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Section 1: 10-K (FORM 10-K)

Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR

o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______ to _______

COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 001-35633
Sound Financial Bancorp, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Maryland
 
45-5188530
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
2400 3rd Avenue, Suite 150, Seattle Washington
 
98121
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (206) 448-0884

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Title of each class
None

Indicate by checkmark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
YES o NO x

Indicate by checkmark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
YES o NO x

Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
YES x NO o

Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
YES x NO o




Indicate by checkmark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x

Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of "large accelerated filer," accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer  o
Accelerated filer  x
 
 
Non-accelerated filer  o
Smaller reporting company  x
 
 
 
Emerging growth company  o

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES o NO x

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2018, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $82.4 million. (The exclusion from such amount of the market value of the shares owned by any person shall not be deemed an admission by the registrant that such person is an affiliate of the registrant.)

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date: As of March 12, 2019, there were 2,547,236 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

PART III of Form 10-K – Portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders.


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Table of Contents

SOUND FINANCIAL BANCORP, INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
 
 
 
 
Page
Item 1.
Business
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.
Properties
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
Item 7.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.
Other Information
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.
Form 10-K Summary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Certifications
 
 
Exhibit 31.1
 
 
Exhibit 31.2
 
 
Exhibit 32
 
 


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PART I

Item 1.
Business
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Certain matters discussed in this Form 10-K constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements relate to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance or business. Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact, are based on certain assumptions and are generally identified by use of the words "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "forecasts," "intends," "plans," "targets," "potentially," "probably," "projects," "outlook" or similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as "may," "will," "should," "would" and "could." Forward-looking statements include statements with respect to our beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, expectations, assumptions and statements about, among other things, expectations of the business environment in which we operate, projections of future performance or financial items, perceived opportunities in the market, potential future credit experience, and statements regarding our mission and vision. These forward-looking statements are based upon current management expectations and may, therefore, involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results, performance, or achievements may differ materially from those suggested, expressed, or implied by forward-looking statements as a result of a wide variety or range of factors including, but not limited to:
our ability to access cost-effective funding;
our ability to attract and retain deposits;
fluctuations in interest rates;
the risks of lending and investing activities, including changes in the level and direction of loan delinquencies and write-offs and changes in estimates of the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses;
inability of key third-party providers to perform their obligations to us;
fluctuations in the demand for loans, the number of unsold homes, land and other properties, and fluctuations in real estate values and both residential and commercial and multifamily real estate market conditions in our market area;
secondary market conditions for loans and our ability to sell loans in the secondary market;
results of examinations of Sound Financial Bancorp and Sound Community Bank by their regulators, including the possibility that the regulators may, among other things, require us to increase our allowance for loan losses or to write-down assets, change Sound Community Bank's regulatory capital position or affect our ability to borrow funds or maintain or increase deposits, which could adversely affect our liquidity and earnings;
our ability to successfully integrate any assets, liabilities, clients, systems, and management personnel we may acquire into our operations and our ability to realize related revenue synergies and expected cost savings and other benefits within the anticipated time frames or at all;
our ability to control operating costs and expenses;
the use of estimates in determining fair value of certain of our assets, which estimates may prove to be incorrect and result in significant declines in valuation;
our ability to keep pace with technological changes, including our ability to identify and address cyber-security risks such as data security breaches, "denial of service" attacks, "hacking" and identity theft, and other attacks on our information technology systems or on the third-party vendors who perform several of our critical processing functions;
competitive pressures among financial services companies;
changes in consumer spending, borrowing and savings habits;
changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the financial institution regulatory agencies or the Financial Accounting Standards Board, including additional guidance and interpretation on accounting issues and details of the implementation of new accounting methods;
changes in economic conditions, either nationally or in our market area;
legislative or regulatory changes such as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and its implementing regulations that adversely affect our business, as well as changes in regulatory policies and principles, or the interpretation of regulatory capital or other rules including changes related to Basel III;
monetary and fiscal policies of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System ("Federal Reserve") and the U.S. Government and other governmental initiatives affecting the financial services industry;
our ability to retain or attract key employees or members of our senior management team;
costs and effects of litigation, including settlements and judgments;
our ability to implement our business strategies;
difficulties in reducing risks associated with the loans on our balance sheet;
staffing fluctuations in response to product demand or the implementation of corporate strategies that affect our workforce and potential associated charges;

4


our ability to pay dividends on our common stock;
the availability of resources to address changes in laws, rules, or regulations or to respond to regulatory actions;
our ability to pay dividends on our common stock;
the possibility of other-than-temporary impairments of securities held in our securities portfolio;
adverse changes in the securities markets; and
other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory, and technological factors affecting our operations, pricing, products and services and the other risks described from time to time in this Form 10-K and our other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC").
We wish to advise readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements and that the factors listed above could materially affect our financial performance and could cause our actual results for future periods to differ materially from any such forward-looking statements expressed with respect to future periods and could negatively affect our stock price performance.
We do not undertake and specifically decline any obligation to publicly release the result of any revisions which may be made to any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events.
General
References in this document to Sound Financial Bancorp or the Company refer to Sound Financial Bancorp, Inc. and references to the "Bank" refer to Sound Community Bank. References to "we," "us," and "our" means Sound Financial Bancorp and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Sound Community Bank, unless the context otherwise requires.
Sound Financial Bancorp, a Maryland corporation, is a bank holding company for its wholly owned subsidiary, Sound Community Bank. Substantially all of Sound Financial Bancorp's business is conducted through Sound Community Bank, a Washington state-chartered commercial bank. As a Washington commercial bank, the Bank's regulators are the Washington State Department of Financial Institutions ("WDFI") and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"). The Federal Reserve is the primary federal regulator for Sound Financial Bancorp. We also sell insurance products and services for consumer clients through Sound Community Insurance Agency, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank.
Sound Community Bank's deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the FDIC.  At December 31, 2018, Sound Financial Bancorp had total consolidated assets of $716.7 million, loans held for portfolio of $619.5 million, deposits of $553.6 million and stockholders' equity of $71.6 million.  The shares of Sound Financial Bancorp are traded on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol "SFBC."  Our executive offices are located at 2400 3rd Avenue, Suite 150, Seattle, Washington, 98121 and our telephone number is 206-448-0884.
Our principal business consists of attracting retail and commercial deposits from the general public and investing those funds, along with borrowed funds, in loans secured by first and second mortgages on one- to four- family residences (including home equity loans and lines of credit), commercial and multifamily real estate, construction and land, consumer and commercial business loans.  Our commercial business loans include unsecured lines of credit and secured term loans and lines of credit secured by inventory, equipment and accounts receivable.  We also offer a variety of secured and unsecured consumer loan products, including manufactured home loans, floating home loans, automobile loans, boat loans and recreational vehicle loans.  As part of our business, we focus on residential mortgage loan originations, a portion of which we sell to Fannie Mae and the remainder of which we retain for our loan portfolio consistent with our asset/liability objectives.  We sell loans which conform to the underwriting standards of Fannie Mae ("conforming") in which we retain the servicing of the loan in order to maintain the direct customer relationship and to generate noninterest income.  Residential loans which do not conform to the underwriting standards of Fannie Mae ("non-conforming"), are either held in our loan portfolio or sold with servicing released.  We originate and retain a significant amount of commercial real estate loans, including those secured by owner-occupied and nonowner-occupied commercial real estate, multifamily property, mobile home parks and construction and land development loans.

Market Area
We serve the Seattle Metropolitan Statistical Area ("MSA"), which includes King County (which includes the city of Seattle), Pierce County and Snohomish County within the Puget Sound region, and also serve Clallam and Jefferson Counties, on the North Olympic Peninsula of Washington.  We serve these markets through our headquarters in Seattle, eight branch offices, five of which are located in the Seattle MSA, two that are located in Clallam County and one that is located in Jefferson County. We also have two loan production offices, one located in the Madison Park neighborhood of Seattle and one located in Sequim.  Based on the most recent branch deposit data provided by the FDIC, our share of deposits was approximately 0.14% in King

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County, approximately 0.41% in Pierce County and in Snohomish County approximately 0.33%.  In Clallam County and Jefferson County, we have approximately 16.5% and 6.8%, respectively, of the deposits in those markets.  See "– Competition."
Our market area includes a diverse population of management, professional and sales personnel, office employees, health care workers, manufacturing and transportation workers, service industry workers and government employees, as well as retired and self-employed individuals. The population has a skilled work force with a wide range of education levels and ethnic backgrounds. Major employment sectors include information and communications technology, financial services, manufacturing, maritime, biotechnology, education, health and social services, retail trades, transportation and professional services. The largest employers headquartered in our market area include U.S. Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Navy Region Northwest, Microsoft, University of Washington, and Providence Health. Other significant employers include Costco, Boeing, Nordstrom, Amazon.com, Starbucks, Alaska Air Group and Weyerhaeuser.
Economic conditions in our markets continue to improve over the last year.  Recent trends in housing prices and unemployment rates in our market areas reflect continuing improvement. For the month of December 2018, the preliminary Seattle metropolitan statistical area (MSA) reported an unemployment rate of 3.3%, as compared to the national average of 3.9%, according to the latest available information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.  Home prices in our markets also improved over the past year.  Based on information from Case-Shiller, the average home price in the Seattle MSA increased 4.8% in 2018. This compares favorably to the national average home price index increase in 2018 of 4.5%.
King County has the largest population of any county in the state of Washington, covers approximately 2,100 square miles, and is located on Puget Sound. It has approximately 2.2 million residents and a median household income of approximately $82,000. King County has a diversified economic base with many employers from various industries including shipping and transportation, retail, aerospace, and computer technology and biotech industries. Based on information from the Northwest Multiple Listing Service ("MLS"), the median home sales price in King County in December 2018 was $597,000, a 2.1% increase from December 2017's median home sales price of $585,000.
Pierce County covers approximately 1,700 square miles and is located along the southwestern Puget Sound and borders southern King County. It has approximately 861,000 residents and a median household income of approximately $61,000. The Pierce County economy is diversified with the presence of military related government employment, transportation and shipping employment, and aerospace related employment. Based on information from the MLS, the median home sales price in Pierce County in December 2018 was $340,000, a 7.9% increase from December 2017's median home sales price of $315,000.
Snohomish County covers approximately 2,100 square miles and is located on Puget Sound touching the northern border of King County. It has approximately 789,000 residents and a median household income of approximately $76,000. The economy of Snohomish County is diversified with the presence of military related government employment, aerospace related employment, and retail trade. Based on information from the MLS, the median home sales price in Snohomish County as of December 2018 was $455,000, a 7.0% increase from December 2017's median home sales price of $425,000.
Clallam County, with a population of approximately 75,000, is bordered by the Pacific Ocean and the Strait of Juan de Fuca and covers 1,700 square miles, including the westernmost portion of the continental United States. It has a median household income of approximately $47,000. The economy of Clallam County is primarily manufacturing and shipping. The Sequim Dungeness Valley continues to be a growing retirement location. Our offices are in Port Angeles and Sequim, the two largest cities in the county. Based on information from the MLS, the median home sales price in Clallam County in December 2018 was $270,000, an 8.3% decrease from December 2017's median home sales price of $295,000.
Jefferson County, with a population of approximately 31,000, is bordered by Clallam County and the Pacific Ocean to the west and Hood Canal on the east and covers 1,800 square miles. The economy of Jefferson County is primarily based on tourism, agriculture, lumber, fish processing and ship repair and maintenance. It has a median household income of approximately $49,000. Based on information from the MLS, the average home sales price in Jefferson County as of December 2018 was $335,000, a 7.5% decrease from December 2017's median home sales price of $362,000.
According to the latest available information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, King and Snohomish Counties reported an unemployment rate of 3.3% and 3.6%, respectively, as of December 2018, as compared to the state and national unemployment rates of 4.3% and 3.9%, respectively. The unemployment rates for Clallam, Pierce and Jefferson Counties were above the state and national rates as of December 2018. The unemployment rate in Clallam County decreased to 6.9% as of December 2018 from 7.0% as of December 2017, while the unemployment rate in Pierce County decreased to 5.3% as of December 2018 from 5.4% as of December 2017. The unemployment rate in Jefferson County decreased to 5.9% as of December 2018 from 6.2% as of December 2017.


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Lending Activities
The following table presents information concerning the composition of our loan portfolio, excluding loans held-for-sale, by the type of loan for the dates indicated (dollars in thousands):
 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
Real estate loans:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One- to four-family
$
169,830

 
27.3
%
 
$
157,417

 
28.5
%
 
$
152,386

 
30.3
%
 
$
141,125

 
30.5
%
 
$
133,031

 
30.9
%
Home equity
27,655

 
4.4
%
 
28,379

 
5.2

 
27,771

 
5.5

 
31,573

 
6.9

 
34,675

 
8.0

Commercial and multifamily
252,644

 
40.6
%
 
211,269

 
38.4

 
181,004

 
36.1

 
175,312

 
38.0

 
168,952

 
39.1

Construction and land
65,259

 
10.6
%
 
61,482

 
11.2

 
70,915

 
14.1

 
57,043

 
12.4

 
46,279

 
10.7

Total real estate loans
515,388

 
82.9
%
 
458,547

 
83.3

 
432,076

 
86.0

 
405,053

 
87.8

 
382,937

 
88.7

Consumer loans:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Manufactured homes
20,145

 
3.2
%
 
17,111

 
3.1

 
15,494

 
3.1

 
13,798

 
3.0

 
12,539

 
2.9

Floating homes
40,806

 
6.6
%
 
29,120

 
5.3

 
23,996

 
4.8

 
18,226

 
4.0

 
11,680

 
2.7

Other consumer
6,628

 
1.1
%
 
4,902

 
0.9

 
3,932

 
0.8

 
4,804

 
1.0

 
5,195

 
1.2

Total consumer loans
67,579

 
10.9
%
 
51,133

 
9.3

 
43,422

 
8.7

 
36,828

 
8.0

 
29,414

 
6.8

Commercial business loans
38,804

 
6.2
%
 
40,829

 
7.4

 
26,331

 
5.3

 
19,295

 
4.2

 
19,525

 
4.5

Total loans
621,771

 
100.00
%
 
550,509

 
100.0
%
 
501,829

 
100.0
%
 
461,176

 
100.0
%
 
431,876

 
100.0
%
Less:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Deferred fees and discounts
(2,228
)
 
 
 
(1,914
)
 
 
 
(1,828
)
 
 
 
(1,707
)
 
 
 
(1,516
)
 
 
Allowance for loan losses
(5,774
)
 
 
 
(5,241
)
 
 
 
(4,822
)
 
 
 
(4,636
)
 
 
 
(4,387
)
 
 
Total loans, net
$
613,769

 
 
 
$
543,354

 
 
 
$
495,179

 
 
 
$
454,833

 
 
 
$
425,973

 
 


















7


The following table shows the composition of our loan portfolio in dollar amounts and in percentages by fixed and adjustable rate loans for the dates indicated (dollars in thousands):
 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
Fixed-rate loans:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Real estate loans:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One-to-four family
$
94,237

 
15.2
%
 
$
117,590

 
21.3
%
 
$
142,537

 
28.4
%
 
$
129,762

 
28.1
%
 
$
118,083

 
27.3
%
Home equity
11,052

 
1.8

 
11,373

 
2.1

 
9,102

 
1.8

 
11,042

 
2.4

 
12,003

 
2.8

Commercial and multifamily
102,907

 
16.5

 
89,094

 
16.2

 
77,285

 
15.4

 
92,205

 
20.0

 
103,303

 
23.9

Construction and land
51,259

 
8.2

 
57,247

 
10.4

 
69,398

 
13.9

 
51,572

 
11.2

 
39,147

 
9.1

Total real estate loans
259,455

 
41.7

 
275,304

 
50.0

 
298,322

 
59.5

 
284,581

 
61.7

 
272,536

 
63.1

Manufactured homes
20,145

 
3.2

 
17,111

 
3.1

 
15,494

 
3.1

 
13,798

 
3.0

 
12,539

 
2.9

Floating homes
40,806

 
6.6

 
29,120

 
5.3

 
23,996

 
4.8

 
18,226

 
4.0

 
11,680

 
2.7

Other consumer
6,090

 
1.0

 
4,316

 
0.8

 
3,297

 
0.6

 
4,082

 
0.9

 
4,447

 
1.0

Commercial business
9,705

 
1.6

 
16,889

 
3.1

 
12,581

 
2.5

 
9,392

 
2.0

 
11,024

 
2.6

Total fixed-rate loans
336,201


54.1

 
342,740

 
62.3

 
353,690

 
70.5

 
330,079

 
71.6

 
312,226

 
72.3

Adjustable- rate loans:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Real estate loans:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One-to-four family
75,593

 
12.2

 
39,827

 
7.2

 
9,849

 
2.0

 
11,363

 
2.5

 
14,948

 
3.5

Home equity
16,603

 
2.7

 
17,007

 
3.1

 
18,669

 
3.7

 
20,531

 
4.4

 
22,672

 
5.3

Commercial and multifamily
149,737

 
24.0

 
122,175

 
22.2

 
103,719

 
20.7

 
83,107

 
18.0

 
65,649

 
15.2

Construction and land
14,000

 
2.3

 
4,235

 
0.8

 
1,517

 
0.3

 
5,471

 
1.2

 
7,132

 
1.6

Total real estate loans
255,933

 
41.2

 
183,244

 
33.3

 
133,754

 
26.7

 
120,472

 
26.1

 
110,401

 
25.6

Other consumer
538

 
0.1

 
585

 
0.1

 
635

 
0.1

 
722

 
0.2

 
746

 
0.2

Commercial business
29,099

 
4.6

 
23,940

 
4.3

 
13,750

 
2.7

 
9,903

 
2.1

 
8,501

 
2.0

Total adjustable-rate loans
285,570

 
45.9

 
207,769

 
37.7

 
148,139

 
29.5

 
131,097

 
28.4

 
119,648

 
27.7

Total loans
621,771

 
100.0
%
 
550,509

 
100.0
%
 
501,829

 
100.0
%
 
461,176

 
100.0
%
 
431,874

 
100.0
%
Less:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Deferred fees and discounts
(2,228
)
 
 
 
(1,914
)
 
 
 
(1,828
)
 
 
 
(1,707
)
 
 
 
(1,516
)
 
 
Allowance for loan losses
(5,774
)
 
 
 
(5,241
)
 
 
 
(4,822
)
 
 
 
(4,636
)
 
 
 
(4,387
)
 
 
Total loans, net
$
613,769

 
 
 
$
543,354

 
 
 
$
495,179

 
 
 
$
454,833

 
 
 
$
425,971

 
 

The following table illustrates the contractual maturity of our construction and land and commercial business loans at December 31, 2018 (dollars in thousands). Loans that have adjustable or renegotiable interest rates are shown as maturing in the period during which the contract is due. The total amount of loans due after December 31, 2019, which have predetermined interest rates, is $24.6 million, while the total amount of loans due after such date, which have floating or adjustable interest rates, is $13.0 million. The table does not reflect the effects of possible prepayments or enforcement of due-on-sale clauses.
 
Construction and Land
 
Commercial Business
 
Total
 
Amount
 
Weighted
Average Rate
 
Amount
 
Weighted
Average Rate
 
Amount
 
Weighted
Average Rate
2019 (1)
$
45,844

 
5.80
%
 
$
20,641

 
5.96
%
 
$
66,485

 
5.85
%
2020 to 2023
16,497

 
6.85

 
10,334

 
5.54

 
26,831

 
6.34

2024 and thereafter
2,918

 
6.44

 
7,829

 
5.69

 
10,747

 
5.89

Total (2)
$
65,259

 
6.10
%
 
$
38,804

 
5.79
%
 
$
104,063

 
5.98
%
(1)
Includes demand loans, loans having no stated maturity and overdraft loans.
(2)
Excludes deferred fees of $538,000.

8


Lending Authority . Our President and Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") may approve unsecured loans up to $1.0 million and all types of secured loans up to 30% of our legal lending limit, or approximately $4.6 million as of December 31, 2018. Our Executive Vice President and Chief Credit Officer ("CCO") may approve unsecured loans up to $400,000 and secured loans up to 15% of our legal lending limit, or approximately $2.3 million as of December 31, 2018. Any loans over the CEO's lending authority or loans significantly outside our general underwriting guidelines must be approved by the Loan Committee consisting of four independent directors, the CEO and the CCO. Lending authority is also granted to certain other lending staff at lower amounts. The Business Banking Team Leader has lending authority of up to 7.5% of our legal lending limit for real estate and other secured loans, and $50,000 for unsecured loans. The Residential Lending Team Leader has lending authority up to 7.5% of our legal lending limit for real estate and other secured loans, and $5,000 for unsecured loans.
Largest Borrowing Relationships . At December 31, 2018, the maximum amount under federal law that we could lend to any one borrower and the borrower's related entities was approximately $15.5 million. Our five largest relationships totaled $54.4 million in the aggregate, or 8.8% of our $621.8 million total loan portfolio, at December 31, 2018.  At December 31, 2018, the largest lending relationship totaled $12.2 million consisting of three loans to businesses with common ownership and separately two loans to an individual, all collateralized by multifamily real estate. The second largest relationship consisted of five loans to businesses with common ownership, were collateralized by multifamily real estate and totaled $11.7 million. The third, fourth and fifth largest relationships consisted of a $10.5 million commercial business line of credit loan participation to a third party loan originator secured by an assignment of promissory notes from their borrowers for residential mortgage loans, a $10.0 million business line of credit loan participation to a third party loan originator secured by an assignment of promissory notes from their borrowers for construction projects, and two business line of credit loan participations totaling $10.0 million to third party loan originators with common ownership, collateralized by an assignment of promissory notes from their borrowers for construction projects. Undistributed construction loan commitments on these lines of credit were $6.4 million, $4.4 million and $2.6 million, respectively. At December 31, 2018, we had five other lending relationships that exceeded $6.3 million. All of the foregoing loans were performing in accordance with their repayment terms as of December 31, 2018.
One- to-Four Family Real Estate Lending. One of our primary lending activities is the origination of loans secured by first mortgages on one- to four-family residences, substantially all of which are secured by property located in our geographic lending area. We originate both fixed-rate and adjustable-rate loans. During 2018, our fixed rate, one-to-four family loan originations decreased $5.7 million, or 7.8% to $67.8 million compared to $73.6 million in 2017. In 2018, the Bank identified continued demand in the marketplace for one-to-four family, residential adjustable rate mortgage loans ("ARM"), especially jumbo loans (loans above $453,100, the conforming Fannie Mae limit in our market area).  As a result, our adjustable rate one-to-four family, residential loan originations increased $8.6 million, or 23.8% to $44.7 million compared to $36.1 million in 2017. In 2018, the average loan amount was $639,000 for adjustable rate, one-to-four family mortgages.
Most of our loans are underwritten using generally-accepted secondary market underwriting guidelines.  A portion of the one- to four-family loans we originate are retained in our portfolio and the remaining loans are sold into the secondary market to Fannie Mae or other private investors.  Loans that are sold into the secondary market to Fannie Mae are sold with the servicing retained to maintain the client relationship and to generate noninterest income. We also originate a small portion of government guaranteed and jumbo loans for sale servicing released to certain correspondent purchasers. The sale of mortgage loans provides a source of non-interest income through the gain on sale, reduces our interest rate risk, provides a stream of servicing income, enhances liquidity and enables us to originate more loans at our current capital level than if we held the loans in our loan portfolio. Our pricing strategy for mortgage loans includes establishing interest rates that are competitive with other financial institutions and consistent with our internal asset and liability management objectives. At December 31, 2018, one-to-four family residential mortgage loans (excluding loans held-for-sale) totaled $169.8 million, or 27.3 %, of our gross loan portfolio, of which $94.2 million were fixed-rate loans and $75.6 million were ARM loans, compared to $157.4 million (excluding loans held-for-sale), or 28.5 % of our gross loan portfolio as of December 31, 2017, of which $117.6 million were fixed-rate loans and $39.8 million were ARM loans.
Substantially all of the one- to four-family residential mortgage loans we retain in our portfolio consist of loans that do not satisfy acreage limits, income, credit, conforming loan limits (i.e., jumbo mortgages) or various other requirements imposed by Fannie Mae or private investors. Some of these loans are also originated to meet the needs of borrowers who cannot otherwise satisfy Fannie Mae credit requirements because of personal and financial reasons (i.e., bankruptcy, length of time employed, etc.), and other aspects, which do not conform to Fannie Mae's guidelines. Such borrowers may have higher debt-to-income ratios, or the loans are secured by unique properties in rural markets for which there are no sales of comparable properties to support the value according to secondary market requirements. We may require additional collateral or lower loan-to-value ratios to reduce the risk of these loans. We believe that these loans satisfy the needs of borrowers in our market area. As a result, subject to market conditions, we intend to continue to originate these types of loans. We also retain jumbo loans which exceed the conforming loan limits and therefore, are not eligible to be purchased by Fannie Mae. At December 31, 2018, $79.8 million or 47.0 % of our one-to-four family loan portfolio consisted of jumbo loans.

9


We generally underwrite our one- to four-family loans based on the applicant's employment and credit history and the appraised value of the subject property. We generally lend up to 80% of the lesser of the appraised value or purchase price for one- to four-family first mortgage loans and non-owner occupied first mortgage loans. For first mortgage loans with a loan-to-value ratio in excess of 80%, we may require private mortgage insurance or other credit enhancement to help mitigate the risk. Properties securing our one- to four-family loans are typically appraised by independent fee appraisers who are selected in accordance with criteria approved by the Loan Committee. For loans that are less than $250,000, we may use an automated valuation model, in lieu of an appraisal. We require title insurance policies on all first mortgage real estate loans originated. Homeowners, liability, fire and, if required, flood insurance policies are also required for one-to-four family loans. Our real estate loans generally contain a "due on sale" clause allowing us to declare the unpaid principal balance due and payable upon the sale of the security property. The average balance of our one- to four-family residential loans was approximately $317,000 at December 31, 2018.
Fixed-rate loans secured by one- to four-family residences have contractual maturities of up to 30 years.  All of these loans are fully amortizing, with payments due monthly. Our portfolio of fixed-rate loans also includes $7.5 million of loans with an initial seven year term and a 30-year amortization period with a borrower refinancing option at a fixed rate at the end of the initial term as long as the loan has met certain performance criteria. In addition, we had $22.9 million one- to four- family loans with a five-year call option at December 31, 2018. Prior to 2012, we originated for portfolio five and seven year balloon reset loans (which are loans that are originated with a fixed interest rate for the initial five or seven years, and thereafter incur one interest rate change based on current market interest rates in which the new rate remains in effect for the remainder of the loan term) based on a 30-year amortization period.
ARM loans are offered with annual adjustments and life-time rate caps that vary based on the product, generally with a maximum annual rate change of 2.0% and a maximum overall rate change of 6.0%. We generally use the rate on one-year LIBOR to re-price our ARM loans, however, $6.1 million of our ARM loans are to employees and directors that re-price annually based on a margin of 1%-1.5% over our average 12 month cost of funds. As a consequence of using caps, the interest rates on ARM loans may not be as rate sensitive as our cost of funds. Furthermore, because loan indexes may not respond perfectly to changes in market interest rates, upward adjustments on loans may occur more slowly than increases in our cost of interest-bearing liabilities, especially during periods of rapidly increasing interest rates. Because of these characteristics, future yields on ARM loans may not be sufficient to offset increases in our cost of funds.
We continue to offer our fully amortizing ARM loans with a fixed interest rate for the first one, three, five or seven years, followed by a periodic adjustable interest rate for the remaining term. Given the recent increase in market rates over the past year, the origination of ARM loans has increased significantly as borrowers are beginning to favor ARM loans over fixed-rate mortgages. Although adjustable-rate mortgage loans may reduce to an extent our vulnerability to changes in market interest rates because they periodically re-price, as interest rates increase the required payments due from the borrower also increase (subject to rate caps), increasing the potential for default by the borrower. At the same time, the ability of the borrower to repay the loan and the marketability of the underlying collateral may be adversely affected by higher interest rates. Upward adjustments of the contractual interest rate are also limited by our maximum periodic and lifetime rate adjustments. Moreover, the interest rates on most of our adjustable-rate loans do not adjust within the next year and may not adjust for up to ten years after origination. As a result, the effectiveness of adjustable-rate mortgage loans in compensating for changes in general interest rates may be limited during periods of rapidly rising interest rates.
At December 31, 2018, $50.2 million, or 29.6% of our one-to-four family residential portfolio consisted of non-owner occupied loans, compared to $42.4 million or 26.9% of our one-to-four family residential portfolio at December 31, 2017. Loans secured by rental properties represent potentially higher risk and, as a result, we adhere to more stringent underwriting guidelines. Of primary concern in non-owner occupied real estate lending is the consistency of rental income of the property. Payments on loans secured by rental properties may depend primarily on the tenants’ continuing ability to pay rent to the property owner, the character of the borrower or, if the property owner is unable to find a tenant, the property owner’s ability to repay the loan without the benefit of a rental income stream. In addition, successful operation and management of non-owner occupied properties, including property maintenance standards, may affect repayment. As a result, repayment of such loans may be subject to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. We may request that borrowers and loan guarantors, if any, provide annual financial statements, a budget factoring in a rental income cash flow analysis of the borrower as well as the net operating income of the property, information concerning the borrower’s expertise, credit history and profitability, and the value of the underlying property. These loans are generally secured by a first mortgage on the underlying collateral property along with an assignment of rents and leases. If the borrower has multiple rental property loans with us, the loans are typically not cross collateralized.



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In 2016, in order to enable individuals to secure the purchase of a new residence before selling their existing residence, we commenced a loan program designed to allow borrowers to access the equity in their current residence to apply towards the purchase of a new residence. The loan or loans to purchase the new residence are generally originated in an amount in excess of $1.0 million and secured by the borrowers existing and/or new residences, with a maximum combined LTV of up to 80%. These loans provide for repayment upon the earlier of the sale of the current residence or the loan maturity date, which is typically up to 12 months. Upon the sale of the borrower's current residence, we may refinance the new residence using our traditional jumbo mortgage loan underwriting guidelines. During 2018, we originated $4.9 million of loans under this program compared to $15.6 million in 2017. At December 31, 2018, we had $10.2 million of these interest only residential loans in our one- to four-family residential mortgage loan portfolio.
The primary focus of our underwriting guidelines for interest only residential loans is on the value of the collateral rather than the ability of the borrower to repay the loan. As a result, this type of lending exposes us to an increased risk of loss due to the larger loan balance and our inability to sell them to Fannie Mae, similar to the risks associated with jumbo one- to four-family residential loans. In addition, a decline in residential real estate values resulting from a downturn in the Washington housing market may reduce the value of the real estate collateral securing these types of loans and increase our risk of loss if borrowers default on their loans.
Home Equity Lending. We originate home equity loans that consist of fixed-rate fully amortizing loans and variable-rate lines of credit. We typically originate home equity loans in amounts of up to 90% of the value of the collateral, minus any senior liens on the property; however, prior to 2010 we originated home equity loans in amounts of up to 100% of the value of the collateral, minus any senior liens on the property. Home equity lines of credit are typically originated for up to $250,000 with an adjustable rate of interest, based on the one-year Treasury Bill rate or the Wall Street Journal Prime rate, plus a margin. Home equity lines of credit generally have a three, five or 12 year draw period, during which time the funds may be paid down and redrawn up to the committed amount. Once the draw period has lapsed, the payment is amortized over either a 12, 19 or 21 year period based on the loan balance at that time. We charge a $50 annual fee on each home equity line of credit and require monthly interest-only payments on the entire amount drawn during the draw period. At December 31, 2018, home equity loans totaled $27.7 million, or 4.4% of our total loan portfolio compared to $28.4 million, or 5.2% of our total loan portfolio at December 31, 2017. Adjustable-rate home equity lines of credit at December 31, 2018 totaled $16.6 million, or 2.7 % of our total loan portfolio, compared to $17.0 million, or 3.1 % of our total loan portfolio as of December 31, 2017. At December 31, 2018, unfunded commitments on home equity lines of credit totaled $12.5 million.
Our fixed-rate home equity loans generally have terms of up to 15 years and are fully amortizing. At December 31, 2018, fixed-rate home equity loans totaled $11.1 million, or 1.8% of our gross loan portfolio, compared to $11.4 million, or 2.1% of our total loan portfolio as of December 31, 2017.
Commercial and Multifamily Real Estate Lending. We offer a variety of commercial and multifamily real estate loans. Most of these loans are secured by owner-occupied and non-owner-occupied commercial income producing properties, multifamily apartment buildings, warehouses, office buildings, gas station/convenience stores and mobile home parks located in our market area. At December 31, 2018, commercial and multifamily real estate loans totaled $252.6 million, or 40.6% of our total loan portfolio, compared to $211.3 million, or 38.4 % of our total loan portfolio as of December 31, 2017.
Loans secured by commercial and multifamily real estate are generally originated with a variable interest rate, fixed for an initial three to ten-year term and a 20- to 25-year amortization period. At the end of the initial term, the balance is due in full or the loan re-prices based on an independent index plus a margin over the applicable index of 1% to 4% for another five years. Loan-to-value ratios on our commercial and multifamily real estate loans typically do not exceed 80% of the lower of cost or appraised value of the property securing the loan at origination.
Loans secured by commercial and multifamily real estate are generally underwritten based on the net operating income of the property, quality and location of the real estate, the credit history and financial strength of the borrower and the quality of management involved with the property. The net operating income, which is the income derived from the operation of the property less all operating expenses, must be sufficient to cover the payments related to the outstanding debt plus an additional coverage requirement. We generally impose a minimum debt service coverage ratio of 1.20 for originated loans secured by income producing commercial properties. If the borrower is other than an individual, we typically require the personal guaranty of the principal owners of the borrowing entity. We also generally require an assignment of rents in order to be assured that the cash flow from the project will be used to repay the debt. Appraisals on properties securing commercial and multifamily real estate loans are performed by independent state certified licensed fee appraisers. In order to monitor the adequacy of cash flows on income-producing properties, the borrower is required to provide annual financial information. From time to time we also acquire participation interests in commercial and multifamily real estate loans originated by other financial institutions secured by properties located in our market area.

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Historically, loans secured by commercial and multifamily properties generally involve different credit risks than one- to four-family properties. These loans typically involve larger balances to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. Because payments on loans secured by commercial and multifamily properties are often dependent on the successful operation or management of the properties, repayment of these loans may be subject to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. Repayments of loans secured by non owner occupied properties depend primarily on the tenant’s continuing ability to pay rent to the property owner, who is our borrower, or, if the property owner is unable to find a tenant, the property owner’s ability to repay the loan without the benefit of a rental income stream. If the cash flow from the project is reduced, or if leases are not obtained or renewed, the borrower's ability to repay the loan may be impaired. Commercial and multifamily real estate loans also expose a lender to greater credit risk than loans secured by one-to-four family because the collateral securing these loans typically cannot be sold as easily as one-to-four family. In addition, most of our commercial and multifamily real estate loans are not fully amortizing and include balloon payments upon maturity. Balloon payments may require the borrower to either sell or refinance the underlying property in order to make the payment, which may increase the risk of default or non-payment. The largest single commercial and multifamily real estate loan at December 31, 2018, totaled $7.3 million and is collateralized by an office building. At December 31, 2018, this loan was performing in accordance with its repayment terms.
The following table provides information on commercial and multifamily real estate loans by type at December 31, 2018 and 2017 (dollars in thousands):
 
2018
 
2017
 
Amount
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent
Multifamily residential
$
86,307

 
34.1
%
 
$
62,879

 
29.8
%
Owner-occupied commercial real estate retail
9,031

 
3.6

 
7,273

 
3.4

Owner-occupied commercial real estate office buildings
20,262

 
8.0

 
21,189

 
10.0

Owner-occupied commercial real estate other (1)
19,851

 
7.9

 
20,972

 
9.9

Non Owner-occupied commercial real estate retail
9,057

 
3.6

 
10,248

 
4.9

Non Owner-occupied commercial real estate office buildings
14,202

 
5.6

 
11,732

 
5.5

Non owner occupied commercial real estate other (1)
64,590

 
25.6

 
40,908

 
19.4

Warehouses
12,818

 
5.1

 
17,678

 
8.4

Gas station/Convenience store
8,835

 
3.5

 
9,469

 
4.5

Mobile Home Parks
7,691

 
3.0

 
8,921

 
4.2

Total
$
252,644

 
100.0
%
 
$
211,269

 
100.0
%
(1)
Other commercial real estate loans includes schools, churches, storage facilities, restaurants, etc.
Construction and Land Lending. We originate construction loans secured by single-family residences and commercial and multifamily real estate. We also originate land acquisition and development loans, which are secured by raw land or developed lots on which the borrower intends to build a residence. At December 31, 2018, our construction and land loans totaled $65.3 million, or 10.6% of our total loan portfolio, compared to $61.5 million, or 11.2 % of our total loan portfolio at December 31, 2017. At December 31, 2018, unfunded construction loan commitments totaled $60.6 million.

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Construction loans to individuals and contractors for the construction of personal residences, including speculative residential construction, totaled $23.5 million, or 36.1 %, of our construction and land portfolio at December 31, 2018. In addition to custom home construction loans to individuals, we originate loans that are termed "speculative" which are those loans where the builder does not have, at the time of loan origination, a signed contract with a buyer for the home or lot who has a commitment for permanent financing with either us or another lender. At December 31, 2018, construction loans to contractors for homes that were considered speculative totaled $13.2 million, or 20.3 %, of our construction and land portfolio. The composition of, and location of underlying collateral securing, our construction and land loan portfolio, excluding loan commitments, at December 31, 2018 was as follows (in thousands):
 
Puget Sound
 
Olympic Peninsula
 
Other
 
Total
Commercial and multifamily construction
$
25,250

 
$

 
$
5,183

 
$
30,433

Speculative residential construction
13,154

 
94

 

 
13,248

Land acquisition and development and lot loans
6,500

 
3,250

 
1,548

 
11,298

Residential lot loans
449

 

 

 
449

Residential construction
9,110

 
709

 
12

 
9,831

Total
$
54,463

 
$
4,053

 
$
6,743

 
$
65,259

Our residential construction loans generally provide for the payment of interest only during the construction phase, which is typically twelve to eighteen months. At the end of the construction phase, the construction loan generally either converts to a longer term mortgage loan or is paid off with a permanent loan from another lender. Residential construction loans are made up to the lesser of a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 100% of cost or 80% of appraised value at completion; however, we generally do not originate construction loans which exceed these limits without some form of credit enhancement to mitigate the higher loan to value.
At December 31, 2018, our largest residential construction loan commitment was for $4.2 million, $3.8 million of which had been disbursed. This loan was performing according to its repayment terms at December 31, 2018. The average outstanding residential construction loan balance was approximately $445,000 at December 31, 2018. Before making a commitment to fund a construction loan, we require an appraisal of the subject property by an independent approved appraiser. During the construction phase, we make periodic inspections of the construction site and loan proceeds are disbursed directly to the contractors or borrowers as construction progresses. Loan proceeds are disbursed after inspection based on the percentage of completion method. We also require general liability, builder's risk hazard insurance, title insurance, and flood insurance, for properties located in or to be built in a designated flood hazard area, on all construction loans.
We also originate developed lot and raw land loans to individuals intending to construct a residence in the future on the property. We will generally originate these loans in an amount up to 75% of the lower of the purchase price or appraisal. These lot and land loans are secured by a first lien on the property and have a fixed rate of interest with a maximum amortization of 20 years.
We make land acquisition and development loans to experienced builders or residential lot developers in our market area. The maximum loan-to-value limit applicable to these loans is generally 75% of the appraised market value upon completion of the project. We may not require cash equity from the borrower if there is sufficient equity in the land being used as collateral. Development plans are required prior to making the loan. Our loan officers visit the proposed site of the development and the sites of competing developments. We require that developers maintain adequate insurance coverage. Land acquisition and development loans generally are originated with a loan term up to 24 months, have adjustable rates of interest based on the Wall Street Journal Prime Rate or the three or five- year rate charged by the Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines ("FHLB") and require interest only payment during the term of the loan. Land acquisition and development loan proceeds are disbursed periodically in increments as construction progresses and as an inspection by our approved inspector warrants. We also require these loans to be paid on an accelerated basis as the lots are sold, so that we are repaid before all the lots are sold. At December 31, 2018, land acquisition and development and lot loans totaled $11.3 million, or 17.3% of our construction and land portfolio all of which were lot loans.
We also offer commercial and multifamily construction loans. These loans are underwritten as interest only with financing typically up to 24 months under terms similar to our residential construction loans. Commercial and multifamily construction loans are made up to the lesser of a maximum loan-to-value ratio of 100% of cost or 80% of appraised value at completion. Most of our commercial and multifamily construction loans provide for disbursement of loan funds during the construction period and conversion to a permanent loan when the construction is complete, and either tenant lease-up provisions or prescribed debt service coverage ratios are met. At December 31, 2018, commercial and multifamily construction loans totaled

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$30.4 million, or 46.6% of our construction and land portfolio, compared to $19.5 million, or 31.8% of our construction and land portfolio at December 31, 2017. The three largest commercial and multifamily construction loans at December 31, 2018 included a $6.5 million loan secured by a multifamily residential building, a $5.3 million loan secured by a multifamily residential and mixed use project and a $4.4 million loans secured by a multifamily residential and retail building, all located in Washington.
Our construction and land development loans are based upon estimates of costs in relation to values associated with the completed project. Construction/land lending involves additional risks when compared with permanent residential lending because funds are advanced upon the collateral for the project based on an estimate of costs that will produce a future value at completion. Because of the uncertainties inherent in estimating construction costs, as well as the market value of the completed project and the effects of governmental regulation on real property, it is relatively difficult to evaluate accurately the total funds required to complete a project and the completed project loan-to-value ratio. Changes in the demand, such as for new housing and higher than anticipated building costs may cause actual results to vary significantly from those estimated. For these reasons, this type of lending also typically involves higher loan principal amounts and is often concentrated with a small number of builders. A downturn in housing, or the real estate market, could increase loan delinquencies, defaults and foreclosures, and significantly impair the value of our collateral and our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure. Some of our builders have more than one loan outstanding with us and also have residential mortgage loans for rental properties with us. Consequently, an adverse development with respect to one loan or one credit relationship can expose us to a significantly greater risk of loss.
In addition, during the term of most of our construction loans, no payment from the borrower is required since the accumulated interest is added to the principal of the loan through an interest reserve. As a result, these loans often involve the disbursement of funds with repayment substantially dependent on the success of the ultimate project and the ability of the borrower to sell or lease the property or obtain permanent take-out financing, rather than the ability of the borrower or guarantor to repay principal and interest. If our appraisal of the value of a completed project proves to be overstated, we may have inadequate security for the repayment of the loan upon completion of construction of the project and may incur a loss. Because construction loans require active monitoring of the building process, including cost comparisons and on-site inspections, these loans are more difficult and costly to monitor. Increases in market rates of interest may have a more pronounced effect on construction loans by rapidly increasing the end purchasers' borrowing costs, thereby reducing the overall demand for the project. Properties under construction may be difficult to sell and typically must be completed in order to be successfully sold which also complicates the process of resolving problem construction loans. This may require us to advance additional funds and/or contract with another builder to complete construction. Furthermore, in the case of speculative construction loans, there is the added risk associated with identifying an end-purchaser for the finished project. Land loans also pose additional risk because of the lack of income being produced by the property and the potential illiquid nature of the collateral. These risks can also be significantly impacted by supply and demand conditions. A downturn in housing, or the real estate market, could increase loan delinquencies, defaults and foreclosures, and significantly impair the value of our collateral and our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure.

Commercial Business Lending. At December 31, 2018, commercial business loans totaled $38.8 million, or 6.2% of our total loan portfolio, compared to $40.8 million, or 7.4% of our total loan portfolio at December 31, 2017. Substantially all of our commercial business loans have been to borrowers in our market area. Our commercial business lending activities encompass loans with a variety of purposes and security, including loans to finance commercial vehicles and equipment and loans secured by accounts receivable and/or inventory. Approximately $1.1 million of our commercial business loans at December 31, 2018 were unsecured. Our commercial business lending policy includes an analysis of the borrower's background, capacity to repay the loan, the adequacy of the borrower's capital and collateral, as well as an evaluation of other conditions affecting the borrower. Analysis of the borrower's past, present and future cash flows is also an important aspect of our credit analysis. We generally require personal guarantees on both our secured and unsecured commercial business loans. Nonetheless, commercial business loans are believed to carry higher credit risk than residential mortgage and commercial real estate loans.
Our interest rates on commercial business loans are dependent on the type of loan. Our secured commercial business loans typically have a loan to value ratio of up to 80% and are term loans ranging from three to seven years. Secured commercial business term loans generally have a fixed rated based on the commensurate FHLB amortizing rate or prime rate as reported in the West Coast edition of the Wall Street Journal plus 1% to 3%. In addition, we typically charge loan fees of 1% to 2% of the principal amount at origination, depending on the credit quality and account relationships of the borrower. Business lines of credit are usually adjustable-rate and are based on the prime rate plus 1% to 3%, and are generally originated with both a floor and ceiling to the interest rate. Our business lines of credit generally have terms ranging from 12 months to 24 months and provide for interest-only monthly payments during the term.
Our commercial business loans are primarily based on the cash flow of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower. The borrowers' cash flow may be unpredictable, and collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value. This collateral may consist of accounts receivable, inventory, equipment or real estate. In the case of loans

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secured by accounts receivable, the availability of funds for the repayment of these loans may be substantially dependent on the ability of the borrower to collect amounts due from its customers. Other collateral securing loans may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise, may be illiquid and may fluctuate in value based on the specific type of business and equipment. As a result, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial business loans may be substantially dependent on the success of the business itself which, in turn, is often dependent in part upon general economic conditions.
Consumer Lending. We offer a variety of secured and unsecured consumer loans, including new and used manufactured homes, floating homes, automobiles, boats and recreational vehicle loans, and loans secured by deposit accounts. We also offer unsecured consumer loans. We originate our consumer loans primarily in our market area. All of our consumer loans are originated on a direct basis. At December 31, 2018, our consumer loans totaled $67.6 million, or 10.9% of our total loan portfolio, compared to $51.1 million, or 9.3 % of our total loan portfolio at December 31, 2017.
We typically originate new and used manufactured home loans to borrowers who intend to use the home as a primary residence. The yields on these loans are higher than that on our other residential lending products and the portfolio has performed reasonably well with an acceptable level of risk and loss in exchange for the higher yield. Our weighted-average yield on manufactured home loans at December 31, 2018 was 8.13 %, compared to 4.69 % for one-to-four family mortgages, excluding loans held-for-sale. At December 31, 2018, these loans totaled $20.1 million, or 29.8 % of our consumer loans and 3.2 % of our total loan portfolio. For used manufactured homes, loans are generally made up to 90% of the lesser of the appraised value or purchase price up to $200,000, and with terms typically up to 20 years. On new manufactured homes, loans are generally made up to 90% of the lesser of the appraised value or purchase price up to $200,000, and with terms typically up to 20 years. We generally charge a 1% fee at origination. We underwrite these loans based on our review of creditworthiness of the borrower, including credit scores, and the value of the collateral, for which we hold a security interest under Washington law.
Manufactured home loans are higher risk than loans secured by residential real property, though this risk is reduced if the owner also owns the land on which the home is located. A small portion of our manufactured home loans involve properties on which we also have financed the land for the owner. The primary risk in manufactured home loans is the difficulty in obtaining adequate value for the collateral due to the cost and limited ability to move the collateral. These loans tend to be made to retired individuals and first-time homebuyers. First-time homebuyers of manufactured homes tend to be a higher credit risk than first-time homebuyers of single-family residences, due to more limited financial resources. As a result, these loans may have a higher probability of default and higher delinquency rates than single-family residential loans and other types of consumer loans. We take into account this additional risk as a component of our allowance for loan losses. We attempt to work out delinquent loans with the borrower and, if that is not successful, any past due manufactured homes are repossessed and sold. At December 31, 2018, there were eight nonperforming manufactured home loans totaling $214,000.
We originate floating home, houseboat and house barge loans typically located on cooperative or condominium moorages. Terms vary from five to 20 years and have a fixed rate of interest. We lend up to 90% of the lesser of the appraised value or purchase price. The primary risk in floating home loans is the unique nature of the collateral and the challenges of relocating such collateral to a location other than where such housing is permitted. The process for securing the deed and/or the condominium or cooperative dock is also unique compared to other types of lending we participate in. As a result, these loans may have higher collateral recovery costs than for one- to four-family mortgage loans and other types of consumer loans. We take into account these additional risks as a part of our underwriting criteria. At December 31, 2018, floating home loans totaled $40.8 million, or 60.4 % of our consumer loan portfolio and 6.6% of our total loan portfolio.
The balance of our consumer loans include loans secured by new and used automobiles, new and used boats, motorcycles and recreational vehicles, loans secured by deposits and unsecured consumer loans, all of which, at December 31, 2018, totaled $6.6 million, or 9.8 % of our consumer loan portfolio and 1.1 % of our total loan portfolio. Our automobile loan portfolio totaled $684,000 at December 31, 2018, or 1.0 % of our consumer loan portfolio and 0.1 % of our total loan portfolio. Automobile loans may be written for a term up to 72 months and have fixed rates of interest. Loan-to-value ratios are up to 100% of the lesser of the purchase price or the National Automobile Dealers Association value for used automobiles, including tax, licenses, title and mechanical breakdown and gap insurance.
Loans secured by boats, motorcycles and recreational vehicles typically have terms from five to 20 years depending on the collateral and loan-to-value ratios up to 90%. These loans may be made with fixed or adjustable interest rates. Our unsecured consumer loans have either a fixed rate of interest generally for a maximum term of 48 months, or are revolving lines of credit of generally up to $25,000. At December 31, 2018, unsecured consumer loans totaled $1.0 million and unfunded commitments on our unsecured consumer lines of credit totaled $1.1 million. At that date, the average outstanding balance on these lines was less than $1,000.

15


Consumer loans (other than our manufactured and floating homes) generally have shorter terms to maturity, which reduces our exposure to changes in interest rates. In addition, management believes that offering consumer loan products helps to expand and create stronger ties to our existing client base by increasing the number of client relationships and providing additional marketing opportunities.
Consumer loans generally entail greater risk than do one- to four-family residential mortgage loans, particularly in the case of consumer loans that are secured by rapidly depreciable assets, such as manufactured homes, automobiles, boats and recreational vehicles. In these cases, any repossessed collateral for a defaulted loan may not provide an adequate source of repayment of the outstanding loan balance. As a result, consumer loan collections are dependent on the borrower's continuing financial stability and, thus, are more likely to be adversely affected by job loss, divorce, illness or personal bankruptcy.
Loan Originations, Purchases, Sales, Repayments and Servicing
We originate both fixed-rate and adjustable-rate loans. Our ability to originate loans, however, is dependent upon client demand for loans in our market area. Over the past several years, we have continued to originate residential and consumer loans, and increased our emphasis on commercial and multifamily real estate, construction and land, and commercial business lending. Demand is affected by competition and the interest rate environment. During the past few years, we, like many other financial institutions, have experienced significant prepayments on loans due to the prevailing low interest rate environment in the United States. In periods of economic uncertainty, the ability of financial institutions, including us, to originate large dollar volumes of real estate loans may be substantially reduced or restricted, with a resultant decrease in interest income. If a proposed loan exceeds our internal lending limits, we may originate the loan on a participation basis with another financial institution. From time to time, we also participate with other financial institutions on loans they originate. We did not sell commercial loan participations to other financial institutions in 2018. In 2017 and 2016, we sold commercial loan participations in the amount of $3.1 million and $3.0 million, respectively. We underwrite loan purchases and participations to the same standards as an internally-originated loan. We had no purchases of commercial business loan participations from other financial institutions in 2018. We purchased two commercial business loan participations from other financial institutions totaling $15.5 million in 2017 and $2.7 million in 2016.
We do not engage in originating negative amortization or option adjustable rate loans and have no established program to originate or purchase these loans. We do offer interest-only one- to four-family loans to well-qualified borrowers and at December 31, 2018, we held $10.2 million of such loans in our loan portfolio, representing 1.6 % of our total loan portfolio. Subprime loans are defined by the FDIC as loans that at the time of loan origination had a FICO credit score of 660 or lower. Of the $112.5 million in one- to four- family loans originated in 2018, only $8.9 million, or 7.9 %, were to borrowers with a credit score under 660. Additionally, of the $7.3 million in manufactured home loans originated in 2018, $813,000, or 11.1% were to borrowers with a credit score under 660. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the total amount of loans held in our loan portfolio to borrowers with a FICO score of 660 or lower were $27.5 million and $29.9 million, respectively. In exchange for the additional lender risk associated with these loans, these borrowers may be required to pay a higher interest rate, and depending on the severity of the credit history, a lower loan-to-value ratio may be required than for a conforming loan borrower. The repayment performance of these loans has been substantially the same as other loans in these portfolios.
In addition to interest earned on loans and loan origination fees, we receive fees for loan commitments, late payments and other miscellaneous services.
We also sell whole one-to-four family loans without recourse to Fannie Mae, subject to a provision for repurchase upon breach of representation, warranty or covenant. These loans are fixed-rate mortgages, which primarily are sold to reduce our interest rate risk and generate noninterest income. These loans are generally sold for cash in amounts equal to the unpaid principal amount of the loans determined using present value yields to the buyer. These sales allow for a servicing fee on loans when the servicing is retained by us. Most one- to four-family loans are sold with servicing retained. At December 31, 2018, we were servicing a $352.2 million portfolio of residential mortgage loans for Fannie Mae. We did not repurchase any loans in 2018 and repurchased one loan in 2017 totaling $135,000.
We earned mortgage servicing income of $562,000, $566,000 and $907,000 for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. In November 2009, we acquired a $340.1 million loan servicing portfolio from Leader Financial Services. These loans are 100% owned by Fannie Mae and are subserviced under an agreement with a third party loan servicer who performs all servicing including payment processing, reporting and collections. In October 2015, we acquired a $45.9 million loans servicing portfolio from Seattle Bank. These loans are 100% owned by Fannie Mae and are serviced by us. These mortgage servicing rights are carried at fair value and had a value at December 31, 2018 of $3.4 million. See Note 6 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this report on Form 10-K.
Sales of whole real estate loans are beneficial to us since these sales may generate income at the time of sale, produce future servicing income on loans where servicing is retained, provide funds for additional lending, and increase liquidity. We sold

16


$50.0 million, $52.0 million and $85.1 million of conforming one- to four- family loans during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Gains, losses and transfer fees on sales of one-to-four family loans and participations are recognized at the time of the sale. Our net gain on sales of residential loans for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 was $1.3 million, $1.1 million and $1.4 million, respectively. In addition to loans sold to Fannie Mae on a servicing retained basis, we also sell nonconforming residential loans to correspondent banks on a servicing released basis. In 2018 and 2017, we sold $7.6 million and $4.3 million, respectively, of loans servicing released.
The following table shows our loan origination, sale and repayment activities, including loans held-for-sale, for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Originations by type:
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed-rate:
 
 
 
 
 
One-to-four family
$
67,823

 
$
73,560

 
$
137,760

Home equity
4,459

 
4,538

 
1,733

Commercial and multifamily
94,725

 
34,438

 
20,561

Construction and land
24,303

 
49,771

 
31,610

Manufactured homes
7,313

 
5,106

 
5,006

Floating homes
20,660

 
7,409

 
12,694

Other consumer
3,402

 
2,360

 
630

Commercial business
2,277

 
10,440

 
6,365

Total fixed-rate
$
224,962

 
$
187,622

 
$
216,359

Adjustable rate:
 
 
 
 
 
One-to-four family
44,726

 
36,130

 
4,970

Home equity
9,705

 
5,832

 
2,067

Commercial and multifamily
55,945

 
33,155

 
37,256

Construction and land

 
6,094

 
629

Other consumer
48

 
86

 
81

Commercial business
17,202

 
7,527

 
2,131

Total adjustable-rate
$
127,626

 
$
88,824

 
$
47,134

Total loans originated
$
352,588

 
$
276,446

 
$
263,493

Purchases by type:
 
 
 
 
 
Commercial business participations

 
15,450

 
2,694

Total loan participations purchased
$

 
$
15,450

 
$
2,694

Sales, repayments and participations sold:
 
 
 
 
 
One-to-four family
49,966

 
51,959

 
85,092

Commercial and multifamily

 
3,136

 
3,042

Total loans sold and loan participations
49,966

 
55,095

 
88,134

Total principal repayments
231,627

 
188,121

 
137,400

Total reductions
281,593

 
243,216

 
225,534

Net increase
$
70,995

 
$
48,680

 
$
40,653

The increase in originations in 2018 compared to 2017 was primarily due to the relatively strong economy in our market area and increased sales efforts by our loan officers. Demand for construction loans for new homes and apartments continued to be strong as our markets experienced appreciation in residential market prices and a declining supply of homes for sale because of strong demand.  Commercial and multifamily, and floating home loan originations more than doubled in 2018 compared to 2017.  Manufactured homes and home equity loan originations also increased significantly in 2018 compared to 2017. One-to-four family fixed rate, residential loan originations decreased while one- to four-family adjustable rate, residential loan originations increased significantly compared to prior years, reflecting the rise in residential mortgage rates over the last year. During 2018, the Bank identified continued demand in the marketplace for one- to-four family adjustable rate, residential

17


mortgages, especially those above the Fannie Mae conforming limits. Commercial business loan originations also increased in 2018 as compared to 2017 as a result of our emphasis on this business segment and the continued demand in our local market. Construction and land loan originations for both fixed rate and adjustable rate loans decreased significantly in 2018 compared to 2017 as we shifted our focus to commercial and multifamily loans originations in 2018.
Asset Quality
When a borrower fails to make a required payment on a one-to-four family loan, we attempt to cure the delinquency by contacting the borrower. In the case of loans secured by a one-to-four family property, a late notice typically is sent 15 days after the due date. Generally, a pre-foreclosure loss mitigation letter is also mailed to the borrower 30 days after the due date. All delinquent accounts are reviewed by a loan officer or branch manager who attempts to cure the delinquency by contacting the borrower. If the account becomes 120 days delinquent and an acceptable foreclosure alternative has not been agreed upon, we generally refer the account to legal counsel with instructions to prepare a notice of default. The notice of default begins the foreclosure process. If foreclosure is completed, typically we take title to the property and sell it directly through a real estate broker.
Delinquent consumer loans are handled in a similar manner to one-to-four family loans. Our procedures for repossession and sale of consumer collateral are subject to various requirements under the applicable consumer protection laws as well as other applicable laws and the determination by us that it would be beneficial from a cost basis.
Once a loan is 90 days past due, it is classified as nonaccrual. Generally, delinquent consumer loans are charged-off at 120 days past due, unless we have a reasonable basis to justify additional collection and recovery efforts.
Delinquent Loans. The following table sets forth our loan delinquencies by type, by amount and by percentage of type at December 31, 2018 (dollars in thousands):
 
Loans Delinquent For:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30-89 Days
 
90 Days and Over
 
Total Delinquent Loans
 
Number
 
Amount
 
Percent of
Loan Category
 
Number
 
Amount
 
Percent of
Loan Category
 
Number
 
Amount
 
Percent of
Loan Category
One- to four- family
14

 
$
1,529

 
0.9
%
 
6

 
$
514

 
0.3
%
 
20

 
$
2,043

 
1.2
%
Home equity
6

 
447

 
1.6

 
7

 
284

 
1.0

 
13

 
731

 
2.6

Commercial and Multifamily
1

 
139

 
0.1

 
1

 
353

 
0.1

 
2

 
492

 
0.2

Construction and land
3

 
650

 
1.0

 
1

 
50

 
0.1

 
4

 
700

 
1.1

Manufactured homes
8

 
207

 
1.0

 
6

 
199

 
1.0

 
14

 
406

 
2.0

Floating homes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other consumer
12

 
16

 
0.2

 

 

 

 
12

 
16

 
0.2

Commercial Business
3

 
405

 
1.0

 
3

 
122

 
0.3

 
6

 
527

 
1.4

Total
47

 
$
3,393

 
0.6
%
 
24

 
$
1,522

 
0.2
%
 
71

 
$
4,915

 
0.8
%

18


Nonperforming Assets. The table below sets forth the amounts and categories of nonperforming assets in our loan portfolio (in thousands). Loans are placed on nonaccrual status when the collection of principal and/or interest become doubtful or when the loan is more than 90 days past due. Other real estate owned ("OREO") and repossessed assets include assets acquired in settlement of loans.
 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Nonperforming loans (1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One- to four-family
$
1,120

 
$
837

 
$
2,216

 
$
1,640

 
$
1,512

Home equity
359

 
722

 
553

 
428

 
386

Commercial and multifamily
534

 
201

 
218

 

 
1,639

Construction and land
123

 
92

 

 

 
81

Manufactured homes
214

 
206

 
120

 
62

 
195

Other consumer

 
8

 

 

 
29

Commercial business
317

 
217

 
242

 

 

Total nonperforming loans
$
2,667

 
$
2,283

 
$
3,349

 
$
2,130

 
$
3,842

OREO and repossessed assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One- to four-family
$

 
$

 
$
562

 
$
159

 
$
269

Commercial and multifamily
575

 
600

 
600

 
600

 

Manufactured homes

 
10

 
10

 
10

 
54

Total OREO and repossessed assets
$
575

 
$
610

 
$
1,172

 
$
769

 
$
323

Total nonperforming assets
$
3,242

 
$
2,893

 
$
4,521

 
$
2,899

 
$
4,165

Nonperforming assets as a percentage of total assets
0.45
%
 
0.45
%
 
0.77
%
 
0.54
%
 
0.84
%
Performing restructured loans:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One- to four- family
$
1,511

 
$
2,876

 
$
1,977

 
$
2,415

 
$
2,619

Home equity
60

 
158

 
144

 
232

 
679

Commercial and multifamily

 

 
361

 
1,966

 
1,317

Construction and land
44

 
49

 
83

 
91

 
99

Manufactured homes
130

 
150

 
160

 
255

 
279

Other consumer
131

 
36

 
40

 

 
1

Commercial business
97

 

 

 
114

 
123

Total performing restructured loans
$
1,973

 
$
3,269

 
$
2,765

 
$
5,073

 
$
5,117

(1)
Nonperforming loans include $817,000, $445,000, $683,000, $971,000 and $2.3 million in nonperforming troubled debt restructurings as of December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.  We had no accruing loan 90 days or more delinquent for the periods reported.
Nonperforming loans, consisting of nonaccrual loans and nonperforming TDRs, increased $384,000 to $2.7 million at December 31, 2018 from $2.3 million at December 31, 2017 due primarily to a $283,000 increase in the one-to-four family loan and $333,000 increase in the commercial and multifamily loan categories, partially offset by a $363,000 decrease in the home equity loan category. Our largest nonperforming loan at December 31, 2018 was a $167,000 one-to-four family loan. Nonperforming one- to four- family loans at December 31, 2018 consisted of thirteen loans to different borrowers with an average loan balance of $90,000. There were ten home equity loans, eight manufactured home loans, five commercial business loans, three construction and land loans and two commercial real estate loans classified as nonperforming at December 31, 2018.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, gross interest income that would have been recorded had the nonaccrual loans been current in accordance with their original terms amounted to $172,000, all of which was excluded from interest income for the year ended December 31, 2018.  See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition at December 31, 2018 Compared to December 31, 2017 -- Delinquencies and Nonperforming Assets" contained in Item 7 of this report on Form 10-K for more information on troubled assets.

19


Troubled Debt Restructured Loans.  Troubled debt restructurings ("TDRs"), which are accounted for under ASC 310-40, are loans which have renegotiated loan terms to assist borrowers who are unable to meet the original terms of their loans.  Such modifications to loan terms may include a lower interest rate, a reduction in principal, or a longer term to maturity.  All TDRs are initially classified as impaired regardless of whether the loan was performing at the time it was restructured.  Once a troubled debt restructuring has performed according to its modified terms for six months and the collection of principal and interest under the revised terms is deemed probable, we remove the TDR from nonperforming status.  At December 31, 2018, we had $2.0 million of loans that were classified as performing TDRs and still on accrual, compared to $3.3 million at December 31, 2017. Included in nonperforming loans at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were TDRs of $817,000 and $445,000, respectively.
OREO and Repossessed Assets .  OREO and repossessed assets include assets acquired in settlement of loans.  At December 31, 2018, OREO and repossessed assets totaled $575,000. Our OREO at December 31, 2018, consisted of a former bank branch property located in Port Angeles, Washington which was acquired in 2015 as a part of three branches purchased from another financial institution. The former bank branch property originally was classified as a fixed asset and was subsequently reclassified to OREO in 2016.  It is currently leased to a local not-for-profit organization at a below market rate.
Other Loans of Concern.   In addition to the nonperforming assets set forth in the table above, as of December 31, 2018, there were 34 loans totaling $8.5 million about which known information of possible credit problems caused management to have doubts as to the ability of the borrowers to comply with present loan repayment terms and which may result in the future inclusion of such items in the nonperforming asset categories.  The two largest loans of concern at December 31, 2018, were a $2.4 million loan and $2.1 million loan both secured by one- to four-family residential real estate located in King County, Washington. Additional other loans of concern included, $1.6 million in commercial and multifamily real estate loans, $1.6 million in commercial business loans, $571,000 in one-to four-family, $146,000 in home equity loans, $71,000 in manufactured homes, and $52,000 in other consumer loans.
Classified Assets.  Federal regulations provide for the classification of lower quality loans and other assets (such as OREO and repossessed assets), debt and equity securities considered as "substandard," "doubtful" or "loss."  An asset is considered "substandard" if it is inadequately protected by the current net worth and paying capacity of the obligor or of the collateral pledged, if any.  "Substandard" assets include those characterized by the "distinct possibility" that the insured institution will sustain "some loss" if the deficiencies are not corrected.  Assets classified as "doubtful" have all of the weaknesses in those classified "substandard," with the added characteristic that the weaknesses present make "collection or liquidation in full," on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions and values, "highly questionable and improbable."  Assets classified as "loss" are those considered "uncollectible" and of such little value that their continuance as assets without the establishment of a specific loss reserve is not warranted.
When we classify problem assets as either substandard or doubtful, we may establish a specific allowance in an amount we deem prudent to address specific impairments.  General allowances represent loss allowances which have been established to recognize the inherent risk associated with lending activities, but which, unlike specific allowances, have not been specifically allocated to particular problem assets.  When an insured institution classifies problem assets as a loss, it is required to charge off those assets in the period in which they are deemed uncollectible.  Our determination as to the classification of our assets and the amount of our valuation allowances is subject to review by the FDIC and, since our conversion to a Washington chartered commercial bank, the WDFI, which can order the establishment of additional loss allowances.  Assets which do not currently expose us to sufficient risk to warrant classification in one of the aforementioned categories but possess weaknesses are required to be designated as special mention. At December 31, 2018, special mention assets totaled $6.1 million.
We regularly review the problem assets in our portfolio to determine whether any assets require classification in accordance with applicable regulations. On the basis of management's review of our assets, at December 31, 2018, we had classified $11.7 million of our assets as substandard, of which $11.1 million represented a variety of outstanding loans and $575,000 represented the balance of our OREO and repossessed assets.  At that date, we had no assets classified as doubtful or loss.  This total amount of classified assets represented 16.3% of our equity capital and 1.6% of our assets at December 31, 2018.  Classified assets totaled $6.8 million, or 10.4% of our equity capital and 1.1% of our assets at December 31, 2017.
Allowance for Loan Losses.  We maintain an allowance for loan losses to absorb probable loan losses in the loan portfolio.  The allowance is based on ongoing, monthly assessments of the estimated probable incurred losses in the loan portfolio.  In evaluating the level of the allowance for loan losses, management considers the types of loans and the amount of loans in the loan portfolio, peer group information, historical loss experience, adverse situations that may affect the borrower's ability to repay, estimated value of any underlying collateral, and prevailing economic conditions.  Large groups of smaller balance homogeneous loans, such as one-to-four family, small commercial and multifamily real estate, home equity and consumer loans, including floating homes and manufactured homes, are evaluated in the aggregate using historical loss factors and peer group data adjusted for current economic conditions.  More complex loans, such as commercial and multifamily real estate

20


loans and commercial business loans are evaluated individually for impairment, primarily through the evaluation of the borrower's net operating income and available cash flow and their possible impact on collateral values.
At December 31, 2018, our allowance for loan losses was $5.8 million, or 0.93% of our total loan portfolio, compared to $5.2 million, or 0.96% of our total loan portfolio in 2017. Specific valuation reserves totaled $736,000 and $1.1 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Assessing the allowance for loan losses is inherently subjective as it requires making material estimates, including the amount and timing of future cash flows expected to be received on impaired loans that may be susceptible to significant change.  In the opinion of management, the allowance, when taken as a whole, properly reflects estimated probable loan losses inherent in our loan portfolio.  See Notes 1 and 5 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this report on Form 10-K.  The following table sets forth an analysis of our allowance for loan losses at the dates indicated (dollars in thousands):
 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Balance at beginning of period
$
5,241

 
$
4,822

 
$
4,636

 
$
4,387

 
$
4,177

Charge-offs:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One- to four-family

 

 
(72
)
 
(21
)
 
(127
)
Home equity
(7
)
 
(89
)
 
(15
)
 
(35
)
 
(295
)
Commercial and multifamily

 
(24
)
 
(314
)
 

 
(47
)
Construction and land

 

 

 
(40
)
 

Manufactured homes
(12
)
 
(12
)
 

 
(37
)
 
(197
)
Other consumer
(31
)
 
(18
)
 
(42
)
 
(77
)
 
(77
)
Commercial business

 

 
(29
)
 

 

Total charge-offs
(50
)
 
(143
)
 
(472
)
 
(210
)
 
(743
)
Recoveries:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One- to four-family
1

 

 
47

 

 
64

Home equity
44

 
33

 
78

 
36

 
52

Commercial and multifamily

 
1

 

 

 
2

Construction and land

 

 
18

 

 

Manufactured homes

 
8

 
8

 
8

 
14

Other consumer
12

 
20

 
53

 
15

 
21

Commercial business
1

 

 

 

 

Total recoveries
58

 
62

 
204

 
59

 
153

Net recoveries (charge-offs)
8

 
(81
)
 
(268
)
 
(151
)
 
(590
)
Provisions charged to operations
525

 
500

 
454

 
400

 
800

Balance at end of period
$
5,774

 
$
5,241

 
$
4,822

 
$
4,636

 
$
4,387

Net recoveries (charge-offs) during the period as a percentage of average loans outstanding during the period
%
 
(0.02
)%
 
(0.06
)%
 
(0.03
)%
 
(0.14
)%
Net recoveries (charge-offs) during the period as a percentage of average nonperforming assets
0.30
%
 
(2.12
)%
 
(6.27
)%
 
(5.26
)%
 
(18.65
)%
Allowance as a percentage of nonperforming loans
216.50
%
 
229.57
 %
 
143.98
 %
 
217.65
 %
 
114.19
 %
Allowance as a percentage of total loans (end of period)
0.93
%
 
0.96
 %
 
0.96
 %
 
1.01
 %
 
1.02
 %
Economic conditions have been favorable in our market areas. Housing prices have experienced continued growth throughout 2018, with historically low inventory levels. Unemployment rates in many of our market areas remain low as the job market is competitive. The decrease in our allowance for loan losses as a percentage of nonperforming loans during 2018 was primarily a result of loan growth. The allowance for loan losses as a percentage of nonperforming loans was 216.50% and 229.57% as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The unallocated portion of our allowance for loan losses has increased in 2018 primarily due to an increase in amount of loan losses, loan recoveries and impaired loans relative to prior periods. The

21


provision for loan losses totaled $525,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to $500,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily as a result of the increase in loans held for portfolio and to a lesser extent the increase in non-performing loans as compared to December 31, 2017.
The distribution of our allowance for losses on loans at the dates indicated is summarized as follows (dollars in thousands):
 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
Amount
 
Percent of loans
in each category
to total loans
 
Amount
 
Percent of loans
in each category
to total loans
 
Amount
 
Percent of loans
in each category
to total loans
 
Amount
 
Percent of loans
in each category
to total loans
 
Amount
 
Percent of loans
in each category
to total loans
Allocated at end of period to:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
One- to four-family
$
1,314

 
27.3
%
 
$
1,436

 
28.5
%
 
$
1,542

 
30.3
%
 
$
1,839

 
30.5
%
 
$
1,442

 
30.9
%
Home equity
202

 
4.4

 
293

 
5.2

 
378

 
5.5

 
607

 
6.9

 
601

 
8.0

Commercial and multifamily
1,638

 
40.6

 
1,250

 
38.4

 
1,144

 
36.1

 
921

 
38.0

 
1,244

 
39.1

Construction and land
431

 
10.6

 
378

 
11.2

 
459

 
14.1

 
382

 
12.4

 
399

 
10.7

Manufactured homes
427

 
3.2

 
355

 
3.1

 
168

 
3.1

 
301

 
3.0

 
193

 
2.9

Floating homes
265

 
6.6

 
169

 
5.3

 
132

 
4.8

 
102

 
4.0

 
90

 
2.7

Other consumer
112

 
1.1

 
80

 
0.9

 
112

 
0.8

 
86

 
1.0

 
77

 
1.2

Commercial business
356

 
6.2

 
372

 
7.4

 
175

 
5.3

 
157

 
4.2

 
108

 
4.5

Unallocated
1,029

 

 
908

 

 
712

 

 
241

 

 
233

 

Total
$
5,774

 
100.0
%
 
$
5,241

 
100.0
%
 
$
4,822

 
100.0
%
 
$
4,636

 
100.0
%
 
$
4,387

 
100.0
%
Investment Activities
State chartered commercial banks have the authority to invest in various types of liquid assets, including United States Treasury obligations, securities of various federal agencies, including callable agency securities, certain certificates of deposit of insured commercial banks and savings banks, certain bankers' acceptances, repurchase agreements and federal funds.  Subject to various restrictions, state commercial banks may also invest their assets in investment grade commercial paper and corporate debt securities and mutual funds whose assets conform to the investments that the institution is otherwise authorized to make directly.  See "- How We Are Regulated – Sound Community Bank" for a discussion of additional restrictions on our investment activities.
Our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have the responsibility for the management of our investment portfolio, subject to the direction and guidance of the Board of Directors.  These officers consider various factors when making decisions, including the marketability, maturity and tax consequences of the proposed investment.  The maturity structure of investments will be affected by various market conditions, including the current and anticipated slope of the yield curve, the level of interest rates, the trend of new deposit inflows, and the anticipated demand for funds via deposit withdrawals and loan originations and purchases.
The general objectives of our investment portfolio are to provide liquidity when loan demand is high, to assist in maintaining earnings when loan demand is low and to maximize earnings while satisfactorily managing risk, including credit risk, reinvestment risk, liquidity risk and interest rate risk.  Our investment quality emphasizes safer investments with the yield on those investments secondary to not taking unnecessary risk with the available funds.  See "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for additional information about our interest rate risk management contained in Item 7A. of this report on Form 10-K.
At December 31, 2018, we owned $4.1 million of stock issued by the FHLB.  As a condition of membership in the FHLB, we are required to purchase and hold a certain amount of FHLB stock.

22


The following table sets forth the composition of our securities portfolio and other investments at the dates indicated.  At December 31, 2018, our securities portfolio did not contain securities of any issuer with an aggregate book value in excess of 10% of our equity capital. See Note 4 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this report on Form 10-K.
 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Securities available-for-sale
Amortized
Cost
 
Fair
Value
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Fair
Value
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Fair
Value
Municipal bonds
$
3,218

 
$
3,317

 
$
3,240

 
$
3,369

 
$
3,262

 
$
3,353

Agency mortgage-backed securities
1,594

 
1,640

 
2,030

 
2,066

 
2,858

 
2,904

Non-agency mortgage-backed securities

 

 

 

 
362

 
347

Total available for sale securities
4,812

 
4,957

 
5,270

 
5,435

 
6,482

 
6,604

FHLB stock
4,134

 
4,134

 
3,065

 
3,065

 
2,840

 
2,840

Total securities
$
8,946

 
$
9,091

 
$
8,335

 
$
8,500

 
$
9,322

 
$
9,444

We review investment securities on an ongoing basis for the presence of other-than-temporary impairment ("OTTI") taking into consideration current market conditions, fair value in relationship to cost, extent and nature of the change in fair value, issuer rating changes and trends, whether we intend to sell a security or if it is likely that we will be required to sell the security before recovery of our amortized cost basis of the investment, which may be maturity, and other factors.  For debt securities, if we intend to sell the security or it is likely that we will be required to sell the security before recovering its cost basis, the entire impairment loss would be recognized in earnings as an OTTI.  If we do not intend to sell the security and it is not more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security but we do not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security, only the portion of the impairment loss representing credit losses would be recognized in earnings.  The credit loss on a security is measured as the difference between the amortized cost basis and the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected.
Projected cash flows are discounted by the original or current effective interest rate depending on the nature of the security being measured for potential OTTI.  The remaining impairment related to all other factors, the difference between the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected and the fair value, is recognized as a charge to other comprehensive income.  Impairment losses related to all other factors are presented as separate categories within other comprehensive income.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we did not recognize any non-cash OTTI charges on our investment securities. Three municipal bond securities had unrealized losses although management determined the decline in value was not related to specific credit deterioration. We do not intend to sell these securities and it is more likely than not that we will not be required to sell any securities before anticipated recovery of the remaining amortized cost basis.  We closely monitor our investment securities for changes in credit risk.  The current market environment significantly limits our ability to mitigate our exposure to valuation changes in these securities by selling them.  If market conditions deteriorate and we determine our holdings of these or other investment securities are OTTI, our future earnings, shareholders' equity, regulatory capital and continuing operations could be materially adversely affected.
Sources of Funds
General.  Our sources of funds are primarily deposits (including deposits from public entities), borrowings, payments of principal and interest on loans and investments and funds provided from operations.
Deposits.  We offer a variety of deposit accounts to both consumers and businesses with a wide range of interest rates and terms.  Our deposits consist of savings accounts, money market deposit accounts, NOW accounts, demand accounts and certificates of deposit.  We solicit deposits primarily in our market area; however, at December 31, 2018, approximately 4.2% of our deposits were from persons outside the State of Washington. As of December 31, 2018, core deposits, which we define as our non-time deposit accounts and time deposit accounts less than $250,000, represented approximately 90.5% of total deposits, compared to 90.8% and 88.0% as of December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. We primarily rely on competitive pricing policies, marketing and client service to attract and retain these deposits and we expect to continue these practices in the future.
The flow of deposits is influenced significantly by general economic conditions, changes in money market and prevailing interest rates and competition.  The variety of deposit accounts we offer has allowed us to be competitive in obtaining funds

23


and to respond with flexibility to changes in consumer demand.  We are more susceptible to short-term fluctuations in deposit flows as clients are more interest rate sensitive.  We manage the pricing of our deposits in keeping with our asset/liability management, liquidity and profitability objectives, subject to competitive factors.  Based on our experience, we believe that our deposits are relatively stable sources of funds.  Despite this stability, our ability to attract and maintain these deposits and the rates paid on them is and will continue to be significantly affected by market conditions.
The following table sets forth our deposit flows during the periods indicated (dollars in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Opening balance
$
514,400

 
$
467,731

 
$
440,024

Net deposits
35,362

 
43,648

 
24,999

Interest credited
3,839

 
3,021

 
2,708

Ending balance
$
553,601

 
$
514,400

 
$
467,731

Net increase
$
39,201

 
$
46,669

 
$
27,707

Percent increase
7.6
%
 
10.0
%
 
6.3
%

The following table sets forth the dollar amount of deposits in the various types of deposit programs offered by us at the dates indicated (dollars in thousands):
 
December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
Amount
 
Percent of total
 
Amount
 
Percent of total
 
Amount
 
Percent of total
Noninterest-bearing demand
$
93,823

 
17.0
%
 
$
69,094

 
13.4
%
 
$
60,566

 
12.9
%
Interest-bearing demand
164,919

 
29.8

 
173,413

 
33.7

 
150,327

 
32.1

Savings
54,102

 
9.8

 
49,450

 
9.6

 
44,879

 
9.6

Money market
46,689

 
8.4

 
54,860

 
10.7

 
49,042

 
10.5

Escrow
2,243

 
0.4

 
3,029

 
0.6

 
3,175

 
0.7