26
Section 7.9. Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc. 27
Section 7.10. Eligibility; Disqualification. 27
Section 7.11. Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company. 27
     
ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 28
Section 8.1. Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. 28
Section 8.2. Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification. 29
Section 8.3. Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series. 29
Section 8.4. Covenant Defeasance. 30
Section 8.5. Repayment to Company. 31
Section 8.6. Reinstatement. 32
     
ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 32
Section 9.1. Without Consent of Holders. 32
Section 9.2. With Consent of Holders. 33
Section 9.3. Limitations. 33
Section 9.4. Compliance with Trust Indenture Act. 34
Section 9.5. Revocation and Effect of Consents. 34
Section 9.6. Notation on or Exchange of Securities. 34
Section 9.7. Trustee Protected. 34
     
ARTICLE X. MISCELLANEOUS 35
Section 10.1. Trust Indenture Act Controls. 35
Section 10.2. Notices. 35
Section 10.3. Communication by Holders with Other Holders. 36
Section 10.4. Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent. 36
Section 10.5. Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion. 36
Section 10.6. Rules by Trustee and Agents. 37
Section 10.7. Legal Holidays. 37
Section 10.8. No Recourse Against Others. 37
Section 10.9. Counterparts. 37
Section 10.10. Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction. 37

 

ii 

 

 

Section 10.11. No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements. 38
Section 10.12. Successors. 38
Section 10.13. Severability. 38
Section 10.14. Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. 38
Section 10.15. Securities in a Foreign Currency. 38
Section 10.16. Judgment Currency. 39
Section 10.17. Force Majeure. 39
Section 10.18. U.S.A. Patriot Act. 39
     
ARTICLE XI. SINKING FUNDS 40
Section 11.1. Applicability of Article. 40
Section 11.2. Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities. 40
Section 11.3. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund. 40

 

iii 

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

 

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and
Indenture, dated as of , 2019

 

§ 310(a)(1)   7.10
(a)(2)   7.10
(a)(3)   Not Applicable
(a)(4)   Not Applicable
(a)(5)   7.10
(b)   7.10
§ 311(a)   7.11
(b)   7.11
(c)   Not Applicable
§ 312(a)   2.6
(b)   10.3
(c)   10.3
§ 313(a)   7.6
(b)(1)   7.6
(b)(2)   7.6
(c)(1)   7.6
(d)   7.6
§ 314(a)   4.2, 10.5
(b)   Not Applicable
(c)(1)   10.4
(c)(2)   10.4
(c)(3)   Not Applicable
(d)   Not Applicable
(e)   10.5
(f)   Not Applicable
§ 315(a)   7.1
(b)   7.5
(c)   7.1
(d)   7.1
(e)   6.14
§ 316(a)   2.10
(a)(1)(A)   6.12
(a)(1)(B)   6.13
(b)   6.8
§ 317(a)(1)   6.3
(a)(2)   6.4
(b)   2.5
§ 318(a)   10.1

 

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

iv 

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of            , 2019, between REDWOOD TRUST, INC., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, a national banking association, as trustee (the “Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.1.      Definitions.

  

Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.

 

Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.

 

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means, unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York, New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment) on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

 

Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered.

 

Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

 

 

 

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

 

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

GAAP means accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

 

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

 

Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect repayment or otherwise.

 

Officer” means the Chairman of the Board, the President, any Vice-President, the Treasurer, the Secretary, any Assistant Treasurer or any Assistant Secretary of the Company.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. The opinion may contain customary limitations, conditions and exceptions.

 

 2 

 

 

person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

 

Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

 

SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

 

Significant Subsidiaries” means (i) any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Company that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof, or (ii) any group of direct or indirect Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together as a group, would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof.

 

Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” of any specified person means any corporation of which at least a majority of the outstanding stock having by the terms thereof ordinary voting power for the election of directors of such corporation (irrespective of whether or not at the time stock of any other class or classes of such corporation shall have or might have voting power by reason of the happening of any contingency) is at the time directly or indirectly owned by such person, or by one or more other Subsidiaries, or by such person and one or more other Subsidiaries.

 

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

 3 

 

 

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depositary receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

Section 1.2.      Other Definitions.

 

TERM DEFINED IN
  SECTION
   
Bankruptcy Law 6.1
Custodian 6.1
Event of Default 6.1
Judgment Currency 10.16
Legal Holiday 10.7
mandatory sinking fund payment 11.1
New York Banking Day 10.16
Notice Agent 2.4
optional sinking fund payment 11.1
Paying Agent 2.4
Registrar 2.4
Required Currency 10.16
Specified Courts 10.10
successor person 5.1

 

Section 1.3.      Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

Commission” means the SEC.

 

indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

 

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

 4 

 

 

Section 1.4.      Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a)     a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

(b)     an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

 

(c)     or” is not exclusive;

 

(d)     words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

(e)     provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

ARTICLE II.
THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.1.      Issuable in Series.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

Section 2.2.      Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

 

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

 

2.2.1.      the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;

 

2.2.2.      the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

2.2.3.      any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6);

 

 5 

 

 

2.2.4.      the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

2.2.5.      the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

2.2.6.      the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

2.2.7.      if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

2.2.8.      the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

2.2.9.      the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

2.2.10.      if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

2.2.11.      the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

 

2.2.12.      if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.13.      the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

2.2.14.      the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

 

2.2.15.      if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

2.2.16.      the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

 6 

 

 

2.2.17.      the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

2.2.18.      any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.19.      any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

2.2.20.      any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

2.2.21.      the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

2.2.22.      any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series; and

 

2.2.23.      whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

 

Section 2.3.      Execution and Authentication.

 

An Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

 

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication unless otherwise provided by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate.

 

 7 

 

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

 

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.2) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents or a committee of Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

 

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

Section 2.4.      Registrar and Paying Agent.

 

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.2, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“Notice Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands; provided, however, that the Trustee, whether in its capacity as the Notice Agent or otherwise, shall not be an agent to receive the service of legal process on the Company.

 

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Notice Agent” includes any additional notice agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

 8 

 

 

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

Section 2.5.      Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

 

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

 

Section 2.6.      Securityholder Lists.

 

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

Section 2.7.      Transfer and Exchange.

 

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6).

 

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen days immediately preceding the sending of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day such notice is sent, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

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Section 2.8.      Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.9.      Outstanding Securities.

 

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.

 

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

 

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

 

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security (but see Section 2.10 below).

 

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In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Section 2.10.      Treasury Securities.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

 

Section 2.11.      Temporary Securities.

 

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

Section 2.12.      Cancellation.

 

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the customary procedures of the Trustee) and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.13.      Defaulted Interest.

 

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least 10 days before the special record date, the Company shall send to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

Section 2.14.      Global Securities.

 

2.14.1.      Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

 

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2.14.2.      Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.7 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event, (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable or (iii) an Event of Default with respect to the Securities represented by such Global Security shall have happened and be continuing. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

Except as provided in this Section 2.14.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, neither the Trustee nor the Registrar shall be responsible for ascertaining whether any transfer complies with the registration provisions or exemptions from the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, applicable state securities laws or other applicable laws.

 

2.14.3.      Legends. Unless otherwise provided pursuant to Section 2.2, any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

 

In addition, so long as the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) is the Depositary, each Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“UNLESS THIS GLOBAL NOTE IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE COMPANY OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY GLOBAL NOTE ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.”

 

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2.14.4.      Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

 

2.14.5.      Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

 

2.14.6.      Consents, Declaration and Directions. The Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of such Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Section 2.15.      CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

 

ARTICLE III.
REDEMPTION

 

Section 3.1.      Notice to Trustee.

 

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice at least 15 days before the redemption date (unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the Trustee).

 

Section 3.2.      Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Securities of the Series to be redeemed will be selected as follows: (a) if the Securities are in the form of Global Securities, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary, (b) if the Securities are listed on any national securities exchange, in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange, if any, on which the Securities are listed, or (c) if not otherwise provided for under clause (a) or (b) in the manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements, subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary. The Securities to be redeemed shall be selected from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. Portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000 may be selected for redemption. Securities of the Series and portions of them selected for redemption shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2.10, the minimum principal denomination for each Series and the authorized integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

 

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Section 3.3.      Notice of Redemption.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 15 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall send or cause to be sent by first-class mail or electronically, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary, a notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

 

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

 

(a)     the redemption date;

 

(b)     the redemption price;

 

(c)     the name and address of the Paying Agent;

 

(d)     if any Securities are being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date and upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original Security shall be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Security;

 

(e)     that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

(f)     that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date unless the Company defaults in the deposit of the redemption price;

 

(g)     the CUSIP number, if any; and

 

(h)     any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

 

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least 10 days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice.

 

Section 3.4.      Effect of Notice of Redemption.

 

Once notice of redemption is sent as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate for a Series, a notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date.

 

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Section 3.5.      Deposit of Redemption Price.

 

On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

Section 3.6.      Securities Redeemed in Part.

 

Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

 

ARTICLE IV.
COVENANTS

 

Section 4.1.      Payment of Principal and Interest.

 

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

 

Section 4.2.      SEC Reports.

 

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after it files them with the SEC copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the SEC may by rules and regulations prescribe) which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA § 314(a). Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the Trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this Section 4.2.

 

Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.2 are for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive or actual notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

 

Section 4.3.      Compliance Certificate.

 

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his/her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which the Officer may have knowledge).

 

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Section 4.4.      Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

 

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

 

Section 4.5.      Corporate Existence.

 

Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and rights (charter and statutory); provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

 

Section 4.6.      Taxes.

 

The Company shall, and shall cause each of its Significant Subsidiaries to, pay prior to delinquency all material taxes, assessments and governmental levies, except as contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings.

 

ARTICLE V.
SUCCESSORS

 

Section 5.1.      When Company May Merge, Etc.

 

The Company shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

(a)     the Company is the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than the Company) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture; and

 

(b)     immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to the Company. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

 

Section 5.2.      Successor Corporation Substituted.

 

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Company in the case of a sale, conveyance or other disposition (other than a lease) shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

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ARTICLE VI.
DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

 

Section 6.1.      Events of Default.

 

Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate establishing the series as provided for in Section 2.2, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

 

(a)     default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period); or

 

(b)     default in the payment of principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

 

(c)     default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, within 30 days when and as due in respect of any Security of that Series; or

 

(d)     default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of the Company in this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraphs (a), (b) or (c) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

(e)     the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

 

(i)     commences a voluntary case,

 

(ii)     consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

 

(iii)     consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

 

(iv)     makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

 

(v)     generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

 

(f)     a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

 

(i)     is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case,

 

(ii)     appoints a Custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

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(iii)     orders the liquidation of the Company,

 

and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

 

(g)     any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2.18.

 

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means title 11, U.S. Code or any similar Federal or State law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

The Company will provide the Trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take in respect thereof.

 

Section 6.2.      Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.1(e) or (f)) then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(e) or (f) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

 

At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

 

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.3.      Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

The Company covenants that if

 

(a)     default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

 

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(b)     default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

 

(c)     default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, if any, when and as due by the terms of a Security,

 

then, the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the compensation, reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

 

If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

 

Section 6.4.      Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

 

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

 

(a)     to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the compensation, reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

 

(b)     to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same,

 

and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the compensation, reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

 

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Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.5.      Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

 

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the compensation, reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

Section 6.6.      Application of Money Collected.

 

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

First:     To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7; and

 

Second:     To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

 

Third:     To the Company.

 

Section 6.7.      Limitation on Suits.

 

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless

 

(a)     such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

 

(b)     the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

(c)     such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

 

(d)     the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

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(e)     no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

 

it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series.

 

Section 6.8.      Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

 

Section 6.9.      Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

 

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

 

Section 6.10.      Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

 

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.8, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

Section 6.11.      Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

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Section 6.12.      Control by Holders.

 

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that

 

(a)     such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

 

(b)     the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction,

 

(c)     subject to the provisions of Section 7.1, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability, and

 

(d)     prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

Section 6.13.      Waiver of Past Defaults.

 

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series, by written notice to the Trustee and the Company, waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.14.      Undertaking for Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

 

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ARTICLE VII.
TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.1.      Duties of Trustee.

 

(a)     If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

(b)     Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

 

(i)     The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

 

(ii)     In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the form requirements of this Indenture.

 

(c)     The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i)     This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section.

 

(ii)     The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

 

(iii)     The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

 

(d)     Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to this Section and Section 7.2.

 

(e)     The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

 

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(f)     The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

(g)     No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee in its satisfaction.

 

(h)     The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in paragraphs (e), (f) and (g) of this Section and in Section 7.2, each with respect to the Trustee.

 

Section 7.2.      Rights of Trustee.

 

(a)     The Trustee may rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

 

(b)     Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.

 

(c)     The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

 

(d)     The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute willful misconduct or negligence.

 

(e)     The Trustee may consult with counsel and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder without willful misconduct or negligence, and in reliance thereon.

 

(f)     The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

(g)     The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit.

 

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(h)     The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a Default or Event of Default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture.

 

(i)     In no event shall the Trustee be liable to any person for special, punitive, indirect, consequential or incidental loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including but not limited to lost profits), even if the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage.

 

(j)     The permissive right of the Trustee to take the actions permitted by this Indenture shall not be construed as an obligation or duty to do so.

 

Section 7.3.      Individual Rights of Trustee.

 

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

 

Section 7.4.      Trustee’s Disclaimer.

 

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

 

Section 7.5.      Notice of Defaults.

 

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall send to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after the Trustee becomes aware thereof or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as its corporate trust committee or a committee of its Responsible Officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

 

Section 7.6.      Reports by Trustee to Holders.

 

Within 60 days after each anniversary of the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such anniversary date, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA § 313.

 

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each national securities exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee when Securities of any Series are listed on any national securities exchange.

 

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Section 7.7.      Compensation and Indemnity.

 

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out of pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

The Company shall indemnify the Trustee (including for the cost of defending itself) against any cost, expense or liability, including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it except as set forth in the next paragraph in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder, unless and to the extent that the Company is materially prejudiced thereby. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent will not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through willful misconduct or negligence.

 

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

 

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(e) or (f) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

In the event that the Trustee is no longer acting as an Agent hereunder, the provisions of this Section 7.7 shall apply equally to each Agent which is not the Company.

 

The provisions of this Section shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

Section 7.8.      Replacement of Trustee.

 

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

 

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company at least 30 days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

 

(a)     the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

 

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(b)     the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

 

(c)     a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

 

(d)     the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

 

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

 

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

 

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.7, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.8, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.7 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it for actions taken or omitted to be taken in accordance with its rights, powers and duties under this Indenture prior to such replacement.

 

Section 7.9.      Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

 

If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee, subject to Section 7.10.

 

Section 7.10.      Eligibility; Disqualification.

 

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA § 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA § 310(b).

 

Section 7.11.      Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

 

The Trustee is subject to TIA § 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA § 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA § 311(a) to the extent indicated.

 

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ARTICLE VIII.
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

 

Section 8.1.      Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

 

This Indenture shall upon Company Order be discharged with respect to the Securities of any Series and cease to be of further effect as to all Securities of such Series (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.1), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

 

(a)     either

 

(i)     all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

 

(ii)     all such Securities of such Series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation

 

(1)     have become due and payable by reason of sending a notice of redemption or otherwise, or

 

(2)     will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

 

(3)     have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or

 

(4)     are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to Section 8.3, as applicable;

 

and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount of money or U.S. Government Obligations, which amount shall be sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest on all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of principal or interest are due;

 

(b)     the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

 

(c)     the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

 

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.7, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 8.2 and 8.5 shall survive.

 

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Section 8.2.      Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

 

(a)     Subject to the provisions of Section 8.5, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, 8.3 or 8.4 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, 8.3 or 8.4, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.1, 8.3 or 8.4.

 

(b)     The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.1, 8.3 or 8.4 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

 

(c)     The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Order any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Sections 8.3 or 8.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

 

Section 8.3.      Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

 

Unless this Section 8.3 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.2, to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, upon receipt of a Company Order, execute instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:

 

(a)     the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

 

(b)     the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 7.7, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5 and 8.6; and

 

(c)     the rights, powers, trusts and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith;

 

provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

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(d)     the Company shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of principal or interest and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

(e)     such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

 

(f)     no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

 

(g)     the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

 

(h)     the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

 

(i)     the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

 

Section 8.4.      Covenant Defeasance.

 

Unless this Section 8.4 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1 and, unless otherwise specified therein, any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.1) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, but, except as specified above, the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities will be unaffected thereby; provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

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(a)     with reference to this Section 8.4, the Company has irrevocably deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest on all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of principal or interest are due;

 

(b)     such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

 

(c)     no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

 

(d)     the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance had not occurred;

 

(e)     The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

 

(f)     The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

 

Section 8.5.      Repayment to Company.

 

Subject to applicable abandoned property law, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

 

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Section 8.6.      Reinstatement.

 

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 8.1 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series and under the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.1 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.1; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent after payment in full to the Holders.

 

ARTICLE IX.
AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

 

Section 9.1.      Without Consent of Holders.

 

The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

 

(a)     to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

(b)     to comply with Article V;

 

(c)     to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

(d)     to add guarantees with respect to Securities of any Series or secure Securities of any Series;

 

(e)     to surrender any of the Company’s rights or powers under this Indenture;

 

(f)     to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of Securities of any Series;

 

(g)     to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

 

(h)     to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder as evidenced by an Opinion of Counsel;

 

(i)     to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

 

(j)     to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee; or

 

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(k)     to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA.

 

Section 9.2.      With Consent of Holders.

 

The Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.2 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall send to the Holders of Securities affected thereby, a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver. Any failure by the Company to send such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

Section 9.3.      Limitations.

 

Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

 

(a)     reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

(b)     reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security;

 

(c)     reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

 

(d)     reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

(e)     waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

(f)     make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

 

(g)     make any change in Sections 6.8, 6.13 or 9.3 (this sentence); or

 

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(h)     waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, provided that such redemption is made at the Company’s option.

 

Section 9.4.      Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

 

Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

 

Section 9.5.      Revocation and Effect of Consents.

 

Until an amendment set forth in a supplemental indenture or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the supplemental indenture or the date the waiver becomes effective.

 

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (h) of Section 9.3. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

 

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to give their consent or take any other action described above or required or permitted to be taken pursuant to this Indenture. If a record date is fixed, then notwithstanding the second immediately preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to give such consent or to revoke any consent previously given or take any such action, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 120 days after such record date.

 

Section 9.6.      Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

 

The Company or the Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Company in exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon receipt of a Company Order in accordance with Section 2.3 new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

 

Section 9.7.      Trustee Protected.

 

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both complying with Section 10.4. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures upon delivery of such an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel or both, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights, duties, liabilities or immunities under this Indenture.

 

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ARTICLE X.
MISCELLANEOUS

 

Section 10.1.      Trust Indenture Act Controls.

 

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

 

Section 10.2.      Notices.

 

Any notice or communication by the Company or the Trustee to the other, or by a Holder to the Company or the Trustee, is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail (registered or certified, return receipt requested), facsimile transmission, email or overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery, to the others’ address:

 

if to the Company:  
   
  Redwood Trust, Inc.
  One Belvedere Place, Suite 300
  Mill Valley, CA 94941
  Attention: Corporate Secretary
  Telephone: (415) 389-7373
  Facsimile: (415) 381-1773
   
with a copy to:  
   
  Latham & Watkins LLP
  650 Town Center Drive, 20th Floor
  Costa Mesa, CA 92626-1925
   
  Attention:  William J. Cernius
  Brian D. Paulson
  Telephone: (714) 540-1235
  Facsimile:  (714) 755-8290
   
if to the Trustee:  
   
  Wilmington Trust, National Association
  Rodney Square North
  1100 North Market Street
  Wilmington, DE 19890-0001
  Attention: Redwood Trust, Inc. Administrator
  Telephone: (302) 636-6398
  Facsimile: (302) 636-4145

 

The Company or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

 

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Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be sent electronically or by first-class mail to his, her or its address shown on the register kept by the Registrar, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary. Failure to send a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

 

If a notice or communication is sent or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.

 

If the Company sends a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall send a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of such Depositary.

 

Section 10.3.      Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

 

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA § 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA § 312(c).

 

Section 10.4.      Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

 

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

 

(a)     an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

 

(b)     an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

 

Section 10.5.      Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

 

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA § 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA § 314(e) and shall include:

 

(a)     a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

 

(b)     a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(c)     a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

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(d)     a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 10.6.      Rules by Trustee and Agents.

 

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

 

Section 10.7.      Legal Holidays.

 

Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

 

Section 10.8.      No Recourse Against Others.

 

A director, officer, employee or stockholder (past or present), as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

 

Section 10.9.      Counterparts.

 

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

 

Section 10.10.      Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction.

 

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES WILL BE GOVERNED BY, AND CONSTRUED UNDER, THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK.

 

THE COMPANY, THE TRUSTEE AND THE HOLDERS (BY THEIR ACCEPTANCE OF THE SECURITIES) EACH HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE NOTES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY OR THEREBY.

 

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Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Indenture or the transactions contemplated hereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York (collectively, the “Specified Courts”), and each party irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The Company, the Trustee and the Holders (by their acceptance of the Securities) each hereby irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

 

Section 10.11.      No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

 

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

 

Section 10.12.      Successors.

 

All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

 

Section 10.13.      Severability.

 

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

Section 10.14.      Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

 

The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

Section 10.15.      Securities in a Foreign Currency.

 

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in more than one currency, then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be determined by converting any such other currency into a currency that is designated upon issuance of any particular Series of Securities. Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, such conversion shall be at the spot rate for the purchase of the designated currency as published in The Financial Times in the “Currency Rates” section (or, if The Financial Times is no longer published, or if such information is no longer available in The Financial Times, such source as may be selected in good faith by the Company) on any date of determination. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

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All decisions and determinations provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, in the absence of manifest error, to the extent permitted by law, be conclusive for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Trustee and all Holders.

 

Section 10.16.      Judgment Currency.

 

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a New York Banking Day, then the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the New York Banking Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture. For purposes of the foregoing, “New York Banking Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

 

Section 10.17.      Force Majeure.

 

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services, it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable best efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

 

Section 10.18.      U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

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ARTICLE XI.
SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 11.1.      Applicability of Article.

 

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series if so provided by the terms of such Securities pursuant to Section 2.2 and except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.2. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the Securities of such Series.

 

Section 11.2.      Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (1) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (2) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been repurchased by the Company or redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Series of Securities (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received by the Trustee, together with an Officer’s Certificate with respect thereto, not later than 15 days prior to the date on which the Trustee begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly. If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.2, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $100,000, the Trustee need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Trustee or a Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Trustee or such Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Trustee of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.

 

Section 11.3.      Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.2, and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified. Not less than 30 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date will be selected in the manner specified in Section 3.2 and the Company shall send or cause to be sent a notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in and in accordance with Section 3.3. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6.

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

  REDWOOD TRUST, INC.
   
  By:
  Name: Andrew P. Stone
  Its: General Counsel and Secretary
   
  WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, as Trustee
   
  By:
  Name: Michael H. Wass
  Its: Vice President

 

 

 

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Section 3: EX-5.1 (EXHIBIT 5.1)

 

Exhibit 5.1

 

[LETTERHEAD OF VENABLE LLP]

 

 

 

 

May 9, 2019

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

Suite 300

One Belvedere Place

Mill Valley, California 94941

 

Re:       Registration Statement on Form S-3

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

We have served as Maryland counsel to Redwood Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with certain matters of Maryland law relating to the registration by the Company of: (a) debt securities of the Company (the “Debt Securities”); (b) shares of common stock (the “Common Shares”) of the Company, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”); (c) shares of preferred stock (the “Preferred Shares”) of the Company, $0.01 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”); (d) warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock (the “Warrants”); (e) rights (the “Rights”) to purchase other Securities (as defined herein) and (f) units comprised of two or more of the foregoing Securities (the “Units” and, together with the Debt Securities, Common Shares, Preferred Shares, Warrants and Rights, the “Securities”), covered by the above-referenced Registration Statement (the “Registration Statement”), filed by the Company with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), on or about the date hereof.

 

In connection with our representation of the Company, and as a basis for the opinion hereinafter set forth, we have examined originals, or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of the following documents (hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Documents”):

 

1.       The Registration Statement and the related form of prospectus included therein, substantially in the form to be transmitted to the Commission under the 1933 Act;

 

2.       The charter of the Company (the “Charter”), certified by the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (the “SDAT”);

 

3.       The Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company, as amended (the “Bylaws”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

 

 

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

May 9, 2019

Page 2

 

 

4.       Resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company (the “Board of Directors”), relating to, among other items, the approval of the filing of the Registration Statement, certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

 

5.       A certificate of the SDAT as to the good standing of the Company, dated as of a recent date;

 

6.       A certificate executed by an officer of the Company, dated as of the date hereof; and

 

7.       Such other documents and matters as we have deemed necessary or appropriate to express the opinion set forth below, subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein.

 

In expressing the opinion set forth below, we have assumed the following:

 

1.       Each individual executing any of the Documents, whether on behalf of such individual or another person, is legally competent to do so.

 

2.       Each individual executing any of the Documents on behalf of a party (other than the Company) is duly authorized to do so.

 

3.       Each of the parties (other than the Company) executing any of the Documents has duly and validly executed and delivered each of the Documents to which such party is a signatory, and such party’s obligations set forth therein are legal, valid and binding and are enforceable in accordance with all stated terms.

 

4.       All Documents submitted to us as originals are authentic. The form and content of all Documents submitted to us as unexecuted drafts do not differ in any respect relevant to this opinion from the form and content of such Documents as executed and delivered. All Documents submitted to us as certified or photostatic copies conform to the original documents. All signatures on all Documents are genuine. All public records reviewed or relied upon by us or on our behalf are true and complete. All representations, warranties, statements and information contained in the Documents are true and complete. There has been no oral or written modification of or amendment to any of the Documents, and there has been no waiver of any provision of any of the Documents, by action or omission of the parties or otherwise.

 

5.       The issuance, and certain terms, of the Securities to be issued by the Company from time to time will be authorized and approved by the Board of Directors, or a duly authorized committee thereof, in accordance with the Maryland General Corporation Law, the Charter and the Bylaws and, with respect to Preferred Shares, Articles Supplementary setting forth the number of shares and the terms of any class or series of Preferred Shares (the “Articles Supplementary”) to be issued by the Company will be filed with and accepted for record by the SDAT prior to their issuance (such approvals and, if applicable, acceptance for record, referred to herein as the “Corporate Proceedings”).

 

 

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

May 9, 2019

Page 3

 

 

6.       Upon the issuance of any Common Shares, including any Common Shares which may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any Securities that are convertible into or exercisable for Common Shares, the total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

 

7.       Upon the issuance of any Preferred Shares, including Preferred Shares which may be issued upon conversion or exercise of any other Securities convertible into or exercisable for Preferred Shares, the total number of shares of Preferred Stock issued and outstanding, and the total number of issued and outstanding shares of the applicable class or series of Preferred Stock designated pursuant to the Charter, will not exceed, respectively, the total number of shares of Preferred Stock or the number of shares of such class or series of Preferred Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

 

8.       None of the Securities will be issued in violation of the restrictions on ownership and transfer set forth in Article XI of the Charter or any comparable provision in the Articles Supplementary.

 

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein, it is our opinion that:

 

1.       The Company is a corporation duly incorporated and existing under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Maryland and is in good standing with the SDAT.

 

2.       Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Debt Securities, the issuance of the Debt Securities will be duly authorized.

 

3.       Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Common Shares, the issuance of the Common Shares will be duly authorized and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Registration Statement and the Corporate Proceedings, the Common Shares will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

4.       Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Preferred Shares, the issuance of the Preferred Shares will be duly authorized and, when and if issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Registration Statement and the Corporate Proceedings, the Preferred Shares will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

 

 

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

May 9, 2019

Page 4

 

 

5.       Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Warrants, the issuance of the Warrants will be duly authorized.

 

6.       Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Rights, the issuance of the Rights will be duly authorized.

 

7.       Upon the completion of all Corporate Proceedings relating to the Units, the issuance of the Units will be duly authorized.

 

The foregoing opinion is limited to the laws of the State of Maryland and we do not express any opinion herein concerning any other law. We express no opinion as to the applicability or effect of federal or state securities laws, including the securities laws of the State of Maryland, or as to federal or state laws regarding fraudulent transfers. To the extent that any matter as to which our opinion is expressed herein would be governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of Maryland, we do not express any opinion on such matter.

 

The opinion expressed herein is limited to the matters specifically set forth herein and no other opinion shall be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated. We assume no obligation to supplement this opinion if any applicable law changes after the date hereof or if we become aware of any fact that might change the opinion expressed herein after the date hereof.

 

This opinion is being furnished to you for submission to the Commission as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of the name of our firm therein. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the 1933 Act.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  /s/ Venable LLP

 

 

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Section 4: EX-5.2 (EXHIBIT 5.2)

 

Exhibit 5.2

 

  650 Town Center Drive, 20th Floor
  Costa Mesa, California  92626-1925
  Tel: +1.714.540.1235  Fax: +1.714.755.8290
  www.lw.com
     
FIRM / AFFILIATE OFFICES
  Beijing Moscow
  Boston Munich
  Brussels New York
  Century City Orange County
  Chicago Paris
  Dubai Riyadh
  Düsseldorf San Diego
  Frankfurt San Francisco
  Hamburg Seoul
  Hong Kong Shanghai
  Houston Silicon Valley
Redwood Trust, Inc. London Singapore
One Belvedere Place, Suite 300 Los Angeles Tokyo
Mill Valley, CA 94941 Madrid Washington, D.C.
  Milan  

 

Re:Registration Statement on Form S-3

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

We have acted as special counsel to Redwood Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with its filing on May 9, 2019 with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) of a registration statement on Form S-3 (as amended, the “Registration Statement”), including a base prospectus (the “Base Prospectus”), which provides that it will be supplemented by one or more prospectus supplements (each such prospectus supplement, together with the Base Prospectus, a “Prospectus”), under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), relating to the registration for issue and sale by the Company from time to time of one or more series of debt securities of the Company, which may consist of debentures, notes or other types of debt and which may be exchangeable for or convertible into shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities (the “Debt Securities”) to be issued under an indenture to be entered into between the Company, as issuer, and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee (a form of which is included as Exhibit 4.4 to the Registration Statement) and one or more board resolutions, supplements thereto or officer’s certificates thereunder (such indenture, together with the applicable board resolution, supplement or officer’s certificate pertaining to the applicable series of Debt Securities, the “Applicable Indenture”).

 

This opinion is being furnished in connection with the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Act, and no opinion is expressed herein as to any matter pertaining to the contents of the Registration Statement or related applicable Prospectus, other than as expressly stated herein with respect to the issue of the Debt Securities.

 

As such counsel, we have examined such matters of fact and questions of law as we have considered appropriate for purposes of this letter. With your consent, we have relied upon certificates and other assurances of officers of the Company and others as to factual matters without having independently verified such factual matters. We are opining herein as to the internal laws of the State of New York, and we express no opinion with respect to the applicability thereto, or the effect thereon, of the laws of any other jurisdiction or as to any matters of municipal law or the laws of any local agencies within any state. Various matters concerning the validity of the securities and the laws of the State of Maryland are addressed in the opinion of Venable LLP, Maryland counsel for the Company, which has been separately provided to you. We express no opinion with respect to those matters herein.

 

 

 

 

May 9, 2019

Page 2

 

 

 

Subject to the foregoing and the other matters set forth herein, it is our opinion that, as of the date hereof, when the specific terms of a particular series of Debt Securities have been duly established in accordance with the terms of the Applicable Indenture and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and such Debt Securities have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the Applicable Indenture and in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action, such Debt Securities will be the legally valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

 

Our opinions are subject to: (i) the effect of bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, preference, fraudulent transfer, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors; (ii) the effect of general principles of equity, whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law (including the possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief), concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, and the discretion of the court before which a proceeding is brought; (iii) the invalidity under certain circumstances under law or court decisions of provisions providing for the indemnification of or contribution to a party with respect to a liability where such indemnification or contribution is contrary to public policy; and (iv) we express no opinion as to (a) any provision for liquidated damages, default interest, late charges, monetary penalties, make-whole premiums or other economic remedies to the extent such provisions are deemed to constitute a penalty, (b) consents to, or restrictions upon, governing law, jurisdiction, venue, arbitration, remedies, or judicial relief, (c) waivers of rights or defenses, including the waiver set forth in Section 4.04 of the Applicable Indenture, (d) any provision requiring the payment of attorneys’ fees, where such payment is contrary to law or public policy, (e) any provision permitting, upon acceleration of any Debt Securities, collection of that portion of the stated principal amount thereof which might be determined to constitute unearned interest thereon, (f) the creation, validity, attachment, perfection, or priority of any lien or security interest, (g) advance waivers of claims, defenses, rights granted by law, or notice, opportunity for hearing, evidentiary requirements, statutes of limitation, trial by jury or at law, or other procedural rights, (h) waivers of broadly or vaguely stated rights, (i) provisions for exclusivity, election or cumulation of rights or remedies, (j) provisions authorizing or validating conclusive or discretionary determinations, (k) grants of setoff rights, (l) proxies, powers and trusts, (m) provisions prohibiting, restricting, or requiring consent to assignment or transfer of any right or property, (n) any provision to the extent it requires that a claim with respect to a security denominated in other than U.S. dollars (or a judgment in respect of such a claim) be converted into U.S. dollars at a rate of exchange at a particular date, to the extent applicable law otherwise provides, and (o) the severability, if invalid, of provisions to the foregoing effect.

 

With your consent, we have assumed (a) that each of the Debt Securities and the Applicable Indenture (collectively, the “Documents”) will be governed by the internal laws of the State of New York, (b) that each of the Documents has been or will be duly authorized, executed and delivered by the parties thereto, (c) that each of the Documents constitutes or will constitute legally valid and binding obligations of the parties thereto other than the Company, enforceable against each of them in accordance with their respective terms, and (d) that the status of each of the Documents as legally valid and binding obligations of the parties will not be affected by any (i) breaches of, or defaults under, agreements or instruments, (ii) violations of statutes, rules, regulations or court or governmental orders, or (iii) failures to obtain required consents, approvals or authorizations from, or to make required registrations, declarations or filings with, governmental authorities.

 

 

 

 

May 9, 2019

Page 3

 

 

 

This opinion is for your benefit in connection with the Registration Statement and may be relied upon by you and by persons entitled to rely upon it pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Act. We consent to your filing this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our firm contained in the Prospectus under the heading “Validity of the Securities.” In giving such consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  /s/ Latham & Watkins LLP

 

 

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Section 5: EX-8.1 (EXHIBIT 8.1)

 

Exhibit 8.1

 

 

 

355 South Grand Avenue, Suite 100

 

Los Angeles, California 90071-1560

 

Tel: +1.213.485.1234 Fax: +1.213.891.8763

  www.lw.com
     
FIRM / AFFILIATE OFFICES
  Beijing Moscow
  Boston Munich
  Brussels New York
  Century City Orange County
  Chicago Paris
  Dubai Riyadh
  Düsseldorf San Diego
  Frankfurt San Francisco
  Hamburg Seoul
  Hong Kong Shanghai
  Houston Silicon Valley
Redwood Trust, Inc. London Singapore
One Belvedere Place, Suite 300 Los Angeles Tokyo
Mill Valley, CA 94941 Madrid Washington, D.C.
  Milan  

 

Re:Redwood Trust, Inc.

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

We have acted as special tax counsel to Redwood Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation (“RWT”), in connection with the filing of a registration statement on Form S-3 dated May 9, 2019 (such registration statement, together with all exhibits thereto and the documents incorporated by reference therein, including the prospectus included therein, the “Registration Statement”) by RWT with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), relating to the registration of the securities set forth in the prospectus contained in the Registration Statement.

 

You have requested our opinion concerning certain of the federal income tax considerations relating to RWT, including with respect to its election to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”). This opinion is based on certain assumptions and factual representations concerning the business, assets and governing documents of RWT and its subsidiaries as set forth in the Registration Statement. We have also been furnished with, and with your consent have relied upon, certain representations made by RWT and its subsidiaries with respect to certain factual matters through a certificate of an officer of RWT, dated as of the date hereof (the “Officer’s Certificate”).

 

In our capacity as special tax counsel to RWT, we have made such legal and factual examinations and inquiries, including an examination of originals or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction of such documents, corporate records and other instruments as we have deemed necessary or appropriate for purposes of this opinion. For purposes of our opinion, we have not made an independent investigation or audit of the facts set forth in the above referenced documents or in the Officer’s Certificate. In particular, we note that RWT may engage in transactions in connection with which we have not provided legal advice, and have not reviewed, and of which we may be unaware. Consequently, we have relied on your representation that the facts, statements, representations, and covenants presented in the above referenced documents and the Officer’s Certificate, or otherwise furnished to us, accurately and completely describe all material facts relevant to our opinion. In addition, in rendering this opinion we have assumed the truth and accuracy of all representations and statements made to us that are qualified as to knowledge or belief, without regard to such qualification. In our examination, we have assumed the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the genuineness of all signatures thereon, the legal capacity of natural persons executing such documents and the conformity to authentic original documents of all documents submitted to us as copies.

 

 

 

 

May 9, 2019

Page 2

 

 

 

We are opining herein only as to the federal income tax laws of the United States, and we express no opinion with respect to the applicability thereto, or the effect thereon, of other federal laws, the laws of any state or other jurisdiction or as to any matters of municipal law or the laws of any other local agencies within any state.

 

Based on such facts and subject to the qualifications, representations, assumptions and limitations set forth herein and in the Registration Statement, it is our opinion that:

 

1.Commencing with RWT’s taxable year ended December 31, 2011, RWT has been organized and has operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and its proposed method of operation will enable RWT to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code; and

 

2.The statements set forth in the Registration Statement under the caption “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” insofar as they purport to describe or summarize certain provisions of the statutes or regulations referred to therein, are accurate descriptions or summaries in all material respects.

 

No opinion is expressed as to any matter not discussed herein.

 

This opinion is rendered to you as of the date of this letter, and we undertake no obligation to update this opinion subsequent to the date hereof. This opinion is based on various statutory provisions, regulations promulgated thereunder and interpretations thereof by the Internal Revenue Service and the courts having jurisdiction over such matters, all of which are subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. Any such change may affect the conclusions stated herein. Also, any variation or difference in the facts from those set forth in the Registration Statement or the Officer’s Certificate may affect the conclusions stated herein. In addition, RWT’s qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon RWT’s ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual annual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of RWT’s operation for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. In addition, the opinion set forth above does not foreclose the possibility that RWT may have to pay a deficiency dividend, or an excise or penalty tax, which could be significant in amount, in order to maintain its REIT qualification.

 

 

 

 

May 9, 2019

Page 3

 

 

 

This opinion is rendered only to you and is solely for your benefit in connection with the Registration Statement upon the understanding that we are not hereby assuming professional responsibility to any other person whatsoever. This opinion may not be relied upon by you for any other purpose, or furnished to, assigned to, quoted to or relied upon by any other person, firm or other entity for any purpose without our prior written consent, which may be granted or withheld in our sole discretion, provided that this opinion may be relied upon by persons entitled to rely on it pursuant to applicable provisions of federal securities law.

 

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our firm name in the Registration Statement under the captions “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” and “Legal Matters.” In giving this consent, we do not hereby admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act or the rules or regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  /s/ Latham & Watkins LLP

 

 

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Section 6: EX-23.1 (EXHIBIT 23.1)

 

Exhibit 23.1

 

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

We have issued our reports dated February 28, 2019 with respect to the consolidated financial statements and internal control over financial reporting of Redwood Trust, Inc. included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which are incorporated by reference in this Registration Statement. We consent to the incorporation by reference of the aforementioned reports in this Registration Statement and to the use of our name as it appears under the caption “Experts.”

 

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP  
   
Newport Beach, California  
May 9, 2019  

 

 

 

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Section 7: EX-25.1 (EXHIBIT 25.1)

 

Exhibit 25.1

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM T-1

 

¨ Check if an Application to Determine Eligibility of a Trustee Pursuant to Section 305(b)(2)

 

WILMINGTON TRUST, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

(Exact name of trustee as specified in its charter)

 

16-1486454

(I.R.S. employer identification no.)

 

1100 North Market Street

Wilmington, DE 19890-0001

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

Janet V Banks

Assistant Vice President

1100 North Market Street

Wilmington, Delaware 19890-0001

(302) 636-4261

(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)

 

Redwood Trust, Inc.

(Exact name of obligor as specified in its charter)
 
Maryland 68-0329422
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

One Belvedere Place, Suite 300

Mill Valley, CA 94941

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

 

Debt Securities

(Title of the indenture securities)

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1.GENERAL INFORMATION.

 

Furnish the following information as to the trustee:

 

(a)Name and address of each examining or supervising authority to which it is subject.

 

Comptroller of Currency, Washington, D.C.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Washington, D.C.

 

(b)Whether it is authorized to exercise corporate trust powers.

 

The trustee is authorized to exercise corporate trust powers.

 

ITEM 2.AFFILIATIONS WITH THE OBLIGOR.

 

If the obligor is an affiliate of the trustee, describe each affiliation:

 

Based upon an examination of the books and records of the trustee and information available to the trustee, the obligor is not an affiliate of the trustee.

 

ITEM 3 – 15.

 

Not Applicable.

 

ITEM 16.LIST OF EXHIBITS.

 

Listed below are all exhibits filed as part of this Statement of Eligibility and Qualification.

 

1.A copy of the Charter for Wilmington Trust, National Association.
2.The authority of Wilmington Trust, National Association to commence business was granted under the Charter for Wilmington Trust, National Association, incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 1 above.
3.The authorization to exercise corporate trust powers was granted under the Charter for Wilmington Trust, National Association, incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 1 above.
4.A copy of the existing By-Laws of Trustee, as now in effect, incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4 of this Form T-1.
5.Not applicable.
6.The consent of Wilmington Trust, National Association as required by Section 321(b) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, attached hereto as Exhibit 6 of this Form T-1.
7.Current Report of the Condition of Wilmington Trust, National Association, published pursuant to law or the requirements of its supervising or examining authority, attached hereto as Exhibit 7 of this Form T-1.