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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
____________________________ 
FORM 10-K
____________________________
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number: 001-35424
____________________________
HOMESTREET, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________ 
Washington
 
91-0186600
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
601 Union Street, Ste. 2000
Seattle, WA 98101
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (206) 623-3050
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
  
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par value
  
Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
____________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o    No  x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.o




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  x   No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
o
Accelerated filer
 
x
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
o 
Smaller reporting company
 
o
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth Company
 
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  o    No  x

As of June 29, 2018, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $620.2 million, based on a closing price of $26.95 per share of common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on such date. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director and by each person known to the Company who beneficially owns more than 10% of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may under certain circumstances be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of executive officer or affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
The number of outstanding shares of the registrant's common stock as of February 27, 2019 was 27,032,749.6.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, will be incorporated by reference from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to the annual meeting of the shareholders to be held in 2019, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year to which this Report relates. If a definitive proxy statement of the registrant is not filed within such period, the registrant will instead file such information on an amendment to this Report within such 120 days of the end of the registrant’s fiscal year to which this report relates.
 







ITEM 1
ITEM 1A
ITEM 1B
ITEM 2
ITEM 3
ITEM 4
ITEM 5
ITEM 6
ITEM 7
ITEM 7A
ITEM 8
ITEM 9
ITEM 9A
ITEM 9B
ITEM 10
ITEM 11
ITEM 12
ITEM 13
ITEM 14
ITEM 15
CERTIFICATIONS
 
EXHIBIT 21
 
EXHIBIT 31.1
 
EXHIBIT 31.2
 
EXHIBIT 32
 
Unless we state otherwise or the content otherwise requires, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “HomeStreet,” “we,” “our,” “us” or the “Company” refer collectively to HomeStreet, Inc., a Washington corporation, HomeStreet Bank (“Bank”), HomeStreet Capital Corporation (“HomeStreet Capital”) and other direct and indirect subsidiaries of HomeStreet, Inc.


2




PART I
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Form 10-K") and the documents incorporated by reference contain, in addition to historical information, "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act") and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). including statements relating to projections of revenues, estimated operating expenses or other financial items; management’s plans and objectives for future operations or programs; future operations, plans, regulatory compliance or approvals; expected cost savings from restructuring or resource optimization activities; proposed new products or services; expected or estimated performance of our loan portfolio; pending or potential expansion activities; pending or future mergers, acquisitions or other transactions; future economic conditions or performance; expectations relating to our industry, regulatory environment and the economy as a whole and underlying assumptions of any of the foregoing.

All statements other than statements of historical fact are "forward-looking statements" for the purpose of these provisions. When used in this Form 10-K, terms such as "anticipates," "believes," "continue," "could," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "may," "plans," "potential," "predicts," "should," or "will" or the negative of those terms or other comparable terms are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause us to fall short of our expectations or may cause us to deviate from our current plans, as expressed or implied by these statements. The known risks that could cause our results to differ, or may cause us to take actions that are not currently planned or expected, are described below and in Item 1A, Risk Factors.

Unless required by law, we do not intend to update any of the forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K to conform these statements to actual results or changes in our expectations. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this Form 10-K.

Except as otherwise noted, references to "we," "our," "us" or "the Company" refer to HomeStreet, Inc. and its subsidiaries that are consolidated for financial reporting purposes.

3




ITEM 1
BUSINESS

General

HomeStreet, Inc. (together with its consolidated subsidiaries, "HomeStreet," the "Company," "we," "our" or "us"), a Washington corporation, is a diversified financial services company founded in 1921, headquartered in Seattle, Washington, which serves customers primarily on the West Coast of the United States, including Hawaii. We are principally engaged in commercial and consumer banking and real estate lending, including commercial real estate and single family mortgage banking operations. Our primary subsidiaries are HomeStreet Bank and HomeStreet Capital Corporation.

HomeStreet Bank is a Washington state-chartered commercial bank providing commercial and consumer loans, mortgage loans, deposit products, non-deposit investment products, private banking and cash management services and other banking services. Our loan products include commercial business loans and agriculture loans, consumer loans, single family residential mortgages, loans secured by commercial real estate, and construction loans for residential and commercial real estate projects. We also have partial ownership in WMS Series LLC (dba Penrith Home Loans), which is an affiliated business arrangement with various owners of Windermere Real Estate Company franchises that operates a single family mortgage origination business from select Windermere Real Estate Offices and other locations.

HomeStreet Capital Corporation, a Washington corporation, sells and services multifamily mortgage loans originated by HomeStreet Bank under the Fannie Mae Delegated Underwriting and Servicing Program ("DUS®")1.

Doing business as HomeStreet Insurance Agency, we provide insurance products and services for consumers.

Shares of our common stock are traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "HMST." We also have outstanding $63.6 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.5% senior notes due 2026, all of which are registered pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

At December 31, 2018, we had total assets of $7.04 billion, net loans held for investment of $5.08 billion, deposits of $5.05 billion and shareholders’ equity of $739.5 million. Our operations are currently grouped into two reportable segments: our Commercial and Consumer Banking segment and our Mortgage Banking segment.

We generate revenue by earning net interest income and noninterest income. Net interest income is primarily the difference between interest income earned on loans and investment securities less the interest we pay on deposits and other borrowings. We earn noninterest income from the origination, sale and servicing of loans and from fees earned on deposit services and investment and insurance sales.

Rising interest rates, reduced inventory of homes for sale, industry overcapacity and increased regulatory and investor requirements have substantially reduced the profitability of our mortgage banking business which has led us to a decision to reduce the size of these operations by seeking a sale of the home loan center-based mortgage origination business and related mortgage servicing rights.

In the six years following our initial public offering ("IPO"), from February 2012 through December 31, 2018, we grew considerably, from 20 retail deposit branches, nine stand-alone home loan centers and 553 full-time employees at the time of our IPO to 60 retail deposit branches, six primary stand-alone commercial lending centers, 32 primary stand-alone home loan centers and 2,036 employees as of December 31, 2018. We generated significant income in our single family mortgage banking business from 2012 through the first half of 2016 that we used in part to resolve problem assets and grow our commercial and consumer banking operations. As a result, we have made substantial progress toward the growth and diversification goals we set following our IPO.

At December 31, 2018, we had 60 retail deposit branches were located in the State of Washington, Southern California, the Portland, Oregon area and the State of Hawaii, and 32 primary stand-alone home loan centers and six primary commercial lending centers located within our retail deposit branch footprint as well as in Northern California (including the San Francisco Bay Area); Eugene, Salem and Bend, Oregon; Boise and northern Idaho; and Salt Lake City, Utah. An affiliated business arrangement, WMS Series LLC, doing business as Penrith Home Loans, provides point-of-sale loan origination services at certain Windermere Real Estate offices in Washington, Oregon, and Colorado and three stand-alone offices. We also have one stand-alone insurance agency office located in Spokane, Washington. The number of lending offices listed above does not include satellite offices with a limited number of staff who report to a manager located in a separate primary office.


1 DUS® is a registered trademark of Fannie Mae
4
 





Commercial and Consumer Banking. We provide diversified financial products and services to our commercial and consumer customers through bank branches, ATMs, and online, mobile and telephone banking. These products and services include deposit products; residential, consumer, business and agricultural portfolio loans; non-deposit investment products; insurance products and cash management services. We originate construction loans, bridge loans, and permanent loans for our portfolio on single family residences, and on office, retail, industrial and multifamily properties. We originate multifamily real estate loans through our Fannie Mae DUS® business, and after origination those loans are sold to or securitized by Fannie Mae, with the Company generally retaining the servicing rights. In addition, through the HomeStreet Commercial Capital division of HomeStreet Bank, we originate permanent commercial real estate loans primarily up to $15 million in size, a portion of which we pool for sale and sell into the secondary market. As a part of the Commercial Lending division, we also have a team that specializes in U.S. Small Business Administration ("SBA") lending.

Mortgage Banking. We currently originate single family residential mortgage loans primarily for sale in the secondary markets and perform mortgage servicing on a substantial portion of such loans. The majority of our mortgage loans are sold to or securitized by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae, while we retain the right to service these loans. We are a rated originator and servicer of jumbo loans, allowing us to sell the loans to other securitizers. Additionally, we purchase loans from WMS Series LLC through a correspondent arrangement with that company. We also sell loans on a servicing-released and servicing-retained basis to securitizers and correspondent lenders. A small percentage of our loans are brokered to other lenders or sold on a servicing-released basis to correspondent lenders. On occasion, we may sell a portion of our mortgage servicing rights ("MSRs"). We manage the loan funding and the interest rate risk associated with the secondary market loan sales and the retained single family MSRs within this business segment.

Restructuring our Mortgage Banking Segment

Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2016, our Mortgage Banking segment began to experience substantially lower origination volumes. Mortgage refinancings, which had been a significant contributor to total origination volume since the end of the recession, slowed considerably as mortgage interest rates began to rise above the rate already secured by most homeowners. The increase in mortgage interest rates, combined with the historically low inventory of houses for sale in our primary markets had a significant negative impact on our ability to originate purchase mortgages. As the demand for mortgages generally weakened, the number of competitors and loan officers working in the industry did not decline at the same rate, resulting in overcapacity and increased competition which put pressure on pricing and profit margins. At the same time, short-term interest rates increased without a corresponding increase in longer-term interest rates, resulting in a flatter yield curve which made hedging the change in value of our MSRs much less effective, thereby reducing our risk management results.

Meanwhile, changes in the regulatory environment presented additional challenges. Increased regulations on loan underwriting and loan disclosures and additional investor data integrity requirements have substantially increased the cost of originating mortgages. In addition, compliance and regulatory standards are unevenly applied between bank and non-bank lenders because the rules and regulations are enforced by different groups of regulators with different approaches to compliance and regulatory oversight. Further, a proposed rule change that would have simplified and reduced the capital burdens for banks holding MSRs did not materialize. With the recent proposal of a Community Bank Leverage Ratio, which provides capital relief for smaller banks but specifically omits the expected relief for MSR assets, we no longer believe such regulatory change for MSRs is likely to occur.

We took measures in 2017 and 2018 to reorganize and streamline our Mortgage Banking segment, reducing headcount from December 31, 2016 by 33%, consolidating office locations, exiting certain markets that were not meeting our performance expectations, introducing more automation and process-driven practices and reducing costs overall. Although these initiatives successfully reduced the cost structure of the Mortgage Banking segment, in late 2018 and early 2019 our Board of Directors reviewed the challenges that continue to confront the Mortgage Banking segment due to the continued downturn in the mortgage industry and determined that it would be in the best interests of the Company and its shareholders to explore a potential sale of the home loan center-based mortgage origination business and related MSRs. In February 2019, after marketing these assets for sale through an investment banker, we entered into a non-binding letter of intent with an independent mortgage company to sell the assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage origination operations and transfer our related mortgage personnel and we continue to market our related portfolio of mortgage servicing rights. We have not yet entered into definitive agreements with respect to any sales of these assets or servicing rights, and if we are able to enter into such agreements, the closing of the transactions will remain subject to customary closing conditions, including third party and regulatory approvals.

If we are successful in completing these transactions, going forward we would not continue to operate any stand-alone home loan centers but would still originate loans through our bank locations, online banking services and through our affinity banking relationship. Our affinity banking relationships allow qualified employees of certain organizations that have entered

5




into affinity agreements with the Banks to receive preferential terms on a wide range of consumer products, including mortgages.


Investing in Growth of Commercial and Consumer Banking

Since our initial public offering (IPO) in February of 2012, we have steadily grown our commercial and consumer banking presence to diversify our earnings and mitigate the impact of the earnings volatility of our mortgage banking business. As a part of our growth strategy we have opened several de novo retail deposit branches to expand our branch network and increase our core deposit base, while also expanding our offerings of community banking products and services. At the same time we grew and diversified the Bank through acquisitions of whole banks and retail deposit branches in attractive growth markets on the West Coast to increase our scale in existing markets and to enter new markets. Between 2013 and 2017, we acquired four banks, expanding our network in Eastern Washington and Southern California, and eight individual branches to complement our existing networks in Washington, Oregon and California, and we expect to close an acquisition of an additional branch in Southern California later this month.

Our acquisitions have accelerated our growth of interest-earning commercial banking assets, strengthened our core deposit base, increased our geographic diversification and added experienced commercial and consumer banking professionals in key target markets. We plan to continue to grow opportunistically through acquisitions in addition to our organic growth.

In addition to these acquisitions, we have also expanded by opening de novo branches in markets that we believe are underserved by community banks. From 2012 to 2015, we opened 10 de novo branches in the greater Seattle area. In 2016, we added six de novo branches in San Diego, Hawaii and Eastern Washington, and in 2017 we opened three de novo branches in Southern California, Eastern Washington and the greater Seattle area. In 2018, we added three de novo branches in the Puget Sound area. Overall, from our IPO through December 31, 2018, we have added 22 de novo branches and acquired eight branches.

We remain focused on minimizing credit risk and on increasing operating efficiency by growing assets and revenues at a faster pace than expenses through measured growth within our existing markets, while managing costs and improving efficiencies.

Recent Developments

In February 2019, we entered into a non-binding letter of intent to sell assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage origination business and to transfer related mortgage personnel to an independent mortgage company, and announced that we are seeking buyers for our related mortgage servicing rights. These assets and personnel together constitute a considerable majority of the business activity we report under our Mortgage Banking segment. Any transaction to sell these assets will be subject to entering into definitive agreements with potential buyers which will be subject to closing conditions, including third party and regulatory approvals. Assuming we are able to complete the transactions, we expect the size and complexity of our overall organization will be reduced as we significantly reduce the size of our mortgage operation. Following the completion of a sale transaction, the remaining single family mortgage business will be integrated within the Commercial and Consumer Banking segment and originations will be sourced through our retail deposit branch locations, online banking platform, and affinity relationships.

In November 2018, we entered into an agreement with Silvergate Bank to acquire a branch in San Marcos, San Diego County, as well as the business lending team of Silvergate in San Diego. We believe this acquisition will increase our capabilities and market share in Southern California, and especially in San Diego County, with the addition of an experienced commercial lending team with a strong reputation in the community. We expect this transaction will close in March of 2019, subject to customary closing conditions.


6




Business Strategy

During 2018, we continued our strategy to grow and diversify earnings with the goal of becoming a leading West Coast regional bank. Our market focus is concentrated primarily in the major metropolitan markets in the Western United States, which are characterized by larger populations, lower unemployment and generally higher growth than many other metropolitan areas. These markets are the Seattle / Puget Sound and Spokane areas of Washington, the Portland, Oregon area, the Hawaiian Islands, the San Francisco Bay Area of California, and Southern California, including Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, and San Diego Counties. We believe there is a significant opportunity for a well-capitalized, community-focused bank to compete effectively in West Coast markets, especially those that are not well served by existing community banks. Our strategy is to offer responsive and personalized service while providing a full range of financial services to small- and middle-market commercial and consumer customers, to build loyalty and grow market share. We have grown organically and through strategic acquisitions.

In 2018, we grew by opening three de novo retail deposit branches in the Puget Sound area and entering an agreement to acquire a retail branch, with deposits, loans, and a commercial lending team in San Diego County, California. That transaction is expected to close in March of 2019. Meanwhile, we also consolidated two retail deposit branches in Eastern Washington into two other nearby branches. In the face of the ongoing challenges facing the single family mortgage banking business, we also streamlined our operations by closing, consolidating, or reducing space in single family home lending centers and a regional processing center.

Our business strategy produced record net income in 2018 from our Commercial and Consumer Banking segment with a progressively improving efficiency ratio for that segment. However, despite our substantial initiatives in the last two years to improve the profitability of our Mortgage Banking segment, our expectations for a recovery in industry volume and profitability have not occurred and it remains unclear when, and to what extent, industry conditions will improve. Therefore, in February 2019, we entered into a non-binding letter of intent to sell our home loan center-based mortgage origination business and transfer related mortgage personnel to an independent mortgage company and announced that we are separately pursuing the sale of a majority of our single-family MSRs. Any transactions related to such sales remain subject to the negotiation and execution of definitive agreements, which would themselves be subject to customary closing conditions including third party and regulatory approvals. However, if we are successful in completing those transaction, the Company will retain a smaller mortgage operation that is integrated with the commercial and consumer banking business, with originations sourced through our branch network, online banking services, and affinity relationships. While single family mortgage loans will remain an important part of our asset diversification strategy and part of a broad array of products that we will offer to our customers, the scale of the business line will be substantially smaller and more focused on our retail deposit network and regional markets.

Assuming the successful sale of our home loan center-based mortgage origination business and servicing rights, our strategy will be to continue growing and diversifying earnings. We plan to accomplish this by continuing to meet the financial needs of our consumer and small business customers by providing targeted banking, investment and insurance products and services through our bank branches and our on-line platform using dedicated investment advisors, insurance agents and business banking officers. We expect to continue to grow our commercial lending (including SBA lending), and commercial real estate and residential construction lending throughout our primary markets.

We also plan to expand our commercial real estate business with a focus on multifamily mortgage origination through our existing commercial banking network as well as through our Fannie Mae DUS® origination and servicing relationships. We expect to continue to benefit from being one of only 25 companies nationally that is an approved Fannie Mae DUS® seller and servicer. We will continue to support our DUS® program by providing new construction and short-term bridge loans to experienced borrowers who intend to build or purchase apartment buildings for renovation, which we will then seek to replace with permanent financing upon completion of the projects. We also originate commercial real estate construction loans, bridge loans and permanent loans for our portfolio, primarily on office, retail, industrial and multifamily property types located within our geographic footprint and regularly sell those types of loans to other investors.

Our strategy since our IPO included a substantial investment in expanding our retail deposit branch network to fund the growth of our loan portfolio and provide an additional channel to source small-business and consumer loans. While we expect to decrease the pace of our de novo branch openings we will also continue to grow our commercial and consumer banking operations with an emphasis on growing consumer and business deposits within our existing branch footprint while also increasing the proportion of low and no-cost deposit products. In addition to this anticipated organic growth, we expect to continue to seek strategic acquisition opportunities of whole-banks or stand-alone retail deposit branches that meet or exceed our investment and return criteria, as well as seasoned commercial lending teams.


7




For a discussion of operating results of our lines of business, see "Business Segments" within Management's Discussion and Analysis of this Form 10-K and Note 20, Business Segments in the notes to our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 included in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K.

Market and Competition

We view our market as the major metropolitan coastal areas of the Western United States, including Hawaii. These metropolitan areas share a number of key demographic factors that are characteristic of growth markets, such as large and growing populations with above-average household incomes, a significant number of large and mid-sized companies, and diverse economies. These markets all share large populations that we believe are underserved due to the rapid consolidation of community banks since the financial crisis. We believe these markets can be well served by a strong regional bank like ours that is focused on providing consumers and businesses with quality customer service and a competitive array of deposit, lending and investment products.

As of December 31, 2018, we operated full service bank branches, as well as stand-alone commercial and residential lending centers, in the Puget Sound and eastern regions of Washington, the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area, the Hawaiian Islands, and Southern California. As of that date, we also had primary stand-alone commercial and residential lending centers in the metropolitan areas of San Francisco, California and Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as central California and Idaho.

The financial services industry is highly competitive. We compete with other banks, credit unions, mortgage banking companies, insurance companies, finance companies, and investment and mutual fund companies. In particular, we compete with many financial institutions with greater resources, including the capacity to make larger loans, fund extensive advertising campaigns and offer a broader array of products and services. The number of competitors for lower and middle-market business customers has, however, decreased in recent years primarily due to consolidations. At the same time, national banks have been focused on larger customers to achieve economies of scale in lending and depository relationships and have also consolidated business banking operations and support and reduced service levels in many of our markets. We have taken advantage of industry consolidation by recruiting well-qualified employees and attracting new customers who seek long-term stability, local decision-making, quality products and outstanding expertise and customer service.

In our single family mortgage origination and servicing business, we face especially intense competition from bank and non-bank lenders because the demand for mortgage loans has declined in recent years. The mortgage industry is compliance-intensive and requires significant expertise and internal control systems to ensure mortgage loan origination and servicing providers meet all origination, processing, underwriting, servicing and disclosure requirements. Although we have retained a significant market share in our primary markets, and we believe our compliance-centered culture has afforded us a competitive advantage within an increasingly complex regulatory landscape, the increased costs of compliance combined with inconsistent application of compliance interpretations, guidance and regulatory oversight between bank and non-bank lenders have created significant headwinds for us and we believe have resulted in an uneven competitive advantage for non-bank mortgage originators. In addition, changes in the interest rate environment and recent periods of historically low inventory of homes for sale, along with increasing home prices resulting from that inventory constraint, have significantly decreased demand for mortgages. The industry has surplus capacity because the number of loan officers has not been reduced in proportion to lower demand, resulting in increased price competition and lower profit margins. As a result, we are looking to significantly scale down our presence in the industry by pursuing the sale of our home loan center-based mortgage lending operations.

Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we employed 2,036 full-time equivalent employees, compared to 2,419 full-time equivalent employees at December 31, 2017.

Where You Can Obtain Additional Information

We file annual, quarterly, current and other reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). We make available free of charge on or through our website http://www.homestreet.com all of these reports (and all amendments thereto), as soon as reasonably practicable after we file these materials with the SEC. Please note that the contents of our website do not constitute a part of our reports, and those contents are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K or any of our other securities filings.


8




REGULATION AND SUPERVISION

The following is a brief description of certain laws and regulations that are applicable to us. The description of these laws and regulations, as well as descriptions of laws and regulations contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K, does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable laws and regulations.

The bank regulatory framework to which we are subject is intended primarily for the protection of bank depositors and the Deposit Insurance Fund and not for the protection of shareholders or other security holders.
General
The Company is a bank holding company which has made an election to be a financial holding company. It is regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "Federal Reserve") and the Washington State Department of Financial Institutions, Division of Banks (the "WDFI"). The Company is required to register and file reports with, and otherwise comply with, the rules and regulations of the Federal Reserve and the WDFI.
The Bank is a Washington state-chartered commercial bank. The Bank is subject to regulation, examination and supervision by the WDFI and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC").
New statutes, regulations and guidance are regularly considered that could contain wide-ranging potential changes to the competitive landscape for financial institutions operating in our markets and in the United States generally. We cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed statute, regulation or other guidance will be adopted or promulgated, or the extent to which our business may be affected. Any change in policies, legislation or regulation, whether by the Federal Reserve, the WDFI, the FDIC, the Washington state legislature, the United States Congress or any other federal, state or local government branch or agency with authority over us, could have a material adverse impact on us and our operations and shareholders. In addition, the Federal Reserve, the WDFI and the FDIC have significant discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including, among other things, policies with respect to the Bank's capital levels, the classification of assets and establishment of adequate loan loss reserves for regulatory purposes.
Our operations and earnings will be affected by domestic economic conditions and the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States government and its agencies. In addition to its role as the regulator of bank holding companies, the Federal Reserve has, and is likely to continue to have, an important impact on the operating results of financial institutions through its power to implement national monetary and fiscal policy including, among other things, actions taken in order to curb inflation or combat a recession. The Federal Reserve affects the levels of bank loans, investments and deposits in various ways, including through its control over the issuance of United States government securities, its regulation of the discount rate applicable to member banks and its influence over reserve requirements to which banks are subject. Beginning in December 2015, the Federal Reserve has increased short-term interest rates nine times and may consider additional increases in 2019. We cannot predict the ultimate impact of these rate changes on the economy or our institution, or the nature or impact of future changes in monetary policies of the Federal Reserve.
Regulation of the Company
General
As a bank holding company, the Company is subject to Federal Reserve regulations, examinations, supervision and reporting requirements relating to bank holding companies. Among other things, the Federal Reserve is authorized to restrict or prohibit activities that are determined to be a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of a subsidiary bank. Since the Bank is chartered under Washington law, the WDFI has authority to regulate the Company generally relating to its conduct affecting the Bank.
Capital / Source of Strength
During 2015, the Company was a savings and loan holding company and as such became subject to capital requirements under the Dodd-Frank Act, beginning in 2015. Following its conversion to a bank holding company that has elected to be a financial holding company, the Company continues to be subject to these capital requirements. See "Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements."
Regulations and historical practices of the Federal Reserve have required bank holding companies to serve as a "source of strength" for their subsidiary banks. The Dodd-Frank Act codified this requirement and extended it to all companies that control an insured depository institution. Accordingly, the Company is required to act as a source of strength for the Bank.

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Restrictions Applicable to Bank Holding Companies
Federal law generally prohibits a bank holding company, including the Company, directly or indirectly (or through one or more subsidiaries), from acquiring:
control of another depository institution (or a holding company parent) without prior approval of the Federal Reserve (as "control" is defined under the Bank Holding Company Act);
another depository institution (or a holding company thereof), through merger, consolidation or purchase of all or substantially all of the assets of such institution (or holding company) without prior approval from the Federal Reserve or FDIC;
more than 5.0% of the voting shares of a non-subsidiary depository institution or a holding company subject to certain exceptions; or
control of any depository institution not insured by the FDIC (except through a merger with and into the holding company's bank subsidiary that is approved by the FDIC).
In evaluating applications by holding companies to acquire depository institutions or holding companies, the Federal Reserve must consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the company and the institutions involved, the effect of the acquisition on the risk to the insurance funds, the convenience and needs of the community and competitive factors. In addition, nonbank acquisitions by a bank holding company are generally limited to the acquisition of up to 5% of the outstanding share of any class of voting securities of a company unless the Federal Reserve has previously determined that the nonbank activities are closely related to banking or prior approval is obtained from the Federal Reserve.
Acquisition of Control
Under the federal Change in Bank Control Act, a notice must be submitted to the Federal Reserve if any person (including a company), or group acting in concert, seeks to acquire "control" of a bank holding company. An acquisition of control can occur upon the acquisition of 10.0% or more of the voting stock of a bank holding company or as otherwise defined by the Federal Reserve. Under the Change in Bank Control Act, the Federal Reserve has 60 days from the filing of a complete notice to act (the 60-day period may be extended), taking into consideration certain factors, including the financial and managerial resources of the acquirer and the antitrust effects of the acquisition. Control can also exist if an individual or company has, or exercises, directly or indirectly or by acting in concert with others, a controlling influence over the Bank. Washington law also imposes certain limitations on the ability of persons and entities to acquire control of banking institutions and their parent companies.
Dividend Policy
Under Washington law, the Company is generally permitted to make a distribution, including payments of dividends, only if, after giving effect to the distribution, in the judgment of the board of directors, (1) the Company would be able to pay its debts as they become due in the ordinary course of business and (2) the Company's total assets would at least equal the sum of its total liabilities plus the amount that would be needed if the Company were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of shareholders whose preferential rights are superior to those receiving the distribution. In addition, it is the policy of the Federal Reserve that bank holding companies generally should pay dividends only out of net income generated over the past year and only if the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the organization’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The policy also provides that bank holding companies should not maintain a level of cash dividends that places undue pressure on the capital of its subsidiary bank or that may undermine its ability to serve as a source of strength.
The Company's ability to pay dividends to shareholders is significantly dependent on the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Company. Capital rules as well as regulatory policy impose additional requirements on the ability of the Company and the Bank to pay dividends. See "Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements."
Compensation Policies
Compensation policies and practices at the Company and the Bank are subject to regulation by their respective banking regulators and the SEC.
Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies. Effective on June 25, 2010, federal banking regulators adopted Sound Incentive Compensation Policies Final Guidance (the "Final Guidance") designed to help ensure that incentive compensation policies at banking organizations do not encourage imprudent risk-taking and are consistent with the safety and soundness of

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the organization. The Final Guidance applies to senior executives and others who are responsible for oversight of our company-wide activities and material business lines, as well as other employees who, either individually or as a part of a group, have the ability to expose the Bank to material amounts of risk.
Dodd-Frank Act. In addition to the Final Guidance, the Dodd-Frank Act contains a number of provisions relating to compensation applying to public companies such as the Company. The Dodd-Frank Act added a new Section 14A(a) to the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act") that requires companies to include a separate non-binding resolution subject to shareholder vote in their proxy materials approving the executive compensation disclosed in the materials. In addition, a new Section 14A(b) to the Exchange Act requires any proxy or consent solicitation materials for a meeting seeking shareholder approval of an acquisition, merger, consolidation or disposition of all or substantially all of the company's assets to include a separate non-binding shareholder resolution approving certain "golden parachute" payments made in connection with the transaction. A new Section 10D to the Exchange Act requires the SEC to direct the national securities exchanges to require companies to implement a policy to "claw back" certain executive payments that were made based on improper financial statements.
In addition, Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act requires certain regulators (including the FDIC, SEC and Federal Reserve) to adopt regulations or guidelines prohibiting excessive compensation or compensation that could lead to material loss as well as rules relating to disclosure of compensation. On April 14, 2011, these regulators published a joint proposed rulemaking to implement Section 956 of Dodd-Frank for depository institutions, their holding companies and various other financial institutions with $1 billion or more in assets. On June 10, 2016, these regulators published a modified proposed rule. Under the new proposed rule, the requirements and prohibitions will vary depending on the size and complexity of the covered institution. Generally, for covered institutions with less than $50 billion in consolidated assets (such as the Company), the new proposed rule would (1) prohibit incentive-based compensation arrangements for covered persons that would encourage inappropriate risks by providing excessive compensation or by providing compensation that could lead to a material financial loss, (2) require oversight of an institution’s incentive-based compensation arrangements by the institution’s board of directors or a committee and approval by the board or committee of certain payments and awards and (3) require the creation on an annual basis and maintenance for at least seven years of records that (a) document the institution’s incentive compensation arrangements, (b) demonstrate compliance with the regulation and (c) are disclosed to the institution's appropriate federal regulator upon request.
FDIC Regulations. We are further restricted in our ability to make certain "golden parachute" and "indemnification" payments under Part 359 of the FDIC regulations, and the FDIC also regulates payments to executives under Part 364 of its regulations relating to excessive executive compensation.
Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank
General
As a commercial bank chartered under the laws of the State of Washington, HomeStreet Bank is subject to applicable provisions of Washington law and regulations of the WDFI. As a state-chartered commercial bank that is not a member of the Federal Reserve System, the Bank's primary federal regulator is the FDIC. It is subject to regulation and examination by the WDFI and the FDIC, as well as enforcement actions initiated by the WDFI and the FDIC, and its deposits are insured by the FDIC.
Washington Banking Regulation
As a Washington bank, the Bank's operations and activities are substantially regulated by Washington law and regulations, which govern, among other things, the Bank's ability to take deposits and pay interest, make loans on or invest in residential and other real estate, make consumer and commercial loans, invest in securities, offer various banking services to its customers and establish branch offices. Under state law, commercial banks in Washington also generally have, subject to certain limitations or approvals, all of the powers that Washington chartered savings banks have under Washington law and that federal savings banks and national banks have under federal laws and regulations.
Washington law also governs numerous corporate activities relating to the Bank, including the Bank's ability to pay dividends, to engage in merger activities and to amend its articles of incorporation, as well as limitations on change of control of the Bank. Under Washington law, the board of directors of the Bank generally may not declare a cash dividend on its capital stock if payment of such dividend would cause its net worth to be reduced below the net worth requirements, if any, imposed by the WDFI and dividends may not be paid in an amount greater than its retained earnings without the approval of the WDFI. These restrictions are in addition to restrictions imposed by federal law. Mergers involving the Bank and sales or acquisitions of its branches are generally subject to the approval of the WDFI. No person or entity may acquire control of the Bank until 30 days

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after filing an application with the WDFI, which has the authority to disapprove the application. Washington law defines "control" of an entity to mean directly or indirectly, alone or in concert with others, to own, control or hold the power to vote 25.0% or more of the outstanding stock or voting power of the entity. Any amendment to the Bank's articles of incorporation requires the approval of the WDFI.
The Bank is subject to periodic examination by and reporting requirements of the WDFI, as well as enforcement actions initiated by the WDFI. The WDFI's enforcement powers include the issuance of orders compelling or restricting conduct by the Bank and the authority to bring actions to remove the Bank's directors, officers and employees. The WDFI has authority to place the Bank under supervisory direction or to take possession of the Bank and to appoint the FDIC as receiver.
Insurance of Deposit Accounts and Regulation by the FDIC
The FDIC is the Bank's principal federal bank regulator. As such, the FDIC is authorized to conduct examinations of, and to require reporting by the Bank. The FDIC may prohibit the Bank from engaging in any activity determined by law, regulation or order to pose a serious risk to the institution, and may take a variety of enforcement actions in the event the Bank violates a law, regulation or order or engages in an unsafe or unsound practice or under certain other circumstances. The FDIC also has the authority to appoint itself as receiver of the Bank or to terminate the Bank's deposit insurance if it were to determine that the Bank has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices or is in an unsafe or unsound condition.
The Bank is a member of the Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF") administered by the FDIC, which insures customer deposit accounts. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the amount of federal deposit insurance coverage was permanently increased from $100,000 to $250,000, per depositor, for each account ownership category at each depository institution. This change made permanent the coverage increases that had been in effect since October 2008.
In order to maintain the DIF, member institutions, such as the Bank, are assessed insurance premiums. The Dodd-Frank Act required the FDIC to make numerous changes to the DIF and the manner in which assessments are calculated. The minimum ratio of assets in the DIF to the total of estimated insured deposits was increased from 1.15% to 1.35%, and the FDIC is given until September 30, 2020 to meet the reserve ratio. In December 2010, the FDIC adopted a final rule setting the reserve ratio of the DIF at 2.0%. As required by the Dodd-Frank Act, assessments are now based on an insured institution's average consolidated assets less tangible equity capital.
Each institution is provided an assessment rate, which is generally based on the risk that the institution presents to the DIF. Institutions with less than $10 billion in assets generally have an assessment rate that can range from 1.5 to 30 basis points. However, the FDIC does have flexibility to adopt assessment rates without additional rule-making provided that the total base assessment rate increase or decrease does not exceed 2 basis points. In the future, if the reserve ratio reaches certain levels, these assessment rates will generally be lowered. As of December 31, 2018, the Bank's assessment rate was 6.44 basis points on average assets less average tangible equity capital.
In addition, all FDIC-insured institutions are required to pay a pro rata portion of the interest due on obligations issued by the Financing Corporation to fund the closing and disposal of failed thrift institutions by the Resolution Trust Corporation. The Financing Corporation rate is adjusted quarterly to reflect changes in assessment bases of the DIF. These assessments will continue until the Financing Corporation bonds mature in 2019. The annual rate for the first quarter of 2019 is 0.14 basis points.
Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements
Capital Requirements
In July 2013, federal banking regulators (including the FDIC and the FRB) adopted new capital rules (the "Rules"). The Rules apply to both depository institutions (such as the Bank) and their holding companies (such as the Company). The Rules reflect, in part, certain standards initially adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in December 2010 (which standards are commonly referred to as "Basel III") as well as requirements contemplated by the Dodd-Frank Act. The Rules applied to both the Company and the Bank beginning in 2015.
The Rules recognize three components, or tiers, of capital: common equity Tier 1 capital, additional Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital. Common equity Tier 1 capital generally consists of retained earnings and common stock instruments (subject to certain adjustments), as well as accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI") except to the extent that the Company and the Bank exercise a one-time irrevocable option to exclude certain components of AOCI. Both the Company and the Bank made this election in 2015. Additional Tier 1 capital generally includes non-cumulative preferred stock and related surplus subject to certain adjustments and limitations. Tier 2 capital generally includes certain capital instruments (such as subordinated debt) and

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portions of the amounts of the allowance for loan and lease losses, subject to certain requirements and deductions. The term "Tier 1 capital" means common equity Tier 1 capital plus additional Tier 1 capital, and the term "total capital" means Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital.
The Rules generally measure an institution's capital using four capital measures or ratios. The common equity Tier 1 capital ratio is the ratio of the institution's common equity Tier 1 capital to its Tier 1 risk-weighted assets. The Tier 1 capital ratio is the ratio of the institution's Tier 1 capital to its total risk-weighted assets. The total capital ratio is the ratio of the institution's total capital to its total risk-weighted assets. The leverage ratio is the ratio of the institution's Tier 1 capital to its average total consolidated assets. To determine risk-weighted assets, assets of an institution are generally placed into a risk category as prescribed by the regulations and given a percentage weight based on the relative risk of that category. The percentage weights range from 0% to 1,250%. An asset's risk-weighted value will generally be its percentage weight multiplied by the asset's value as determined under generally accepted accounting principles. In addition, certain off-balance-sheet items are converted to balance-sheet credit equivalent amounts, and each amount is then assigned to one of the risk categories. An institution's federal regulator may require the institution to hold more capital than would otherwise be required under the Rules if the regulator determines that the institution’s capital requirements under the Rules are not commensurate with the institution's credit, market, operational or other risks.
To be adequately capitalized both the Company and the Bank are required to have a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 4.5% or more, a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4.0% or more, a Tier 1 risk-based ratio of 6.0% or more and a total risk-based ratio of 8.0% or more. In addition to the preceding requirements, all financial institutions subject to the Rules, including both the Company and the Bank, are required to establish a "conservation buffer," consisting of common equity Tier 1 capital, which is at least 2.5% above each of the preceding common equity Tier 1 capital ratio, the Tier 1 risk-based ratio and the total risk-based ratio. An institution that does not meet the conservation buffer will be subject to restrictions on certain activities including payment of dividends, stock repurchases and discretionary bonuses to executive officers.
The Rules set forth the manner in which certain capital elements are determined, including but not limited to, requiring certain deductions related to mortgage servicing rights and deferred tax assets. When the federal banking regulators initially proposed new capital rules in 2012, the rules would have phased out trust preferred securities as a component of Tier 1 capital. As finally adopted, however, the Rules permit holding companies with less than $15 billion in total assets as of December 31, 2009 (which includes the Company) to continue to include trust preferred securities issued prior to May 19, 2010 in Tier 1 capital, generally up to 25% of other Tier 1 capital.
The Rules made changes in the methods of calculating certain risk-based assets, which in turn affects the calculation of risk- based ratios. Higher or more sensitive risk weights are assigned to various categories of assets, among which are commercial real estate, credit facilities that finance the acquisition, development or construction of real property, certain exposures or credits that are 90 days past due or are nonaccrual, foreign exposures, certain corporate exposures, securitization exposures, equity exposures and in certain cases mortgage servicing rights and deferred tax assets.
Both the Company and the Bank were generally required to be in compliance with the Rules on January 1, 2015. The conservation buffer began being phased in beginning in 2016 and would have taken full effect on January 1, 2019. However, in August 2017, the rules were halted at 2017 levels. Certain calculations under the Rules will also have phase-in periods. We believe that the current capital levels of the Company and the Bank are in compliance with the standards under the Rules including the conservation buffer.
Prompt Corrective Action Regulations
Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act establishes a framework of supervisory actions for insured depository institutions that are not adequately capitalized, also known as "prompt corrective action" regulations. All of the federal banking agencies have promulgated substantially similar regulations to implement a system of prompt corrective action. These regulations apply to the Bank but not the Company. As modified by the Rules, the framework establishes five capital categories; under the Rules, a bank is:
"well capitalized" if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or more, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or more, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based ratio of 6.5% or more, and a leverage capital ratio of 5.0% or more, and is not subject to any written agreement, order or capital directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure;
"adequately capitalized" if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or more, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or more, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based ratio of 4.5% or more, and a leverage capital ratio of 4.0% or more;

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"undercapitalized" if it has a total risk-based capital ratio less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio less than 6.0%, a common equity risk-based ratio less than 4.5% or a leverage capital ratio less than 4.0%;
"significantly undercapitalized" if it has a total risk-based capital ratio less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio less than 4.0%, a common equity risk-based ratio less than 3.0% or a leverage capital ratio less than 3.0%; and
"critically undercapitalized" if it has a ratio of tangible equity to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%.
A bank that, based upon its capital levels, is classified as "well capitalized," "adequately capitalized" or "undercapitalized" may be treated as though it were in the next lower capital category if the appropriate federal banking agency, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, determines that an unsafe or unsound condition, or an unsafe or unsound practice, warrants such treatment.
At each successive lower capital category, an insured bank is subject to increasingly severe supervisory actions. These actions include, but are not limited to, restrictions on asset growth, interest rates paid on deposits, branching, allowable transactions with affiliates, ability to pay bonuses and raises to senior executives and pursuing new lines of business. Additionally, all "undercapitalized" banks are required to implement capital restoration plans to restore capital to at least the "adequately capitalized" level, and the FDIC is generally required to close "critically undercapitalized" banks within a 90-day period.
Capital Simplification Rule

Following the enactment of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (the "EGRRCPA") in May 2018, the federal banking regulators (including the FDIC and the Federal Reserve) have proposed a new rule, the Community Bank Leverage Ratio ("CBLR"), intended to simplify capital rules for certain community banks and their holding companies. Qualifying community banking organizations could elect to be under a new capital requirement rather than the current capital framework. To be eligible to make this election, the community banking organization would have to have less than $10 billion in assets, have a CBLR of at least 9.00% and meet certain other criteria (including limits on off-balance sheet exposures, trading assets and liabilities, mortgage servicing assets, and deferred tax assets). The CBLR would generally be the ratio of the organization’s total bank equity capital to average assets, subject to certain adjustments. The intent of the proposal is to simplify but not weaken capital requirements for qualifying community banks. Based on the requirements and our current structure, we are not eligible to make this election, although that may change if we are successful in selling the assets related to our stand-alone home loan business and related portfolio of mortgage servicing rights. If we do qualify, we will have to assess whether or not it would be advantageous for us to make the election once the rule is finalized and fully adopted. We have previously discussed a different rule proposed by banking regulators in September 2017 to simplify and reduce the capital burden for banks holding mortgage servicing assets. To date, a final rule has not been published, and given the recent proposal of the CBLR which omits the previously expected capital relief for such assets, we no longer expect that the proposed rule to reduce the capital burden for banks holding mortgage servicing rights will be enacted.

Limitations on Transactions with Affiliates
Transactions between the Bank and any affiliate are governed by Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act. An affiliate of the Bank is any company or entity which controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the Bank but which is not a subsidiary of the Bank. The Company and its non-bank subsidiaries are affiliates of the Bank. Generally, Section 23A limits the extent to which the Bank or its subsidiaries may engage in "covered transactions" with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10.0% of the Bank's capital stock and surplus, and imposes an aggregate limit on all such transactions with all affiliates in an amount equal to 20.0% of such capital stock and surplus. Section 23B applies to "covered transactions" as well as certain other transactions and requires that all transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those provided to a non-affiliate. The term "covered transaction" includes the making of loans to an affiliate, the purchase of or investment in the securities issued by an affiliate, the purchase of assets from an affiliate, the acceptance of securities issued by an affiliate as collateral security for a loan or extension of credit to any person or company, the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate, or certain transactions with an affiliate that involves the borrowing or lending of securities and certain derivative transactions with an affiliate.
In addition, Sections 22(g) and (h) of the Federal Reserve Act place restrictions on loans, derivatives, repurchase agreements and securities lending to executive officers, directors and principal shareholders of the Bank and its affiliates.

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Standards for Safety and Soundness
The federal banking regulatory agencies have prescribed, by regulation, a set of guidelines for all insured depository institutions prescribing safety and soundness standards. These guidelines establish general standards for internal controls, information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate risk exposure, asset growth, asset quality, earnings standards, compensation, fees and benefits. In general, the guidelines require appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risks and exposures specified in the guidelines before capital becomes impaired. The guidelines prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice and describe compensation as excessive when the amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services performed by an executive officer, employee, director, or principal shareholder.
Each insured depository institution must implement a comprehensive written information security program that includes administrative, technical and physical safeguards appropriate to the institution's size and complexity and the nature and scope of its activities. The information security program also must be designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any unanticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information, protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer and ensure the proper disposal of customer and consumer information. Each insured depository institution must also develop and implement a risk-based response program to address incidents of unauthorized access to customer information in customer information systems. If the FDIC determines that the Bank fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, it may require the Bank to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard. The Bank maintains a program to meet the information security requirements.
Real Estate Lending Standards
FDIC regulations require the Bank to adopt and maintain written policies that establish appropriate limits and standards for real estate loans. These standards, which must be consistent with safe and sound banking practices, must establish loan portfolio diversification standards, prudent underwriting standards (including loan-to-value ratio limits) that are clear and measurable, loan administration procedures and documentation, approval and reporting requirements. The Bank is obligated to monitor conditions in its real estate markets to ensure that its standards continue to be appropriate for market conditions. The Bank's board of directors is required to review and approve the Bank's standards at least annually.
The FDIC has published guidelines for compliance with these regulations, including supervisory limitations on loan-to-value ratios for different categories of real estate loans. Under the guidelines, the aggregate amount of all loans in excess of the supervisory loan-to-value ratios should not exceed 100.0% of total capital, and the total of all loans for commercial, agricultural, multifamily or other non-one-to-four family residential properties in excess of such ratios should not exceed 30.0% of total capital. Loans in excess of the supervisory loan-to-value ratio limitations must be identified in the Bank's records and reported at least quarterly to the Bank's board of directors.
The FDIC and the federal banking agencies have also issued guidance on sound risk management practices for concentrations in commercial real estate lending. The particular focus is on exposure to commercial real estate loans that are dependent on the cash flow from the real estate held as collateral and that are likely to be sensitive to conditions in the commercial real estate market (as opposed to real estate collateral held as a secondary source of repayment or as an abundance of caution). The purpose of the guidance is not to limit a bank's commercial real estate lending but to guide banks in developing risk management practices and capital levels commensurate with the level and nature of real estate concentrations.
Risk Retention
The Dodd-Frank Act requires that, subject to certain exemptions, securitizers of mortgage and other asset-backed securities retain not less than five percent of the credit risk of the mortgages or other assets and that the securitizer not hedge or otherwise transfer the risk it is required to retain. In December 2014, the federal banking regulators, together with the SEC, the Federal Housing Finance Agency and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, published a final rule implementing this requirement. Generally, the final rule provides various ways in which the retention of risk requirement can be satisfied and also describes exemptions from the retention requirements for various types of assets, including mortgages. Compliance with the final rule with respect to residential mortgage securitizations was required beginning in December 2015 and was required beginning in December 2016 for all other securitizations.


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Volcker Rule

In December 2013, the FDIC, the FRB and various other federal agencies issued final rules to implement certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act commonly known as the "Volcker Rule." Subject to certain exceptions, the final rules generally prohibit banks and affiliated companies from engaging in short-term proprietary trading of certain securities, derivatives, commodity futures and options on those instruments, for their own account. The final rules also impose restrictions on banks and their affiliates from acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in, sponsoring or having certain other relationships with hedge funds or private equity funds.
Section 203 of the EGRRCPA amends the Volker Rule to exempt any institution that does not have, or is not controlled by a company that has more than $10 billion in total consolidated assets and total trading assets and liabilities that are more than five percent of total consolidated assets. As a result, the Bank is exempt from the Volker Rule until such time that its assets exceed $10 billion or its total trading assets and liabilities are more than five percent of total consolidated assets.
Activities and Investments of Insured State-Chartered Financial Institutions
Federal law generally prohibits FDIC-insured state banks from engaging as a principal in activities, and from making equity investments, other than those that are permissible for national banks. An insured state bank is not prohibited from, among other things, (1) acquiring or retaining a majority interest in certain subsidiaries, (2) investing as a limited partner in a partnership the sole purpose of which is direct or indirect investment in the acquisition, rehabilitation or new construction of a qualified housing project, provided that such limited partnership investments may not exceed 2.0% of the bank's total assets, (3) acquiring up to 10.0% of the voting stock of a company that solely provides or reinsures directors', trustees' and officers' liability insurance coverage or bankers' blanket bond group insurance coverage for insured depository institutions and (4) acquiring or retaining the voting shares of a depository institution if certain requirements are met.
Washington State has enacted a law regarding financial institution parity. The law generally provides that Washington-chartered commercial banks may exercise any of the powers of Washington-chartered savings banks, national banks or federally-chartered savings banks, subject to the approval of the Director of the WDFI in certain situations.
Environmental Issues Associated With Real Estate Lending
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, or (the "CERCLA"), is a federal statute that generally imposes strict liability on all prior and present "owners and operators" of sites containing hazardous waste. However, Congress has acted to protect secured creditors by providing that the term "owner and operator" excludes a person whose ownership is limited to protecting its security interest in the site. Since the enactment of the CERCLA, this "secured creditor" exemption has been the subject of judicial interpretations which have left open the possibility that lenders could be liable for cleanup costs on contaminated property that they hold as collateral for a loan. To the extent that legal uncertainty exists in this area, all creditors, including the Bank, that have made loans secured by properties with potential hazardous waste contamination (such as petroleum contamination) could be subject to liability for cleanup costs, which costs often substantially exceed the value of the collateral property.
Reserve Requirements
The Bank is subject to Federal Reserve regulations pursuant to which depositary institutions may be required to maintain non-interest-earning reserves against their deposit accounts and certain other liabilities. Reserves must be maintained against transaction accounts (primarily negotiable order of withdrawal and regular checking accounts). The regulations generally required in 2018 that reserves be maintained as follows:
Net transaction accounts up to $16.0 million are exempt from reserve requirements.
A reserve of 3.0% of the aggregate is required for transaction accounts over $16.0 million up to $122.3 million.
A reserve of 10% is required for any transaction accounts over $122.3 million.
In 2019, the regulations generally require that reserves be maintained as follows:
Net transaction accounts up to $16.3 million are exempt from reserve requirements.
A reserve of 3.0% of the aggregate is required for transaction accounts over $16.3 million up to $124.2 million.
A reserve of 10% is required for any transaction accounts over $124.2 million.


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Federal Home Loan Bank System
The Federal Home Loan Bank system consists of 11 regional Federal Home Loan Banks. Among other benefits, each of these serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. Each of the Federal Home Loan Banks makes available loans or advances to its members in compliance with the policies and procedures established by its board of directors. The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines (the "Des Moines FHLB") and is a borrowing non-member financial institution with the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco (the "San Francisco FHLB"). As a member of the Des Moines FHLB, the Bank is required to own stock in the Des Moines FHLB. Separately, pursuant to a non-member lending agreement with the San Francisco FHLB that we entered into at the time of the Simplicity Acquisition, we are required to own stock of the San Francisco FHLB so long as we continue to be a borrower from the San Francisco FHLB. As of December 31, 2018, we owned $45.5 million of stock in the FHLB in the aggregate based on these obligations.
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
Banks are subject to the provisions of the CRA of 1977, which requires the appropriate federal bank regulatory agency to assess a bank's record in meeting the credit needs of the assessment areas serviced by the bank, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The regulatory agency's assessment of the bank's record is made available to the public. Further, these assessments are considered by regulators when evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open or relocate a branch or facility. The Bank currently has a rating of "Satisfactory" under the CRA.
Dividends
Dividends from the Bank constitute an important source of funds for dividends that may be paid by the Company to shareholders. The amount of dividends payable by the Bank to the Company depends upon the Bank's earnings and capital position and is limited by federal and state laws. Under Washington law, the Bank may not declare or pay a cash dividend on its capital stock if this would cause its net worth to be reduced below the net worth requirements, if any, imposed by the WDFI. In addition, dividends on the Bank's capital stock may not be paid in an amount greater than its retained earnings without the approval of the WDFI.
The amount of dividends actually paid during any one period will be strongly affected by the Bank's policy of maintaining a strong capital position. Federal law prohibits an insured depository institution from paying a cash dividend if this would cause the institution to be "undercapitalized," as defined in the prompt corrective action regulations. Moreover, the federal bank regulatory agencies have the general authority to limit the dividends paid by insured banks if such payments are deemed to constitute an unsafe and unsound practice. Capital rules that went into effect in 2015 impose additional requirements on the Bank's ability to pay dividends. See "Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements."
Liquidity
The Bank is required to maintain a sufficient amount of liquid assets to ensure its safe and sound operation. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis - Liquidity Risk and Capital Resources."
Compensation
The Bank is subject to regulation of its compensation practices. See "Regulation and Supervision - Regulation of the Company - Compensation Policies."
Bank Secrecy Act and USA Patriot Act
The Company and the Bank are subject to the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act, which gives the federal government powers to address money laundering and terrorist threats through enhanced domestic security measures, expanded surveillance powers and mandatory transaction reporting obligations. By way of example, the Bank Secrecy Act imposes an affirmative obligation on the Bank to report currency transactions that exceed certain thresholds and to report other transactions determined to be suspicious. Beginning in May 2018, the Bank Secrecy Act required financial institutions, including the Bank, to meet certain customer due diligence requirements, including obtaining a certification from the individual opening the account on behalf of the legal entity that identifies the beneficial owner(s) of the entity. The purpose of these requirements is to enable the Bank to be able to predict with relative certainty the types of transactions in which a customer is likely to engage which should in turn assist in determining when transactions are potentially suspicious.
Like all United States companies and individuals, the Company and the Bank are prohibited from transacting business with certain individuals and entities named on the Office of Foreign Asset Control's list of Specially Designated Nationals and

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Blocked Persons. Failure to comply may result in fines and other penalties. The Office of Foreign Asset Control ("OFAC") has issued guidance directed at financial institutions in which it asserted that it may, in its discretion, examine institutions determined to be high-risk or to be lacking in their efforts to comply with these prohibitions.
The Bank maintains a program to meet the requirements of the Bank Secrecy Act, USA PATRIOT Act and OFAC.
Identity Theft
Section 315 of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act ("FACT Act") requires each financial institution or creditor to develop and implement a written Identity Theft Prevention Program to detect, prevent and mitigate identity theft "red flags" in connection with the opening of certain accounts or certain existing accounts.
The Bank maintains a program to meet the requirements of Section 315 of the FACT Act.
Consumer Protection Laws and Regulations
The Bank and its affiliates are subject to a broad array of federal and state consumer protection laws and regulations that govern almost every aspect of its business relationships with consumers. While this list is not exhaustive, these include the Truth-in-Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement in Mortgage Licensing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Service Members' Civil Relief Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act, the Consumer Leasing Act, the Fair Credit Billing Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, laws governing flood insurance, laws governing consumer protections in connection with the sale of insurance, federal and state laws prohibiting unfair and deceptive business practices, foreclosure laws and various regulations that implement some or all of the foregoing. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits, making loans, collecting loans and providing other services. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations can subject the Bank to various penalties, including but not limited to, enforcement actions, injunctions, fines, civil money penalties, civil liability, criminal penalties, punitive damages and the loss of certain contractual rights. The Bank has a compliance governance structure in place to help ensure its compliance with these requirements.
The Dodd-Frank Act established the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection ("CFPB") as a new independent bureau that is responsible for regulating consumer financial products and services under federal consumer financial laws. The CFPB has broad rulemaking authority with respect to these laws and exclusive examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to banks with assets of more than $10 billion.
The Dodd-Frank Act also contains a variety of provisions intended to reform consumer mortgage practices. The provisions include (1) a requirement that lenders make a determination that at the time a residential mortgage loan is consummated the consumer has a reasonable ability to repay the loan and related costs, (2) a ban on loan originator compensation based on the interest rate or other terms of the loan (other than the amount of the principal), (3) a ban on prepayment penalties for certain types of loans, (4) bans on arbitration provisions in mortgage loans and (5) requirements for enhanced disclosures in connection with the making of a loan. The Dodd-Frank Act also imposed a variety of requirements on entities that service mortgage loans and significantly expanded mortgage loan application data collection and reporting requirements under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act.
The Dodd-Frank Act contains provisions further regulating payment card transactions. The Dodd-Frank Act required the Federal Reserve to adopt regulations limiting any interchange fee for a debit transaction to an amount which is "reasonable and proportional" to the costs incurred by the issuer. The Federal Reserve has adopted final regulations limiting the amount of debit interchange fees that large bank issuers may charge or receive on their debit card transactions. There is an exemption from the rules for issuers with assets of less than $10 billion and the Federal Reserve has stated that it will monitor and report to Congress on the effectiveness of the exemption.
Future Legislation or Regulation

The Trump administration, Congress, the regulators and various states continue to focus attention on the financial services industry. Proposals that affect the industry will likely continue to be introduced. In particular, the Trump administration and various members of Congress have expressed a desire to further modify or repeal parts of the Dodd-Frank Act. We cannot predict whether any of these proposals will be enacted or adopted or, if they are, the effect they would have on our business, our operations or our financial condition or on the financial services industry generally.

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ITEM 1A
RISK FACTORS

This Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this report.

Risks Related to Our Operations

We may not be able to continue to grow our commercial and consumer banking operations at our recent pace.

Since our initial public offering ("IPO") in February 2012, we have included targeted and opportunistic growth as a key component of our business strategy, and continue to pursue growth strategies for our Commercial and Consumer Banking segment. We have grown our retail deposit branch presence from 20 branches in 2012 to 60 as of December 31, 2018, including expansion into new geographic regions, and have continued to expand our commercial lending operations during that period, resulting in substantial growth overall in total assets, total deposits, total loans and employees in our Commercial and Consumer Banking segment.

While we expect to continue both strategic and opportunistic growth in the Commercial and Consumer Banking segment, since the second quarter of 2017 we have undertaken a series of steps designed to restructure our Mortgage Banking segment, where production has been negatively impacted by increasing interest rates and a reduced supply of homes for sale nationwide, and profit margins have been negatively impacted by a shift in product mix to a higher number of non-conforming loans. We completed that reduction in the Mortgage Banking segment with other company-wide cost saving measures and a reduction in force in our corporate operations in the second quarter of 2018, however following further evaluation of our remaining mortgage banking operations and strategy given current market conditions, we have announced that we are pursuing a sale of the assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage origination business, a transfer of related mortgage personnel and a sale of a portfolio of related mortgage servicing rights, which if successful will significantly reduce the size of our mortgage operations. The combination of a focus on measured and efficient growth in commercial and consumer banking, along with a proposed sale of a significant portion of our existing mortgage banking operations which would in turn significantly reduce our single family mortgage origination volume may lead to a substantially slower growth rate than we have experienced in recent years

We have announced that we are pursuing a series of transactions to sell assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage banking operations that, if successful, would significantly change the size and operational scope of our organization, but we cannot be sure that we will be able to successfully complete such transactions on terms and conditions acceptable to us, or at all.

In February 2019, we announced that we entered into a non-binding letter of intent with a third party independent mortgage company for the sale of assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage operations and the transfer of related mortgage personnel, and that we are separately seeking to sell our portfolio of mortgage servicing related to those operations. While we expect that if we are successful in executing on these transactions we will see significant benefits to our operations and the long-term value of the Company for shareholders, there is no guarantee that we will be able to come to an agreement with any potential buyer on terms and conditions that are acceptable to us. In addition, some transactions of this nature undertaken by others in our industry have included significant earn-out provisions. Were we to enter into such an agreement, we may not be able to realize the full potential of the earn-out as the purchaser will have control over management of the operations that would generate the earn-out results, and if the buyer were to become insolvent, we may not be able to collect on the earn-out amount owed to us. In addition, while we have identified a potential buyer for some or all of these assets, there is no guarantee that we will be able to reach agreement on the terms of the sale and enter into definitive agreements for such transactions, and if we are able to enter into definitive agreements, such agreements will be subject to closing conditions, including but not limited to third party and regulatory consent requirements. If we are not successful in executing on a sale of the assets relating to our home loan center-based mortgage operations, we will need to explore other alternatives to improve the financial results of the Company and may have a prolonged period in which our financial results continue to be negatively impacted by the continued downward pressure on profitability in the mortgage banking industry.

Even if we are successful completing the sale of assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage business, including related mortgage servicing rights, we may not recognize the anticipated cost savings on the timeline we expect, or at all.

We believe that if we are successful in selling the assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage operations and related mortgage servicing rights portfolio, we will recognize, in the future and over time, significant cost savings for the Company.

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However, if we have additional costs or liabilities that are incurred in connection with the transaction, or if we are unable to eliminate or substantially reduce all of the costs associated with that business segment, we may not recognize these expected costs savings. Similarly, if we are unable to complete the transaction on the timeline we anticipate, we may not recognize these cost savings on the timeline we anticipate and may continue to have significant expenses relating to the Mortgage Banking segment that will impact our financial statements in future quarters.

Volatility in mortgage markets, changes in interest rates, competition in our industry, operational costs and other factors beyond our control may adversely impact our profitability.

We have sustained significant losses in the past, and we cannot guarantee that we will remain profitable or be able to maintain profitability at a given level. Changes in the mortgage market, including an increase in interest rates and a disparity between the supply and demand of houses available for sale nationwide that has been acute in our primary markets in recent quarters, have caused a decline in mortgage originations throughout our markets, which adversely impacted our profitability in 2017 and 2018. As a result, we are seeking to substantially reduce the size of our mortgage banking operations through a sale of our home loan center-based mortgage operations and related servicing portfolio. While we expect to realize significant cost savings and believe such measures will ultimately result in a more profitable mortgage lending operation, we may not reduce our costs enough to substantially improve our profitability. In addition, the portion of our mortgage banking operations that we expect to retain will still be subject to many of the same pricing and competitive pressures currently at play in the mortgage industry generally.

Many other factors may also affect our ability to generate revenue in excess of our costs, decrease our profit margins, negatively impact our net interest margin or affect the carrying value of the mortgage servicing we will retain, which in turn affect our profitability, including:

Volatility in interest rates may limit our ability to make loans, decrease our net interest income and noninterest income, create disparity between actual and expected closed loan volumes based on historical fallout rates, reduce demand for loans, diminish the value of our loan servicing rights, affect the value of our hedging instruments, increase the cost of deposits and otherwise negatively impact our financial situation;

Competition in the commercial and consumer lending industries may drive down the interest rates we are able to offer on our loans and reduce our profit margins on loan products, which would negatively impact our net interest income;

Volatility in mortgage markets, which is driven by factors outside of our control such as interest rate changes, imbalances in housing supply and demand and general economic conditions, may negatively impact our ability to originate loans and change the fair value of our existing loans and servicing rights;

Our single family mortgage related hedging strategies to offset risks related to interest rate changes have been adversely impacted by a flattening yield curve and will suffer further if the yield curve inverts. For these and other reasons, our hedging strategies may not be successful and may result in unanticipated losses for the Company;

Changes in regulations or in regulators' interpretations of existing regulations may negatively impact the Company or the Bank and may limit our ability to offer certain products or services, increase our costs of compliance or restrict our growth initiatives, branch expansion and acquisition activities;

Increased costs for controls over data confidentiality, integrity, and availability due to growth or as may be necessary to strengthen the security profile of our computer systems and computer networks may have a negative impact on our net income;

Changes in the cost structures and fees of government-sponsored enterprises to whom we sell many of these loans may compress our margins and reduce our net income and profitability; and

Increased costs from growth through acquisition could exceed the income growth anticipated from these opportunities, especially in the short term as these acquisitions are integrated into our business.

If we are not successful in completing the sale of our home loan center-based mortgage business and related servicing portfolio, or if the cost savings created by such sales are less than expected, we may need to consider additional measures to improve our financial performance.


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We believe that a sale of the assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage operations and the related mortgage servicing portfolio will create significant cost savings, generate significant additional capital for our operations and improve the overall financial health of our organization going forward. However, we may not recognize all the cost savings we expect to meet our strategic goals, in which case our Board of Directors and management may need to consider additional cost cutting or revenue enhancement measures in order to meet our financial and strategic goals.

We expect the sale of the assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage banking operations and related mortgage servicing portfolio will be complicated and complex transactions that will require significant attention from management and may incur additional near-term costs associated with the sales.

The proposed sale of the assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage operations and the related portfolio of mortgage servicing rights will require a series of complex transactions relating to the identification of and transfer of mortgage-related assets, the transfer of our unlocked mortgage pipeline, assignment or sublease of a significant number of real estate leases, regulatory approvals, integration of our technology and automation solutions with those of the acquirer, communicating with impacted employees and customers, management of the transfer or termination of a large number of employees in the impacted areas of our operations, rescaling of our corporate and compliance operations to fit the reduced size of our retained mortgage operations and more. Managing these work streams will require significant attention from management and may increase our short-term costs as we incur expenses related to professional services such as outsourced financial advisory, legal and accounting services and costs related to employee retention, severance and outplacement benefits, among other things. These increased costs could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

Proxy contests commenced against the Company have caused us to incur substantial costs, divert the attention of the Board of Directors and management, take up management’s attention and resources, cause uncertainty about the strategic direction of our business and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, and future proxy contests will do so as well.

In late 2017 through our annual meeting in May 2018, an activist investor, Roaring Blue Lion Capital Management, L.P., and its managing member, Charles W. Griege, Jr., and certain affiliates (the "Blue Lion Parties") engaged in a lengthy proxy fight with respect to the Company in which Mr. Griege and the Blue Lion Parties went to great lengths to try to persuade our shareholders to vote against certain of our directors and proposals. While Blue Lion was not ultimately successful in preventing the election of the Company's nominees, the protracted campaign against the Company was both time-consuming and costly. Although the Company has continued to engage with the Blue Lion Parties on a regular basis as it does with other shareholders, the Blue Lion Parties have continued to be critical of the Company’s board and management and may continue to be so for the foreseeable future.

A proxy contest or other activist campaign and related actions, such as the one discussed above, could have a material and adverse effect on us for the following reasons:

Activist investors may attempt to effect changes in the Company's strategic direction and how the Company is governed, or to acquire control over the Company.

While the Company welcomes the opinions of all shareholders, responding to proxy contests and related actions by activist investors could be costly and time-consuming, disrupt our operations, and divert the attention of our Board of Directors and senior management and employees away from their regular duties and the pursuit of business opportunities. In addition, there may be litigation in connection with a proxy contest, as was the case with our 2018 proxy fight, which would serve as a further distraction to our Board of Directors, senior management and employees and could require the Company to incur significant additional costs.

Perceived uncertainties as to our future direction as a result of potential changes to the composition of the Board of Directors may lead to the perception of a change in the strategic direction of the business, instability or lack of continuity which may be exploited by our competitors; may cause concern to our existing or potential customers and employees; may result in the loss of potential business opportunities; and may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel and business partners.

Proxy contests and related actions by activist investors could cause significant fluctuations in our stock price based on temporary or speculative market perceptions or other factors that do not necessarily reflect the underlying fundamentals and prospects of our business.


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If we are not able to retain or attract key employees, we could experience a disruption in our ability to implement our strategic plan which would have a material adverse effect on our business.
In February 2019, we announced that we are pursuing the sale of assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage operations and a related portfolio of mortgage servicing rights. While we have endeavored to assure our employees and customers that we will take reasonable measures to protect their interests as we go through the process of identifying buyers, negotiating terms of such sale and transitioning our operations, the uncertainty created by this announcement may cause some employees that we would want to retain, either in the near-term or long-term, to seek other opportunities, which may impact our ability to conduct business as usual if key employees depart or a substantial number of employees depart. The low unemployment rates in many of our primary job markets, including Seattle, may leave us especially vulnerable to the loss of key employees. Similarly, this uncertainty may make it more challenging for us to attract and retain qualified and desirable candidates to fill open positions at the Company. The loss of our key personnel or an inability to continue to attract, retain and motivate key personnel could adversely affect our business.
Our announcement of our plans to sell the assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage operations could have an adverse impact on our ability to retain certain customers.
Customers who are aware of our announced strategic direction may decide not to continue to do business with HomeStreet, including seeking out other originators for loans that they have not yet closed or seeking to refinance their existing loan with a different provider. As a result, our mortgage pipeline could fall off sooner than expected, which could impair our financial results for the first quarter. Further, retail customers who are not impacted by a potential sale of the assets related to our home loan center-based mortgage operations may seek to move their deposit accounts away from our institution if they are concerned about the impact of this announcement on our overall operations, our reputation in the community or the future of our organization as a whole. A loss of a substantial number of customers and potential borrowers could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.

We may incur significant losses as a result of ineffective hedging of interest rate risk related to our loans sold with retained servicing rights.

Both the value of our single family mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs, and the value of our single family loans held for sale change with fluctuations in interest rates, among other things, reflecting the changing expectations of mortgage prepayment activity. To mitigate potential losses of fair value of single family loans held for sale and MSRs related to changes in interest rates, we actively hedge this risk with financial derivative instruments. Hedging is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models, experienced and skilled personnel and continual monitoring. Changes in the value of our hedging instruments may not correlate with changes in the value of our single family loans held for sale and MSRs, and our hedging activities may be impacted by unforeseen or unexpected changes, such as the flattening of the yield curve in 2018 at a time when we were rebalancing our hedging position. While we believe that if we significantly reduce the volume of single family loans held for sale and sell off a large portion of our MSRs, our exposure to the risks associated with the impact of interest rate fluctuations on single family loans held for sale and MSRs will decrease but may still have a meaningful impact on our results of operations in mortgage banking. Further, in times of significant financial disruption, as in 2008, hedging counterparties have been known to default on their obligations.

Natural disasters in our geographic markets may impact our financial results.

Each of our primary markets are located in geographic regions that are at a risk for earthquakes, wildfires, volcanic eruptions, floods, mudslides and other natural disasters. Certain communities in our markets have suffered significant losses from natural disasters, including devastating wildfires in California, Oregon and Washington, and volcanic eruptions and hurricanes in Hawaii. While the impact of these recent natural disasters on our business have not been material to date, we have in the past had temporary office closures during these events, and were a more significant disruption to occur in the future, our operations in areas impacted by such disasters could experience an adverse financial impact due to office closures, customers who as a result of their losses may not be able to meet their loan commitments in a timely manner, a reduction in housing inventory due to loss caused by natural disaster and negative impacts to the local economy as it seeks to recover from these disasters.


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Our business is geographically confined to certain metropolitan areas of the Western United States, and events and conditions that disproportionately affect those areas may pose a more pronounced risk for our business.

Although we presently have operations in six states, a substantial majority of our revenues are derived from operations in the Puget Sound region of Washington, the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area, the San Francisco Bay Area, and the Los Angeles and San Diego metropolitan areas in Southern California. All of our markets are located in the Western United States. Each of our primary markets is subject to various types of natural disasters, and many have experienced disproportionately significant economic volatility compared to the rest of the United States in the past. In addition, many of these areas have been experiencing a constriction in the availability of houses for sale in recent periods as new home construction has not kept pace with population growth in our primary markets, in part due to limitations on permitting and land availability. Economic events or natural disasters that affect the Western United States and our primary markets in that region in particular, or more significantly, may have an unusually pronounced impact on our business and, because our operations are not more geographically diversified, we may lack the ability to mitigate those impacts from operations in other regions of the United States.

The significant concentration of real estate secured loans in our portfolio has had a negative impact on our asset quality and profitability in the past and there can be no assurance that it will not have such impact in the future.

A substantial portion of our loans are secured by real property. Our real estate secured lending is generally sensitive to national, regional and local economic conditions, making loss levels difficult to predict. Declines in real estate sales and prices, significant increases in interest rates, unforeseen natural disasters and a degeneration in prevailing economic conditions may result in higher than expected loan delinquencies, foreclosures, problem loans, other real estate owned ("OREO"), net charge-offs and provisions for credit and OREO losses. Although real estate prices are currently stable in the markets in which we operate, if market values decline significantly, as they did in the last recession, the collateral for our loans may provide less security and our ability to recover the principal, interest and costs due on defaulted loans by selling the underlying real estate will be diminished, leaving us more likely to suffer additional losses on defaulted loans. Such declines may have a greater effect on our earnings and capital than on the earnings and capital of financial institutions whose loan portfolios are more diversified.

Worsening conditions in the real estate markets in which we operate and higher than normal delinquency and default rates on loans could cause other adverse consequences for us, including:

Reduced cash flows and capital resources, as we are required to make cash advances to meet contractual obligations to investors, process foreclosures, and maintain, repair and market foreclosed properties;

Declining mortgage servicing fee revenues because we recognize these revenues only upon collection;

Increasing mortgage servicing costs;

Declining fair value on our mortgage servicing rights; and

Declining fair values and liquidity of securities held in our investment portfolio that are collateralized by mortgage obligations.

Changes in government-sponsored enterprises and their ability to insure or to buy our loans in the secondary market may result in significant changes in our ability to recognize income on sale of our loans to third parties.

We originate a substantial portion of our single family mortgage loans for sale to government-sponsored enterprises (“GSE”) such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae. Changes in the types of loans purchased by these GSEs or the program requirements for those entities could adversely impact our ability to sell certain of the loans we originate for sale. For example, as a result of Section 309 of the EGRRCPA, which was enacted into law in May 2018, a few of our VA-qualified loans we had originated for sale to Ginnie Mae were deemed to be ineligible for sale to Ginnie Mae under the revised terms of that entity’s program and we were required to find a different way to sell these loans. Such changes are difficult to predict, and can have a negative impact on our cash flow and results of operations.


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We have previously had deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting, and those deficiencies or others that we have not discovered may result in our inability to maintain control over our assets or to identify and accurately report our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our internal controls over financial reporting are intended to assure we maintain accurate records, promote the accurate and timely reporting of our financial information, maintain adequate control over our assets, and detect unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets. Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results may be harmed.

As part of our ongoing monitoring of internal control from time to time we have discovered deficiencies in our internal controls that have required remediation. In the past, these deficiencies have included "material weaknesses," defined as a deficiency or combination of deficiencies that results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected.

Management has in place a process to document and analyze all identified internal control deficiencies and implement remedial measures sufficient to resolve those deficiencies. To support our strategic initiatives and to create operating efficiencies, we have implemented, and will continue to implement, new systems and processes. If our project management processes are not sound and adequate resources are not deployed to these implementations, we may experience additional internal control lapses that could expose the Company to operating losses. However, any failure to maintain effective controls or timely effect any necessary improvement of our internal and disclosure controls in the future could harm operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.

Our allowance for loan losses may prove inadequate or we may be negatively affected by credit risk exposures. Future additions to our allowance for loan losses, as well as charge-offs in excess of reserves, will reduce our earnings.

Our business depends on the creditworthiness of our customers. As with most financial institutions, we maintain an allowance for loan losses to reflect potential defaults and nonperformance, which represents management's best estimate of probable incurred losses inherent in the loan portfolio. Management's estimate is based on our continuing evaluation of specific credit risks and loan loss experience, current loan portfolio quality, present economic, political and regulatory conditions, industry concentrations and other factors that may indicate future loan losses. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and judgment and requires us to make estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Generally, our nonperforming loans and OREO reflect operating difficulties of individual borrowers and weaknesses in the economies of the markets we serve. This allowance may not be adequate to cover actual losses, and future provisions for losses could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

In addition, as we have acquired new operations, we have added the loans previously held by the acquired companies or related to the acquired branches to our books. As we make additional acquisitions in the future, including our expected acquisition of the business lending team from Silvergate and a related portfolio of commercial loans in March 2019, we expect to bring additional loans originated by other institutions onto our books. Although we review loan quality as part of our due diligence in considering any acquisition involving loans, the addition of such loans may increase our credit risk exposure, require an increase in our allowance for loan losses, and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows stemming from losses on those additional loans.

Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we report our financial condition and results of operations, and we use estimates in determining the fair value of certain of our assets, which estimates may prove to be imprecise and result in significant changes in valuation.

A portion of our assets are carried on the balance sheet at fair value, including investment securities available for sale, mortgage servicing rights related to single family loans and single family loans held for sale. Generally, for assets that are reported at fair value, we use quoted market prices or internal valuation models that use observable market data inputs to estimate their fair value. In certain cases, observable market prices and data may not be readily available or their availability may be diminished due to market conditions. We use financial models to value certain of these assets. These models are complex and use asset-specific collateral data and market inputs for interest rates. Although we have processes and procedures in place governing internal valuation models and their testing and calibration, such assumptions are complex as we must make judgments about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Different assumptions could result in significant changes in valuation, which in turn could affect earnings or result in significant changes in the dollar amount of assets reported on the

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balance sheet. As we grow the expectation for the sophistication of our models will increase and we may need to hire additional personnel with sufficient expertise.

Our funding sources may prove insufficient to replace deposits and support our future growth.

We must maintain sufficient funds to respond to the needs of depositors and borrowers. As a part of our liquidity management, we use a number of funding sources in addition to core deposit growth and repayments and maturities of loans and investments, including Federal Home Loan Bank advances, proceeds from the sale of loans, federal funds purchased, brokered certificates of deposit and issuance of equity or debt securities. Adverse operating results or changes in industry conditions could lead to difficulty or an inability to access these additional funding sources and could make our existing funds more volatile. Our financial flexibility may be materially constrained if we are unable to maintain our access to funding or if adequate financing is not available to accommodate future growth at acceptable interest rates. When rates increase, the cost of our funding often increases faster than we can increase our interest income. For example, in recent periods the FHLB has increased rates on their advances in a quick response to increases in rates by the Federal Reserve and implemented those increased costs earlier than we have been able to increase our own interest income. This asymmetry of the speed at which interests rates rise on our liabilities as opposed to our assets may have a negative impact on our net interest income and, in turn, our financial results. If we are required to rely more heavily on more expensive funding sources to support future growth, our revenues may not increase proportionately to cover our costs. In that case, our operating margins and profitability would be adversely affected. Further, the volatility inherent in some of these funding sources, particularly brokered deposits, may increase our exposure to liquidity risk.

Our management of capital could adversely affect profitability measures and the market price of our common stock and could dilute the holders of our outstanding common stock.

Our capital ratios are higher than regulatory minimums. We may choose to have a lower capital ratio in the future in order to take advantage of growth opportunities, including acquisition and organic loan growth, or in order to take advantage of a favorable investment opportunity. On the other hand, we may again in the future elect to raise capital through a sale of our debt or equity securities in order to have additional resources to pursue our growth, including by acquisition, fund our business needs and meet our commitments, or as a response to changes in economic conditions that make capital raising a prudent choice. In the event the quality of our assets or our economic position were to deteriorate significantly, as a result of market forces or otherwise, we may also need to raise additional capital in order to remain compliant with capital standards.

We may not be able to raise such additional capital at the time when we need it, or on terms that are acceptable to us. Our ability to raise additional capital will depend in part on conditions in the capital markets at the time, which are outside our control, and in part on our financial performance. Further, if we need to raise capital in the future, especially if it is in response to changing market conditions, we may need to do so when many other financial institutions are also seeking to raise capital, which would create competition for investors. An inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, any capital raising alternatives could dilute the holders of our outstanding common stock and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

The integration of recent and future acquisitions could consume significant resources and may not be successful.

We completed four whole-bank acquisitions and acquired eight stand-alone branches between September 2013 and December 31, 2018 and expect to complete the acquisition of another stand-alone branch and an associated commercial lending team in March 2019, all of which required substantial resources and costs related to the acquisition and integration process. There are certain risks related to the integration of operations of acquired banks and branches, which we may continue to encounter if we acquire other banks or branches in the future, including risks related to the investigation and consideration of the potential acquisition and the costs of undertaking such a transaction, as well as integrating acquired businesses into the Company, including risks that arise after the transaction is completed. Difficulties in pursuing or integrating any new acquisitions, and potential discoveries of additional losses or undisclosed liabilities with respect to the assets and liabilities of acquired companies, may increase our costs and adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations. Further, even if we successfully address these factors and are successful in closing acquisitions and integrating our systems with the acquired systems, we may nonetheless experience customer losses, or we may fail to grow the acquired businesses as we intend or to operate the acquired businesses at a level that would avoid losses or justify our investments in those companies.

In addition, we may choose to issue additional common stock for future acquisitions, or we may instead choose to pay the consideration in cash or a combination of stock and cash. Any issuances of stock relating to an acquisition may have a dilutive effect on earnings per share, book value per share or the percentage ownership of existing shareholders depending on the value

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of the assets or entity acquired. Alternatively, the use of cash as consideration in any such acquisitions could impact our capital position and may require us to raise additional capital.

If we breach any of the representations or warranties we make to a purchaser or securitizer of our loans or MSRs, we may be liable to the purchaser or securitizer for certain costs and damages.

When we sell or securitize loans in the ordinary course of business, we are required to make certain representations and warranties to the purchaser about the loans and the manner in which they were originated. Our agreements require us to repurchase loans if we have breached any of these representations or warranties, in which case we may be required to repurchase such loan and record a loss upon repurchase and/or bear any subsequent loss on the loan. We may not have any remedies available to us against a third party for such losses, or the remedies available to us may not be as broad as the remedies available to the purchaser of the loan against us. In addition, if there are remedies against a third party available to us, we face further risk that such third party may not have the financial capacity to perform remedies that otherwise may be available to us. Therefore, if a purchaser enforces remedies against us, we may not be able to recover our losses from a third party and may be required to bear the full amount of the related loss.

We have announced our intention to seek buyers for a substantial portion of our MSRs related to our large scale mortgage business. If we are successful in selling that portfolio, we may have more exposure to these risks due to the volume of MSR sales outside of our historical ordinary course of business.

If repurchase and indemnity demands increase on loans or MSRs that we sell from our portfolios, our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected.

If we breach any representations or warranties or fail to follow guidelines when originating a FHA/HUD-insured loan or a VA-guaranteed loan, we may lose the insurance or guarantee on the loan and suffer losses, pay penalties, and/or be subjected to litigation from the federal government.

We originate and purchase, sell and thereafter service single family loans, some of which are insured by FHA/HUD or guaranteed by the VA. We certify to the FHA/HUD and the VA that the loans meet their requirements and guidelines. The FHA/HUD and VA audit loans that are insured or guaranteed under their programs, including audits of our processes and procedures as well as individual loan documentation. Violations of guidelines can result in monetary penalties or require us to provide indemnifications against loss or loans declared ineligible for their programs. In the past, monetary penalties and losses from indemnifications have not created material losses to the Bank. FHA/HUD perform regular audits, and HUD's Inspector General is active in enforcing FHA regulations with respect to individual loans, including partnering with the Department of Justice ("DOJ") to bring lawsuits against lenders for systemic violations. The penalties resulting from such lawsuits can be severe, since systemic violations can be applied to groups of loans and penalties may be subject to treble damages. The DOJ has used the Federal False Claims Act and other federal laws and regulations in prosecuting these lawsuits. Because of our significant origination of FHA/HUD insured and VA guaranteed loans, if the DOJ were to find potential violations by the Bank, we could be subject to material monetary penalties and/or losses, and may even be subject to lawsuits alleging systemic violations which could result in treble damages.

We may face risk of loss if we purchase loans from a seller that fails to satisfy its indemnification obligations.

We generally receive representations and warranties from the originators and sellers from whom we purchase loans and servicing rights such that if a loan defaults and there has been a breach of such representations and warranties, we may be able to pursue a remedy against the seller of the loan for the unpaid principal and interest on the defaulted loan. However, if the originator and/or seller breaches such representations and warranties and does not have the financial capacity to pay the related damages, we may be subject to the risk of loss for such loan as the originator or seller may not be able to pay such damages or repurchase loans when called upon by us to do so. Currently, we only purchase loans from WMS Series LLC, an affiliated business arrangement with certain Windermere real estate brokerage franchise owners.

Changes in fee structures by third party loan purchasers and mortgage insurers may decrease our loan production volume and the margin we can recognize on loans and may adversely impact our results of operations.

Changes in the fee structures by third party loan purchasers may increase our costs of doing business and, in turn, increase the cost of loans to our customers and the cost of selling loans to third party loan purchasers. Increases in those costs could in turn decrease our margin and negatively impact our profitability. With respect to mortgage loans, increased costs for premiums from mortgage insurers, extensions of the period for which private mortgage insurance is required on a loan purchased by third party purchasers and other changes to mortgage insurance requirements could also increase our costs of completing a mortgage and

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our margins for home loan origination. Were any of our third party loan purchasers to make such changes in the future, it may have a negative impact on our ability to originate loans to be sold because of the increased costs of such loans and may decrease our profitability with respect to loans held for sale. In addition, any significant adverse change in the level of activity in the secondary market or the underwriting criteria of these third party loan purchasers could negatively impact our results of business, operations and cash flows.

We may incur additional costs in placing loans if our third party purchasers discontinue doing business with us for any reason.
We rely on third party purchasers with whom we place loans as a source of funding for the loans we make to customers. Occasionally, third party loan purchasers may go out of business, elect to exit the market or choose to cease doing business with us for a myriad of reasons, including but not limited to the increased burdens on purchasers related to compliance, adverse market conditions or other pressures on the industry. In the event that one or more third party purchasers goes out of business, exits the market or otherwise ceases to do business with us at a time when we have loans that have been placed with such purchaser but not yet sold, we may incur additional costs to sell those loans to other purchasers or may have to retain such loans, which could negatively impact our results of operations and our capital position.
Our real estate lending may expose us to environmental liabilities.

In the course of our business, it is necessary to foreclose and take title to real estate, including commercial real estate which could subject us to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. Hazardous substances or waste, contaminants, pollutants or sources thereof may be discovered on properties during our ownership or after a sale to a third party. We could be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at such properties. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial and could substantially exceed the value of the real property. In addition, if we were to be an owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. We may be unable to recover costs from any third party. These occurrences may materially reduce the value of the affected property, and we may find it difficult or impossible to use or sell the property prior to or following any environmental remediation. If we become subject to significant environmental liabilities, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Market-Related Risks


Fluctuations in interest rates could adversely affect the value of our assets and reduce our net interest income and noninterest income, thereby adversely affecting our earnings and profitability.

Interest rates may be affected by many factors beyond our control, including general and economic conditions and the monetary and fiscal policies of various governmental and regulatory authorities. For example, unexpected increases in interest rates can result in an increased percentage of rate lock customers closing loans, which would in turn increase our costs relative to income. In addition, increases in interest rates in recent periods has reduced our mortgage revenues by reducing the market for refinancings, which has negatively impacted demand for certain of our residential loan products and the revenue realized on the sale of loans which, in turn, may negatively impact our noninterest income and, to a lesser extent, our net interest income. Market volatility in interest rates can be difficult to predict, as unexpected interest rate changes may result in a sudden impact while anticipated changes in interest rates generally impact the mortgage rate market prior to the actual rate change.

Our earnings are also dependent on the difference between the interest earned on loans and investments and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings. Changes in market interest rates impact the rates earned on loans and investment securities and the rates paid on deposits and borrowings and may negatively impact our ability to attract deposits, make loans and achieve satisfactory interest rate spreads, which could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, changes to market interest rates may impact the level of loans, deposits and investments and the credit quality of existing loans.

Asymmetrical changes in interest rates, for example a greater increase in short term rates than in long term rates, could adversely impact our net interest income because our liabilities, including advances from the FHLB and interest payable on our deposits, tend to be more sensitive to short term rates while our assets tend to be more sensitive to long term rates. In addition, it may take longer for our assets to reprice to adjust to a new rate environment because fixed rate loans do not fluctuate with interest rate changes and adjustable rate loans often have a specified period of readjustment. As a result, a flattening or an inversion of the yield curve is likely to have a negative impact on our net interest income.

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Our securities portfolio also includes securities that are insured or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies or government-sponsored enterprises and other securities that are sensitive to interest rate fluctuations. The unrealized gains or losses in our available-for-sale portfolio are reported as a separate component of shareholders' equity until realized upon sale. Interest rate fluctuations may impact the value of these securities and as a result, shareholders' equity, and may cause material fluctuations from quarter to quarter. Failure to hold our securities until maturity or until market conditions are favorable for a sale could adversely affect our financial condition.

A significant portion of our noninterest income is derived from originating residential mortgage loans and selling them into the secondary market. That business has benefited from a long period of historically low interest rates. To the extent interest rates rise, particularly if they rise substantially, we may experience a reduction in mortgage financing of new home purchases and refinancing. These factors have negatively affected our mortgage loan origination volume and our noninterest income in the past and may do so again in the future.

We are exploring solutions to significantly decrease our mortgage origination operations in response to market forces that have increased competition for providers of mortgage products and put pressure on pricing for those products, which may limit our ability to increase our volume significantly in the event of a significant improvement in the mortgage market.

Due primarily to a combination of increases in mortgage rates after many years of record low rates and a nationwide contraction in the number of homes available for sale which is especially acute in our primary markets, the overall number of mortgage products being purchased in the market is significantly reduced from prior periods. In response, we have announced that we are looking for buyers for our large scale mortgage origination and servicing businesses. If we are successful in that effort, we expect to have a significantly smaller mortgage operation going forward. If the mortgage market were to significantly improve, we would not have the capacity to originate mortgages to the volume we have had in recent years, which would limit our ability to capitalize on that market.

Our mortgage operations are impacted by changes in the housing market, including factors that impact housing affordability and availability.

Housing affordability is directly affected by both the level of mortgage interest rates and the inventory of houses available for sale. The housing market recovery was aided by a protracted period of historically low mortgage interest rates that made it easier for consumers to qualify for a mortgage and purchase a home; however, mortgage rates are now rising again. Should mortgage rates substantially increase over current levels, it would become more difficult for many consumers to qualify for mortgage credit. This could have a dampening effect on home sales and on home values.

In addition, constraints on the number of houses available for sale, which is especially acute in some of our largest markets, are driving up home prices, which may also make it harder for our customers to qualify for a mortgage, adversely impact our ability to originate mortgages and, as a consequence, our results of operations. Any return to a recessionary economy could also result in financial stress on our borrowers that may result in volatility in home prices, increased foreclosures and significant write-downs of asset values, all of which would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The price of our common stock is subject to volatility.
The price of our common stock has fluctuated in the past and may face additional and potentially substantial fluctuations in the future. Among the factors that may impact our stock price are the following:
Variances in our operating results;
Disparity between our operating results and the operating results of our competitors;
Changes in analyst's estimates of our earnings results and future performance, or variances between our actual performance and that forecast by analysts;
News releases or other announcements of material events relating to the Company, including but not limited to mergers, acquisitions, expansion plans, restructuring activities or other strategic developments;
Statements made by activist investors criticizing our strategy, our management team or our Board of Directors;
Future securities offerings by us of debt or equity securities;
Addition or departure of key personnel;
Market-wide events that may be seen by the market as impacting the Company;
The presence or absence of short-selling of our common stock;
General financial conditions of the country or the regions in which we operate;
Trends in real estate in our primary markets;

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Trends relating to the economic markets generally; or
Changes in laws and regulations affecting financial institutions.

The stock markets in general experience substantial price and trading fluctuations, and such changes may create volatility in the market as a whole or in the stock prices of securities related to particular industries or companies that are unrelated or disproportionate to changes in operating performance of the Company. Such volatility may have an adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.

Current economic conditions continue to pose significant challenges for us and could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We generate revenue from the interest and fees we charge on the loans and other products and services we sell, and a substantial amount of our revenue and earnings comes from the net interest and noninterest income that we earn from our commercial lending and mortgage banking businesses. Our operations have been, and will continue to be, materially affected by the state of the U.S. economy, particularly unemployment levels and home prices. A prolonged period of slow growth or a pronounced decline in the U.S. economy, or any deterioration in general economic conditions and/or the financial markets resulting from these factors, or any other events or factors that may signal a return to a recessionary economic environment, could dampen consumer confidence, adversely impact the models we use to assess creditworthiness, and materially adversely affect our financial results and condition. If the economy worsens and unemployment rises, which also would likely result in a decrease in consumer and business confidence and spending, the demand for our credit products, including our mortgages, may fall, reducing our net interest and noninterest income and our earnings. Significant and unexpected market developments may also make it more challenging for us to properly forecast our expected financial results.

A change in federal monetary policy could adversely impact our revenues from lending activities.

The Federal Reserve is responsible for regulating the supply of money in the United States, and as a result, its monetary policies strongly influence our costs of funds for lending and investing, as well as the rate of return we are able to earn on those loans and investments, both of which impact our net interest income and net interest margin. Changes in interest rates may increase our cost of capital or decrease the income we receive from interest bearing assets, and asymmetrical changes in short term and long-term interest rates may result in a more rapid increase in the costs related to interest-bearing liabilities such as FHLB advances and interest-bearing deposit accounts without a correlated increase in the income from interest-bearing assets which are typically more sensitive to long-term interest rates. The Federal Reserve Board's interest rate policies can also materially affect the value of financial instruments we hold, including debt securities, MSRs and derivative instruments used to hedge against changes in the value of our MSRs. These monetary policies can also negatively impact our borrowers, which in turn may increase the risk that they will be unable to pay their loans according to the terms or be unable to pay their loans at all. We have no control over the Federal Reserve Board’s policies and cannot predict when changes are expected or what the magnitude of such changes may be.

A substantial portion of our revenue is currently derived from residential mortgage lending which is a market sector that experiences significant volatility.

Although we have grown our Commercial and Consumer Banking segment revenue to diversify our sources of income, we are seeking to sell the majority of our mortgage origination and servicing operations. At present a substantial portion of our consolidated net revenues (net interest income plus noninterest income) are still derived from originating and selling residential mortgages which is likely to remain the case unless and until we are able to transition our mortgage banking operations to a buyer. Residential mortgage lending in general has experienced substantial volatility in recent periods due to changes in interest rates, a significant lack of housing inventory caused by an increase in demand for housing at a time of decreased supply, and other market forces beyond our control. Lack of housing inventory limits our ability to originate purchase mortgages because it may take longer for loan applicants to find a home to buy after being pre-approved for a loan, which results in the Company incurring costs related to the pre-approval without being able to book the revenue from an actual loan. In addition, interest rate changes may result in lower rate locks and higher closed loan volume which can negatively impact our financial results because we book revenue at the time we enter into rate lock agreements after adjusting for the estimated percentage of loans that are not expected to actually close, which we refer to as "fallout". When interest rates rise, the level of fallout as a percentage of rate locks declines, which results in higher costs relative to income for that period, which may adversely impact our earnings and results of operations. In addition, an increase in interest rates may materially and adversely affect our future loan origination volume, margins, and the value of the collateral securing our outstanding loans, may increase rates of borrower default, and may otherwise adversely affect our business. If we are successful in finding a buyer for our large scale mortgage lending operations, we expect to continue to offer mortgage lending on a smaller scale, which will still be subject to this volatility.


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We may incur losses due to changes in prepayment rates.

Our mortgage servicing rights carry interest rate risk because the total amount of servicing fees earned, as well as changes in fair-market value, fluctuate based on expected loan prepayments (affecting the expected average life of a portfolio of residential mortgage servicing rights). The rate of prepayment of residential mortgage loans may be influenced by changing national and regional economic trends, such as recessions or stagnating real estate markets, as well as the difference between interest rates on existing residential mortgage loans relative to prevailing residential mortgage rates. During periods of declining interest rates, many residential borrowers refinance their mortgage loans. Changes in prepayment rates are therefore difficult for us to predict. The loan administration fee income (related to the residential mortgage loan servicing rights corresponding to a mortgage loan) decreases as mortgage loans are prepaid. Consequently, in the event of an increase in prepayment rates, we would expect the fair value of portfolios of residential mortgage loan servicing rights to decrease along with the amount of loan administration income received. We are seeking a buyer for a significant portion of our mortgage servicing rights, but will continue to face this risk unless and until we find a buyer for that portfolio, and will continue to be exposed to such risks on a smaller scale with respect to the servicing rights we expect to retain going forward.


Regulatory-Related Risks

We are subject to extensive regulation that may restrict our activities, including declaring cash dividends or capital distributions or pursuing growth initiatives and acquisition activities, and imposes financial requirements or limitations on the conduct of our business.

Our operations are subject to extensive regulation by federal, state and local governmental authorities, including the FDIC, the Washington Department of Financial Institutions and the Federal Reserve Board, and to various laws and judicial and administrative decisions imposing requirements and restrictions on part or all of our operations. The laws, rules and regulations to which we are subject evolve and change frequently, including changes that come from judicial or regulatory agency interpretations of laws and regulations outside of the legislative process that may be more difficult to anticipate. We are subject to various examinations by our regulators during the course of the year. Regulatory authorities who conduct these examinations have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the authority to restrict our operations, our growth and our acquisition activity, adversely reclassify our assets, determine the level of deposit insurance premiums assessed, require us to increase our allowance for loan losses, require customer restitution and impose fines or other penalties. The level of discretion, and the extent of potential penalties and other remedies, have increased substantially during recent years. We have, in the past, been subject to specific regulatory orders that constrained our business and required us to take measures that investors may have deemed undesirable, and we may again in the future be subject to such orders if banking regulators were to determine that our operations require such restrictions or if they determine that remediation of operational or other legal or regulatory deficiencies is required.

In addition, recent political shifts in the United States may result in additional significant changes in legislation and regulations that impact us. Dodd-Frank's level of oversight and compliance obligations increase significantly for banks with total assets in excess of $10 billion, which may limit our ability to grow beyond that level or may significantly increase the cost and regulatory burden of doing so. While the Trump administration and some members of Congress have indicated that they would like to repeal or revise certain portions of Dodd-Frank and other regulations impacting financial institutions, the possibility, nature and extent of such repeals or revisions are not presently known and we cannot predict whether or not these changes will come to pass. These circumstances lead to additional uncertainty regarding our regulatory environment and the cost and requirements for compliance. We are unable to predict whether federal or state authorities, or other pertinent bodies, will enact legislations, laws, rules or regulations that will impact our business or operations. Further, an increasing amount of the regulatory authority that pertains to financial institutions is in the form of informal "guidance" such as handbooks, guidelines, examination manuals, field interpretations by regulators or similar provisions that will affect our business or require changes in our practices in the future even if they are not formally adopted as laws or regulations. Any such changes could adversely affect our cost of doing business and our profitability.

Changes in regulation of our industry have the potential to create higher costs of compliance, including short-term costs to meet new compliance standards, limit our ability to pursue business opportunities and increase our exposure to potential litigation.


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Policies and regulations enacted by CFPB may negatively impact our residential mortgage loan business and compliance risk.

Our consumer business, including our mortgage, credit card, and other consumer lending and non-lending businesses, may be adversely affected by the policies enacted or regulations adopted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") which under the Dodd-Frank Act has broad rulemaking authority over consumer financial products and services. For example, in January 2014 federal regulations promulgated by the CFPB took effect which impact how we originate and service residential mortgage loans. Those regulations, among other things, require mortgage lenders to assess and document a borrower's ability to repay their mortgage loan while providing borrowers the ability to challenge foreclosures and sue for damages based on allegations that the lender failed to meet the standard for determining the borrower’s ability to repay their loan. While the regulations include presumptions in favor of the lender based on certain loan underwriting criteria, they have not yet been challenged widely in courts and it is uncertain how these presumptions will be construed and applied by courts in the event of litigation. The ultimate impact of these regulations on the lender's enforcement of its loan documents in the event of a loan default, and the cost and expense of doing so, is uncertain, but may be significant. In addition, the secondary market demand for loans that do not fall within the presumptively safest category of a "qualified mortgage" as defined by the CFPB is uncertain. The 2014 regulations also require changes to certain loan servicing procedures and practices, which have resulted in increased foreclosure costs and longer foreclosure timelines in the event of loan default, and failure to comply with the new servicing rules may result in additional litigation and compliance risk.

The CFPB was also given authority over the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, or RESPA, under the Dodd-Frank Act and has, in some cases, interpreted RESPA requirements differently than other agencies, regulators and judicial opinions. As a result, certain practices that have been considered standard in the industry, including relationships that have been established between mortgage lenders and others in the mortgage industry such as developers, realtors and insurance providers, are now being subjected to additional scrutiny under RESPA. Our regulators, including the FDIC, review our practices for compliance with RESPA as interpreted by the CFPB. Changes in RESPA requirements and the interpretation of RESPA requirements by our regulators may result in adverse examination findings by our regulators, which could result in enforcement action, fines, penalties and negatively impact our ability to pursue our growth plans, branch expansion and limit our acquisition activity.

In addition to RESPA compliance, the Bank is also subject to the CFPB's Final Integrated Disclosure Rule, commonly known as TRID, which became effective in October 2015. Among other things, TRID requires lenders to combine the initial Good Faith Estimate and Initial Truth in Lending disclosures into a single new Loan Estimate disclosure and the HUD-1 and Final TIL disclosures into a single new Closing Disclosure. The definition of an application and timing requirements has changed, and a new Closing Disclosure waiting period has been added. These changes, along with other changes required by TRID, require significant systems modifications, process and procedure changes. Failure to comply with these new requirements may result in regulatory penalties for disclosure and other violations under RESPA and the Truth In Lending Act ("TILA"), and private right of action under TILA, and may impact our ability to sell or the price we receive for certain loans.

In addition, the CFPB has adopted and largely implemented additional rules under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act ("HMDA") that are intended to improve information reported about the residential mortgage market and increase disclosure about consumer access to mortgage credit. The updates to the HMDA increase the types of dwelling-secured loans that are subject to the disclosure requirements of the rule and expand the categories of information that financial institutions such as the Bank are required to report with respect to such loans and such borrowers, including potentially sensitive customer information. Most of the rule's provisions went into effect on January 1, 2018. These changes increased our compliance costs due to the need for additional resources to meet the enhanced disclosure requirements as well as informational systems to allow the Bank to properly capture and report the additional mandated information. The volume of new data that is required to be reported under the updated rules will also cause the Bank to face an increased risk of errors in the processing of such information. More importantly, because of the sensitive nature of some of the additional customer information to be included in such reports, the Bank may face a higher potential for security breaches resulting in the disclosure of sensitive customer information in the event the HMDA reporting files were obtained by an unauthorized party.


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Interpretation of federal and state legislation, case law or regulatory action may negatively impact our business.

Regulatory and judicial interpretation of existing and future federal and state legislation, case law, judicial orders and regulations could also require us to revise our operations and change certain business practices, impose additional costs, reduce our revenue and earnings and otherwise adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. For instance, judges interpreting legislation and judicial decisions made during the recent financial crisis could allow modification of the terms of residential mortgages in bankruptcy proceedings which could hinder our ability to foreclose promptly on defaulted mortgage loans or expand assignee liability for certain violations in the mortgage loan origination process, any or all of which could adversely affect our business or result in our being held responsible for violations in the mortgage loan origination process. In addition, the exercise by regulators of revised and at times expanded powers under existing or future regulations could materially and negatively impact the profitability of our business, the value of assets we hold or the collateral available for our loans, require changes to business practices, limit our ability to pursue growth strategies or force us to discontinue certain business practices and expose us to additional costs, taxes, liabilities, penalties, enforcement actions and reputational risk.

Such judicial decisions or regulatory interpretations may affect the manner in which we do business and the products and services that we provide, restrict our ability to grow through acquisition, restrict our ability to compete in our current business or expand into any new business, and impose additional fees, assessments or taxes on us or increase our regulatory oversight.

Federal, state and local consumer protection laws may restrict our ability to offer and/or increase our risk of liability with respect to certain products and services and could increase our cost of doing business.

Federal, state and local laws have been adopted that are intended to eliminate certain practices considered "predatory" or "unfair and deceptive". These laws prohibit practices such as steering borrowers away from more affordable products, failing to disclose key features, limitations, or costs related to products and services, failing to provide advertised benefits, selling unnecessary insurance to borrowers, repeatedly refinancing loans, imposing excessive fees for overdrafts, and making loans without a reasonable expectation that the borrowers will be able to repay the loans irrespective of the value of the underlying property. It is our policy not to make predatory loans or engage in deceptive practices, but these laws and regulations create the potential for liability with respect to our lending, servicing, loan investment, deposit taking and other financial activities. As a company with a significant mortgage banking operation, we also, inherently, have a significant amount of risk of noncompliance with fair lending laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are complex and require vigilance to ensure that policies and practices do not create disparate impact on our customers or that our employees do not engage in overt discriminatory practices. Noncompliance can result in significant regulatory actions including, but not limited to, sanctions, fines or referrals to the Department of Justice and restrictions on our ability to execute our growth and expansion plans. These risks are enhanced because of our growth activities as we integrate operations from our acquisitions and expand our geographic markets. As we offer products and services to customers in additional states, we may become subject to additional state and local laws designed to protect consumers. The additional laws and regulations may increase our cost of doing business and ultimately may prevent us from making certain loans, offering certain products, and may cause us to reduce the average percentage rate or the points and fees on loans and other products and services that we do provide.

We are subject to more stringent capital requirements under Basel III.

As of January 1, 2015, we became subject to new rules relating to capital standards requirements, including requirements contemplated by Section 171 of the Dodd-Frank Act as well as certain standards initially adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which standards are commonly referred to as Basel III. Many of these rules apply to both the Company and the Bank, including increased common equity Tier 1 capital ratios, Tier 1 leverage ratios, Tier 1 risk-based ratios and total risk-based ratios. In addition, beginning in 2016, all institutions subject to Basel III, including the Company and the Bank are required to establish a "conservation buffer" that took full effect on January 1, 2019. This conservation buffer consists of common equity Tier 1 capital and is now required to be 2.5% above existing minimum capital ratio requirements. This means that once the conservation buffer is fully phased in, in order to prevent certain regulatory restrictions, the common equity Tier 1 capital ratio requirement will be 7.0%, the Tier 1 risk-based ratio requirement will be 8.5% and the total risk-based capital ratio requirement will be 10.5%. Any institution that does not meet the conservation buffer will be subject to restrictions on certain activities including payment of dividends, stock repurchases and discretionary bonuses to executive officers.

Additional prompt corrective action rules implemented in 2015 also apply to the Bank, including higher and new ratio requirements for the Bank to be considered "well-capitalized." The new rules also modify the manner for determining when certain capital elements are included in the ratio calculations, including but not limited to, requiring certain deductions related to MSRs and deferred tax assets. For more on these regulatory requirements and how they apply to the Company and the Bank, see "Business - Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements -

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Capital Requirements" in this Form 10-K. The application of more stringent capital requirements could, among other things, result in lower returns on invested capital and result in regulatory actions if we were to be unable to comply with such requirements. In addition, if we need to raise additional equity capital in order to meet these more stringent requirements, our shareholders may be diluted.

Changes in accounting standards may require us to increase our Allowance for Loan Losses and could materially impact our financial statements.

From time to time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the "FASB") and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. For example, in June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) which changes, among other things, the way companies must record expected credit losses on financial instruments that are not accounted for at fair value through net income, including loans held for investment, available for sale and held-to-maturity debt securities, trade and other receivables, net investment in leases and other commitments to extend credit held by a reporting entity at each reporting date. ASU 2016-13 requires that financial assets measured at amortized cost be presented at the net amount expected to be collected, through an allowance for credit losses that is deducted from the amortized cost basis. This differs from current US GAAP which is based on incurred losses inherent in the loan portfolio and moves to a current estimate of all expected credit losses based on relevant information about past events including historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. The amendments in this ASU will be effective for us beginning on January 1, 2020.

For purchased financial assets with a more-than-insignificant amount of credit deterioration since origination ("PCD assets") that are measured at amortized cost, an allowance for expected credit losses will be recorded as an adjustment to the cost basis of the asset. Subsequent changes in estimated cash flows would be recorded as an adjustment to the allowance and through the statement of income. Credit losses relating to available-for-sale debt securities will be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a direct write-down to the security's cost basis. For most debt securities, the transition approach requires a cumulative-effect adjustment to the statement of financial position as of the beginning of the first reporting period the guidance is effective. For other-than-temporarily impaired debt securities and PCD assets, the guidance will be applied prospectively.

We are currently evaluating the provisions of this ASU to determine the impact and developing appropriate systems to prepare for compliance with this new standard, however, we expect the new standard could have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

HomeStreet, Inc. primarily relies on dividends from the Bank, which may be limited by applicable laws and regulations.

HomeStreet, Inc. is a separate legal entity from the Bank, and although we may receive some dividends from HomeStreet Capital Corporation, the primary source of our funds from which we service our debt, pay any dividends that we may declare to our shareholders and otherwise satisfy our obligations is dividends from the Bank. The availability of dividends from the Bank is limited by various statutes and regulations, capital rules regarding requirements to maintain a "well capitalized" ratio at the bank, as well as by our policy of retaining a significant portion of our earnings to support the Bank's operations. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources Capital Management" as well as "Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements" in this Form 10-K. If the Bank cannot pay dividends to us, we may be limited in our ability to service our debts, fund the Company's operations and acquisition plans and pay dividends to the Company's shareholders. While the Company has paid special dividends in some prior quarters, we have not adopted a policy to pay dividends and in recent years our Board of Directors has elected to retain capital for growth rather than to declare a dividend. While management has recently discussed the possibility of paying dividends in the near future, we have not declared dividends in any recent quarters, and the potential of future dividends is subject to board approval, cash flow limitations, capital requirements, capital and strategic needs and other factors.
    
The financial services industry is highly competitive.

We face pricing competition for loans and deposits. We also face competition with respect to customer convenience, product lines, accessibility of service and service capabilities. Our most direct competition comes from other banks, credit unions, mortgage companies and savings institutions but more recently has also come from financial technology (or "fintech") companies that rely on technology to provide financial services. The significant competition in attracting and retaining deposits and making loans as well as in providing other financial services throughout our market area may impact future earnings and growth. Our success depends, in part, on the ability to adapt products and services to evolving industry standards and provide

33




consistent customer service while keeping costs in line. There is increasing pressure to provide products and services at lower prices, which can reduce net interest income and non-interest income from fee-based products and services. New technology-driven products and services are often introduced and adopted, including innovative ways that customers can make payments, access products and manage accounts. We could be required to make substantial capital expenditures to modify or adapt existing products and services or develop new products and services. We may not be successful in introducing new products and services or those new products may not achieve market acceptance. We could lose business, be forced to price products and services on less advantageous terms to retain or attract clients, or be subject to cost increases if we do not effectively develop and implement new technology. In addition, advances in technology such as telephone, text and on-line banking, e-commerce; and self-service automatic teller machines and other equipment, as well as changing customer preferences to access our products and services through digital channels, could decrease the value of our branch network and other assets. As a result of these competitive pressures, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.

We will be subject to heightened regulatory requirements if we exceed $10 billion in assets.
We anticipate that our total assets could exceed $10 billion in the next several years, based on our historic and projected growth rates. The Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations impose various additional requirements on bank holding companies with $10 billion or more in total assets. In addition, banks with $10 billion or more in total assets are primarily examined by the CFPB with respect to various federal consumer financial protection laws and regulations. Currently, our bank is subject to regulations adopted by the CFPB, but the FDIC is primarily responsible for examining our bank's compliance with various consumer protection laws and those CFPB regulations. As a relatively new agency with evolving regulations and practices, there is uncertainty as to how the CFPB's examination and regulatory authority might impact our business.
To ensure compliance with these heightened requirements when effective, our regulators may require us to fully comply with these requirements or take actions to prepare for compliance even before our or the Bank's total assets equal or exceed $10 billion. In fact, we have already begun implementing measures to allow us to prepare for the heightened compliance that we expect will be required if we exceed $10 billion in assets, including hiring additional compliance personnel and designing and implementing additional compliance systems and internal controls. We may incur significant expenses in connection with these activities, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We expect to incur these compliance-related costs even if they are not yet fully required, and may incur them even if we do not ultimately reach $10 billion in assets at the rate we expect or at all. We may also face heightened scrutiny by our regulators as we begin to implement these new compliance measures and grow toward the $10 billion asset threshold, and our regulators may consider our preparation for compliance with these regulatory requirements when examining our operations generally or considering any request for regulatory approval we may make, even requests for approvals on unrelated matters.
Risks Related to Information Systems and Security

A failure in or breach of our security systems or infrastructure, including breaches resulting from cyber-attacks, could disrupt our businesses, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses.

Information security risks for financial institutions have increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, activists, and other external parties. Those parties also may attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers, or other users of our systems to disclose confidential information in order to gain access to our data or that of our customers. Our operations rely on the secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential information in our computer systems and networks, either managed directly by us or through our data processing vendors. In addition, to access our products and services, our customers may use personal computers, smartphones, tablet PCs, and other mobile devices that are beyond our control systems. Although we believe we have robust information security procedures and controls, we rely heavily on our third party vendors, technologies, systems, networks and our customers' devices all of which may become the target of cyber-attacks, computer viruses, malicious code, unauthorized access, hackers or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss, theft or destruction of our confidential, proprietary and other information or that of our customers, or disrupt our operations or those of our customers or third parties.

To date we are not aware of any material losses relating to cyber-attacks or other information security breaches, but there can be no assurance that we will not suffer such attacks, breaches and losses in the future. Our risk and exposure to these matters remains heightened because of, among other things, the evolving nature of these threats, our plans to continue to evolve our Internet banking and mobile banking channel, our expanding operations and the outsourcing of a significant portion of our business operations. As a result, the continued development and enhancement of our information security controls, processes

34




and practices designed to protect customer information, our systems, computers, software, data and networks from attack, damage or unauthorized access remain a priority for our management. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to insure, modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate important information security vulnerabilities or exposures; however, our measures may be insufficient to prevent all physical and electronic break-ins, denial of service and other cyber-attacks or security breaches.

Disruptions or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support our businesses and customers, or cyber-attacks or security breaches of the networks, systems or devices that our customers use to access our products and services could result in customer attrition, uninsured financial losses, the inability of our customers to transact business with us, employee productivity losses, technology replacement costs, incident response costs, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties or intervention, additional regulatory scrutiny, reputational damage, litigation, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs, any of which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.

We rely on third party vendors and other service providers for certain critical business activities, which creates additional operational and information security risks for us.

Third parties with which we do business or that facilitate our business activities, including exchanges, clearing houses, financial intermediaries or vendors that provide services or security solutions for our operations, could also be sources of operational and information security risk to us, including from interruptions or failures of their own systems, capacity constraints or failures of their own internal controls. Specifically, we receive core systems processing, essential web hosting and other Internet systems and deposit and other processing services from third-party service providers. In late February 2018, one of our vendors provided notice to us that their independent auditors had determined their internal controls to be inadequate. While we do not believe this particular failure of internal controls would have an impact on us due to the strength of our own internal controls, future failures of internal controls of a vendor could have a significant impact on our operations if we do not have controls to cover those issues. To date none of our third party vendors or service providers has notified us of any security breach in their systems that has resulted in an increased vulnerability to us or breached the integrity of our confidential customer data. Such third parties may also be targets of cyber-attacks, computer viruses, malicious code, unauthorized access, hackers or information security breaches that could compromise the confidential or proprietary information of HomeStreet and our customers.

In addition, if any third-party service providers experience difficulties or terminate their services and we are unable to replace them with other service providers, our operations could be interrupted and our operating expenses may materially increase. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, our business financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Some of our primary third party service providers are subject to examination by banking regulators and may be subject to enhanced regulatory scrutiny due to regulatory findings during examinations of such service providers conducted by federal regulators. While we subject such vendors to higher scrutiny and monitor any corrective measures that the vendors are taking or would undertake, we cannot fully anticipate and mitigate all risks that could result from a breach or other operational failure of a vendor's system.

Others provide technology that we use in our own regulatory compliance, including our mortgage loan origination technology. If those providers fail to update their systems or services in a timely manner to reflect new or changing regulations, or if our personnel operate these systems in a non-compliant manner, our ability to meet regulatory requirements may be impacted and may expose us to heightened regulatory scrutiny and the potential for monetary penalties.

In addition, in order to safeguard our online financial transactions, we must provide secure transmission of confidential information over public networks. Our Internet banking system relies on third party encryption and authentication technologies necessary to provide secure transmission of confidential information. Advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptology or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the algorithms our third-party service providers use to protect customer data. If any such compromise of security were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The failure to protect our customers' confidential information and privacy could adversely affect our business.

We are subject to federal and state privacy regulations and confidentiality obligations that, among other things restrict the use and dissemination of, and access to, certain information that we produce, store or maintain in the course of our business. We also have contractual obligations to protect certain confidential information we obtain from our existing vendors and customers.

35




These obligations generally include protecting such confidential information in the same manner and to the same extent as we protect our own confidential information, and in some instances may impose indemnity obligations on us relating to unlawful or unauthorized disclosure of any such information.

Recently passed legislation in the European Union (the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR) and in California (the California Privacy Act) may increase the burden and cost of compliance specifically in the realm of consumer data privacy. We are still evaluating the potential impact of these new regulations on our business and do not yet know exactly what the impact may be, but anticipate that there will be at least some added cost and burden as a result of these measures. In addition, other federal, state or local governments may try to implement similar legislation, which could result in different privacy standards for different geographical regions, which could require significantly more resources for compliance.

If we do not properly comply with privacy regulations and contractual obligations that require us to protect confidential information, or if we experience a security breach or network compromise, we could experience adverse consequences, including regulatory sanctions, penalties or fines, increased compliance costs, remedial costs such as providing credit monitoring or other services to affected customers, litigation and damage to our reputation, which in turn could result in decreased revenues and loss of customers, all of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The network and computer systems on which we depend could fail for reasons not related to security breaches.

Our computer systems could be vulnerable to unforeseen problems other than a cyber-attack or other security breach. Because we conduct a part of our business over the Internet and outsource several critical functions to third parties, operations will depend on our ability, as well as the ability of third-party service providers, to protect computer systems and network infrastructure against damage from fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, physical break-ins or similar catastrophic events. Any damage or failure that causes interruptions in operations may compromise our ability to perform critical functions in a timely manner (or may give rise to perceptions of such compromise) and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations as well as our reputation and customer or vendor relationships.

We continually encounter technological change, and we may have fewer resources than many of our competitors to invest in technological improvements.

The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our clients by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy client demands for convenience, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many national vendors provide turn-key services to community banks, such as Internet banking and remote deposit capture that allow smaller banks to compete with institutions that have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able, however, to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers.

Anti-Takeover Risk

Some provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws and certain provisions of Washington law may deter takeover attempts, which may limit the opportunity of our shareholders to sell their shares at a favorable price.

Some provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of deterring or delaying attempts by our shareholders to remove or replace management, to commence proxy contests, or to effect changes in control. These provisions include:
A classified Board of Directors so that only approximately one third of our board of directors is elected each year;
Elimination of cumulative voting in the election of directors;
Procedures for advance notification of shareholder nominations and proposals;
The ability of our Board of Directors to amend our bylaws without shareholder approval; and
The ability of our Board of Directors to issue shares of preferred stock without shareholder approval upon the terms and conditions and with the rights, privileges and preferences as the board of directors may determine.

In addition, as a Washington corporation, we are subject to Washington law which imposes restrictions on business combinations and similar transactions between a corporation and certain significant shareholders. These provisions, alone or together, could have the effect of deterring or delaying changes in incumbent management, proxy contests or changes in

36




control. These restrictions may limit a shareholder's ability to benefit from a change-in-control transaction that might otherwise result in a premium unless such a transaction is favored by our Board of Directors.

37




ITEM 1B
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2
PROPERTIES

We lease principal offices, which are located in downtown Seattle at 601 Union Street, Suite 2000, Seattle, WA 98101. This lease provides sufficient space to conduct the management of our business. The Company conducts Mortgage Lending as well as Commercial and Consumer Banking activities in locations in Washington, California, Oregon, Hawaii, Idaho, and Utah. As of December 31, 2018, we operated in 32 primary stand-alone home loan centers, six primary commercial lending centers, 60 retail deposit branches, and one insurance office. As of such date, we also operated three facilities for the purpose of administrative and other functions in addition to the principal offices: a loan fulfillment center and a call center and operations support facility, both located in Federal Way, Washington; and loan fulfillment centers in Pleasanton, California and Vancouver, Washington. Two other loan fulfillment centers are operated in Lynnwood, Washington and Honolulu, Hawaii and co-located with stand-alone loan offices included in the above summary. Of these properties, we own five of the retail deposit branches, the loan fulfillment center and the call center and operations support facility in Federal Way and we own 50% of a retail branch through a joint venture. In addition, we own one parcel of land in Washington State. All facilities are in a good state of repair and appropriately designed for use as banking or administrative office facilities.

ITEM 3
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Because the nature of our business involves the collection of numerous accounts, the validity of liens and compliance with various state and federal lending laws, we are subject to various legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business related to foreclosures, bankruptcies, condemnation and quiet title actions and alleged statutory and regulatory violations. We are also subject to legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business related to employment matters. We do not expect that these proceedings, taken as a whole, will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or our results of operations. There are currently no matters that, in the opinion of management, would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operation or liquidity, or for which there would be a reasonable possibility of such a loss based on information known at this time.

ITEM 4
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.


38




PART II
 

ITEM 5
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Common Stock

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "HMST."

As of February 27, 2019, there were 2,971 shareholders of record of our common stock.

Dividend Policy

We have not adopted a formal dividend policy to pay dividends and did not pay any dividends to shareholders in 2018 or 2017. The amount and timing of any future dividends have not been determined. The payment of dividends is dependent upon a number of factors, including regulatory capital requirements, the Company’s and the Bank’s liquidity, financial condition and results of operations, strategic growth plans, tax considerations, statutory and regulatory limitations and general economic conditions. Our ability to pay dividends to shareholders is significantly dependent on the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Company, which is limited to the extent necessary for the Bank to meet the regulatory requirements of a "well-capitalized" bank or other formal or informal guidance communicated by our principal regulators. See "Business Regulation and Supervision - Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements."

For the foregoing reasons, there can be no assurance that we will pay any further special dividends or initiate a regular dividend in any future period.

Sales of Unregistered Securities

There were no sales of unregistered securities in the fourth quarter of 2018.

Stock Repurchases in the Fourth Quarter

Not applicable.





39




Stock Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act), or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of HomeStreet, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

The following graph shows a comparison from December 31, 2014 through December 31, 2018 of the cumulative total return for our common stock, the Russell 2000 Index (RUT) and the KBW Regional Banking Index (KRX). The graph assumes that $100 was invested at the market close on December 31, 2014 in the common stock of HomeStreet, Inc., the Russell 2000 Index, the KBW Regional Banking Index and data for HomeStreet, Inc., the Russell 2000 Index and the KBW Regional Banking Index assumes reinvestments of dividends. The stock price performance of the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

397036178_stockgraph2018a01.jpg




40




ITEM 6
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The data set forth below should be read in conjunction with Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Consolidated Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto appearing at Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

The following table sets forth selected historical consolidated financial and other data for each of the periods ended as described below. The selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 have been derived from, and should be read together with, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements for those years, which are not included in this Form10-K. You should read the summary selected historical consolidated financial and other data presented below in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our financial statements and the notes thereto, which are included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. We have prepared our unaudited information on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and have included, in our opinion, all adjustments that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial information set forth in that information.

 
At or for the Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands, except share data)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income statement data (for the period ended):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net interest income
$
202,479

 
$
194,438

 
$
180,049

 
$
148,338

 
$
98,669

Provision (reversal of provision) for credit losses
3,000

 
750

 
4,100

 
6,100

 
(1,000
)
Noninterest income
236,959

 
312,154

 
359,150

 
281,237

 
185,657

Noninterest expense
390,573

 
439,653

 
444,322

 
366,568

 
252,011

Income before income taxes
45,865

 
66,189

 
90,777

 
56,907

 
33,315

Income tax expense (benefit)
5,838

 
(2,757
)
 
32,626

 
15,588

 
11,056

Net income
$
40,027

 
$
68,946

 
$
58,151

 
$
41,319

 
$
22,259

Basic income per share
$
1.48

 
$
2.57

 
$
2.36

 
$
1.98

 
$
1.50

Diluted income per share
$
1.47

 
$
2.54

 
$
2.34

 
$
1.96

 
$
1.49

Common shares outstanding
26,995,348

 
26,888,288

 
26,800,183

 
22,076,534

 
14,856,611

Weighted average number of shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
26,970,916

 
26,864,657

 
24,615,990

 
20,818,045

 
14,800,689

Diluted
27,168,135

 
27,092,019

 
24,843,683

 
21,059,201

 
14,961,081

Book value per share
$
27.39

 
$
26.20

 
$
23.48

 
$
21.08


$
20.34

Dividends per share
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
0.11

Financial position (at year end):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
57,982

 
$
72,718

 
$
53,932

 
$
32,684

 
$
30,502

Investment securities
923,253

 
904,304

 
1,043,851

 
572,164

 
455,332

Loans held for sale
347,007

 
610,902

 
714,559

 
650,163

 
621,235

Loans held for investment, net
5,075,371

 
4,506,466

 
3,819,027

 
3,192,720

 
2,099,129

Mortgage servicing rights
280,496

 
284,653

 
245,860

 
171,255

 
123,324

Other real estate owned
455

 
664

 
5,243

 
7,531

 
9,448

Total assets
7,042,221

 
6,742,041

 
6,243,700

 
4,894,495

 
3,535,090

Deposits
5,051,408

 
4,760,952

 
4,429,701

 
3,231,953

 
2,445,430

Federal Home Loan Bank advances
932,590

 
979,201

 
868,379

 
1,018,159

 
597,590

Federal funds purchased and securities sold under agreements to repurchase
19,000

 

 

 

 
50,000

Total shareholders' equity
$
739,520

 
$
704,380

 
$
629,284

 
465,275

 
302,238



41




Summary Financial Data (continued)

 
At or for the Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands, except share data)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Financial position (averages):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Investment securities
$
916,840

 
$
1,023,702

 
$
834,671

 
$
523,756

 
$
459,060

Loans held for investment
4,866,210

 
4,178,326

 
3,668,263

 
2,834,511

 
1,890,537

Total interest-earning assets
6,348,072

 
5,998,521

 
5,307,118

 
4,150,089

 
2,869,414

Total interest-bearing deposits
4,051,903

 
3,588,515

 
3,145,137

 
2,499,538

 
1,883,622

Federal Home Loan Bank advances
867,141

 
1,037,650

 
942,593

 
795,368

 
431,623

Total interest-bearing liabilities
5,059,411

 
4,755,221

 
4,189,582

 
3,368,160

 
2,386,537

Shareholders' equity
741,035

 
675,877

 
566,148

 
442,105

 
289,420

Financial performance:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Return on average shareholders' equity (1)
5.40
%
 
10.20
%
 
10.27
%
 
9.35
%
 
7.69
%
Return on average total assets
0.57
%
 
1.05
%
 
1.01
%
 
0.91
%