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Section 1: S-3ASR (S-3ASR)

S-3ASR
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 19, 2019.

Registration No. 333-

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Invitation Homes Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in governing instruments)

 

 

 

Maryland   90-0939055

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

1717 Main Street, Suite 2000

Dallas, TX 75201

Telephone: (972) 421-3600

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Mark A. Solls

Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer

Invitation Homes Inc.

1717 Main Street, Suite 2000

Dallas, TX 75201

Telephone: (972) 421-3600

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

COPIES TO:

Joshua Ford Bonnie

Edgar J. Lewandowski

William R. Golden III

Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP

900 G Street NW

Washington, D.C. 20001

Telephone: (202) 636-5500

Facsimile: (202) 636-5502

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of securities

to be registered

 

Amount

to be

registered (1)

 

Proposed

maximum
aggregate
offering price
per share (2)

  Proposed
maximum
aggregate
offering price (1)(2)
  Amount of
registration fee (3)

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

  230,250,696   $23.66   $5,447,731,468  

$635,969

 

 

(1)

This Registration Statement registers 230,250,696 shares of common stock. There is also being registered such indeterminate number of shares of common stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

(2)

Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The price per share and aggregate offering price are based on the average of the high and low price of the Registrant’s common stock on March 18, 2019, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.

(3)

Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the registrant is carrying forward to this registration statement $23,824 in registration fees in respect of 8,472,845 shares of common stock that were previously registered on a Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-224697) but not sold, which registration fee was calculated pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

230,250,696 Shares

 

 

LOGO

Invitation Homes Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time of up to 230,250,696 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, of Invitation Homes Inc. by the selling stockholders identified in this prospectus or in supplements to this prospectus. See “Selling Stockholders.” This includes up to 8,463,285 shares of common stock that we may issue from time to time to the selling stockholders upon redemption of an equal number of common units of partnership interest (“OP Units”) in our operating partnership, Invitation Homes Operating Partnership LP (the “Operating Partnership”), held by them. Pursuant to the terms of the Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership (the “Partnership Agreement”) of the Operating Partnership, the selling stockholders that are holders of OP Units may (subject to the terms of the Partnership Agreement) redeem their OP Units for cash based upon the market value of an equivalent number of shares of common stock or, at our election, exchange their OP Units for shares of common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends and reclassifications. Invitation Homes Inc. is a public company incorporated under the laws of Maryland, the parent company of Invitation Homes Operating Partnership LP, a Delaware limited partnership.

The registration of the shares of common stock to which this prospectus relates does not require the selling stockholders to sell any of their shares of our common stock. We cannot predict when or in what amounts the selling stockholders may sell any of the shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus.

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the shares by the selling stockholders, but we have agreed to pay certain registration expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions. The selling stockholders from time to time may offer and sell the shares held by them directly or through underwriters, agents or broker-dealers on terms to be determined at the time of sale, as described in more detail in this prospectus. For more information, see “Plan of Distribution.”

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “INVH.” On March 18, 2019, the last sale price of our common stock as reported on the NYSE was $23.54 per share.

We have elected to qualify as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Shares of our common stock are subject to limitations on ownership and transfer that are primarily intended to assist us in maintaining our qualification as a REIT. Our charter contains certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock, including, subject to certain exceptions, a 9.8% limit, in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, on the ownership of outstanding shares of our common stock and a 9.8% limit, in value, on the ownership of shares of our outstanding stock. See “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. Before making a decision to invest in our common stock, you should refer to the risk factors included in our periodic reports, in prospectus supplements relating to specific offerings and in other information that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). See “Risk Factors” on page 2 of this prospectus.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Prospectus dated March 19, 2019.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Summary

     1  

Risk Factors

     2  

Forward-Looking Statements

     3  

Use of Proceeds

     4  

Selling Stockholders

     5  

Description of Stock

     8  

Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

     13  

Description of the Partnership Agreement of Invitation Homes Operating Partnership LP

     21  

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

     25  

Plan of Distribution

     49  

Legal Matters

     51  

Experts

     51  

Where You Can Find More Information

     52  

Information Incorporated by Reference

     53  

 

 

Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. Neither we nor the selling stockholders take any responsibility for, or can provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any information other than the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. The selling stockholders are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf is accurate only as of their respective dates or on the date or dates which are specified in such documents, and that any information in documents that we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of such document incorporated by reference. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement that we have filed with the SEC using a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration process, the selling stockholders may, from time to time, offer and sell the shares of common stock described in this prospectus and in any accompanying prospectus supplement in one or more transactions. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the shares of common stock the selling stockholders may offer. Each time the selling stockholders sell shares of our common stock using this prospectus, to the extent necessary, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering, including the number of shares being offered, the manner of distribution, the identity of any underwriters or other counterparties and other specific terms related to the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. To the extent that any statement made in an accompanying prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in this prospectus, the statements made in this prospectus will be deemed modified or superseded by those made in the accompanying prospectus supplement. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together, along with the information incorporated by reference herein or therein and any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf.

For investors outside of the United States, neither we nor the selling stockholders have done anything that would permit the offering, possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering, possession or the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.

 

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Investment funds and vehicles associated with or designated by The Blackstone Group L.P. are referred to herein as “Blackstone” or “our Sponsor.” We refer to our initial public offering completed on February 6, 2017 as our “IPO.” We refer to Blackstone, together with our management and other equity holders prior to our IPO, collectively, as our “pre-IPO owners.”

On November 16, 2017, pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of August 9, 2017, by and among INVH (as defined below), the Operating Partnership, IH Merger Sub, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of INVH (“REIT Merger Sub”), Starwood Waypoint Homes (“SWH”) and Starwood Waypoint Homes Partnership, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership and a subsidiary of SWH (“SWH Partnership”), SWH merged with and into REIT Merger Sub, with REIT Merger Sub surviving as our subsidiary (the “REIT Merger”). Immediately after the REIT Merger, SWH Partnership merged with and into the Operating Partnership, with the Operating Partnership surviving as our subsidiary (together with the REIT Merger, the “Mergers”). The combined company conducts business under the name Invitation Homes Inc.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references to (i) “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” the “Company,” “Invitation Homes,” “INVH,” and the like terms refer to Invitation Homes Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries (including the Operating Partnership), (ii) “Legacy IH” refers to business practices and operations of INVH prior to the Mergers, including the homes owned by INVH, and (iii) “Legacy SWH” refers to business practices and operations of Starwood Waypoint Homes prior to the Mergers, including the homes owned by SWH.

 

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SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in shares of our common stock. You should read carefully this entire prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein and any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf before making an investment decision, especially the risks discussed under “Risk Factors” and our financial statements and the related notes which are incorporated by reference herein, before you decide to invest in shares of our common stock.

Invitation Homes

We are a leading owner and operator of single-family homes for lease, offering residents high-quality homes in sought-after neighborhoods across America. With more than 80,000 homes for lease in 17 markets across the country as of December 31, 2018, we are meeting changing lifestyle demands by providing residents access to updated homes with features they value, such as close proximity to jobs and access to good schools. Our mission statement, “Together with you, we make a house a home,” reflects our commitment to high-touch service that continuously enhances residents’ living experiences and provides homes where individuals and families can thrive.

We operate in markets with strong demand drivers, high barriers to entry and high rent growth potential, primarily in the Western United States, Florida, and the Southeast United States. Through disciplined market and asset selection, as well as through the Mergers, we designed our portfolio to capture the operating benefits of local density as well as economies of scale that we believe cannot be readily replicated. Since our founding in 2012, we have built a proven, vertically integrated operating platform that enables us to effectively and efficiently acquire, renovate, lease, maintain, and manage our homes.

We invest in markets that we expect will exhibit lower new supply, stronger job and household formation growth and superior net operating income growth relative to the broader United States housing and rental market. Within our 17 markets, we target attractive neighborhoods in in-fill locations with multiple demand drivers, such as proximity to major employment centers, desirable schools and transportation corridors. Our homes average approximately 1,850 square feet with three bedrooms and two bathrooms, appealing to a resident base that we believe is less transitory than the typical multifamily resident. We invest in the upfront renovation of homes in our portfolio in order to address capital needs, reduce ongoing maintenance costs, and drive resident demand. As a result, our portfolio benefits from high occupancy and low turnover rates, and we are well-positioned to drive strong rent growth, attractive margins and predictable cash flows.

For a description of our business, financial condition, results of operations and other important information regarding the Company, we refer you to our filings with the SEC incorporated by reference in this prospectus. For instructions on how to find copies of these documents, see “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

 

Invitation Homes Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on October 4, 2016. Effective February 6, 2017, we converted, pursuant to Maryland and Delaware law, from a Delaware corporation to a Maryland corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 1717 Main Street, Suite 2000, Dallas, Texas 75201 and our telephone number is (972) 421-3600.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are incorporated by reference herein, as the same may be updated from time to time by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). You should also carefully consider the other information contained in this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in any applicable prospectus supplement before acquiring any shares of our common stock. These risks could materially affect our business, results of operations or financial condition and cause the value of our common stock to decline. You could lose all or part of your investment.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains or incorporates by reference forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which include, but are not limited to, statements related to our expectations regarding the anticipated benefits of the Mergers, the performance of our business, our financial results, our liquidity and capital resources, and other non-historical statements. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “seeks,” “projects,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words. Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including, among others, risks associated with achieving expected revenue synergies or cost savings from the Mergers, risks inherent to the single-family rental industry sector and our business model, macroeconomic factors beyond our control, competition in identifying and acquiring our properties, competition in the leasing market for quality residents, increasing property taxes, homeowners’ association fees and insurance costs, our dependence on third parties for key services, risks related to evaluation of properties, poor resident selection and defaults and non-renewals by our residents, performance of our information technology systems and risks related to our indebtedness. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. Additional factors that could cause our results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements can be found under the section entitled “Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors,” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 filed with the SEC, as such factors may be updated from time to time in our periodic filings with the SEC, which are accessible on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and in our filings with the SEC. The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except to the extent otherwise required by law.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders.

 

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SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

The following table and accompanying footnotes set forth information regarding the beneficial ownership by each selling stockholder of shares of our common stock as of March 18, 2019, the maximum number of shares of common stock that may be offered by each selling stockholder pursuant to this prospectus and the beneficial ownership of shares of our common stock after the sale by each selling stockholder of the maximum number of shares of common stock.

The selling stockholders may offer all, some or none of their shares of common stock. We cannot advise you as to whether the selling stockholders will in fact sell any or all of such shares of common stock. In addition, the selling stockholders may have sold or transferred, in transactions pursuant to this prospectus or otherwise, some or all of their shares since the date as of which the information is presented in the table below. Information concerning the selling stockholders may change from time to time and any such changed information will, if required, be set forth in supplements to this prospectus or post-effective amendments to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, as may be appropriate.

For further information regarding material relationships and transactions between us and the selling stockholders, see Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC.

 

    Shares of Common Stock
Beneficially Owned
   

 

    Shares of Common
Stock Beneficially
Owned After the Sale
of the Maximum
Number of Shares of
Common Stock
 
    Number of
Shares
    Percent of
Common Stock
Outstanding
    Shares of
Common Stock
that May be
Offered for
Resale
    Number of
Shares
    Percent of
Common Stock
Outstanding
 

Barry S. Sternlicht (1)

    8,472,845  (2)       1.6 % (2)      8,472,845       —         —    

Blackstone (3)

    219,945,349       42.1     219,945,349       —         —    

BW SIPP Trustees Limited

    88,794       *       88,794       —         —    

Dallas B. Tanner (4)

    278,595       *       278,595       —         —    

Nicholas Gould (5)

    794,482       *       794,482       —         —    

Peter Gould (6)

    670,631       *       670,631       —         —    

 

*

Less than 1%.

 

(1)

Barry S. Sternlicht is one of our directors and was the chairman of the board of trustees of SWH from 2012 to the completion of the Mergers. He is also the president and chief executive officer of Starwood Capital Group Global, L.P. (“Starwood Capital”). Mr. Sternlicht owns directly shares underlying 5,482 vested restricted stock units that are scheduled to vest on May 30, 2019. He also has indirect beneficial ownership of 8,463,285 OP Units held by Starwood Capital and 4,078 shares of our common stock held by Starwood Capital and SPT Management, LLC. Starwood Capital is the sole member and manager of SPT Management, LLC. The address of Mr. Sternlicht, Starwood Capital and SPT Management, LLC is 1601 Washington Avenue, Suite 800, Miami Beach, Florida 33139.

(2)

Includes 8,463,285 shares of our common stock that may be offered by Mr. Sternlicht issuable upon the exchange of 8,463,285 outstanding OP Units held indirectly by Mr. Sternlicht, which if Mr. Sternlicht elects to redeem such OP Units, the Company has the option, at the Company’s sole discretion, to exchange any such OP Units for shares of common stock, on a one-for-one basis, subject to adjustment.

 

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(3)

Amounts beneficially owned reflect 80,382,041 shares directly held by IH1 Holdco L.P., 43,797,131 shares directly held by IH PP Holdco L.P., 8,619,746 shares directly held by IH2-A Holdco L.P., 33,908,708 shares directly held by IH3 Holdco L.P., 19,938,109 shares directly held by IH4 Holdco L.P., 15,250,871 shares directly held by IH5 Holdco L.P. and 18,048,743 shares directly held by IH6 Holdco L.P.

The general partner of IH1 Holdco L.P. is IH1 Holdco GP LLC. Invitation Homes Parent L.P. is the sole limited partner of IH1 Holdco L.P. and the sole member of IH1 Holdco GP LLC. The general partner of Invitation Homes Parent L.P. is Invitation Homes GP Parent LLC. The sole member of Invitation Homes GP Parent LLC is THR Investor LLC. THR Investor LLC is owned by Blackstone Family Real Estate Partnership VII-SMD L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Holdings VII-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Holdings VII-NQ-ESC L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.F-NQ (AV) L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.1-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.2-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.3-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.4-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.5-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.6-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.7-NQ L.P. and Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.8-NQ L.P. The general partner of Blackstone Family Real Estate Partnership VII-SMD L.P. is Blackstone Family GP L.L.C., which is, in turn, wholly owned by Blackstone’s senior managing directors and controlled by its founder, Stephen A. Schwarzman. The general partner of Blackstone Real Estate Holdings VII-NQ L.P. and Blackstone Real Estate Holdings VII-NQ-ESC L.P. is BREP VII-NQ Side-by-Side GP L.L.C. The general partner of Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.F-NQ (AV) L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.1-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.2-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.3-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.4-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.5-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.6-NQ L.P., Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.7-NQ L.P. and Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII.TE.8-NQ L.P. is Blackstone Real Estate Associates VII-NQ L.P. The general partner of Blackstone Real Estate Associates VII-NQ L.P. is BREA VII-NQ L.L.C. The managing member of BREA VII-NQ L.L.C. and the sole member of BREP VII-NQ Side-by-Side GP L.L.C. is Blackstone Holdings II L.P. The general partner of Blackstone Holdings II L.P. is Blackstone Holdings I/II GP Inc. The sole shareholder of Blackstone Holdings I/II GP Inc. is The Blackstone Group L.P.

The general partner of IH PP Holdco L.P. is IH PP Holdco GP LLC. Preeminent Parent L.P. is the sole limited partner of IH PP Holdco L.P. and the sole member of IH PP Holdco GP LLC. The general partner of IH2-A Holdco L.P. is IH2-A Holdco GP LLC. Invitation Homes 2-A L.P. is the sole limited partner of IH2-A Holdco L.P. and the sole member of IH2-A Holdco GP LLC. The general partner of Preeminent Parent L.P. and Invitation Homes 2-A L.P. is Invitation Homes 2 GP LLC. The sole member of Invitation Homes 2 GP LLC is IH2 Investor L.P. The general partner of IH2 Investor L.P. is Blackstone Real Estate Associates VII L.P. The general partner of Blackstone Real Estate Associates VII L.P. is BREA VII L.L.C. The managing member of BREA VII L.L.C. is Blackstone Holdings III L.P.

The general partner of IH3 Holdco L.P. is IH3 Holdco GP LLC. Invitation Homes 3 Parent L.P. is the sole limited partner of IH3 Holdco L.P. and the sole member of IH3 Holdco GP LLC. The general partner of Invitation Homes 3 Parent L.P. is Invitation Homes 3 GP Parent LLC. Invitation Homes 3 GP Parent LLC is owned by BREP IH3 Holdings LLC and BTO IH3 Holdings L.P.

The general partner of IH4 Holdco L.P. is IH4 Holdco GP LLC. Invitation Homes 4 Parent L.P. is the sole limited partner of IH4 Holdco L.P. and the sole member of IH4 Holdco GP LLC. The general partner of Invitation Homes 4 Parent L.P. is Invitation Homes 4 GP Parent LLC. Invitation Homes 4 GP Parent LLC is owned by BREP IH4 Holdings LLC and BTO IH3 Holdings L.P. The general partner of IH5 Holdco L.P. is IH5 Holdco GP LLC. Invitation Homes 5 Parent L.P. is the sole limited partner of IH5 Holdco L.P. and the sole member of IH5 Holdco GP LLC. The general partner of Invitation Homes 5 Parent L.P. is Invitation Homes 5 GP Parent LLC. The sole member of Invitation Homes 5 GP Parent LLC is BREP IH5 Holdings LLC. The general partner of IH6 Holdco L.P. is IH6 Holdco GP LLC. Invitation Homes 6 Parent L.P. is the sole limited partner of IH6 Holdco L.P. and the sole member of IH6 Holdco GP LLC. The general partner of

 

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Invitation Homes 6 Parent L.P. is Invitation Homes 6 GP Parent LLC. The sole member of Invitation Homes 6 GP Parent LLC is BREP IH6 Holdings LLC.

The managing member of BREP IH3 Holdings LLC, BREP IH4 Holdings LLC, BREP IH5 Holdings LLC and BREP IH6 Holdings LLC is Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII L.P. The general partner of Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII L.P. is Blackstone Real Estate Associates VII L.P. The general partner of Blackstone Real Estate Associates VII L.P. is BREA VII L.L.C. The managing member of BREA VII L.L.C. is Blackstone Holdings III L.P.

The general partner of BTO IH3 Holdings L.P. is BTO IH3 Manager L.L.C. The managing member of BTO IH3 Manager L.L.C. is BTOA L.L.C. The managing member of BTOA L.L.C. is Blackstone Holdings III L.P.

The general partner of Blackstone Holdings III L.P. is Blackstone Holdings III GP L.P. The general partner of Blackstone Holdings III GP L.P. is Blackstone Holdings III GP Management L.L.C. The sole member of Blackstone Holdings III GP Management L.L.C. is The Blackstone Group L.P. The general partner of The Blackstone Group L.P. is Blackstone Group Management L.L.C. Blackstone Group Management L.L.C. is wholly owned by Blackstone’s senior managing directors and controlled by its founder, Stephen A. Schwarzman.

Each of the Blackstone entities described in this footnote and Stephen A. Schwarzman (other than to the extent it or he directly holds securities as described herein) may be deemed to beneficially own the securities directly or indirectly controlled by such Blackstone entities or him, but each disclaims beneficial ownership of such shares. The address of each of Mr. Schwarzman and each of the other entities listed in this footnote is c/o The Blackstone Group L.P., 345 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10154.

Based on information provided to us, as of the date of this prospectus, the Blackstone entities have pledged, hypothecated or granted security interests in substantially all of the shares of our common stock held by them pursuant to a margin loan agreement with customary default provisions. In the event of a default under the margin loan agreement, the secured parties may foreclose upon any and all shares of common stock pledged to them and may seek recourse against the borrower.

 

(4)

Includes shares of our common stock underlying 69,061 restricted stock units granted to Mr. Tanner that are scheduled to vest on May 16, 2019.

(5)

Includes 116,351 shares of our common stock held by a trust, Regisport Directors Pension Scheme, of which Mr. Nicholas Gould serves as a trustee and in respect of which Mr. Nicholas Gould shares voting and dispositive power. Excludes any interest that Mr. Nicholas Gould has in shares beneficially owned by Blackstone, pursuant to his limited partner interests in the entities that own such shares.

(6)

Excludes 116,351 shares of our common stock, which are held by a trust, Regisport Directors Pension Scheme, of which Mr. Peter Gould serves as a trustee and in respect of which Mr. Peter Gould shares voting and dispositive power. Excludes any interest that Mr. Peter Gould has in shares beneficially owned by Blackstone, pursuant to his limited partner interests in the entities that own such shares.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF STOCK

The following summary of the terms of our common stock is qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and the Maryland General Corporation Law, or “MGCL.” See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Under “Description of Stock,” “we,” “us,” “our” and “our company” refer to Invitation Homes Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries.

General

Our charter authorizes us to issue up to 9,000,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, and up to 900,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share. Our charter authorizes a majority of our entire board of directors, without stockholder approval, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock that we are authorized to issue or the number of authorized shares of any class or series. Under Maryland law, a stockholder generally is not liable for a corporation’s debts or obligations solely as a result of the stockholder’s status as a stockholder.

Common Stock

Common Stock. Subject to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below under the caption “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” and the voting rights of holders of outstanding shares of any other class or series of our stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to vote on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally, including the election or removal of directors. The holders of our common stock do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors.

Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends and other distributions as and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends and other distributions. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up and after payment in full of all amounts required to be paid to creditors and to the holders of outstanding shares of any other class or series of our stock having liquidation preferences senior to those of the common stockholders, if any, the holders of our common stock will be entitled to receive pro rata our remaining assets available for distribution. Holders of our common stock do not have preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. Holders of our common stock generally have no appraisal rights. All shares of our common stock outstanding as of the date hereof are fully paid and nonassessable and have equal dividend and liquidation rights. The preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of our common stock are subject to those of the holders of any shares of our preferred stock or any other class or series of stock we may authorize and issue in the future.

Voting Rights. Under Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally cannot amend its charter, consolidate, merge, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a statutory share exchange or dissolve unless the action is advised by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. As permitted by Maryland law, our charter provides that any of these actions may be approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, although, for so long as the stockholders agreement remains in effect, certain amendments to our charter inconsistent with the rights of our Sponsor under the stockholders agreement or our charter or bylaws also require our Sponsor’s consent. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.” In addition, because many of our operating assets are held by our subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or sell all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

 

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Power to Reclassify and Issue Stock

Our board of directors may, without any action by the holders of our common stock, classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our stock into other classes or series of stock, including one or more classes or series of stock that have priority over our common stock with respect to dividends or upon liquidation, or have voting rights and other rights that differ from the rights of the holders of our common stock, and authorize us to issue the newly-classified shares. Before authorizing the issuance of shares of any new class or series, our board of directors must set, subject to the provisions in our charter relating to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series of stock. These actions may be taken without the approval of holders of our common stock unless such approval is required by applicable law, the terms of any other class or series of our stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which any of our stock is listed or traded.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), to include certain entities such as qualified pension plans) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. Subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or 9.8% in value of our outstanding stock. We refer to these restrictions, collectively, as the “ownership limit.” Our board of directors granted an exemption from the ownership limit to our Sponsor and its affiliates.

The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our outstanding common stock or 9.8% of our outstanding stock, or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns our stock, could, nevertheless, cause the acquiror or another individual or entity to own our stock in excess of the ownership limit.

Our board of directors may, upon receipt of certain representations and agreements and in its sole discretion, prospectively or retroactively, waive the ownership limit and may establish or increase a different limit on ownership, or excepted holder limit, for a particular stockholder if the stockholder’s ownership in excess of the ownership limit would (or, in the sole judgment of our board of directors, could) not result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT or would (or, in the sole judgment of our board of directors, could) not result in our failing to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h) of the Code. As a condition of granting a waiver of the ownership limit or creating an excepted holder limit, our board of directors may, but is not required to, require an opinion of counsel or IRS ruling satisfactory to our board of directors as it may deem necessary or advisable to determine or ensure our status as a REIT and may impose such other conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate.

In connection with granting a waiver of the ownership limit or creating or modifying an excepted holder limit, or at any other time, our board of directors may increase or decrease the ownership limit unless, after giving effect to any increased or decreased ownership limit, five or fewer persons could beneficially own, in the

 

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aggregate, more than 49.9% in value of the shares of our stock then outstanding or we would otherwise fail to qualify as a REIT. A decreased ownership limit will not be effective to any person whose percentage of ownership of our stock is in excess of the decreased ownership limit until the person’s ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, but any further acquisition of our stock will be subject to the decreased ownership limit.

Our charter also prohibits:

 

   

any person from beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would (or, in the sole judgment of our board of directors, could) result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT;

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our stock if the transfer would (or, in the sole judgment of our board of directors, could) result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons; and

 

   

any person from beneficially owning shares of our stock to the extent such ownership would (or, in the sole judgment of our board of directors, could) result in our failing to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h) of the Code.

Our charter provides that any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limit or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, and any person who is the intended transferee of shares of our stock that are transferred to a trust for the benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries described below, must give immediate written notice to us of such an event or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transfer, give at least 15 days’ prior written notice to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of the transfer on our status as a REIT. The provisions of our charter that relate to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock will not apply if our board of directors determines in its sole and absolute discretion that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT, or that compliance with any specific restriction or limitation is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

Our charter provides that any attempted transfer of our stock that, if effective, would result in our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons will be null and void, and the intended transferee shall acquire no rights in such shares. Our charter provides that any attempted transfer of our stock that, if effective, would (or, in the sole judgment of our board of directors, could) result in a violation of the ownership limit (or other limit established by our charter or our board of directors), our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or our otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT or as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h) of the Code will cause the number of shares causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) to be transferred automatically to a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries, and the proposed transferee will not acquire any rights in the shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day before the date of the attempted transfer or other event that resulted in a transfer to the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent a violation of the applicable restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, then the attempted transfer that, if effective, would (or, in the sole judgment of our board of directors, could) have resulted in a violation of the ownership limit (or other limit established by our charter or our board of directors), our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or our otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT or as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” will be null and void.

Shares of our stock held in the trust will be issued and outstanding shares. The proposed transferee will not benefit economically from ownership of any shares of our stock held in the trust and will have no rights to

 

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dividends and no rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares of our stock held in the trust. Our charter provides that the trustee of the trust will exercise all voting rights and receive all dividends and other distributions with respect to shares held in the trust for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid before we discover that the shares have been transferred to the trustee as described above must be repaid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand and any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid shall be paid when due to the trustee. Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority to rescind as void any vote cast by a proposed transferee before our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust and to recast the vote in the sole and absolute discretion of the trustee. However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind or recast the vote.

Within 20 days of receiving notice from us of a transfer of shares to the trust, the trustee must sell the shares to a person that would be permitted to own the shares without violating the ownership limit or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock in our charter. After the sale of the shares, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares transferred to the trust will terminate and the trustee must distribute to the proposed transferee an amount equal to the lesser of:

 

   

the price paid by the proposed transferee for the shares or, if the event that resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares at market price (i.e., in the case of a devise or gift), the market price of the shares on the last trading day before the day of the event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust; and

 

   

the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trust for the shares.

The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the proposed transferee by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the proposed transferee and are owed by the proposed transferee to the trustee pursuant to the terms of our charter. The trustee must immediately distribute any remaining funds held by the trust with respect to the shares to the charitable beneficiary. If the shares are sold by the proposed transferee before we discover that they have been transferred to the trustee, the shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and the proposed transferee must pay to the trustee, upon demand, the amount, if any, that the proposed transferee received in excess of the amount that the proposed transferee would have received had the shares been sold by the trustee.

Shares of our stock held in the trust will be deemed to be offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of:

 

   

the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer to the trust or, if the event that resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares at market price (i.e., in the case of a devise or gift), the market price of the shares on the last trading day before the day of the event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust; and

 

   

the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer.

We may accept the offer until the trustee has otherwise sold the shares of our stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the proposed transferee and distribute any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to the shares to the charitable beneficiary. We may reduce the amount payable to the proposed transferee by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the proposed transferee and are owed by the proposed transferee to the trustee pursuant to the terms of our charter.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give us written notice stating the person’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the person beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held; provided, that a

 

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stockholder of record who holds outstanding shares of our stock as nominee for another person, which other person is required to include in gross income the dividends or distributions received on such shares (an “Actual Owner”), must give written notice to us stating the name and address of such Actual Owner and the number of shares of our stock of such Actual Owner with respect to which the stockholder of record is nominee. Each such owner also must promptly provide us with any additional information that we request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the person’s beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limit. In addition, any person or entity that is a beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person or entity (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner must, on request, disclose to us in writing such information as we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT or to comply, or determine our compliance, with the requirements of any governmental or taxing authority.

If our board of directors authorizes any of our shares to be represented by certificates, the certificates will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of us that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW

AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws is qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and by the MGCL. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Under “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws,” “we,” “us,” “our” and “our company” refer to Invitation Homes Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries.

Election and Removal of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provides that the number of our directors may be established only by our board of directors but may not be more than 15 or fewer than the minimum number permitted by the MGCL, which is one. As provided in the Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement, dated as of August 9, 2017, by and among the Company and each of the parties from time to time party thereto (the “stockholders agreement”), for so long as the stockholders agreement remains in effect, any action by our board of directors to increase or decrease the size of our board of directors requires the consent of our Sponsor (subject to the right of any class or series of preferred stock). For so long as the stockholders agreement remains in effect, our bylaws require that, in order for an individual to qualify to be nominated as a director or to serve as a director of our company, the individual must have been nominated and elected in accordance with the stockholders agreement, including the requirement that we must nominate a certain number of directors designated by our Sponsor from time to time (each such director, a “Sponsor Director”). There will be no cumulative voting in the election of directors, and a director will be elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors.

Our charter provides that, except as may be provided by the terms of any class or series of our stock, any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum of the board of directors.

Our charter provides that, except as may be provided by the terms of any class or series of our stock, a director may be removed with or without cause by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors, except that, for so long as the stockholders agreement remains in effect, the removal of a Sponsor Director requires the consent of our Sponsor and our Sponsor must consent to any amendment to our charter to amend or modify this consent requirement.

Amendment to Charter and Bylaws

Except as described below and as provided in the MGCL, amendments to our charter must be advised by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of our stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our bylaws may be amended by our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of our stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors. Certain amendments to the provisions of our charter, as described in this section, require the consent of our Sponsor. In addition, the provisions of our bylaws (i) prohibiting our board of directors from revoking, altering or amending its resolution exempting any business combination from the “business combination” provisions of the MGCL and (ii) exempting any acquisition of our stock by any person from the “control share” provisions of the MGCL, in each case, must be approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on

 

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which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:

 

   

any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

   

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately before the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s then outstanding voting stock.

A person is not an interested stockholder under the MGCL if the corporation’s board of directors approves in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. In approving the transaction, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board.

After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and the interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the corporation’s board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

   

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

   

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under the MGCL, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

The MGCL permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has adopted a resolution exempting any transactions between us and any other person. Consequently, the five-year prohibition and the super-majority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations involving us. Our bylaws provide that this resolution or any other resolution of our board of directors exempting any business combination from the business combination provisions of the MGCL may only be revoked, altered or amended, and our board of directors may only adopt any resolution inconsistent with this resolution, with the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by our stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors. In the event that this resolution is revoked, business combinations between us and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder that are not exempted by our board of directors would be subject to the five-year prohibition and the super-majority vote requirements.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that a holder of control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition has no voting rights with respect to the control shares except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquiror, by officers or by employees who are directors of the corporation are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. Control shares are voting shares of stock that, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of

 

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a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

   

one-tenth or more but less than one-third of all voting power;

 

   

one-third or more but less than a majority of all voting power; or

 

   

a majority or more of all voting power.

Control shares do not include shares the acquiror is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A control share acquisition means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel the board of directors of the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiror does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the corporation may, subject to certain limitations and conditions, redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or, if the corporation holds a meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of the shares are considered and not approved, as of the date of such meeting. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of a majority of the voting power, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting any acquisition of our stock by any person from the foregoing provisions on control shares, and the board of directors is not permitted to amend this provision of our bylaws without the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by our stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors. In the event that our bylaws are amended to modify or eliminate this provision, acquisitions of our common stock may constitute a control share acquisition.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to be subject to any or all of five provisions, including:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote of outstanding shares to remove a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the board of directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board of directors be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors and that such director filling the vacancy serve for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies; and

 

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a provision that a special meeting of stockholders must be called upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting.

We elected in our charter to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 providing that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors. We have not elected to be subject to any of the other provisions of Subtitle 8, including the provisions that would permit us to classify our board of directors or increase the vote required to remove a director without stockholder approval. Moreover, our charter provides that, without the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by our stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, we may not elect to be subject to any of these additional provisions of Subtitle 8. We do not currently have a classified board and, subject to the right of our Sponsor to consent to the removal of any Sponsor Director, a director may be removed with or without cause by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors.

Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we (1) vest in our board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directors, subject to our Sponsor’s right under the stockholders agreement to consent to any change in the number of directors (subject to the rights of any class or series of preferred stock), and (2) require the request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting to call a special meeting (unless the special meeting is called either by our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors or our president, chief executive officer or secretary or at the request of our Sponsor as described below under the caption “—Special Meetings of Stockholders”).

Special Meetings of Stockholders

Our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors or our president, chief executive officer or secretary may call a special meeting of our stockholders. Our charter and bylaws provide that a special meeting of our stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of our stockholders must also be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at the meeting and containing the information required by our bylaws, or, for so long as our Sponsor and its affiliates together continue to beneficially own at least 35% of the shares of our common stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, our Sponsor. Additionally, for so long as the stockholders agreement remains in effect, a special meeting to act on the removal of one or more Sponsor Directors must be called by our secretary upon written request by our Sponsor.

Stockholder Action by Written Consent

The MGCL generally provides that, unless the charter of the corporation authorizes stockholder action by less than unanimous consent, stockholder action may be taken by consent in lieu of a meeting only if it is given by all stockholders entitled to vote on the matter. Our charter authorizes and our bylaws provide that stockholder action may be taken without a meeting if a consent, setting forth the action so taken, is given by the stockholders entitled to cast not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares of our stock entitled to vote thereon were present and voted. All stockholders not consenting to an action taken without a meeting must receive notice of the action within 10 days of the effective date of the action.

Competing Interests and Activities of Our Non-Employee Directors

Our charter, to the maximum extent permitted from time to time by Maryland law, renounces any interest or expectancy that we have in, or any right to be offered an opportunity to participate in, any business opportunities that are from time to time presented to or developed by our directors or their affiliates, other than to those directors who are employed by us or our subsidiaries, unless the business opportunity is expressly offered or made known to such person in his or her capacity as a director.

 

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Our charter provides that, to the maximum extent permitted from time to time by Maryland law, none of our Sponsor or any of its affiliates, or any director who is not employed by us or any of his, her or its affiliates, will have any duty to refrain from (1) engaging, directly or indirectly, in similar lines of business in which we or our affiliates now engage or propose to engage or (2) otherwise competing, directly or indirectly, with us or our affiliates, and our Sponsor and each of our non-employee directors (including those designated by our Sponsor), and any of their respective affiliates, may (a) acquire, hold and dispose of shares of our stock or other equity interests, including OP Units, for his, her or its own account or for the account of others, and exercise all of the rights of a stockholder of us or a limited partner of our Operating Partnership, to the same extent and in the same manner as if he, she or it were not our director or stockholder, and (b) in his, her or its personal capacity, or in his or her capacity as a director, officer, trustee, stockholder, partner, member, equity owner, manager, advisor or employee of any other person, have business interests and engage, directly or indirectly, in business activities that are similar to ours or compete, directly or indirectly, with us, that we could seize and develop or that include the acquisition, syndication, holding, management, development, operation or disposition of interests in mortgages, real property or persons engaged in the real estate business. In addition, our charter provides that, to the maximum extent permitted from time to time by Maryland law, in the event that our Sponsor, any non-employee director or any of their respective affiliates acquires knowledge of a potential transaction or other business opportunity, no such person will have any duty to communicate or offer such transaction or business opportunity to us or any of our affiliates and such person may take any such opportunity for himself, herself or itself or offer it to another person or entity unless the business opportunity is expressly offered to such person in his or her capacity as our director. Furthermore, our charter contains a provision intended to eliminate the liability of our Sponsor, any director who is not employed by us or any of their affiliates to us or our stockholders for money damages in connection with any benefit received, directly or indirectly, from any transaction or business opportunity that we have renounced in our charter or otherwise and permit our directors and officers to be indemnified and advanced expenses, notwithstanding his, her or its receipt, directly or indirectly, of a personal benefit from any such transaction or opportunity. Our charter provides that, for so long as the stockholders agreement remains in effect, this provision of our charter may not be amended without the consent of our Sponsor.

Advance Notice of Director Nomination and New Business

Our bylaws provide that nominations of individuals for election as directors and proposals of business to be considered by stockholders at any annual meeting may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) by any stockholder who was a stockholder of record at the record date set by our board of directors for the purposes of determining stockholders entitled to vote at the annual meeting, at the time of provision of notice and at the time of the meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other proposed business and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of our bylaws. Stockholders generally must provide notice to our secretary not earlier than the 150th day or later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the 120th day before the first anniversary of the date of our proxy statement for the preceding year’s annual meeting.

Our bylaws provide that only the business specified in the notice of the meeting may be brought before a special meeting of our stockholders. Nominations of individuals for election as directors at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected may be made only (1) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (2) if the special meeting has been called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record at the record date set by our board of directors for the purposes of determining stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting, at the time of provision of notice and at the time of the special meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of our bylaws. Stockholders generally must provide notice to our secretary not earlier than the 120th day before such special meeting or later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the later of the 90th day before the

 

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special meeting or the tenth day after the first public announcement of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees of our board of directors to be elected at the meeting.

A stockholder’s notice must contain certain information specified by our bylaws about the stockholder, its affiliates and any proposed business or nominee for election as a director, including information about the economic interest of the stockholder, its affiliates and any proposed nominee in us.

Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and our Charter and Bylaws

The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed under the caption “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” prevent any person from acquiring more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or 9.8% in value of our outstanding stock without the approval of our board of directors. These provisions, as well as our Sponsor’s right to designate certain individuals whom we must nominate for election as directors, may delay, defer or prevent a change in control of us. Further, a majority of our entire board of directors (without any action by our stockholders) has the power to increase the aggregate number of authorized shares and classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our stock into other classes or series of stock, and to authorize us to issue the newly-classified shares, as discussed under the captions “Description of Stock—Common Stock” and “—Power to Reclassify and Issue Stock,” and could authorize the issuance of shares of common stock or another class or series of stock, including a class or series of preferred stock, that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us. We believe that the power to increase the aggregate number of authorized shares and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock, without approval of holders of our common stock, provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise.

Our charter and bylaws also provide that the number of directors may be established only by our board of directors (subject to our Sponsor’s right to consent to changes in the number of our directors for so long as the stockholders agreement remains in effect), and vests in our board of directors the exclusive power to fill any vacancy. These provisions prevent our stockholders from increasing the number of our directors and filling any vacancies created by such increase with their own nominees. The provisions of our bylaws discussed above under the captions “—Special Meetings of Stockholders,” “—Shareholder Action by Written Consent” and “—Advance Notice of Director Nomination and New Business” require stockholders (other than our Sponsor, to the extent described above) seeking to call a special meeting, act by written consent, nominate an individual for election as a director or propose other business at an annual meeting to comply with certain notice and information requirements. We believe that these provisions will help to assure the continuity and stability of our business strategies and policies as determined by our board of directors and promote good corporate governance by providing us with clear procedures for calling special meetings, acting by written consent, information about a stockholder proponent’s interest in us and adequate time to consider stockholder nominees and other business proposals. However, these provisions, alone or in combination, could make it more difficult for our stockholders to remove incumbent directors or fill vacancies on our board of directors with their own nominees and could delay, defer or prevent a change in control, including a proxy contest or tender offer that might involve a premium price for our common stockholders or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Exclusive Forum

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that court does not have jurisdiction, the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is

 

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governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our stock will be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of our charter and bylaws, including the exclusive forum provisions in our bylaws.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Maryland law permits us to include a provision in our charter eliminating the liability of our directors and officers to us and our stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates our directors’ and officers’ liability to us and our stockholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires us (unless our charter were to provide otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to or in which they may be made or threatened to be made a party or witness by reason of their service in those or certain other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (a) was committed in bad faith or (b) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

The MGCL prohibits us from indemnifying a director or officer who has been adjudged liable in a suit by us or on our behalf or in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received; however, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or on our behalf, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

To the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, our charter authorizes us to indemnify any person who serves or has served, and our bylaws obligate us to indemnify any individual who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, a proceeding by reason of his or her service:

 

   

as our director or officer; or

 

   

while a director or officer and at our request, as a director, officer, partner, manager, member or trustee of another corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise,

in each case, from and against any claim or liability to which he or she may become subject or that he or she may incur by reason of his or her service in any of these capacities, and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable

 

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expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served any of our predecessors in any of the capacities described above and any employee or agent of us or any of our predecessors.

Indemnification Agreements

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. These agreements require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Maryland law and our charter and bylaws against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to the Company, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors or executive officers, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy and is therefore unenforceable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF

INVITATION HOMES OPERATING PARTNERSHIP LP

The following summary of the terms of the agreement of limited partnership of our Operating Partnership does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Invitation Homes Operating Partnership LP, a copy of which is an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

General

All of our assets are held by, and all of our operations are conducted through, our Operating Partnership, either directly or through subsidiaries. Invitation Homes OP GP LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Invitation Homes Inc., is the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership.

In the future some of our property acquisitions could be financed by issuing OP Units in exchange for property owned by third parties. Such third parties would then be entitled to share in cash distributions from, and in the profits and losses of, our Operating Partnership in proportion to their respective percentage interests in our Operating Partnership if and to the extent authorized by the general partner of our Operating Partnership. Holders of OP Units other than Invitation Homes Inc. or its wholly owned subsidiary (“Outstanding OP Units”) have the right, subject to the terms of the partnership agreement, to elect to redeem their OP Units for cash based upon the value of an equivalent number of shares of our common stock, subject to our right to acquire the OP Units tendered for redemption in exchange for an equivalent number of shares of our common stock, subject to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock to be set forth in our charter. The OP Units are not listed on any securities exchange or quoted on any inter-dealer quotation system.

Provisions in the partnership agreement may delay or make more difficult unsolicited acquisitions of us or changes in our control. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an unsolicited acquisition of us or change of our control, although some stockholders might consider such proposals, if made, desirable. These provisions also make it more difficult for third parties to alter the management structure of our Operating Partnership without the concurrence of our board of directors. These provisions include, among others:

 

   

redemption rights of limited partners and certain assignees of OP Units or other operating partnership interests;

 

   

transfer restrictions on OP Units and restrictions on admission of partners;

 

   

a requirement that Invitation Homes OP GP LLC may not be removed as the general partner of our Operating Partnership without its consent;

 

   

the ability of the general partner in some cases to amend the partnership agreement and to cause our Operating Partnership to issue preferred partnership interests in our Operating Partnership with terms that it may determine, in either case, without the approval or consent of any limited partner; and

 

   

the right of any future limited partners to consent to transfers of units of other Operating Partnership interests except under specified circumstances, including in connection with mergers, consolidations and other business combinations involving us.

Purpose, Business and Management

Our Operating Partnership is formed for the purpose of conducting any business, enterprise or activity permitted by or under the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (the “DRULPA”) including (1) to conduct the business of ownership, construction, reconstruction, development, redevelopment, alteration,

 

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improvement, maintenance, operation, sale, leasing, transfer, encumbrance, financing, refinancing, conveyance and exchange of any asset or property of the Operating Partnership, (2) to acquire and invest in any securities and/or loans relating to such properties, (3) to enter into any partnership, joint venture, business or statutory trust arrangement, limited liability company or other similar arrangement to engage in any business permitted by or under the DRULPA, or to own interests in any entity engaged in any business permitted by or under the DRULPA, (4) to conduct the business of providing property and asset management and brokerage services and (5) to do anything necessary or incidental to the foregoing. However, our Operating Partnership may not, without the general partner’s specific consent, which it may give or withhold in its sole and absolute discretion, take, or refrain from taking, any action that, in its judgment, in its sole and absolute discretion:

 

   

could adversely affect our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT;

 

   

could subject us to any taxes under Code Section 857 or Code Section 4981 or any other related or successor provision under the Code; or

 

   

could violate any law or regulation of any governmental body or agency having jurisdiction over us or our securities or our Operating Partnership.

The general partner is accountable to a limited partnership as a fiduciary and consequently must exercise good faith and integrity in handling partnership affairs. If there is a conflict between our interests or the interests of us or our stockholders, on one hand, and the Operating Partnership or any current or future limited partners on the other, the general partner will endeavor in good faith to resolve the conflict in a manner not adverse to either us and our stockholders or any limited partners. The partnership agreement also provides that the general partner is not liable to our Operating Partnership, its partners or any other person bound by the partnership agreement for monetary damages for losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived by our Operating Partnership or any limited partner, except for any such losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived as a result of: (i) an act or omission on the part of the general partner that was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty; (ii) in the case of any criminal proceeding, an act or omission on the part of the general partner that it had reasonable cause to believe was unlawful; or (iii) for any loss resulting from any transaction for which the general partner actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement. Moreover, the partnership agreement provides that our Operating Partnership is required to indemnify the general partner and its members, managers, managing members, officers, employees, agents and designees from and against any and all claims that relate to the operations of our Operating Partnership, except (1) if the act or omission of the person was material to the matter giving rise to the action and either was committed in bad faith or was the result of active or deliberate dishonesty, (2) for any transaction for which the indemnified party received an improper personal benefit, in money, property or services in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement or (3) in the case of a criminal proceeding, if the indemnified person had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

Except as otherwise expressly provided in the partnership agreement and subject to the rights of future holders of any class or series of partnership interests, all management powers over the business and affairs of our Operating Partnership are exclusively vested in Invitation Homes OP GP LLC, in its capacity as the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership. No limited partner, in its capacity as a limited partner, has any right to participate in or exercise management power over the business and affairs of our Operating Partnership (provided, however, that Invitation Homes Subsidiary, Inc., in its capacity as the sole member of the general partner and not in its capacity as a limited partner of the Operating Partnership, may have the power to direct the actions of the general partner with respect to the Operating Partnership). Invitation Homes OP GP LLC may not be removed as the general partner of our Operating Partnership, with or without cause, without its consent, which it may give or withhold in its sole and absolute discretion. In addition to the powers granted to the general partner under applicable law or any provision of the partnership agreement, but subject to certain other provisions of the partnership agreement and the rights of future holders of any class or series of partnership interests, Invitation Homes OP GP LLC, in its capacity as the general partner of our Operating Partnership, has the full and exclusive

 

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power and authority to do all things that it deems necessary or desirable to conduct the business and affairs of our Operating Partnership, to exercise or direct the exercise of all of the powers of our Operating Partnership and to effectuate the purposes of our Operating Partnership without the approval or consent of any limited partner. The general partner may authorize our Operating Partnership to incur debt and enter into credit, guarantee, financing or refinancing arrangements for any purpose, including, without limitation, in connection with any acquisition of properties, on such terms as it determines to be appropriate, and to acquire or dispose of any, all or substantially all of its assets (including goodwill), dissolve, merge, consolidate, reorganize or otherwise combine with another entity, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. With limited exceptions, the general partner may execute, deliver and perform agreements and transactions on behalf of our Operating Partnership without the approval or consent of any limited partner.

Future Limited Partners

The general partner of our Operating Partnership may cause our Operating Partnership to issue OP Units or other partnership interests and to admit additional limited partners to our Operating Partnership from time to time, on such terms and conditions and for such capital contributions as it may establish in its sole and absolute discretion, without the approval or consent of any limited partner, including:

 

   

upon the conversion, redemption or exchange of any debt, OP Units or other partnership interests or securities issued by our Operating Partnership;

 

   

for less than fair market value; or

 

   

in connection with any merger of any other entity into our Operating Partnership.

The net capital contribution need not be equal for all limited partners. Each person admitted as a limited partner must make certain representations to each other partner relating to, among other matters, such person’s ownership of any resident of Invitation Homes Inc. or our Operating Partnership. No person may be admitted as a limited partner without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, and no approval or consent of any limited partner will be required in connection with the admission of any additional limited partner.

Our Operating Partnership may issue partnership interests in one or more classes, or one or more series of any of such classes, with such designations, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers or rights, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption (including, without limitation, terms that may be senior or otherwise entitled to preference over the units) as we may determine, in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval of any limited partner or any other person. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, we may specify, as to any such class or series of partnership interests:

 

   

the allocations of items of partnership income, gain, loss, deduction and credit to each such class or series of partnership interests;

 

   

the right of each such class or series of partnership interests to share, on a junior, senior or pari passu basis, in distributions;

 

   

the rights of each such class or series of partnership interests upon dissolution and liquidation of our Operating Partnership;

 

   

the voting rights, if any, of each such class or series of partnership interests; and

 

   

the conversion, redemption or exchange rights applicable to each such class or series of partnership interests.

 

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LTIP Units

The partnership agreement enables the Operating Partnership to issue a class of LTIP Units pursuant to equity incentive plans to our officers and employees as an alternative type of award grant under our equity incentive plans. LTIP Units are a class of partnership units that are intended to qualify as “profits interests” in the Operating Partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes that, subject to certain conditions, including vesting, are convertible by the holder into OP Units. LTIP Units initially will not have full parity, on a per unit basis, with OP Units with respect to liquidating distributions (and possibly with respect to ordinary distributions). Upon the occurrence of specified events and adequate appreciation in our assets, LTIP Units can over time achieve full parity with OP Units, at which time vested LTIP Units may be converted into OP Units on a one-for-one basis. Holders of OP Units (other than Invitation Homes Inc. or its wholly owned subsidiary) may, in turn, redeem their OP Units for cash based upon the market value of an equivalent number of shares of our common stock or, at the general partner’s election and subject to the restrictions on ownership and transfer contained in our charter, exchange their OP Units for shares our common stock on a one-for-one basis subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for splits, unit distributions and reclassifications.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership of our common stock as of the date hereof by U.S. holders and non-U.S. holders, each as defined below. Except where noted, this summary deals only with common stock held as a capital asset and does not deal with special situations, such as those of dealers in securities or currencies, financial institutions, regulated investment companies, tax-exempt entities (except as described in “—Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Common Stock” below), insurance companies, persons holding common stock as a part of a hedging, integrated, conversion or constructive sale transaction or a straddle, traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings, persons liable for alternative minimum tax, non-U.S. holders that are qualified shareholders, qualified foreign pension funds, foreign governments or “controlled entities” of foreign governments, investors in pass-through entities, U.S. holders of common stock whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar, or persons who acquired their common stock through the exercise of an employee stock option or otherwise as compensation. Furthermore, the discussion below is based upon the provisions of the Code and regulations, rulings and judicial decisions thereunder as of the date hereof, and such authorities may be repealed, revoked or modified, possibly with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those discussed below. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. The summary is also based upon the assumption that we and our subsidiaries and affiliated entities will operate in accordance with our and their applicable organizational documents.

The U.S. federal income tax treatment of holders of our common stock depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. In addition, the tax consequences to any particular stockholder of holding our common stock will depend on the stockholder’s particular tax circumstances. You are urged to consult your own tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences in light of your particular situation as well as consequences arising under the laws of any other taxing jurisdiction.

Our Taxation as a REIT

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013. We believe that we have been organized and have operated and will continue to operate in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the applicable provisions of the Code.

In connection with the filing of this prospectus, Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP will render an opinion that, commencing with our initial taxable year ended December 31, 2013, we have been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a REIT under the Code, and our actual and proposed method of operation as described in this prospectus has enabled and will enable us to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. Investors should be aware that the opinion of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP will be based upon customary assumptions, will be conditioned upon certain representations made by us as to factual matters, including representations regarding the nature of our assets, income, organizational documents, stockholder ownership, and the present and future conduct of our business and will not be binding upon the IRS or any court. We have not received, and do not intend to seek, any rulings from the IRS regarding our status as a REIT or our satisfaction of the REIT requirements. The IRS may challenge our status as a REIT, and a court could sustain any such challenge. In addition, the opinion of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP will be based on existing U.S. federal income tax law governing qualification as a REIT, which is subject to change either prospectively or retroactively. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual annual operating results, certain qualification tests set forth in the U.S. federal tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of income that we earn from specified sources, the percentage of our assets that falls within specified categories, the diversity of the ownership of our shares, and the percentage of our taxable income that we distribute. Simpson

 

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Thacher & Bartlett LLP will not review our compliance with those tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT, see “—Failure to Qualify.”

The sections of the Code and the corresponding regulations that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders are highly technical and complex. The following discussion is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and administrative interpretations thereof.

Taxation of REITs in General

As indicated above, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Code. The material qualification requirements are summarized below under “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.” While we intend to operate so that we qualify as a REIT, no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification, or that we will be able to operate in accordance with the REIT requirements in the future. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

Provided that we qualify as a REIT, generally we will be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay and therefore will not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our net taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” at the corporate and stockholder levels that generally results from an investment in a C corporation. A “C corporation” is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. In general, the income that we generate is taxed only at the stockholder level upon a distribution of dividends to our stockholders.

 

   

If we qualify as a REIT, we will nonetheless be subject to U.S. federal tax in the following circumstances:

 

   

We will pay U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders during, or within a specified time after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

 

   

For taxable years beginning prior to January 1, 2018, under some circumstances, we may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” due to our undistributed items of tax preference and alternative minimum tax adjustments.

 

   

If we have net income from “prohibited transactions,” which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax.

 

   

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (a) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (b) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate.

 

   

If due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect we fail to satisfy either the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, multiplied in either case by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

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If we fail to satisfy the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test or the 10% vote or value test, as described below under “—Asset Tests”) as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we dispose of the assets or otherwise comply with such asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure and we file a schedule with the IRS describing the assets that caused such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy such asset tests multiplied by the highest corporate tax rate.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, and the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet recordkeeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s stockholders, as described below in “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

 

   

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of:

 

   

85% of our ordinary income for such calendar year;

 

   

95% of our capital gain net income for such calendar year; and

 

   

any undistributed taxable income from prior taxable years,

we will pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amount we actually distributed, plus any retained amounts on which income tax has been paid at the corporate level.

 

   

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a U.S. stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, and would receive a credit or a refund for its proportionate share of the tax we paid.

 

   

We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on amounts received by us from a TRS (or on certain expenses deducted by a TRS or understated TRS service income) if certain arrangements between us and a TRS of ours, as further described below, are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

 

   

If we acquire any assets from a non-REIT C corporation in a carryover basis transaction, we could be liable for specified tax liabilities inherited from that non-REIT C corporation with respect to that corporation’s “built-in gain” in its assets. Built-in gain is the amount by which an asset’s fair market value exceeds its adjusted tax basis at the time we acquire the asset. Applicable Treasury regulations, however, allow us to avoid the recognition of gain and the imposition of corporate level tax with respect to a built-in gain asset acquired in a carryover basis transaction from a non-REIT C corporation unless and until we dispose of that built-in gain asset during the five-year period following its acquisition, at which time we would recognize, and would be subject to tax at the highest regular corporate rate on, the built-in gain. As discussed below under “—Built-in Gains of Former C Corporation Assets,” as part of a restructuring completed on January 31, 2017, in connection with our IPO (the “Pre-IPO Transactions”) we acquired certain assets that will be subject to this tax if we dispose of such assets during the five-year period following such Pre-IPO Transactions.

In addition, notwithstanding our status as a REIT, we may also have to pay certain state and local income taxes, because not all states and localities treat REITs in the same manner that they are treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Moreover, as further described below, any domestic TRS in which we own an interest will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its net income.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

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  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for its election to be subject to tax as a REIT;

 

  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to certain provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

of which not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares are owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) after applying certain attribution rules;

 

  (7)

that makes an election to be a REIT for the current taxable year or has made such an election for a previous taxable year, which has not been terminated or revoked; and

 

  (8)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets.

Conditions (1) through (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year. Condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months other than the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT is made. Condition (6) must be met during the last half of each taxable year but neither conditions (5) nor (6) apply to the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT is made. We believe that we have maintained and will maintain sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to continue to satisfy conditions (5) and (6) above. In addition, our charter contains restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in (5) and (6) above. The provisions of our charter restricting the ownership and transfer of our stock are described in “Description of Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will be able to satisfy these share ownership requirements. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

If we comply with regulatory rules pursuant to which we are required to send annual letters to holders of our stock requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock (as discussed below), and we do not know, or exercising reasonable diligence would not have known, whether we failed to meet requirement (6) above, we will be treated as having met the requirement.

To monitor compliance with the share ownership requirements, we generally are required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of our shares. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of our stock pursuant to which the record holders must disclose the actual owners of the shares (i.e., the persons required to include our dividends in their gross income). We must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand as part of our records. We could be subject to monetary penalties if we fail to comply with these record-keeping requirements. If you fail or refuse to comply with the demands, you will be required by U.S. Treasury regulations to submit a statement with your tax return disclosing your actual ownership of our shares and other information. In addition, we must satisfy all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS to elect and maintain REIT status, use a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and comply with the record keeping requirements of the Code and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Ownership of Partnership Interests. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in an entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Treasury regulations provide that the REIT is deemed to own its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets and to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s gross income based on its pro rata share of capital interests in the partnership for purposes of the asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, as described below. However, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, described below (see “—Asset Tests”), the determination of a REIT’s interest in partnership assets will be based

 

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on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for these purposes, certain excluded securities as described in the Code. In addition, the assets and gross income of the partnership generally are deemed to retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of partnerships in which we own an equity interest is treated as assets and items of income of our company for purposes of applying the REIT requirements described below. Consequently, to the extent that we directly or indirectly hold a preferred or other equity interest in a partnership, the partnership’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control or only limited influence over the partnership.

Disregarded Subsidiaries. If a REIT owns a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” the separate existence of that subsidiary is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Generally, a qualified REIT subsidiary is a corporation, other than a TRS, all of the stock of which is owned directly or indirectly by the REIT. Other entities that are wholly owned by us, including single member limited liability companies that have not elected to be taxed as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, are also generally disregarded as separate entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests. All assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of qualified REIT subsidiaries and disregarded subsidiaries will be treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT itself. A qualified REIT subsidiary of ours is not subject to U.S. federal corporate income taxation, although it may be subject to state and local taxation in some states.

In the event that a qualified REIT subsidiary or a disregarded subsidiary ceases to be wholly owned by us (e.g., if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of us), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.”

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. A TRS is an entity that is taxable as a corporation in which we directly or indirectly own stock and that elects with us to be treated as a TRS. The separate existence of a TRS is not ignored for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, a TRS generally is subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow that we and our subsidiaries generate in the aggregate, and may reduce our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. In addition, if a TRS owns, directly or indirectly, securities representing 35% or more of the vote or value of a subsidiary corporation, that subsidiary will also be treated as a TRS. However, an entity will not qualify as a TRS if it directly or indirectly operates or manages a lodging or health care facility or, generally, provides to another person, under a franchise, license or otherwise, rights to any brand name under which any lodging facility or health care facility is operated. We generally may not own more than 10%, as measured by voting power or value, of the securities of a corporation that is not a qualified REIT subsidiary, unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a TRS. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs.

Income earned by a TRS is not attributable to the REIT. Rather, the stock issued by a TRS to us is an asset in our hands, and we treat dividends paid to us from such TRS, if any, as income. This income can affect our income and asset tests calculations, as described below. As a result, income that might not be qualifying income for purposes of the income tests applicable to REITs could be earned by a TRS without affecting our status as a REIT. For example, we may use TRSs to perform services or conduct activities that give rise to certain categories of income such as management fees, or to conduct activities that, if conducted by us directly, would be treated in our hands as prohibited transactions.

Several provisions of the Code regarding the arrangements between a REIT and its TRSs ensure that a TRS will be subject to an appropriate level of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, a TRS is limited in its ability

 

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to deduct interest payments made to affiliated REITs. In addition, we would be obligated to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that we receive from, or on certain expenses deducted by, a TRS if the IRS were to assert successfully that the economic arrangements between us and a TRS are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

Income Tests

To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy two gross income requirements, each of which is applied on an annual basis. First, at least 75% of our gross income, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging and foreign currency transactions, for each taxable year generally must be derived directly or indirectly from:

 

   

rents from real property;

 

   

interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property;

 

   

dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, stock in other REITs;

 

   

gain from the sale of real property or mortgage loans;

 

   

abatements and refunds of taxes on real property;

 

   

income and gain derived from foreclosure property (as described below);

 

   

amounts (other than amounts the determination of which depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person) received or accrued as consideration for entering into agreements (i) to make loans secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property or (ii) to purchase or lease real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property); and

 

   

interest or dividend income from investments in stock or debt instruments attributable to the temporary investment of new capital during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt obligations with at least a five-year term.

Second, at least 95% of our gross income, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging transactions, for each taxable year must be derived from sources that qualify for purposes of the 75% test, and from (i) dividends, (ii) interest and (iii) gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, which need not have any relation to real property.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for that year if we are entitled to relief under the Code. These relief provisions generally will be available if our failure to meet the tests is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we attach a schedule of the sources of our income to our U.S. federal income tax return. It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally recognize exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that the failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances, we will fail to qualify as a REIT. Even if these relief provisions apply, a penalty tax would be imposed based on the amount of nonqualifying income. See “—Our Taxation as a REIT.”

Gross income from our sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business is excluded from both the numerator and the denominator in both gross income tests. In addition, income and gain from hedging transactions that we enter into to hedge indebtedness incurred or to be incurred to acquire or carry real estate assets and that are clearly and timely identified as such will be excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of both gross income tests. In addition, certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. We will monitor the amount of our non-qualifying income and we will manage our portfolio to comply at all times with the gross income tests. The following paragraphs discuss some of the specific applications of the gross income tests to us.

 

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Dividends. We may directly or indirectly receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally are treated as dividend income to the extent of earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Our dividend income from stock in any corporation (other than any REIT) and from any TRS will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. The dividends that we receive from any REITs in which we own stock and our gain on the sale of the stock in those REITs will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests. However, if a REIT in which we own stock fails to qualify as a REIT in any year, our income from such REIT would be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

Interest. The term “interest,” as defined for purposes of both gross income tests, generally excludes any amount that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person, however, it generally includes the following: (i) an amount that is received or accrued based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales, and (ii) an amount that is based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt by leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by a REIT.

Interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, including, for this purpose, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees and late payment charges that are not compensation for services, generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. However, if the highest principal amount of a loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan as of the date we agreed to originate or acquire the loan, a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. The portion of the interest income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test will be equal to the portion of the principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property—that is, the amount by which the loan exceeds the value of the real estate that is security for the loan. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, all interest earned on a mortgage loan secured by both real property and personal property shall be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% income test if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, even if the real property collateral value is less than the outstanding principal balance of the loan.

Hedging Transactions. We and our subsidiaries may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent provided by Treasury regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we enter into (i) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as a hedge along with the risk that it hedges within prescribed time periods specified in Treasury regulations, (ii) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests which is clearly identified as a hedge along with the risk that it hedges within prescribed time periods or (iii) in connection with the effective termination of certain hedging transactions described above, will be excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Moreover, whether or not income from a hedge is excluded for purposes of the income tests, to the extent that a position in a hedging transaction has positive value at any particular point in time, it may be treated as an asset that does not qualify for purposes of the asset tests described below. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT. No assurance can be given, however, that our hedging activities will not give rise to income or assets that do not qualify for purposes of the REIT tests, or that our hedging will not adversely affect our ability to satisfy the REIT qualification requirements.

 

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We may conduct some or all of our hedging activities through a TRS or other corporate entity, the income of which may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, rather than by participating in the arrangements directly or through pass-through subsidiaries.

Fee Income. Any fee income that we earn will generally not be qualifying income for purposes of either gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS will not be included for purposes of the gross income tests.

Rents from Real Property. Rents we receive will qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if several conditions described below are met. These conditions relate to the identity of the tenant, the computation of the rent payable, the nature of the property leased and any services provided in connection with the property. First, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Second, rents we receive from a “related party tenant” will not qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income tests unless the tenant is a TRS, at least 90% of the property is leased to unrelated tenants, the rent paid by the TRS is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space and the rent is not attributable to an increase in rent due to a modification of a lease with a “controlled TRS” (i.e., a TRS in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock). A tenant is a related party tenant if the REIT, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of the REIT, actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the tenant. Whether rents paid by a TRS are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the TRS is entered into, extended, or modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Third, if rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to the personal property will not qualify as rents from real property. Finally, for rents to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests, we are only allowed to provide services that are both usually or “customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of real property and not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these permitted services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. We may, however, render services to our tenants through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive revenue. We may also own a TRS which provides non-customary services to tenants without tainting our rental income from the related properties.

Even if a REIT furnishes or renders services that are non-customary with respect to a property, if the greater of (i) the amounts received or accrued, directly or indirectly, or deemed received by the REIT with respect to such services, or (ii) 150% of our direct cost in furnishing or rendering the services during a taxable year is not more than 1% of all amounts received or accrued, directly or indirectly by the REIT with respect to the property during the same taxable year, then only the amounts with respect to such non-customary services are not treated as rent for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.

We intend to cause any services that are not “usually or customarily rendered,” or that are for the benefit of a particular tenant in connection with the rental of real property, to be provided through a TRS or through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from which we do not derive revenue. However, no assurance can be given that the IRS will concur with our determination as to whether a particular service is usual or customary, or otherwise in this regard.

Prohibited Transactions Tax. A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds as primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Whether a REIT holds an asset as primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business depends, however, on the facts and circumstances in effect from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. Nevertheless, we intend to conduct our operations so that no asset that we own (or are treated as owning) will be treated as, or as having been, held for sale to customers, and that a sale of any such asset will not be treated as having been in the ordinary course of our

 

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business. We cannot assure you that we will comply with certain safe harbor provisions or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of such corporation at regular corporate income tax rates. We intend to structure our activities to avoid prohibited transaction characterization.

Foreclosure Property. Foreclosure property is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

 

   

that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid in such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;

 

   

for which the related loan was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and

 

   

for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.

However, a REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor.

Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the Treasury. This grace period terminates and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

 

   

on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

 

   

on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement, if more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent; or

 

   

which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business that is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or through a TRS.

We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, including gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. However, income from foreclosure property, including gain from the sale of foreclosure property held for sale in the ordinary course of a trade or business, will qualify for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property.

 

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Asset Tests

At the close of each quarter of our taxable year, we must satisfy the following tests relating to the nature of our assets:

 

   

at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by the following:

 

   

interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds (including, for the avoidance of doubt, personal property leased with real property to the extent rents attributable to such personal property would be treated as rents from real property);

 

   

interests in mortgages on real property;

 

   

stock in other REITs;

 

   

debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs;

 

   

cash and cash items (including certain receivables);

 

   

government securities;

 

   

investments in stock or debt instruments attributable to the temporary investment of new capital during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt obligations with at least a five-year term; and

 

   

regular or residual interests in a Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (“REMIC”). However, if less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of assets that are qualifying real estate-related assets under U.S. federal income tax laws, determined as if we held such assets directly, we will be treated as holding directly our proportionate share of the assets of such REMIC.

 

   

not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by securities, other than those in the 75% asset class.

 

   

except for securities in TRSs and the securities in the 75% asset class described in the first bullet point above, the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets.

 

   

except for securities in TRSs and the securities in the 75% asset class described in the first bullet point above, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding voting securities.

 

   

except for securities of TRSs and the securities in the 75% asset class described in the first bullet point above, we may not own more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer, other than securities that qualify for the “straight debt” exception discussed below.

 

   

not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more TRSs.

 

   

not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by nonqualified publicly offered REIT debt instruments.

Notwithstanding the general rule, as noted above, that for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests we are treated as owning our proportionate share of the underlying assets of a subsidiary partnership, if we hold indebtedness issued by a partnership, the indebtedness will be subject to, and may cause a violation of, the asset tests unless the indebtedness is a qualifying mortgage asset or other conditions are met. Similarly, although stock of another REIT is a qualifying asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, any non-mortgage debt that is issued by another REIT may not so qualify (although such debt will not be treated as “securities” for purposes of the 10% asset test, as explained below).

Securities, for the purposes of the asset tests, may include debt we hold from other issuers. However, debt we hold in an issuer that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% asset test will not be taken into account for

 

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purposes of the 10% value test if the debt securities meet the straight debt safe harbor. Debt will meet the “straight debt” safe harbor if the debt is a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money, the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, and the interest rate and the interest payment dates of the debt are not contingent on the profits, the borrower’s discretion or similar factors. In the case of an issuer that is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our controlled TRSs, as defined in the Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer that (i) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (ii) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, for the purposes of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

In addition to straight debt, the Code provides that certain other securities will not violate the 10% asset test. Such securities include (i) any loan made to an individual or an estate, (ii) certain rental agreements pursuant to which one or more payments are to be made in subsequent years (other than agreements between a REIT and certain persons related to the REIT under attribution rules), (iii) any obligation to pay rents from real property, (iv) securities issued by governmental entities that are not dependent in whole or in part on the profits of (or payments made by) a non-governmental entity, (v) any security (including debt securities) issued by another REIT and (vi) any debt instrument issued by a partnership if the partnership’s income is of a nature that it would satisfy the 75% gross income test described above under “—Income Tests.” In applying the 10% asset test, a debt security issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or any other excluded security) is not taken into account to the extent, if any, of the REIT’s proportionate interest as a partner in that partnership.

We believe that any stock that we hold or acquire in other REITs will be a qualifying asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. However, if a REIT in which we own stock fails to qualify as a REIT in any year, the stock in such REIT will not be a qualifying asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. Instead, we would be subject to the second, third, fourth, and fifth assets tests described above with respect to our investment in such a disqualified REIT. We will also be subject to those assets tests with respect to our investments in any non-REIT C corporations for which we do not make a TRS election.

We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will seek to manage our portfolio to comply at all times with such tests. There can be no assurances, however, that we will be successful in this effort. No independent appraisals have been obtained to support our conclusions as to the value of our total assets or the value of any particular security or securities. Moreover, the values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination, and values are subject to change in the future. Furthermore, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our interests in our subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers will not cause a violation of the REIT asset tests.

However, certain relief provisions are available to allow REITs to satisfy the asset requirements or to maintain REIT qualification notwithstanding certain violations of the asset and other requirements. For example, if we should fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter such a failure would not cause us to lose our REIT qualification if we (i) satisfied the asset tests at the close of the preceding calendar quarter and (ii) the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset requirements was not wholly or partly caused by an acquisition of non-qualifying assets, but instead arose from changes in the relative market values of our assets. If the condition described in (ii) were not satisfied, we still could avoid disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose or by making use of the relief provisions described above.

In the case of de minimis violations of the 10% and 5% asset tests, a REIT may maintain its qualification despite a violation of such requirements if (i) the value of the assets causing the violation does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the REIT’s total assets and $10,000,000 and (ii) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or the relevant tests are otherwise satisfied within that time frame.

 

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Even if we did not qualify for the foregoing relief provisions, one additional provision allows a REIT which fails one or more of the asset requirements for a particular tax quarter to nevertheless maintain its REIT qualification if (i) the REIT provides the IRS with a description of each asset causing the failure, (ii) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (iii) the REIT pays a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 per failure and (b) the product of the net income generated by the assets that caused the failure multiplied by the highest applicable corporate tax rate and (iv) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or otherwise satisfies the relevant asset tests within that time frame.

Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs

To qualify as a REIT, we generally must distribute dividends (other than capital gain dividends) to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:

 

   

the sum of (i) 90% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain and (ii) 90% of our net income after tax, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

   

the excess of the sum of specified items of non-cash income (including original issue discount on our mortgage loans) over 5% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain.

Distributions generally must be made during the taxable year to which they relate. Distributions may be made in the following year in two circumstances. First, if we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared. Second, distributions may be made in the following year if the dividends are declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if made before the first regular dividend payment made after such declaration. These distributions are taxable to our stockholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain or we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be subject to tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates.

To the extent that in the future we may have available net operating losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. Such losses, however, will generally not affect the tax treatment to our stockholders of any distributions that are actually made.

If we fail to distribute during a calendar year (or, in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, by the end of January following such calendar year) at least the sum of (i) 85% of our ordinary income for such year, (ii) 95% of our capital gain net income for such year and (iii) any undistributed taxable income from prior years, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior years) and (y) the amounts of income retained on which we have paid corporate income tax.

We may elect to retain rather than distribute all or a portion of our net capital gains and pay the tax on the gains. In that case, we may elect to have our stockholders include their proportionate share of the undistributed net capital gains in income as long-term capital gains and receive a credit for their share of the tax paid by us. Our stockholders would then increase the adjusted basis of their stock by the difference between (i) the amounts of capital gain dividends that we designated and that they include in their taxable income, minus (ii) the tax that we paid on their behalf with respect to that income. For purposes of the 4% excise tax described above, any retained amounts for which we elect this treatment would be treated as having been distributed.

 

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We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the distribution requirements and we expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, it is possible that, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet the distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of items of income and deduction of expenses by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt, acquire assets or for other reasons. In the event that such timing differences occur, and in other circumstances, it may be necessary in order to satisfy the distribution requirements to arrange for short-term, or possibly long-term, borrowings, or to pay the dividends in the form of other property (including, for example, shares of our own stock).

Although several types of non-cash income are excluded in determining the annual distribution requirement, we will incur corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax with respect to those non-cash income items if we do not distribute those items on a current basis. As a result of the foregoing, we may not have sufficient cash to distribute all of our taxable income and thereby avoid corporate income tax and the excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or issue additional common stock or preferred stock.

If our taxable income for a particular year is subsequently determined to have been understated, under some circumstances we may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying deficiency dividends to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. However, we will be required to pay interest based upon the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

Built-in Gains of Former C Corporation Assets

If a REIT acquires an asset (directly or indirectly) from a C corporation in a transaction in which the REIT’s basis in the asset is determined by reference to the basis of the asset in the hands of the C corporation, the REIT may be subject to an entity-level tax (“built-in gains tax”) upon a taxable disposition during a five-year period following the acquisition date. The amount of the tax is determined by applying the highest regular corporate tax rate to the lesser of (i) the excess, if any, of the asset’s fair market value over the REIT’s basis in the asset on the acquisition date, or (ii) the gain recognized by the REIT in the disposition. The amount described in clause (i) is referred to as “built-in gain.”

As part of the Pre-IPO Transactions, we acquired assets with built-in gains through contributions by our pre-IPO owners. These transactions, taken together, were intended to qualify as tax-free under Section 351 of the Code, with the result that we took a carryover tax basis in the assets acquired. Any such assets acquired by us in carryover basis transactions from a C corporation (directly or indirectly) will be subject to built-in gains tax upon a taxable disposition of any such assets during the applicable five-year recognition period.

Like-Kind Exchanges

We may dispose of properties in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

 

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Penalty Tax

Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a TRS, and redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a TRS for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Rents that we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code. Redetermined TRS service income is income earned by a TRS that is attributable to services provided to us, or on our behalf to any of our tenants, that is less than the amounts that would have been charged based upon arms’ length negotiations.

Record Keeping Requirements

We are required to comply with applicable record keeping requirements. Failure to comply could result in monetary fines. For example, we must request on an annual basis information from our stockholders designed to disclose the actual ownership of our outstanding common stock.

Failure to Qualify

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements of REIT qualification, other than the income tests or asset requirements, then we may still retain REIT qualification if the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each failure.

If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year for which the applicable period for assessment has not expired and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be subject to tax, including, for taxable years beginning prior to January 1, 2018, any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income as a corporation. This would significantly reduce both our cash available for distribution to our stockholders and our earnings. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to make any distributions to stockholders and any distributions that are made will not be deductible by us. Moreover, all distributions to stockholders would be taxable as dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, whether or not attributable to capital gains of ours. Subject to certain limitations of the Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends received deduction with respect to those distributions, and individual, trust and estate distributees may be eligible for reduced income tax rates on such dividends. Unless we are entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we also (i) will be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost and (ii) for the five years following our re-election of REIT status, upon a taxable disposition of an asset we owned as of such re-election, will be subject to corporate level tax with respect to any built-in gain inherent in such asset at the time of re-election.

Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership and Subsidiaries

General. All of our investments are held through our Operating Partnership. In addition, our Operating Partnership holds certain investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies which are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership or limited liability company, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership or limited liability company. A partner in such entities that is a REIT will include in its income its share of these partnership and limited liability company items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of its REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, it will include its pro rata share of assets held by the Operating Partnership, including its share of its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, based on its capital interest in each such entity.

 

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Entity Classification. Our interests in the Operating Partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships (or disregarded entities), as opposed to associations taxable as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, an entity that would otherwise be classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership or limited liability company would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury regulations. If our Operating Partnership or a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company were treated as a publicly traded partnership and did not otherwise satisfy the requirements of an exemption from corporate treatment for certain publicly traded partnerships whose income is derived primarily from certain passive sources, then it would be taxable as a corporation and would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet the REIT asset and income tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our Operating Partnership, a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash distributions. We do not anticipate that any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company (including the Operating Partnership) will be treated as a publicly traded partnership which is taxable as a corporation.

Legislation was enacted that significantly changes the rules for U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Such audits will continue to be conducted at the entity level, but with respect to tax returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, unless such entity qualifies for and affirmatively elects an alternative procedure, any adjustments to the amount of tax due (including interest and penalties) will be payable by the entity itself. Under an alternative procedure, if elected, a partnership would issue information returns to persons who were partners in the audited year, who would then be required to take the adjustments into account in calculating their own tax liability, and the partnership would not be liable for the adjustments. If any of our subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies (including the Operating Partnership) is able to and in fact elects the alternative procedure for a given adjustment, the amount of taxes for which such persons will be liable will be increased by any applicable penalties and a special interest charge. There can be no assurance that any such entities will be eligible to make such an election or that it will, in fact, make such an election for any given adjustment. Many issues and the overall effect of this new legislation on us are uncertain.

Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction. A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) will generally determine the allocation of partnership income and loss among partners. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. Our Operating Partnership’s allocations of taxable income and loss are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury regulations thereunder.

Tax Allocations with Respect to the Properties. Under Section 704(c) of the Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership (including a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) in exchange for an interest in the partnership, must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain, or benefits from the unrealized loss, associated with the property at the time of the contribution, as adjusted from time to time. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time.

 

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These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners. Similar tax allocations are required with respect to the book-tax differences in the assets owned by a partnership when additional assets (or services) are contributed in exchange for a new partnership interest.

Appreciated property was contributed to the Operating Partnership in exchange for interests in the Operating Partnership in connection with the Mergers. Other persons also may contribute property with book-tax differences to our Operating Partnership in exchange for interests in our Operating Partnership, and book-tax differences may arise with respect to existing assets whenever we issue new interests in the Operating Partnership. The partnership agreement requires that allocations with respect to book-tax differences be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Our Operating Partnership will account for any book-tax differences using any method approved under Section 704(c) of the Code and the applicable Treasury regulations as chosen by the general partner under the partnership agreement.

In connection with contributions of properties from third parties, the general partner may agree to use the “traditional method” under Section 704(c) of the Code. Under the traditional method, the carryover basis of contributed interests in the properties in the hands of our Operating Partnership (i) will or could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if all contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to their fair market value at the time of the contribution and (ii) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in the Operating Partnership. An allocation described in (ii) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of REITs in General—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs.”

Any property acquired by our Operating Partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code will not apply.

Subsidiary REITs. We may hold interests in subsidiaries intended to qualify as REITs for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and, prior to our acquisition of its assets in our Pre-IPO Transactions, substantially all of IH2 Property Holding Inc.’s assets consisted of stock of Preeminent Holdings Inc., which intended to qualify as a REIT. If any REIT in which we hold (or held) an interest fails to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, that failure could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income requirements applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the securities of another corporation that is not a REIT or a TRS, as further described below. Investments in other REITs may pose additional challenges, such as smaller income and asset bases against which to absorb nonqualifying income and assets and, in the case of subsidiary REITs acquired by purchase, reliance on the seller’s compliance with the REIT requirements for periods prior to acquisition.

Taxation of U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock

U.S. Holder. As used in the remainder of this discussion, the term “U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of our common stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation (or an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or any political subdivision thereof;

 

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an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust if it (i) is subject to the primary supervision of a court within the United States and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (ii) has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

If a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership holding common stock, you should consult your advisors. A “non-U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our common stock that is neither a U.S. holder nor a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes).

Distributions Generally. As long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions made by us to our taxable U.S. holders out of current or accumulated earnings and profits that are not designated as capital gain dividends or “qualified dividend income” will be taken into account by them as ordinary income taxable at ordinary income tax rates and will not qualify for the reduced capital gains rates that currently generally apply to distributions by non-REIT C corporations to certain non-corporate U.S. holders. In determining the extent to which a distribution constitutes a dividend for tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock, if any, and then to our common stock. Corporate stockholders will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction with respect to these distributions. Under recently the enacted tax reform legislation entitled the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”, U.S. holders that are individuals, trusts and estates generally may deduct 20% of “qualified REIT dividends” (i.e., REIT dividends other than capital gain dividends and portions of REIT dividends designated as qualified dividend income eligible for capital gain tax rates). The overall deduction is limited to 20% of the sum of the taxpayer’s taxable income (less net capital gain) and certain cooperative dividends, subject to further limitations based on taxable income. The deduction, if allowed in full, equates to a maximum effective U.S. federal income tax rate on ordinary REIT dividends of 29.6%. As with the other individual income tax changes, the deduction provisions are effective beginning in 2018. Without further legislation, the deduction would sunset after 2025.

Distributions in excess of both current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. holder to the extent that the distributions do not exceed the adjusted basis of the holder’s stock. Rather, such distributions will reduce the adjusted basis of the stock. To the extent that distributions exceed the adjusted basis of a U.S. holder’s stock, the U.S. holder generally must include such distributions in income as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year, or short-term capital gain if the shares have been held for one year or less.

Distributions will generally be taxable, if at all, in the year of the distribution. However, if we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend, and the stockholder will be treated as having received the dividend, on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared.

We will be treated as having sufficient earnings and profits to treat as a dividend any distribution we pay up to the amount required to be distributed in order to avoid imposition of the 4% excise tax discussed above. Moreover, any “deficiency dividend” will be treated as an ordinary or capital gain dividend, as the case may be, regardless of our earnings and profits. As a result, U.S. holders may be required to treat certain distributions that would otherwise result in a tax-free return of capital as taxable dividends.

Capital Gain Dividends. We may elect to designate distributions of our net capital gain as “capital gain dividends” to the extent that such distributions do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year. Capital gain dividends are taxed to U.S. holders of our stock as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than one year. This tax treatment applies regardless of the period during which the stockholders

 

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have held their stock. If we designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, the amount that will be taxable to the stockholder as capital gain will be indicated to U.S. holders on IRS Form 1099-DIV. Corporate stockholders, however, may be required to treat up to 20% of capital gain dividends as ordinary income. Capital gain dividends are not eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations.

Instead of paying capital gain dividends, we may elect to require stockholders to include our undistributed net capital gains in their income. If we make such an election, U.S. holders (i) will include in their income as long-term capital gains their proportionate share of such undistributed capital gains and (ii) will be deemed to have paid their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such undistributed capital gains and thereby receive a credit or refund to the extent that the tax paid by us exceeds the U.S. holder’s tax liability on the undistributed capital gain. A U.S. holder of our stock will increase the basis in its stock by the difference between the amount of capital gain included in its income and the amount of tax it is deemed to have paid. A U.S. holder that is a corporation will appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gain in accordance with Treasury regulations to be prescribed by the IRS. Our earnings and profits will be adjusted appropriately.

We must classify portions of our designated capital gain dividend into the following categories:

 

   

a 20% gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders of our stock at a rate of up to 20%; or

 

   

an unrecaptured Section 1250 gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders of our stock at a maximum rate of 25%.

We must determine the maximum amounts that we may designate as 20% and 25% capital gain dividends by performing the computation required by the Code as if the REIT were an individual whose ordinary income were subject to a marginal tax rate of at least 28%. The IRS currently requires that distributions made to different classes of stock be comprised proportionately of dividends of a particular type.

Passive Activity Loss and Investment Interest Limitation. Distributions that we make and gains arising from the disposition of our common stock by a U.S. holder will not be treated as passive activity income, and therefore U.S. holders will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses” against such income. Dividends paid by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, will generally be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment income limitation on the deduction of the investment interest.

Qualified Dividend Income. Distributions that are treated as dividends may be taxed at capital gains rates, rather than ordinary income rates, if they are distributed to an individual, trust or estate, are properly designated by us as qualified dividend income and certain other requirements are satisfied. Dividends are eligible to be designated by us as qualified dividend income up to an amount equal to the sum of the qualified dividend income received by us during the year of the distribution from other C corporations such as TRSs, our “undistributed” REIT taxable income from the immediately preceding year, and any income attributable to the sale of a built-in gain asset from the immediately preceding year (reduced by any U.S. federal income taxes that we paid with respect to such REIT taxable income and built-in gain).

Dividends that we receive will be treated as qualified dividend income to us if certain criteria are met. The dividends must be received from a domestic corporation (other than a REIT or a regulated investment company) or a qualifying foreign corporation. A foreign corporation generally will be a qualifying foreign corporation if it is incorporated in a possession of the United States, the corporation is eligible for benefits of an income tax treaty with the United States which the Secretary of Treasury determines is satisfactory, or the stock on which the dividend is paid is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. However, if a foreign corporation is a foreign personal holding company, a foreign investment company or a passive foreign investment company, then it will not be treated as a qualifying foreign corporation and the dividends we receive from such an entity would not constitute qualified dividend income.

 

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Furthermore, certain exceptions and special rules apply to determine whether dividends may be treated as qualified dividend income to us. These rules include certain holding requirements that we would have to satisfy with respect to the stock on which the dividend is paid and special rules with regard to dividends received from regulated investment companies and other REITs.

In addition, even if we designate certain dividends as qualified dividend income to our stockholders, the stockholder will have to meet certain other requirements for the dividend to qualify for taxation at capital gains rates. For example, the stockholder will only be eligible to treat the dividend as qualifying dividend income if the stockholder is taxed at individual rates and meets certain holding requirements. In general, in order to treat a particular dividend as qualified dividend income, a stockholder will be required to hold our stock for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date which is 60 days before the date on which the stock becomes ex-dividend.

Other Tax Considerations. To the extent that we have available net operating losses and capital losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. Such losses, however, are not passed through to stockholders and do not offset income of stockholders from other sources, nor would such losses affect the character of any distributions that we make, which are generally subject to tax in the hands of stockholders to the extent that we have current or accumulated earnings and profits.

Sales of Our Common Stock. Upon any taxable sale or other disposition of our common stock, a U.S. holder of our common stock will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes on the disposition of our common stock in an amount equal to the difference between:

 

   

the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on such disposition; and

 

   

the U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in such common stock for tax purposes.

Gain or loss will be capital gain or loss if the common stock has been held by the U.S. holder as a capital asset. The applicable tax rate will depend on the holder’s holding period in the asset (generally, if an asset has been held for more than one year it will produce long-term capital gain) and the holder’s tax bracket.

In general, any loss upon a sale or exchange of our common stock by a U.S. holder who has held such stock for six months or less (after applying certain holding period rules) will be treated as a long-term capital loss, but only to the extent of distributions from us received by such U.S. holder that are required to be treated by such U.S. holder as long-term capital gains.

Medicare Tax. Certain U.S. holders, including individuals and estates and trusts, are subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes net gain from a sale or exchange of common stock and income from dividends paid on common stock. U.S. holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the Medicare tax.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock

The rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of non-U.S. holders are complex. This section is only a summary of such rules. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their own tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state and local income tax laws on ownership of the common stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions. Distributions by us to a non-U.S. holder on our common stock that are neither attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of “United States real property interests” nor designated by us as capital gain dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. These distributions ordinarily will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax

 

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on a gross basis at a rate of 30%, or a lower rate as permitted under an applicable income tax treaty, unless the dividends are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a U.S. trade or business. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. Dividends that are effectively connected with a holder’s trade or business will be subject to tax on a net basis, that is, after allowance for deductions, at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. holders are taxed with respect to these dividends, and are generally not subject to withholding. Applicable certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exception. Any dividends received by a corporate non-U.S. holder that is engaged in a U.S. trade or business also may be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate, or lower applicable treaty rate. We expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any dividend distributions, not designated as (or deemed to be) capital gain dividends, made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

   

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder files an IRS Form W-8BEN or Form W-8BEN-E with us evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate is filed with us; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder files an IRS Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

Distributions in excess of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that do not exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. holder in its common stock will reduce the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in its common stock and will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax. Such distributions in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits that do exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. holder in its common stock will be treated as gain from the sale of its stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock—Sales of Our Common Stock.” We would be required to withhold at least 15% of any distribution to a non-U.S. holder in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if our common stock constitutes a United States real property interest with respect to such non-U.S. holder, as described below under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock—Sales of Our Common Stock.” This withholding would apply even if a lower treaty rate applies or the non-U.S. holder is not liable for tax on the receipt of that distribution. Because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether or not the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we normally will withhold tax on the entire amount of any distribution at the same rate as we would withhold on a dividend (but in the case of a treaty eligible holder will generally not withhold at a rate less than 15%). However, a non-U.S. holder may seek a refund of these amounts from the IRS if the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. tax liability with respect to the distribution is less than the amount withheld.

Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are designated by us at the time of the distribution as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a United States real property interest, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation unless:

 

   

the investment in the common stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to any gain, except that a holder that is a foreign corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax, as discussed above; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gains.

However, notwithstanding that such capital gain dividends should only be subject to U.S. federal income taxation in those two instances, existing Treasury Regulations might be construed to require us to withhold on such capital gain dividends in the same manner as capital gain dividends that are attributable to gain from the disposition of U.S. real property interests, generally at the highest rate of U.S. federal income tax applicable to each non-U.S. holder, based on the status of such holder, of the capital gain dividend, or, if greater, the highest rate of U.S. federal income tax applicable to each non-U.S. holder, based on the status of such holder, of a

 

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distribution that could have been designated as a capital gain dividend (although any amounts withheld generally would be creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability).

Under the Foreign Investment in Real Estate Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”), distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, whether or not designated as a capital gain dividend, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing gain that is income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders will be taxed on this gain at the same rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Also, this gain may be subject to a 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. A distribution is not attributable to a United States real property interest if we held an interest in the underlying asset solely as a creditor.

We will be required to withhold and remit to the IRS the highest rate of U.S. federal income tax applicable to each non-U.S. holder, based on the status of such holder, of any distributions to non-United States holders that are attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests. The amount withheld, which for individual non-U.S. holders may exceed the actual tax liability, is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability.

However, the above withholding tax on distributions attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests will not apply to any distribution with respect to any class of our stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States if the non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of such distribution. Instead, such distribution will be treated as a distribution subject to the rules discussed above under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock—Distributions” (applied without regard to the provisions dealing with distributions attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests). Also, the branch profits tax will not apply to such a distribution. We expect that our common stock will be “regularly traded” on an established securities exchange.

Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as undistributed capital gains in respect of the stock held by U.S. holders generally should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders in the same manner as actual distributions by us of capital gain dividends. Under that approach, the non-U.S. holders would be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability resulting therefrom their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on the undistributed capital gains, and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent that their proportionate share of this tax paid by us were to exceed their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate a portion of our net capital gain as undistributed capital gain, a non-U.S. stockholder is urged to consult its tax advisor regarding the taxation of such undistributed capital gain.

Sales of Our Common Stock. Gain recognized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale or exchange of our stock generally would not be subject to U.S. taxation unless:

 

   

the investment in our common stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as domestic holders with respect to any gain;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a tax home in the United States, in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gains for the taxable year; or

 

   

our common stock constitutes a United States real property interest within the meaning of FIRPTA, as described below.

Our common stock will constitute a United States real property interest unless we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h) of the Code (a “domestically controlled REIT”). We are and will be a domestically controlled REIT if, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of our stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. holders.

 

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As described above, our charter contains restrictions designed to protect our status as a domestically controlled REIT, and we believe that we are and will remain a domestically controlled REIT, and that a sale of our common stock should not be subject to taxation under FIRPTA. However, because our stock is publicly traded no assurance can be given that we are or will be a domestically controlled REIT at any time. Even if we were not a domestically controlled REIT, a sale of common stock by a non-U.S. holder would nevertheless not be subject to taxation under FIRPTA as a sale of a United States real property interest if:

 

   

our common stock were “regularly traded” on an established securities market within the meaning of applicable Treasury regulations; and

 

   

the non-U.S. holder did not actually, or constructively under specified attribution rules under the Code, own more than 10% of our common stock at any time during the shorter of the five-year period preceding the disposition or the holder’s holding period.

We expect that our common stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market. If gain on the sale or exchange of our common stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to any gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. In such case, under FIRPTA the purchaser of common stock may be required to withhold 15% of the purchase price and remit this amount to the IRS. In addition, distributions that are treated as gain from the disposition of common stock and are subject to tax under FIRPTA also may be subject to a 30% branch profits tax when made to a corporate non-U.S. holder that is not entitled to a treaty exemption.

U.S. Federal Income Tax Returns. If a non-U.S. holder is subject to taxation under FIRPTA on proceeds from the sale of our common stock or on capital gain distributions, the non-U.S. holder will be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return. Prospective non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income tax laws on their ownership of our common stock, including any reporting requirements.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Common Stock

Provided that a tax-exempt holder has not held its common stock as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code, the dividend income from us generally will not be unrelated business taxable income, referred to as UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder. Similarly, income from the sale of our common stock will not constitute UBTI unless the tax-exempt holder has held its common stock as debt-financed property within the meaning of the Code or holds the stock primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.

Further, for a tax-exempt holder that is a social club, voluntary employee benefit association, supplemental unemployment benefit trust or qualified group legal services plan exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) and (c)(20) of the Code, respectively, or a single parent title-holding corporation exempt under Section 501(c)(2) the income of which is payable to any of the aforementioned tax-exempt organizations, income from an investment in our common stock will constitute UBTI unless the organization properly sets aside or reserves such amounts for purposes specified in the Code. These tax-exempt holders should consult their own tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” are treated as UBTI as to any trust which is described in Section 401(a) of the Code, is tax-exempt under Section 501(a) of the Code, and holds more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. Tax-exempt pension funds that are described in Section 401(a) of the Code are referred to below as “pension trusts.”

 

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A REIT is a “pension-held REIT” if it meets the following two tests:

 

   

it would not have qualified as a REIT but for Section 856(h)(3) of the Code, which provides that stock owned by pension trusts will be treated, for purposes of determining whether the REIT is closely held, as owned by the beneficiaries of the trust rather than by the trust itself; and

 

   

either (i) at least one pension trust holds more than 25% of the value of the interests in the REIT, or (ii) a group of pension trusts each individually holding more than 10% of the value of the REIT’s stock, collectively owns more than 50% of the value of the REIT’s stock.

The percentage of any REIT dividend from a “pension-held REIT” that is treated as UBTI is equal to the ratio of the UBTI earned by the REIT, treating the REIT as if it were a pension trust and therefore subject to tax on UBTI, to the total gross income of the REIT. An exception applies where the percentage is less than 5% for any year, in which case none of the dividends would be treated as UBTI. The provisions requiring pension trusts to treat a portion of REIT distributions as UBTI will not apply if the REIT is not a “pension-held REIT” (e.g., if the REIT is able to satisfy the “not closely held requirement” without relying on the “look through” exception with respect to pension trusts).

Backup Withholding Tax and Information Reporting

U.S. Holders of Common Stock. In general, information reporting requirements will apply to payments of dividends and interest on and payments of the proceeds of the sale of our common stock held by U.S. holders, unless an exception applies. The payor is required to withhold tax on such payments if (i) the payee fails to furnish a taxpayer identification number, or TIN, to the payor or to establish an exemption from backup withholding, or (ii) the IRS notifies the payor that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect. In addition, a payor of the dividends or interest on our common stock is required to withhold tax if (i) there has been a notified payee under-reporting with respect to interest, dividends or original issue discount described in Section 3406(c) of the Code, or (ii) there has been a failure of the payee to certify under the penalty of perjury that the payee is not subject to backup withholding under the Code. A U.S. holder that does not provide us with a correct TIN may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any U.S. holders who fail to certify their U.S. status to us. Some U.S. holders of our common stock, including corporations, may be exempt from backup withholding. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a stockholder will be allowed as a credit against the stockholder’s U.S. federal income tax and may entitle the stockholder to a refund, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. The payor will be required to furnish annually to the IRS and to holders of our common stock information relating to the amount of dividends and interest paid on our common stock, and that information reporting may also apply to payments of proceeds from the sale of our common stock. Some holders, including corporations, financial institutions and certain tax-exempt organizations, are generally not subject to information reporting.

Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock. Generally, information reporting will apply to payments of interest and dividends on our common stock to a non-U.S. holder, and backup withholding described above for a U.S. holder will apply, unless the payee certifies that it is not a U.S. person or otherwise establishes an exemption.

The payment of the proceeds from the disposition of our common stock to or through the U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker by a non-U.S. holder will be subject to information reporting and backup withholding as described above for U.S. holders unless the non-U.S. holder satisfies the requirements necessary to be an exempt non-U.S. holder or otherwise qualifies for an exemption. The proceeds of a disposition by a non-U.S. holder of our common stock to or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, if the broker is a U.S. person, a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. tax purposes, a foreign person 50% or more of whose gross income from all sources for specified periods is from activities that are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, a foreign partnership if partners who hold

 

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more than 50% of the interest in the partnership are U.S. persons, or a foreign partnership that is engaged in the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, then information reporting generally will apply as though the payment was made through a U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker.

Applicable Treasury regulations provide presumptions regarding the status of a holder of our common stock when payments to such holder cannot be reliably associated with appropriate documentation provided to the payer. Because the application of these Treasury regulations varies depending on the stockholder’s particular circumstances, you are advised to consult your tax advisor regarding the information reporting requirements applicable to you.

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the Treasury which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. Changes to the U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could adversely affect an investment in our common stock.

State and Local Taxes

We and our stockholders may be subject to state or local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions, including those in which we or they transact business or reside. Our state and local tax treatment and that of our stockholders may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax treatment discussed above. Consequently, prospective stockholders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the effect of state and local tax laws on an investment in our common stock.

Tax Shelter Reporting

If a stockholder recognizes a loss with respect to stock of $2 million or more for an individual stockholder or $10 million or more for a corporate stockholder, the stockholder must file a disclosure statement with the IRS on Form 8886. Direct stockholders of portfolio securities are in many cases exempt from this reporting requirement, but stockholders of a REIT currently are not excepted. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Stockholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.

Additional FATCA Withholding Requirements

Under Sections 1471 through 1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as “FATCA”), a 30% U.S. federal withholding tax may apply to any dividends on our common stock to (i) a “foreign financial institution” (as specifically defined in the Code) which does not provide sufficient documentation, typically on IRS Form W-8BEN-E, evidencing either (x) an exemption from FATCA, or (y) its compliance (or deemed compliance) with FATCA (which may alternatively be in the form of compliance with an intergovernmental agreement with the United States) in a manner that avoids withholding, or (ii) a “non-financial foreign entity” (as specifically defined in the Code) which does not provide sufficient documentation, typically on IRS Form W-8BEN-E, evidencing either (x) an exemption from FATCA, or (y) adequate information regarding certain substantial U.S. beneficial owners of such entity (if any). If a dividend payment is both subject to withholding under FATCA and subject to withholding tax discussed above, the withholding under FATCA may be credited against, and therefore reduce, such other withholding tax. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of this legislation in light of their individual circumstances.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

The selling stockholders, and their pledgees, donees, transferees or other successors in interest, may from time to time offer and sell, separately or together, shares of common stock covered by this prospectus. Registration of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus does not mean, however, that those shares of common stock necessarily will be offered or sold.

The shares of common stock covered by this prospectus may be sold from time to time, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to market prices, at a fixed price or prices subject to change or at negotiated prices, by a variety of methods including the following:

 

   

on any national securities exchange on which our shares of common stock may be listed at the time of sale, including the NYSE (including through at the market offerings);

 

   

in the over-the-counter market;

 

   

in privately negotiated transactions;

 

   

through broker-dealers, who may act as agents or principals;

 

   

through one or more underwriters on a firm commitment or best-efforts basis;

 

   

in a block trade in which a broker-dealer may attempt to sell a block of shares of common stock as agent or may position and resell all or a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

   

through put or call option transactions relating to the shares of common stock;

 

   

through the writing or settlement of options or other hedging transactions, whether through an options exchange or otherwise, and/or the settlement of margin transactions;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers;

 

   

through agents; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale or by any other legally available means.

In effecting sales, brokers or dealers engaged by us and/or the selling stockholders may arrange for other brokers or dealers to participate. Broker/dealer transactions may include:

 

   

purchases of the shares of common stock by a broker-dealer as principal and resales of the shares of common stock by the broker-dealer for its account pursuant to this prospectus;

 

   

ordinary brokerage transactions; or

 

   

transactions in which the broker/dealer solicits purchasers on a best efforts basis.

The selling stockholders have not entered into any agreements, understandings or arrangements with any underwriters or broker-dealers regarding the sale of the common stock covered by this prospectus. At any time a particular offer of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus is made, a revised prospectus or prospectus supplement, if required, will set forth the aggregate amount of shares of common stock covered by this prospectus being offered and the terms of the offering, including the name or names of any underwriters, dealers, brokers or agents. In addition, to the extent required, any discounts, commissions, concessions and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation, as well as any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers, will be set forth in such prospectus supplement. To the extent required, any such prospectus supplement, and, if necessary, a post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, will be filed with the SEC to reflect the disclosure of additional information with respect to the distribution of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus.

To the extent required, the applicable prospectus supplement will set forth whether or not underwriters may over-allot or effect transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the common stock

 

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at levels above those that might otherwise prevail in the open market, including, for example, by entering stabilizing bids, effecting syndicate covering transactions or imposing penalty bids.

If the selling stockholders utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus, the selling stockholders will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

The selling stockholders may also authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities at the public offering price set forth in the revised prospectus or prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The conditions to these contracts and the commission that the selling stockholders must pay for solicitation of these contracts will be described in a revised prospectus or prospectus supplement, to the extent such revised prospectus or prospectus supplement is required.

In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus through underwriters, underwriters may receive compensation in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of shares of common stock for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

Any underwriters, broker/dealers or agents participating in the distribution of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any commissions received by any of those underwriters, broker/dealers or agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions under the Securities Act.

We and the selling stockholders may agree to indemnify underwriters, broker-dealers or agents against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may also agree to contribute to payments which the underwriters, broker/dealers or agents may be required to make.

Certain of the underwriters, broker/dealers or agents who may become involved in the sale of the shares of common stock may engage in transactions with and perform other services for us in the ordinary course of their business for which they receive customary compensation.

Some of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus may be sold by selling stockholders in private transactions or under Rule 144 under the Securities Act or another available exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act rather than pursuant to this prospectus.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal and tax matters will be passed upon for us and the selling stockholders by Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP, Washington, D.C. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland will issue an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the common stock offered hereby. An investment vehicle comprised of selected partners of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP, members of their families, related persons and others owns an interest representing less than 1% of the capital commitments of funds affiliated with The Blackstone Group L.P.

EXPERTS

The financial statements, incorporated into this prospectus by reference from Invitation Homes Inc.’s Annual Report on Form 10-K and the effectiveness of Invitation Homes Inc. and subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting, have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

The consolidated financial statements of Starwood Waypoint Homes incorporated by reference in Invitation Homes’ Current Report on Form 8-K dated November 20, 2017 for the year ended December 31, 2016 (including the schedule appearing therein), and the effectiveness of Starwood Waypoint Homes’ internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus. This prospectus, and any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus, filed as part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and its exhibits and schedules, portions of which have been omitted as permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information about us and our common stock, we refer you to the registration statement and to its exhibits. Statements in this prospectus about the contents of any contract, agreement or other document are not necessarily complete and in each instance we refer you to the copy of such contract, agreement or document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, which each such statement being qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers.

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and we are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may inspect them without charge at the SEC’s website. We also make available to our common stockholders annual reports containing consolidated financial statements audited by an independent registered public accounting firm.

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 (File No. 001-38004);

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed on January 16, 2019 (only Item 5.02 thereof), February 13, 2019 and March 5, 2019 (File No. 001-38004);

 

   

our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed on April 26, 2018 (solely those portions that were incorporated by reference into Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017);

 

   

the audited consolidated balance sheets of Colony Starwood Homes as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 and the related consolidated statements of operations, other comprehensive income (loss), equity, and cash flows of Colony Starwood Homes for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2016 and the related notes to such audited consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference into Item 9.01(a) of our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 20, 2017 (File No. 001-38004);

 

   

the unaudited consolidated balance sheets and the related consolidated statements of SWH as of and for the three-month period ended September 30, 2017 and the nine-month period ended September 30, 2017, and the three-month period ended September 30, 2016 and the nine-month period ended September 30, 2016 and the related notes to such unaudited consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference into Item 9.01(a) of our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 20, 2017 (File No. 001-38004);

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on February 1, 2017, including all amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating such description (File No. 001-38004); and

 

   

all other documents filed by us under sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and before the termination of the offerings to which this prospectus relates (other than documents and information furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules, unless expressly stated otherwise therein).

Any statement made in this prospectus or in a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies or supersedes that statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

You can obtain any of the filings incorporated by reference into this prospectus through us or from the SEC through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. We will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request of such person, a copy of any or all of the reports and documents referred to above which have been or may be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should direct requests for those documents to:

Invitation Homes Inc.

1717 Main Street, Suite 2000

Dallas, Texas 75201

(972) 421-3600

 

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Our reports and documents incorporated by reference herein may also be found under the “Investor Resources” tab of our website at IR.InvitationHomes.com. Our website and the information contained in it or connected to it shall not be deemed to be incorporated into this prospectus or any registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

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230,250,696 Shares

Invitation Homes Inc.

Common Stock

 

LOGO

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

March 19, 2019

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses payable by us in connection with the sale of the shares of common stock being registered hereby. All amounts shown are estimates except the Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority filing fee.

 

Filing Fee—Securities and Exchange Commission

   $ 635,969  

Fee—Financial Industry Regulatory Authority

     **  

Fees and Expenses of Counsel

     **  

Printing Expenses

     **  

Fees and Expenses of Accountants

     **  

Miscellaneous Expenses

     **  

Total

   $             **  

 

*

The registrant is paying the registration fee relating to 221,777,851 shares of common stock that are registered and available for sale under this registration statement. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the registrant is carrying forward $23,824 of filing fees previously paid with respect to an additional 8,472,845 shares of common stock that are registered and available for sale under this registration statement, which had previously been registered under the registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-224697) but not sold.

**

To the extent required, any applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the estimated aggregate amount of expenses payable in respect of any offering of securities.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Maryland law permits us to include a provision in our charter eliminating the liability of our directors and officers to us and our stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates our directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Maryland law requires us (unless our charter were to provide otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. Maryland law permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to or in which they may be made or threatened to be made a party or witness by reason of their service in those or certain other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (a) was committed in bad faith or (b) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

Maryland law prohibits us from indemnifying a director or officer who has been adjudged liable in a suit by us or on our behalf or in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and

 

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reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received; however, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or on our behalf, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, Maryland law permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

To the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, our charter authorizes us to indemnify any person who serves or has served, and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify any individual who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, a proceeding by reason of his or her service:

 

   

as our director or officer; or

 

   

while a director or officer and at our request, as a director, officer, partner, manager, member or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, limited liability company, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise,

in each case, from and against any claim or liability to which he or she may become subject or that he or she may incur by reason of his or her service in any of these capacities, and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served any of our predecessors in any of the capacities described above and any employee or agent of us or any of our predecessors.

Furthermore, our officers and directors are indemnified against specified liabilities by the underwriters, and the underwriters are indemnified against certain liabilities by us, under the underwriting agreement relating to this offering. See “Underwriting.”

We are party to indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers. These agreements require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Maryland law and our charter against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors or executive officers, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, such indemnification is against public policy and is therefore unenforceable.

In addition, our directors and officers are indemnified for specified liabilities and expenses pursuant to the organizational documents of certain of our subsidiaries.

Item 16. Exhibits.

The Exhibit Index appearing before the signature pages below is incorporated herein by reference.

 

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Item 17. Undertakings.

 

  (a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (A)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (B)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or

 

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  prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (A)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (B)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (C)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (D)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

The registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (6)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer, or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit, or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question of whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
number
  

Description

  1.1    Form of Underwriting Agreement.*
  4.1    Articles of Incorporation of Invitation Homes Inc., dated as of February  6, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 1-38004) filed on February 6, 2017).
  4.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Invitation Homes Inc., dated as of February  6, 2017 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 1-38004) filed on February 6, 2017).
  5.1    Opinion of Venable LLP regarding validity of the shares registered.**
  8.1    Opinion of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP regarding certain tax matters.**
10.1    Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement, dated as of August  9, 2017, by and among the Company, each of the parties from time to time party thereto and, solely for the purposes of Section  4.1, Blackstone Real Estate Advisors L.P. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No.  1-38004) filed on August 14, 2017).
10.2    Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of January  31, 2017, by and among the Company and the equityholders named therein (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File  No.1-38004) filed on February 6, 2017).
10.3    Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of October  4, 2016, among SWH and the other parties named therein (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by SWH with the SEC on October 11, 2016).
10.4    Assignment and Assumption Agreement, dated as of November  16, 2017, among the Company and Merger Sub (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No.  1-38004) filed on November 20, 2017).
10.5    Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of Invitation Homes Operating Partnership LP, dated as of August  9, 2017, by and among Invitation Homes OP GP LLC and Invitation Homes Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 1-38004) filed on August 14, 2017).
23.1    Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP.**
23.2    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP.**
23.3    Consent of Venable LLP (included in the opinion filed as Exhibit 5.1).**
23.4    Consent of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP (included in the opinion filed as Exhibit 8.1).**
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature pages to the Registration Statement).**

 

*

To be filed, if necessary, by amendment or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated by reference herein in connection with an offering.

**

Filed herewith.


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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized in Dallas, Texas, on the 19th day of March, 2019.

 

Invitation Homes Inc.
By:   /s/ Dallas B. Tanner
  Name:   Dallas B. Tanner
  Title:   President and Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

Know all men by these presents, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Dallas B. Tanner, Ernest M. Freedman and Mark A. Solls, and each of them, any of whom may act without joinder of the other, the individual’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for the person and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign this Registration Statement and any or all amendments, including post-effective amendments to the Registration Statement, including a prospectus or an amended prospectus therein and any Registration Statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act, and all other documents in connection therewith to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact as agents or any of them, or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this registration statement and power of attorney have been signed by the following persons in the capacities indicated and on the 19th day of March, 2019.

 

Signature    Title(s)

/s/ Dallas B. Tanner

Dallas B. Tanner

  

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

/s/ Ernest M. Freedman

Ernest M. Freedman

  

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial Officer)

/s/ Kimberly K. Norrell

Kimberly K. Norrell

  

Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer

(Principal Accounting Officer)

/s/ Bryce Blair

Bryce Blair

   Chairman of the Board of Directors

/s/ Jana C. Barbe

Jana C. Barbe

   Director

/s/ Richard D. Bronson

Richard D. Bronson

   Director

/s/ Kenneth A. Caplan

Kenneth A. Caplan

   Director


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Signature    Title(s)

/s/ Michael D. Fascitelli

Michael D. Fascitelli

   Director

/s/ Robert G. Harper

Robert G. Harper

   Director

/s/ Jeffrey E. Kelter

Jeffrey E. Kelter

   Director

/s/ John B. Rhea

John B. Rhea

   Director

/s/ Janice L. Sears

Janice L. Sears

   Director

/s/ William J. Stein

William J. Stein

   Director

/s/ Barry S. Sternlicht

Barry S. Sternlicht

   Director
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Section 2: EX-5.1 (EX-5.1)

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

[LETTERHEAD OF VENABLE LLP]

March 19, 2019

Invitation Homes Inc.

1717 Main Street, Suite 2000

Dallas, TX 75201

 

  Re:

Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have served as Maryland counsel to Invitation Homes Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), in connection with certain matters of Maryland law relating to the registration of 230,250,696 shares (the “Shares”) of common stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), of the Company, which may be sold from time to time by the stockholders named under the caption “Selling Stockholders” in the above-referenced Registration Statement, and all amendments thereto (the “Registration Statement”), filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Of the Shares, (a) 221,712,868 Shares are currently issued and outstanding (the “Outstanding Shares”), (b) 8,463,285 Shares (the “Conversion Shares”) are issuable upon the conversion of common units of limited partnership interest (the “Units”) in Invitation Homes Operating Partnership LP, a Delaware limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), and (c) 74,543 Shares (the “Plan Shares”) are issuable pursuant to unvested restricted stock units (each, a “RSU”) authorized under the Invitation Homes Inc. 2017 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “Plan”).

In connection with our representation of the Company, and as a basis for the opinion hereinafter set forth, we have examined originals, or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of the following documents (hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Documents”):

1.    The Registration Statement and the form of prospectus included therein, substantially in the form in which it was transmitted to the Commission under the Securities Act;

2.    The charter of the Company (the “Charter”), certified by the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (the “SDAT”);

3.    The Bylaws of the Company, certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

4.    A certificate of the SDAT as to the good standing of the Company, dated as of a recent date;


Invitation Homes Inc.

March 19, 2019

Page 2

 

5.    Resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company relating to, among other matters, the authorization of (a) the Plan and (b) the filing of the Registration Statement and (c) the registration and issuance of the Shares (the “Resolutions”), certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

6.    The Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of the Operating Partnership, dated as of August 9, 2017 (the “Partnership Agreement”), by and among Invitation Homes OP GP LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and the general partner of the Operating Partnership, the Company, as the Special Limited Partner (as such term is defined therein), and each additional limited partner admitted to the Operating Partnership from time to time, certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

7.    The Plan, certified as of the date hereof by an officer of the Company;

8.    A certificate executed by an officer of the Company, dated as of the date hereof; and

9.    Such other documents and matters as we have deemed necessary or appropriate to express the opinion set forth below, subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein.

In expressing the opinion set forth below, we have assumed the following:

1.    Each individual executing any of the Documents, whether on behalf of such individual or another person, is legally competent to do so.

2.    Each individual executing any of the Documents on behalf of a party (other than the Company) is duly authorized to do so.

3.    Each of the parties (other than the Company) executing any of the Documents has duly and validly executed and delivered each of the Documents to which such party is a signatory, and such party’s obligations set forth therein are legal, valid and binding and are enforceable in accordance with all stated terms.

4.    All Documents submitted to us as originals are authentic. The form and content of all Documents submitted to us as unexecuted drafts do not differ in any respect relevant to this opinion from the form and content of such Documents as executed and delivered. All Documents submitted to us as certified or photostatic copies conform to the original


Invitation Homes Inc.

March 19, 2019

Page 3

 

documents. All signatures on all such Documents are genuine. All public records reviewed or relied upon by us or on our behalf are true and complete. All representations, warranties, statements and information contained in the Documents are true and complete. There has been no oral or written modification of or amendment to any of the Documents, and there has been no waiver of any provision of any of the Documents, by action or omission of the parties or otherwise.

5.    The Outstanding Shares have not been, and the Conversion Shares and Plan Shares will not be, issued or transferred in violation of any restriction or limitation on transfer and ownership of shares of stock of the Company contained in Article VII of the Charter.

6.    Upon the issuance of any of the Conversion Shares or the Plan Shares, the total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Charter.

7.    The Units have been duly authorized and validly issued by the Operating Partnership.

8.    Each RSU has been duly authorized, validly granted and, prior to the issuance of any Plan Share in respect of such RSU, will have been duly vested, in accordance with the terms of the Plan, including any restricted stock or similar agreement entered into in connection therewith.

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the assumptions, limitations and qualifications stated herein, it is our opinion that:

1.    The Company is a corporation duly incorporated and existing under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Maryland and is in good standing with the SDAT.

2.    The issuance of the Outstanding Shares has been duly authorized and the Outstanding Shares are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

3.    The issuance of the Conversion Shares has been duly authorized and, when and to the extent issued upon the conversion of Units in accordance with the Resolutions, the Partnership Agreement and the Charter, the Registration Statement, the Conversion Shares will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.


Invitation Homes Inc.

March 19, 2019

Page 4

 

4.    The issuance of the Plan Shares has been duly authorized and, when and to the extent issued upon the vesting of RSUs in accordance with the Charter, the Resolutions, the Plan and the Registration Statement, the Plan Shares will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable

The foregoing opinion is limited to the laws of the State of Maryland and we do not express any opinion herein concerning any other law. We express no opinion as to the applicability or effect of any federal or state securities laws, including the securities laws of the State of Maryland, or as to federal or state laws regarding fraudulent transfers. To the extent that any matter as to which our opinion is expressed herein would be governed by the laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of Maryland, we do not express any opinion on such matter. The opinion expressed herein is subject to the effect of judicial decisions which may permit the introduction of parol evidence to modify the terms or the interpretation of agreements.

The opinion expressed herein is limited to the matters specifically set forth herein and no other opinion shall be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated. We assume no obligation to supplement this opinion if any applicable law changes after the date hereof or if we become aware of any fact that might change the opinion expressed herein after the date hereof.

This opinion is being furnished to you for submission to the Commission as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of the name of our firm therein. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the Securities Act.

Very truly yours,

/s/ Venable LLP

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Section 3: EX-8.1 (EX-8.1)

EX-8.1

Exhibit 8.1

[LETTERHEAD OF SIMPSON THACHER & BARTLETT LLP]

March 19, 2019

Invitation Homes Inc.

1717 Main Street, Suite 2000

Dallas, TX 75201

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as counsel to Invitation Homes Inc., a Maryland corporation (“Invitation Homes”), in connection with the registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”) filed by Invitation Homes with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, relating to the registration by Invitation Homes of the offer and sale from time to time of up to 230,245,214 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, of Invitation Homes, by the selling stockholders identified under the caption “Selling Stockholders” in the prospectus contained in the Registration Statement, including up to 8,463,285 shares of common stock that Invitation Homes may issue from time to time to certain of the selling stockholders upon redemption of an equal number of common units of partnership interest in Invitation Homes Operating Partnership LP, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Invitation Homes, held by such selling stockholders.

We have examined the Registration Statement (including the form of prospectus contained therein (the “Prospectus”) and the officer’s certificate, dated as of the date hereof, provided to us by Invitation Homes (the “Officer’s Certificate”). In addition, we have examined, and have relied as to matters of fact upon, originals, or duplicates or certified or conformed copies, of such records, agreements, documents and other instruments and such certificates or comparable documents of public officials and of officers and representatives of Invitation Homes and have made such other investigations as we have deemed relevant and necessary in connection with the opinions hereinafter set forth. In such examination, we have assumed the accuracy of the factual matters described in the Registration Statement.


Invitation Homes Inc.    March 19, 2019
   Page 2

 

In rendering the opinion set forth below such examination, we have assumed the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity of natural persons, the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the conformity to original documents of all documents submitted to us as duplicates or certified or conformed copies and the authenticity of the originals of such latter documents.

In rendering the opinions set forth below, we have also assumed the accuracy of the representations contained in the Officer’s Certificate. These representations generally relate to the operation and classification of each of Invitation Homes, and, prior to the transactions completed on January 31, 2017, in connection with the initial public offering of Invitation Homes (the “Pre-IPO Transactions”), IH2 Property Holdings Inc. and Preeminent Holdings Inc., as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. References to Invitation Homes herein thus include references to IH2 Property Holdings Inc. for all periods prior to January 31, 2017. For purposes of rendering such opinion, we have also assumed that each of Invitation Homes, and, prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, IH2 Property Holdings Inc. and Preeminent Holdings Inc., has been organized and operated and will continue to be organized and operated in the manner described in the Officer’s Certificate, the Registration Statement and its applicable organizational documents and that all terms and provisions of such documents have been and will continue to be complied with. We have not made an independent investigation of the facts set forth in the Officer’s Certificate.

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the qualifications, assumptions and limitations stated herein we are of the opinion that:

1. Commencing with the taxable year ended December 31, 2013, Invitation Homes has been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and its actual and its proposed method of operation has enabled and will continue to enable it to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.


Invitation Homes Inc.    March 19, 2019
   Page 3

 

2. The statements set forth in the Registration Statement under the caption “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations”, insofar as they purport to constitute summaries of certain provisions of U.S. federal income tax law and regulations or legal conclusions with respect thereto, constitute accurate summaries of such matters in all material respects.

The opinions set forth above are based upon the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder and other relevant authorities and law, all as in effect on the date hereof. Consequently, future changes in the law may cause the tax treatment referred to herein to be materially different from that described above. Future changes in the method of operation of Invitation Homes different from the proposed method of operation could likewise cause the tax treatment referred to herein to be materially different from that described above. Our opinion is not binding upon either the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) or any court. Thus, no assurances can be given that a position taken in reliance on our opinion will not be challenged by the IRS or rejected by a court. Qualification of Invitation Homes as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes will depend upon the satisfaction by Invitation Homes, through actual annual operating results and other annual requirements, of the various qualification tests contained in the Code and related Treasury Regulations. We do not undertake to monitor whether Invitation Homes will, in fact, through actual annual operating results and other annual requirements, satisfy the various qualification tests for the taxable year ending December 31, 2019, or any subsequent taxable years. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of the operations of Invitation Homes for any particular taxable year will satisfy the tests necessary to qualify as or be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

We do not express any opinion herein concerning any law other than U.S. federal income tax law.


Invitation Homes Inc.    March 19, 2019
   Page 4

 

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion with the Commission as Exhibit 8.1 to the Registration Statement, and to the references to our firm name under the caption “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax” in the Prospectus.

Very truly yours,

/s/ Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP

SIMPSON THACHER & BARTLETT LLP

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Section 4: EX-23.1 (EX-23.1)

EX-23.1

Exhibit 23.1

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of our reports dated February 27, 2019, relating to the financial statements of Invitation Homes Inc. and subsidiaries, and the effectiveness of Invitation Homes Inc. and subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting, appearing in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Invitation Homes Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2018, and to the reference to us under the heading “Experts” in the Prospectus, which is part of this Registration Statement.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Dallas, Texas

March 19, 2019

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Section 5: EX-23.2 (EX-23.2)

EX-23.2

Exhibit 23.2

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the reference to our firm under the caption “Experts” and to the use of our reports dated February 28, 2017, with respect to the consolidated financial statements of Starwood Waypoint Homes, included in Invitation Homes’ Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 20, 2017 and incorporated by reference in this Registration Statement and related Prospectus of Invitation Homes Inc. for the registration of common stock of Invitation Homes Inc.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

Phoenix, Arizona

March 19, 2019

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