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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)    

ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

OR

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number: 001-35155

BOINGO WIRELESS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

DELAWARE
(State of other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  95-4856877
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

10960 Wilshire Blvd., 23rd Floor
Los Angeles, California 90024
(Address of principal executive offices, Zip Code)

(310) 586-5180
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

         Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(Title of each class)   (Name of each exchange on which registered)

         Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o   Smaller reporting company o

Emerging growth company o

         If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No ý

         The aggregate market value of the Registrant's voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of the last day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $929,616,225 based on the last reported sale price of $22.59 per share on the NASDAQ Global Market on June 29, 2018, the last trading day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter.

         As of February 22, 2019, there were 43,920,669 shares of registrant's common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

         Portions of the Company's definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed within 120 days of the Company's year ended December 31, 2018 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K where indicated.

   


Table of Contents


BOINGO WIRELESS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K FOR
THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
   
  Page  

PART I

 

Item 1.

 

Business

    2  

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

    13  

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

    34  

Item 2.

 

Properties

    34  

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

    34  

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

    34  

PART II

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

    34  

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

    36  

Item 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    42  

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

    68  

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

    69  

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

    69  

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

    69  

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

    70  

PART III

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

    71  

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

    71  

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

    72  

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

    72  

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

    72  

PART IV

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits

    73  

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

    77  

Consolidated Financial Statements

    F-1  

Signatures

    F-52  

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Forward-Looking Statements

        We have made forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are subject to risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are subject to the "safe harbor" created by those sections. The forward-looking statements in this report are based on our management's beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as "anticipates," "aspires," "believes," "can," "continue," "could," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "may," "plans," "projects," "seeks," "should," "will" or "would" or the negative of these terms and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause our actual results, performance, time frames or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance, time frames or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We discuss many of these risks, uncertainties and other factors in this document in greater detail under the heading "Risk Factors." We believe it is important to communicate our expectations to our investors. However, there may be events in the future that we are not able to predict accurately or over which we have no control. The risks described in "Risk Factors" included in this report, as well as any other cautionary language in this report, provide examples of risks, uncertainties and events that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations we describe in our forward-looking statements. Before you invest in our common stock, you should be aware that the occurrence of the events described in "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this report could harm our business.

        Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this filing. You should read this document completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We hereby qualify our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

        Unless the context otherwise requires, we use the terms "Boingo," "company," "we," "us" and "our" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to refer to Boingo Wireless, Inc. and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries.


PART I

Item 1.    Business

        Boingo helps the world stay connected to the people and things they love.

        We acquire long-term wireless rights at large venues like airports transportation hubs, stadiums/arenas, military bases, multifamily properties, universities, convention centers, and office campuses; we build high-quality wireless networks such as distributed antenna systems ("DAS"), Wi-Fi, and small cells at those venues; and we monetize the wireless networks through a number of products and services.

        Over the past 17 years, we've built a global footprint of wireless networks that we estimate reaches more than a billion consumers annually. We operate 58 DAS networks containing approximately 29,900 DAS nodes, and believe we are the largest operator of indoor DAS networks in the world. Our Wi-Fi network, which includes locations we manage and operate ourselves (our "managed and operated locations") as well as networks managed and operated by third-parties with whom we contract for access (our "roaming" networks), includes over 1.2 million commercial Wi-Fi hotspots in more than 100 countries around the world.

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        We generate revenue from our wireless networks in a number of ways, including our DAS, small cells, multifamily and wholesale Wi-Fi offerings, which are targeted towards businesses, and our military, retail, and advertising offerings, which are targeted towards consumers.

        We generate wholesale revenue from telecom operators that pay us build-out fees and recurring access fees so that their cellular customers may use our DAS or small cell networks at locations where we manage and operate the wireless network. In 2018, DAS revenue accounted for approximately 38% of our revenue.

        Military/multifamily revenue, which is driven by military personnel who purchase Wi-Fi services on military bases, and multifamily revenue, which is driven by property owners who purchase network installation services and recurring monthly Wi-Fi services and support, accounted for approximately 31% of our total revenue in 2018. As of December 31, 2018, we have grown our military subscriber base to approximately 138,000, an increase of approximately 6.2% over the prior year. Retail revenue, which is driven by consumers who purchase a recurring monthly subscription plan or one-time Wi-Fi access, accounted for approximately 7% of our total revenue in 2018. As of December 31, 2018, our retail subscriber base was approximately 122,000, a decrease of approximately 35.1% over the prior year.

        Our wholesale customers such as telecom operators, cable companies, technology companies, and enterprise software/services companies, pay us usage-based Wi-Fi network access and software licensing fees to allow their customers' access to our footprint worldwide. Wholesale Wi-Fi revenue also includes financial institutions and other enterprise customers who provide Boingo as a value-added service for their customers. In 2018, wholesale Wi-Fi revenue accounted for approximately 19% of our revenue.

        We also generate revenue from advertisers that seek to reach consumers via sponsored Wi-Fi access. In 2018, advertising and other revenue accounted for approximately 5% of our revenue.

        Our customer agreements for certain DAS networks include both a fixed and variable fee structure with the highest percentage of sales typically occurring in the fourth quarter of each year and the lowest percentage of sales occurring in the first quarter of each year. Our multifamily network installation services have historically been performed for the student housing market with the highest percentage of revenues typically occurring in the second and third quarter of each year. We expect these trends to continue. We do not expect significant seasonal impact for any of our other products.

        We were incorporated in the State of Delaware in April 2001 under the name Project Mammoth, Inc. and changed our name to Boingo Wireless, Inc. in October 2001. Our principal executive offices are located in Los Angeles, California. Our website address is www.boingo.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

        Today, consumers own multiple connected devices—smartphones, laptops, tablets, wearables, and more. In addition, mobile data growth is exploding, driven by the growth of wireless devices and the increase in high-bandwidth activities like video streaming, online gaming, and mobile apps. According to Cisco's 2018 Visual Networking Index ("CVNI"), global mobile data traffic is forecasted to grow seven-fold from 2017 to 2022, a compound annual growth rate of 46%. CVNI further estimates that by 2022, there will be 3.6 "connected" devices for every human on the planet. That means 28.5 billion networked devices by 2022.

        The mobile data explosion has fueled the growth of higher-generation network connectivity to address the demand for more bandwidth, higher security, and faster connectivity. Telecom operators have started trials for 5G, which will provide higher bandwidth (greater than 1 gigabit per second),

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broader coverage, and ultra-low latency. Significant 5G deployments are expected by 2020 subject to certain gating factors like standards development, regulatory approval, and spectrum availability.

        The mobile Internet is a complex and constantly evolving ecosystem comprised of dozens of manufacturers, many different operating systems, and a number of different wireless technologies utilizing both licensed and unlicensed spectrum. This complexity is amplified as new device models and operating systems are released, new categories of devices become Internet enabled, and new network technologies emerge.

        To cope with the significant increase in mobile Internet data traffic, wireless network operators must build denser networks that are closer to the end consumer, explore solutions to offload network traffic from congested, licensed spectrum onto more efficient unlicensed spectrum, and invest in technologies that will enable the convergence of licensed and unlicensed spectrum. We expect our wireless networks to play a significant role in helping meet the ever-increasing data demands of connected consumers.

        We believe we are the leading global provider of neutral-host commercial mobile Wi-Fi Internet solutions and indoor DAS services. Our overall business strategy is simple: acquire long-term wireless rights at large venues; build high-quality wireless networks at those venues; and monetize the wireless networks through a number of products and services. In support of our overall business strategy, we are focused on the following objectives:

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        Our solution makes it easy, convenient and cost effective for consumers to access the mobile Internet.

        DAS or Small Cell.    We offer our telecom operator partners access to our DAS or small cell networks at our managed and operated locations. We deploy our DAS or small cell networks within venues that require additional signal strength to improve the quality of cellular services.

        Military/Multifamily.    We provide high-speed Wi-Fi services for residential consumers on military bases and at multifamily properties. On military bases, where we are the leading provider of barracks Wi-Fi services at more than 60 U.S. Army, Air Force, and Marines bases, we offer direct-to-consumer transactional and recurring monthly subscription plans. Our plan offerings include Basic Internet (speeds up to 10Mbps) and Blazing Internet (speeds up to 50Mbps). Our subscription plans require no installation or equipment and are portable from base to base, enabling a user to sign up for service immediately and remain a customer even if they are deployed to a new base. At multifamily properties, we primarily offer bulk subscription plans sold directly to the property owner. Our multifamily footprint includes 225 properties throughout the U.S.

        Wholesale—Wi-Fi.    Our integrated hardware and software platform allows us to provide a range of enhanced services to network operators, device manufacturers, technology companies, enterprise software and services companies, venue operators and financial services companies.

        Retail.    We enable individuals to purchase Internet access at our managed and operated hotspots and select partner locations around the world. We offer a selection of recurring monthly subscriptions and single-use access plans. Our most common plan is the $14.99 monthly subscription for up to four connected devices that provide users access to a global footprint of over 1.2 million hotspots, and the single-use plan at $7.95 per day or $4.95 per hour. Our single-use access plans provide unlimited access on a single device at a specific hotspot for a defined period of time, tolled from the time the user first logs on to the network. We intend to continue to launch other flexible plans to meet the evolving needs of our customers and venues.

        Advertising.    Our Wi-Fi platform provides a valuable opportunity for advertisers to reach consumers with sponsored Wi-Fi access, promotional programs and display advertising. We provide brands and advertisers the opportunity to sponsor wireless connectivity to individuals at locations where

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we manage and operate the Wi-Fi network and locations where we solely provide authorized access to a partner's Wi-Fi network through sponsored access and promotional programs. In addition, our advertising solution is easily integrated into Wi-Fi networks not directly managed by Boingo.

        Over the past 17 years, we've built a global network of wireless networks that we estimate reaches more than a billion consumers annually. We operate 58 DAS networks containing 29,900 DAS nodes, and believe we are the largest operator of indoor DAS networks in the world. Our Wi-Fi network—which includes our managed and operated locations and our roaming networks—includes over 1.2 million commercial Wi-Fi hotspots in more than 100 countries around the world.

        Boingo hotspot locations by region as of December 31, 2018 included:

Region
  Airport   Café / Retail   Convention
Center
  Hotel   Other(1)   Total  

North America

    61     101,018     172     3,126     131,561     235,938  

Latin America

    90     5,316     13     253     6,855     12,527  

Europe, Middle East and Africa

    266     40,181     380     10,648     44,482     95,957  

Asia

    274     244,981     1,675     40,719     598,363     886,012  

Total

    691     391,496     2,240     54,746     781,261     1,230,434  

(1)
Includes schools and universities, offices, hospitals and public spaces.

        We also operate Wi-Fi networks at over 60 U.S. Army, Air Force, and Marine bases around the world and 225 multi-dwelling properties including student housing, condominiums, apartments, senior living, and hospitality properties throughout the U.S.

        Our marketing and business development efforts are designed to cost effectively expand our footprint of venues where we can deploy DAS, Wi-Fi and small cell networks, secure more carrier contracts, attract and retain new multifamily, military and retail customers, and identify business partners that could leverage our network to provide mobile Internet services to their customers. We focus on efficient customer acquisition through our online presence, social media, public relations, influencer marketing, experiential and event marketing, market research, and other promotional activities.

        We seek to maximize customer lifetime value by managing subscriber acquisition cost, extending customer life and determining appropriate pricing. We use information about subscriber behavior to help us retain customers and determine premium offerings. Our segmentation is focused at the product level, so that we provide the right product, plan and price for our military and retail customers. Our consumer plans are available for essentially all Wi-Fi enabled devices and are priced on a month-to-month or per-use basis.

        We issue regular press releases announcing important partnerships and product developments and continually update our website with information about our network and services. We leverage our social media accounts, website and blog to further promote Boingo's product availability and applicability for property owners, military personnel, travelers, digital elite and consumers on-the-go. Our executive team speaks at industry events, trade shows and conferences.

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        Our development efforts are focused primarily on supporting our networks and the businesses that run across these networks. These efforts include developing web applications for ease of connecting to our managed and operated locations and aggregate partner networks, integrating our software client with our wholesale partners, continuing to adapt our technology to new operating systems and platforms, continuing to develop an advertising system and business and operations support system for monetizing network service, continuing to develop a platform for delivering television services to our military bases and optimizing our networks and backend systems for roaming and carrier offload. Our development model is based on Agile development practices so any deviations can be promptly corrected to improve reliability in our network or services and enhance customer satisfaction.

        Over the past 17 years, we have developed proprietary systems that include the Boingo software client and software development kit ("SDK"); authentication, authorization and tracking systems; mediation and billing systems; television management and delivery platform; free user monetization media and advertising platform; and a real-time operational support and software configuration and messaging infrastructure.

        The Boingo software client and SDK are installed on Wi-Fi enabled devices such as smartphones, laptops and tablets to enable our customers and our partners' customers to access our network. The key features of the Boingo software client include:

        Our proprietary authentication, authorization and tracking system enables the reliable, scalable and secure initiation and termination of user Wi-Fi sessions on our network. This system authenticates our network users across a wide variety of hotspots and network operators, through a normalized authentication protocol. Through the authorization process, custom business rules ensure user access based on specific service parameters such as location, type of device, service plan and account

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information. Our system also captures duration, data traffic, location, and type of device. We normalize and process this data from disparate providers for our use and for our wholesale partners. This system has been enhanced to include support for secure Next Generation Hotspot roaming, which leverages Passpoint-certified devices and network hardware to establish seamless secure connections for customers.

        Our mediation and billing system record and analyzes individual usage sessions required to bill for Wi-Fi usage. Users are charged based on variables such as pricing plan, device type, location, time and amount of use. Our system consolidates usage session information, determines the user identity and applies the appropriate aggregation and flagging to ensure proper usage processing. Our system handles exceptions automatically. Exceptions that cannot be solved automatically are brought to the attention of the operations staff for rectification of any discrepancies. The billing system provides billing based on roaming relationship, user type, device type and account type. Our military and retail customer mediation and billing are handled by the same infrastructure used for wholesale customer and billing, resulting in efficiencies of scale and operation.

        Our television system enables us to deliver content to our military subscribers. The Boingo digital rights management ("DRM") system allows for live linear commercial content to be delivered securely through our encrypted network links that connect our primary data center and the military bases. The central content management system allows for regional content delivery and multiple programming bundle offers. To enhance the viewing experience for mobile and tablet devices, the Boingo delivery system uses HTTP Live Streaming distribution protocol that will accommodate playing content at different network speeds by dynamically reducing content size.

        The Boingo Media platform enables brand advertisers to reach a captive audience through high engagement Wi-Fi sponsorships in premium locations worldwide. It delivers engaging advertising experiences, and our partners can place their messaging in the right context to their target audience. It also allows a combination of branding with direct response in a single high-impact format. Frequent travelers can be reached in a way they appreciate—by receiving free Wi-Fi access when they need it most.

        Our software configuration system provides real-time network configuration updates for thousands of networks and many detection and login methodologies used by the Boingo software client to access our network. Our software configuration system automatically registers new network definitions and login methodologies to allow individuals to connect to our hotspot locations. All supported platforms use a single configuration, providing a high level of operational and test efficiency. Our messaging system enables real-time customer notification and system interaction at login, based on location, network, user, account type, device and usage. This approach enables us and our partners to deliver custom marketing or service messages.

        We provide significant operational support for our managed and operated wireless infrastructure and the related technical systems in our network. For our managed and operated networks, we design, build, monitor and maintain the network. For roaming partners, we monitor network and related

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system uptime and report issues so that they can be quickly remedied. We have service level agreements with our roaming partners specifying minimum network uptime requirements and specified quality of service levels for different services that run across the wireless network infrastructure.

        Our Wi-Fi deployments are based on the IEEE 802.11a, b, g, n and ac standards and operate in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz unlicensed spectrum bands. We design, build, and operate DAS and small cell networks that currently provide 2G, 3G, and 4G-LTE services and expect to start deploying 5G across multiple licensed-frequency bands for all major telecom operators.

        We generate revenue primarily from our wholesale partners (including DAS customers), multifamily, military and retail customers. Our DAS customers are telecom operators who pay us one-time build-out fees and recurring access fees for our DAS network, enabling their cellular customers to access these networks. Our wholesale Wi-Fi customers pay usage-based network access fees to allow their customers access to our global Wi-Fi network and other wholesale Wi-Fi partners pay us to provide Wi-Fi services in their venue locations under a service provider arrangement. Our multifamily customers are property owners who pay us to provide Wi-Fi services including network installation services, and to provide support to their residents and employees at their properties. Our wholesale customer relationships are generally governed by multi-year contracts. We acquire our wholesale customers through our business development efforts. Our military and retail customers either purchase month-to-month subscription plans that automatically renew, or single-use access to our network. We acquire our military and retail customers primarily from users passing through our managed and operated locations, where we generally have exclusive multi-year agreements. We also generate revenue from advertisers that seek to reach visitors seeking Wi-Fi access at our managed and operated network locations with online advertising, promotional and sponsored programs. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, entities affiliated with Sprint Corporation accounted for 14%, 11% and 11%, respectively, of total revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, entities affiliated with T-Mobile USA, Inc. accounted for 12% and 11%, respectively, of total revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, entities affiliated with Verizon Communications Inc. accounted for 11% and 11%, respectively, of total revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, entities affiliated with AT&T Inc. accounted for 11% and 12%, respectively, of total revenue. The loss of these groups and the customers could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated statements of operations.

        In addition to monitoring traditional financial measures, we also monitor our operating performance using key performance indicators. Our key performance indicators follow:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

DAS nodes

    29.9     23.5     19.2  

Subscribers—military

    138     130     107  

Subscribers—retail

    122     188     195  

Connects

    277,744     223,960     142,802  

        DAS nodes.    This metric represents the number of active DAS nodes as of the end of the period. A DAS node is a single communications endpoint, typically an antenna, which transmits or receives radio frequency signals wirelessly. This measure is an indicator of the reach of our DAS network.

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        Subscribers—military and Subscribersretail.    These metrics represent the number of paying customers who are on a month-to-month subscription plan at a given period end.

        Connects.    This metric shows how often individuals connect to our global Wi-Fi network in a given period. The connects include wholesale and retail customers in both customer pay locations and customer free locations where we are a paid service provider or receive sponsorship or promotion fees. We count each connect as a single connect regardless of how many times that individual accesses the network at a given venue during their 24-hour period. This measure is an indicator of paid activity throughout our network.

        We provide support services to our multifamily, military, retail, and enterprise customers 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, 365 days per year. Support is available by phone, chat, email, or social media channels like Twitter and Facebook. Our website contains a comprehensive knowledge base that includes answers to frequently asked questions for self-help, and we provide video support on our YouTube channel. Tier 1 support is provided by a third-party provider, while Tier 2 and social media support is managed by our internal customer care team.

        The market for mobile Internet services and solutions is fragmented and competitive. We believe the principal competitive factors in our industry include the following:

        Direct and indirect competitors include telecom operators, cable companies, self-managed venue networks and smaller wireless Internet service providers. Some of these competitors have substantially greater resources, larger customer bases, longer operating histories and greater name recognition than we have. They may offer bundled data services with primary service offerings that we do not generally offer such as landline and cellular telephone service, and cable or satellite television. Many of our competitors are also partners from whom we receive revenue when their customers access our network.

        We believe that we compete favorably based on our ability to deliver end-to-end solutions, our neutral host business model, deep domain experience in licensed and unlicensed spectrum technology, brand recognition, geographic coverage, network reliability, quality of service, ease of use, and cost.

        Our ongoing success will depend in part upon our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including trade secrets, patents, copyrights and trademarks, as well as contractual restrictions.

        We have eight issued U.S. patents, which expire between in 2022 and 2034. We have two patent applications pending in the United States and one patent application pending in Europe. We have two

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issued Japanese patents and two issued Chinese patents, each of which has a maximum term that expires in 2027.

        Our registered trademarks in the United States and the European Union include "Boingo" and "Boingo Wi-Finder", and in the United States, "Boingo Broadband", "Cloudnine 9 Media", and "AWG-WIFI". We own additional registrations and have filed other trademark applications in the United States and other countries.

        In addition to the foregoing protections, we control access to, and use of, our proprietary software and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners. Our software is protected by United States and international copyright laws.

        As of December 31, 2018, we had 463 employees, including 204 in operations, 118 in development and technology, 85 in sales and marketing and 56 in general and administrative. All of our employees are full-time employees except for three part-time employees. We have ten international employees who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We have never experienced any employment related work stoppages and consider relations with our employees to be good. As of December 31, 2018, we also had arrangements with third-party call center providers that provided us with 58 full-time equivalent contractors for multifamily, military, retail and enterprise customer support service and similar functions.

        We understand that long-term value creation for shareholders is our core responsibility. We also have an important role to play for our team members, our customers, and the communities we serve and believe that enriching and enabling the lives of our employees and their families, supporting our environment, caring for our communities, and being good corporate stewards over Boingo is fundamental to our culture, and is just plain good business.

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        We have been named one of the Best Places to Work in Los Angeles—four years running. Our high scores in corporate culture, leadership, and training and development reflect our commitment to create a great work environment for our employees.

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        Further information on our corporate governance policies and programs can be found on the Investor Relations section of our website at http://www.boingo.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

        Our filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission or SEC, including this Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K are available free of charge through the Investor Relations section of our website at http://www.boingo.com and are accessible as soon as reasonably practicable after being electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

        Copies of this report are also available free of charge from Boingo Corporate Investor Communications, 10960 Wilshire Boulevard, 23rd Floor, Los Angeles, California 90024. In addition, our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and written charters of the committees of the Board of Directors are accessible through the Corporate Governance tab in the Investor Relations section of our website and are available in print to any stockholder who requests a copy. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports and other information we file, and proxy statements to be filed with the SEC. The address of the SEC's website is http://www.sec.gov.

Item 1A.    Risk Factors

        Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this report on Form 10-K, including our accompanying consolidated financial statements and the related notes, before deciding whether to purchase shares of our common stock. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. The price of our common stock and the trading price of our Convertible Notes could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business

         A significant portion of our revenue is dependent on our relationships with our venue and network partners, and if these relationships are impaired or terminated, or if our partners do not perform as expected, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

        We depend on our relationships with venue partners, particularly key venue partners and military bases, in order to manage and operate DAS, small cell, and Wi-Fi networks. These relationships generate a significant portion of our revenue and allow us to generate wholesale revenues and new multifamily, military, and retail customers. Our agreements with our venue partners, telecom operators, and wholesale customers are for defined periods and of varying durations. In order to maintain our relationships with venue partners, we may need to upgrade our networks or make other changes to our products and services we provide such venue partners, which would, in most cases, require significantly higher initial capital expenditures than we have historically incurred, and if we are unsuccessful, our relationships could be impaired. If our venue partners terminate or fail to renew these agreements, our ability to generate and retain wholesale, multifamily, military, and retail customers would be diminished, which might result in a significant disruption of our business and adversely affect our operating results. Further, any delays in our ability to complete the upgrade of our networks or build-out new networks can adversely affect our operating results.

        We depend on our relationships with network partners to allow users to roam across networks that we do not manage or operate. A significant portion of our revenue depends on maintaining these relationships with network partners. Some network partners may compete with us for retail customers

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and may decide to terminate our partnerships and instead develop competing retail products and services. Our network partner agreements are for defined periods and of varying durations. If our network partners terminate these agreements, or fail to renew these agreements, our ability to retain retail customers could be diminished and our network reach could be reduced, which could result in a significant disruption of our business and adversely affect our operating results.

         Our operating results may fluctuate unexpectedly, which makes them difficult to predict and may cause us to fail to meet the expectations of investors, adversely affecting our stock price.

        We operate in a highly dynamic industry and our future quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly. Our revenue and operating results may vary from quarter-to-quarter due to many factors, many of which are not within our control. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Further, it is difficult to accurately forecast our revenue, margin and operating results, and if we fail to match our expected results or the results expected by financial analysts, the trading price of our common stock and Convertible Notes and the price at which our convertible noteholders could sell the common stock received upon conversion of the Convertible Notes may be adversely affected.

        Factors that contribute to fluctuations in our operating results from quarter-to-quarter include those described in this risk factor section including:

        Due to these and other factors, quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our historical operating results should not be relied upon as accurate indicators of our future performance.

         A substantial portion of our business depends on the demand for our DAS and small cell networks, which is driven primarily by demand from our telecom customers and demand for data, and we may be adversely affected by any slowdown in such demand. A reduction in the amount or change in the mix of network investment by our telecom customers may materially and adversely affect our business (including reducing demand for tenant additions or network services).

        Customer demand for our DAS and small cell networks depends on the mix of network investment by our telecom customers and the demand for data from end users. The willingness of our customers to utilize our systems, including DAS and small cell networks, or renew or extend existing contracts on our systems, is affected by numerous factors, including:

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        A slowdown in demand for our DAS and small cell networks or data generally may negatively impact our growth or otherwise have a material adverse effect on us. If our customers or potential customers are unable to raise adequate capital to fund their business plans, as a result of disruptions in the financial and credit markets or otherwise, they may reduce their spending, which could adversely affect our anticipated growth or the demand for our DAS and small cell networks.

        The amount, timing, and mix of our customers' network investment is variable and can be significantly impacted by the various matters described in these risk factors. Changes in customer network investment typically impact the demand for our DAS and small cell networks. As a result, changes in customer plans such as delays in the implementation of new systems, new and emerging technologies, or plans to expand coverage or capacity may reduce demand for our DAS and small cell networks. Furthermore, the industries in which our customers operate (particularly those in the wireless industry) could experience a slowdown or slowing growth rates as a result of numerous factors, including a reduction in consumer demand (including demand for wireless connectivity) or general economic conditions. There can be no assurances that weakness or uncertainty in the economic environment will not adversely impact our customers or their industries, which may materially and adversely affect our business, including by reducing demand for DAS and small cell networks. Such an industry slowdown or a reduction in customer network investment may materially and adversely affect our business.

         We may be unsuccessful in expanding into new venue types, which could harm the growth of our business, operating results and financial condition.

        We are negotiating with existing and prospective partners to expand our managed and operated Wi-Fi network and small cell footprint in venue types where we historically have had only a limited presence. Expansion into these venue types, which may include shopping malls, stadiums, hospitals, retail stores and quick service restaurants, may require significantly higher initial capital expenditures than we have historically incurred. In contrast to Wi-Fi network build-outs at venues such as airports,

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where telecom operators typically pay the substantial expense of laying cable or fiber, we may be required to incur the initial capital expense of access points and related hardware and cabling at tens of thousands of quick serve restaurant locations and hundreds of shopping malls, hospitals, retail stores and stadium locations. Additionally, in August 2018 we closed the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Elauwit Networks, LLC for our entrance into the multifamily venue type. We have minimal experience in servicing the multifamily venues and we may not be successful in growing and managing this business.

        We may not be able to execute on our strategy or there may not be returns on these investments in the near future or at all. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

         Our business depends upon demand for connected services that rely on wireless network infrastructure. Our ability to adapt to the speed of changes and anticipate market adoption of new technologies may adversely impact our business.

        Our future success depends upon growing demand for wireless connected services. The demand for wireless connectivity may decrease or may grow more slowly than expected. Any such decrease in the demand or slowing rate of growth could have a material adverse effect on our business. The continued demand for wireless connectivity services depends on the continued proliferation of smartphones, tablets and other wireless connection enabled devices. Our revenue is derived from the demand from consumers for internet connectivity, including our military and retail offerings, and from our telecom, venue, multifamily, and other wholesale partners attempting to provide consumers with greater connectivity. We may face challenges as we seek to increase the revenue generated from the usage on smartphones, tablets and other wireless connected devices.

        A portion of our business depends on the continued integration of Wi-Fi as a standard feature in wireless connected devices. If Wi-Fi ceases to be a standard feature in wireless connected devices, or if the rate of integration of Wi-Fi on devices decreases or is slower than expected, the market for our services may be substantially diminished.

        Competing technologies pose a risk to the continued use of Wi-Fi as a mobile wireless connectivity technology. The introduction and market acceptance of emerging wireless technologies such as 4G/LTE, 5G, LTE-U and Super Wi-Fi, could cause significant disruption to our Wi-Fi business, which may result in a loss of customers, users and revenue. If users find emerging wireless technologies to be sufficiently fast, convenient or cost effective, we may not be able to compete effectively, and our ability to attract or retain users will be impaired. Additionally, one or more of our partners may deploy emerging wireless technologies that could reduce the partner's need to work with us and may result in significant loss of revenue and reduction of the Wi-Fi hotspots in our network.

        We deliver value to our users by providing simple access to Wi-Fi hotspots, regardless of whether we manage and operate the hotspot, or the hotspot is operated by a partner. As a result, our business depends on our ability to anticipate and quickly adapt to changing technological standards and advances. If technological standards change and we fail to adapt accordingly, our business and revenue may be adversely affected. Furthermore, the proliferation of new mobile devices and operating platforms poses challenges for our research and development efforts. If we are unable to create simple solutions for a particular device or operating platform, we will be unable to effectively attract users of these devices or operating platforms and our business will be adversely affected.

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         We may not maintain recent rates of revenue growth.

        Although our revenue has increased substantially over the last few years, we may not be able to maintain historical rates of revenue growth. We believe that our continued growth will depend, among other factors, on successfully implementing our business strategies, including our ability to:

        However, we cannot guarantee that we will successfully implement any of these business strategies.

         The U.S. government may modify, curtail or terminate one or more of our contracts.

        We have dedicated a significant amount of resources to building out Wi-Fi networks for troops stationed on military bases pursuant to our contracts with the U.S. government. Military revenue comprises a substantial part of our overall revenue and the U.S. government may modify, curtail or terminate its contracts with us, either at its convenience or for default based on performance. Any such modification, curtailment, or termination of one or more of our government contracts could have a material adverse effect on our earnings, cash flow and/or financial position.

         Negotiations with prospective or existing partners and telecom operators and network operators can be lengthy and unpredictable, which may cause our operating results to vary.

        Our negotiations with prospective or existing venue partners, including large venues like airports, transportation hubs, stadiums, arenas, military bases, universities, convention centers, office campuses and other partners, to acquire Wi-Fi locations to operate or to acquire roaming rights on partners' networks, or for new partners to implement our solutions or to extend or amend current arrangements, can be lengthy, and in some cases can last over 12 months. Because of the lengthy negotiation cycle, the time required to reach a final or amended agreement with a partner is unpredictable and may lead to variances in our operating results from quarter to quarter. Negotiations with prospective and existing partners also require substantial time, effort and resources. We may ultimately fail in our negotiations, resulting in costs to our business without any associated benefits.

        Additionally, our negotiations with telecom operators and network operators who pay us build-out fees and recurring access fees can likewise be lengthy and, therefore, the time required to reach a final or amended agreement with a telecom or network operators is unpredictable and may lead to variances in our operating results from quarter to quarter.

         We operate relatively new businesses in a rapidly evolving industry, so an investment in our company involves more risk than an investment in a more mature company in an established industry.

        We derive nearly all of our revenue from mobile Internet services, which are new and highly dynamic businesses, which face significant challenges. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks, uncertainties and difficulties we will encounter as an emerging company in a new

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and rapidly evolving market. We may not be able to address these risks, uncertainties and difficulties successfully, which could materially harm our business and operating results.

         Our industry is competitive and if we do not compete successfully, we could lose market share, experience reduced revenue or suffer losses.

        The market for commercial wireless infrastructure solutions is competitive and impacted by technological change, and we expect competition with our current and potential competitors to intensify in the future. In particular, some of our competitors have taken steps or may decide to more aggressively compete against us, particularly in the market for venue build-outs of Wi-Fi, DAS, and small cell solutions.

        Our competitors, many of whom are also our partners, include a variety of telecom operators and network operators, including Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile, Sprint, Comcast, Charter, Altice and local operators. These and other competitors have developed or may develop technologies that compete directly with our solutions. Many of our competitors are substantially larger than we are and have substantially longer operating histories. We may not be able to fund or invest in certain areas of our business to the same degree as our competitors. Many have substantially greater product development and marketing budgets and other financial and personnel resources than we do. Some also have greater name and brand recognition and a larger base of subscribers or users than we have. In addition, our competitors may provide services that we generally do not, such as cellular, local exchange and long-distance services, voicemail and digital subscriber line. Users that desire these services may choose to also obtain mobile wireless connectivity services from a competitor that provides these additional services rather than from us.

        Furthermore, we rely on several of our competitors as partners in roaming agreements. The roaming agreements provide that our retail customers and our wholesale partners' customers may use the Wi-Fi networks of our partners. One or more of our partners may deploy competing technologies that could reduce the partner's need to work with us under a roaming agreement. If our partners decide to terminate our roaming agreements, our global network of wireless networks may be reduced, which may result in a significant disruption to our business.

        Competition could increase our selling and marketing expenses and related customer acquisition costs. We may not have the financial resources, technical expertise or marketing and support capabilities to continue to compete successfully. A failure to respond to established and new competitors may adversely impact our business and operating results.

         We process, store, transfer and use personally identifiable information, confidential information and other data, which subjects us to laws and regulations and other legal obligations, of which the actual or perceived failure to comply could adversely affect our business.

        We process, store, transfer and use data from or about our certain of our customers, including certain personally identifiable information and confidential information. These activities subject, or may subject, us to various federal, state, local and international laws and regulations regarding data privacy, protection, and security. In addition, we are also subject to the terms of our privacy policies and other third-party obligations regarding data privacy, protection and security. Although we strive to comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies and other legal obligations, the regulatory framework for data privacy, protection and security is complex and ambiguous, and thus our current rules and practices may not, or allegedly may not, be complaint. Such noncompliance or alleged noncompliance could increase our costs and require us to modify our services and products, possibly in a material manner, and could limit or prevent us from processing, storing, transferring or using certain customer data in our services and products.

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        In addition, data privacy, protection and security laws, regulations and industry standards are constantly evolving and being adopted in various jurisdictions. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") became effective May 2018, superseding existing European Union data protection legislation. Additionally, the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA") was passed in June 2018 and is set to be effective in 2020. The GDPR and CCPA both provide certain data subjects with new data privacy rights, compel new operational requirements for companies, and impose potentially significant penalties for noncompliance. The cost to comply with the GDPR, CCPA and other new laws, regulations and industry standards, including costs associated with any related governmental investigations, enforcement actions, or litigations or claims, may limit the use and adoption of our products and services and could have an adverse impact on our business.

        Advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other cyber-security developments may result in a compromise or breach of the technology we use to protect user transaction data and cyber-security attacks are becoming more sophisticated. Cyber-security risks such as malicious software and attempts to gain unauthorized access to data are rapidly evolving and could lead to disruptions in our network, unauthorized release of personally identifiable, confidential or otherwise protected information or corruption of data. Any compromises of our security could damage our reputation and brand and expose us to possible liability such as litigation claims or fines, which would substantially harm our business and operating results. We have incurred costs and may need to expend significant additional resources to appropriately protect against security breaches, implement processes to adequately respond to security breaches (including as may be required by applicable law, such as the GDPR), or to address problems caused by breaches.

        Many countries, such as European Union member countries as a result of the 2006 E.U. Data Retention Directive, are introducing, or have already introduced into local law some form of traffic and user data retention requirements, which are generally applicable to providers of electronic communications services. Retention periods and data types vary from country to country, and the various local data protection and other authorities may implement traffic and user retention requirements regarding certain data in different and potentially overlapping ways. Although the constitutionality of the 2006 E.U. Data Retention Directive has been questioned, we may be required to comply with data retention requirements in one or more jurisdictions, or we may be required to comply with these requirements in the future as a result of changes or modifications to the Boingo solution or changes or modifications to the technological infrastructure on which the Boingo solution is based. Failure to comply with these retention requirements may result in the imposition of costly penalties. Compliance with these retention requirements can be difficult and costly from a legal, operational and technical perspective and could harm our business and operational results.

         Various events could disrupt our networks, information systems or properties and could impair our operating activities and negatively impact our reputation and financial results.

        Network and information systems technologies are critical to our operating activities, both for our internal uses and supplying services to our customers. Network or information system shutdowns or other service failure disruptions, such as access point failure at one of our managed and operated wireless infrastructure networks or a backhaul disruption, caused by events such as computer hacking, dissemination of computer viruses, worms and other destructive or disruptive software, "cyber-attacks," process breakdowns, denial of service attacks and other malicious activity pose increasing risks. Both unsuccessful and successful "cyber-attacks" on companies have continued to increase in frequency, scope and potential harm in recent years. While we develop and maintain systems seeking to prevent systems-related events and security breaches from occurring, the development and maintenance of these systems is costly and requires ongoing monitoring and updating as techniques used in such attacks become more sophisticated and change frequently. We, and the third parties on which we rely, may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventive measures. While from time to

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time attempts have been made to access our network, these attempts have not as yet resulted in any material release of information, degradation or disruption to our network and information systems. We maintain cyber liability insurance; however, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover the financial, legal, business or reputational losses that may result from an interruption or breach of our systems.

        Our network and information systems are also vulnerable to damage or interruption from power outages, telecommunications failures, accidents, natural disasters (including extreme weather arising from short-term or any long-term changes in weather patterns), terrorist attacks and similar events. Further, the impacts associated with extreme weather or long-term changes in weather patterns, such as increased and intensified storm activity, may cause increased business interruptions. Our system redundancy may be ineffective or inadequate, and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities.

        Any of these events, if directed at, or experienced by, us or technologies upon which we depend, could have adverse consequences on our network, our customers and our business, including damage to our or our customers' equipment and data and could result in lengthy interruptions in the availability of the Boingo solution. Large expenditures may be necessary to repair or replace damaged property, networks or information systems or to protect them from similar events in the future. Moreover, the amount and scope of insurance, if any, that we maintain against losses resulting from any such events or security breaches may not be sufficient to cover our losses or otherwise adequately compensate us for any disruptions to our business that may result. Any such significant service disruption could result in damage to our reputation and credibility, customer dissatisfaction and ultimately a loss of customers or revenue. Any significant loss of customers or revenue, or significant increase in costs of serving those customers, could adversely affect our growth, financial condition and results of operations.

         We may be unsuccessful in expanding our international operations, which could harm the growth of our business, operating results and financial condition.

        Our ability to expand internationally involves various risks, including the need to invest significant resources in unfamiliar markets, and the possibility that there may not be returns on these investments in the near future or at all. In addition, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur expenses before we generate any material revenue in these new markets. Our expansion plans will require significant management attention and resources. We have limited experience in selling our solutions in international markets or in conforming to local cultures, standards or policies. We may not be able to compete successfully in these international markets. Our ability to expand will also be limited by the demand for mobile Internet in international markets. Different privacy, censorship and liability standards and regulations and different intellectual property laws in foreign countries may cause our business and operating results to suffer.

        Any future international operations may fail to succeed due to risks inherent in foreign operations, including:

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        Some of our business partners also have international operations and are subject to the risks described above. Even if we are able to successfully manage the risks of international operations, our business may be adversely affected if our business partners are not able to successfully manage these risks.

        As a result of these obstacles, we may find it difficult or prohibitively expensive to expand internationally or we may be unsuccessful in our attempt to do so, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

         Acquisitions could be difficult to identify, pose integration challenges, divert the attention of management, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value, and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

        We have in the past acquired and may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our business or otherwise offer growth opportunities. For example, in August 2018, we acquired substantially all of the assets of Elauwit Networks, LLC, a provider of high-speed Wi-Fi and technology solutions to the student and multifamily housing market. Acquisitions may disrupt our business, divert our resources and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for development of our existing business.

        In addition, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully, or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including:

        In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least

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annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, our exposure to risks associated with various claims, including the use of intellectual property, may be increased as a result of acquisitions of other companies. For example, we may have a lower level of visibility into the development process with respect to intellectual property or the care taken to safeguard against infringement risks with respect to the acquired company or technology. In addition, third parties may make infringement and similar or related claims after we have acquired technology that has not been asserted prior to our acquisition.

        Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial position may suffer.

         We rely on our credit facility to fund a significant portion of our capital expenditures and other capital needs. If we are unable to achieve compliance with the credit facility covenants, or interest rates increase significantly, or we are unable to renew our credit facility on favorable terms, or at all, our business would be negatively impacted.

        In February 2019, we entered into a new Credit Agreement ("New Credit Agreement") and related agreements with Bank of America, N.A. acting as agent for lenders named therein. The New Credit Agreement replaced our November 2014 Credit Agreement with Bank of America N.A. acting as agent for lenders named therein, which expired in November 2018. The New Credit Agreement places restrictions on our ability to take certain actions and sets standards for minimum financial performance. If we fail to comply with the terms and conditions of this New Credit Agreement, then the line of credit may be withdrawn, and the additional funds will not be available to us to fund our capital needs.

         The regulation of Internet communications, products and services is currently uncertain, which poses risks for our business from changes in laws, regulations, and interpretation or enforcement of existing laws or regulations.

        The current regulatory environment for Internet communications, products and services is uncertain. Many laws and regulations were adopted prior to the advent of the Internet and related technologies and often do not contemplate or address the specific issues associated with the Internet and related technologies. The scope of laws and regulations applicable to the Internet remains uncertain and is subject to statutory or interpretive change. We cannot be certain that we, our partners or our users are currently in compliance with regulatory or other legal requirements in the numerous countries in which our service is used. Our failure or the failure of our partners, users and others with whom we transact business, or to whom we license the Boingo solution, to comply with existing or future regulatory or other legal requirements could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Regulators may disagree with our interpretations of existing laws or regulations or the applicability of existing laws or regulations to our business, and existing laws, regulations and interpretations may change in unexpected ways.

        We believe that the Boingo solution is on the forefront of wireless infrastructure connectivity, and therefore it may face greater regulatory scrutiny than other communications products and services. We cannot be certain what positions regulators may take regarding our compliance with, or lack of compliance with, current and future legal and regulatory requirements or what positions regulators may take regarding any past or future actions we have taken or may take in any jurisdiction. Regulators may determine that we are not in compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, and impose penalties, or we may need to make changes to the Boingo solution, which could be costly and difficult. Any of these events would adversely affect our operating results and business.

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         If we lose key personnel or are unable to attract and retain personnel on a cost-effective basis, our business could be harmed.

        Our performance is substantially dependent on the continued services and performance of our senior management and our highly qualified team of engineers, many of whom have numerous years of experience and specialized expertise in our business. If we are not successful in hiring and retaining highly qualified engineers, we may not be able to extend or maintain our engineering and technological expertise and our future product and service development efforts could be adversely affected. Additionally, the process of attracting and retaining suitable replacements for any executive officers or any of our highly qualified engineers we lose in the future would result in transition costs and would divert the attention of other members of our senior management from our existing operations. Additionally, such a loss could be negatively perceived in the capital markets. If we lose members of our senior management, this may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our strategic objectives and adversely affect our operating results.

        Our future success also depends on our ability to identify, attract, hire, train, retain and motivate highly skilled managerial, operations, business development and marketing personnel. We have in the past maintained a rigorous, highly selective and time-consuming hiring process. We believe that our approach to hiring has significantly contributed to our success to date. However, our highly selective hiring process has made it more difficult for us to hire a sufficient number of qualified employees, and, as we grow, our hiring process may prevent us from hiring the personnel we need in a timely manner. Moreover, the cost of living in the Los Angeles area, where our corporate headquarters is located, has been an impediment to attracting new employees in the past, and we expect that this will continue to impair our ability to attract and retain employees in the future. If we fail to attract, integrate and retain the necessary personnel, we may not be able to grow effectively, and our business could suffer significantly.

         Material defects or errors in our software could harm our reputation and brand, result in significant costs to us and impair our ability to sell the Boingo solution.

        The software underlying the Boingo solution is inherently complex and may contain material defects or errors, particularly when the software is first introduced or when new versions or enhancements are released. We have from time to time found defects or errors in our software, and defects or errors in our existing software may be detected in the future. Any defects or errors that cause interruptions to the availability of our services could result in:

        The costs incurred in correcting any material defects or errors in our software may be substantial and could harm our operating results.

         Our business depends on strong brands, and if we do not cost effectively develop, maintain and enhance our brand, our financial condition and operating results could be harmed.

        We believe that the Boingo brand is a critical part of our business and that developing and maintaining awareness of our brand is important to achieving widespread acceptance of the Boingo

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solution and is an important element in attracting and retaining customers and partners. We continue to seek new ways to promote our brand through our managed and operated hotspots. We intend to enhance our brand through low-cost co-marketing arrangements with our partners and through periodic promotional and sponsorship activities and by continuing to leverage the reach of social media to interact with our customers. In order to maintain strong relationships with our venue and network partners, we may have to reduce the visibility of the Boingo brand or make other decisions that do not promote and maintain the Boingo brand, such as our custom branding alternatives that we offer to wholesale clients. If we fail to promote and maintain the Boingo brand, or if we incur significant expenses to promote the brand and are still unsuccessful in maintaining a strong brand, our financial condition and operating results could be harmed.

        Additionally, we believe that developing this brand in a cost-effective manner is important in meeting our expected margins. Brand promotion activities may not result in increased revenue, and any increased revenue resulting from these promotion activities may not offset the expenses we incurred in building our brand. If we fail to cost effectively build and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract or retain customers or partners, and our financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.

         Worldwide economic conditions, and their impact on travel and consumer spending, may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

        Our business is impacted by travel and consumer spending, because users seek to access the mobile Internet while they are on-the-go, and because spending on Internet access is often a consumer discretionary spending decision. Factors that tend to negatively impact levels of travel include high unemployment, high energy prices, low business and consumer confidence, the fear of terrorist attacks, war and other macroeconomic factors. Economic conditions that tend to negatively impact levels of discretionary consumer spending include high unemployment, high consumer debt, reductions in net worth, depressed real estate markets, increased taxation, high energy prices, high interest rates, low consumer confidence and other macroeconomic factors. If the global economic recovery is slower than expected, or if it weakens, our military and retail customer base, new military and retail customer acquisition and usage-based revenue could be materially harmed, and our results of operations would be adversely affected.

         The growth of free Wi-Fi networks may compete with our paid mobile Wi-Fi Internet solutions.

        Many venues offer free mobile Wi-Fi as an incentive or value-added benefit to their customers. Free Wi-Fi may reduce retail customer demand for our services and put downward pressure on the prices we charge our retail customers. In addition, telecom operators may offer free mobile Wi-Fi as part of a home broadband or other service contract, which also may force down the prices we charge our retail customers. If we are unable to effectively offset this downward pressure on our prices by being a Wi-Fi service provider or sufficiently grow our DAS and small cell business, or if we are unable to acquire and retain retail customers, we will have lower profit margins and our operating results and financial condition may be adversely impacted.

         We rely on third-party customer support service providers for the majority of our customer support calls. If these service providers experience operational difficulties or disruptions, our business could be adversely affected.

        We depend on third-party customer support service providers to handle most of our routine multifamily, military and retail customer support cases. While we maintain limited customer support operations in our Los Angeles headquarters and our Columbia office, if our relationships with our customer support service providers terminate unexpectedly, or if our customer service providers experience operational difficulties, we may not be able to respond to customer support calls in a timely manner and the quality of our customer service would be adversely affected. This could harm our reputation and brand image and make it difficult for us to attract and retain users. In addition, the loss of our customer support service providers would require us to identify and contract with alternative sources, which could prove time-consuming and expensive.

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         If we are not successful in developing our mobile application for new devices and platforms, or if those solutions are not widely adopted, our results of operations and business could be adversely affected.

        As new mobile devices and platforms are developed, we may encounter problems in developing products for such new mobile devices and platforms, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support, and maintenance of such products. In addition, if we experience difficulties integrating our mobile applications into mobile devices, or if we face increased costs to distribute our mobile applications, our future growth and our results of operations could suffer.

         If we fail to maintain relationships with providers of mobile operating systems or mobile application download stores, our business could be adversely affected.

        We rely on the integration of our software into mobile operating systems to allow mobile devices to connect to our global network of wireless networks. If problems arise with our relationships with providers of mobile operating systems or mobile application download stores, such as the Apple App Store and Google Play, or if our mobile application receives unfavorable treatment compared to the promotion and placement of competing applications, such as the order of our products in the mobile application download stores, we may fail to attract or retain customers or partners, and our business could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

         Claims by others that we infringe their proprietary technology could harm our business.

        In recent years there has been significant litigation involving intellectual property rights in many technology-based industries, including the wireless communications industry. While we have not been specifically targeted, companies similar to us have been subject to patent lawsuits. As we face increasing competition and gain an increasingly high profile, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against us grows. We may be subject to third-party claims in the future. The costs of supporting these litigations and disputes are considerable, and there can be no assurance that a favorable outcome will be obtained. We may be required to settle these litigations and disputes on terms that are unfavorable to us, given the complex technical issues and inherent uncertainties in intellectual property litigation. Claims that the Boingo solution infringes third-party intellectual property rights, regardless of their merit or resolution, could also divert the efforts and attention of our management and technical personnel. The terms of any settlements or judgments may require us to:

        Any of these unfavorable outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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         Our use of open source software could limit our ability to commercialize the Boingo solution.

        We have incorporated open source software into the Boingo solution. Although we closely monitor our use of open source software, we are subject to the terms of open source licenses that have not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts, and there is a risk that in the future these licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize the Boingo solution. In that event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties or to re-engineer our software in order to continue offering the Boingo solution, or to discontinue operations, any of which could materially adversely affect our business.

         We utilize unlicensed spectrum in certain of our offerings, which is subject to intense competition, low barriers of entry and slowdowns due to multiple users.

        We presently utilize unlicensed spectrum to provide our Wi-Fi Internet solutions. Unlicensed or "free" spectrum is available to multiple users and may suffer bandwidth limitations, interference and slowdowns if the number of users exceeds traffic capacity. The availability of unlicensed spectrum is not unlimited, and others do not need to obtain permits or licenses to utilize the same unlicensed spectrum that we currently, or may in the future, utilize. The inherent limitations of unlicensed spectrum could potentially threaten our ability to reliably deliver our services. Moreover, the prevalence of unlicensed spectrum creates low barriers to entry in our industry.

         If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position could be harmed, or we could be required to incur significant expenses to enforce our rights.

        Our business depends on our ability to protect our proprietary technology. We rely on trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws and confidentiality agreements with employees and third parties, all of which offer only limited protection. We own eight patents and have applications for two additional patents pending in the United States. Despite our efforts, the steps we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be adequate to prevent the use or misappropriation of our proprietary information or infringement of our intellectual property rights. Our ability to police the use, misappropriation or infringement of our intellectual property is uncertain, particularly in countries other than the United States. Further, we do not know whether any of our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims. Even if patents are issued, they may be contested, circumvented, or invalidated in the future. Moreover, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with complete proprietary protection or any competitive advantages, and, as with any technology, competitors may be able to develop similar or superior technologies on their own now or in the future. Protecting against the unauthorized use of our solutions, trademarks, and other proprietary rights is expensive, difficult and, in some cases, impossible. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management resources, either of which could harm our business. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, if the protection of our proprietary rights is inadequate to prevent use or misappropriation by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our service and methods of operations. Any of these events would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Our Convertible Notes

         We have incurred substantial indebtedness that may decrease our business flexibility, access to capital, and/or increase our borrowing costs, and we may still incur substantially more debt, which may adversely affect our operations and financial results.

        In October 2018, we issued $201.25 million aggregate principal amount of 1.00% convertible senior notes due 2023 ("Convertible Notes"). Our indebtedness may:

        Further, the indenture governing the Convertible Notes does not restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness and we and our subsidiaries may incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in any future debt instruments existing at the time, some of which may be secured indebtedness.

        Servicing our debt will require a significant amount of cash. We may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt, and we may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the Convertible Notes in cash or to repurchase the Convertible Notes upon a fundamental change, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

        Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on, or to refinance our indebtedness, including the amounts payable under the Convertible Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our indebtedness and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt, or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

        Further, holders of the Convertible Notes have the right to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their Convertible Notes upon the occurrence of a "fundamental change" (as defined in the indenture governing the Convertible Notes (the "indenture")) before the maturity date at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the Convertible Notes being converted. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of Convertible Notes surrendered therefor or pay cash with respect to Convertible Notes being converted.

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         The conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Notes, when triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

        In the event the conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Notes is triggered, holders of the Convertible Notes will be entitled to convert their Convertible Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Convertible Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation in cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity.

        In addition, even if holders of Convertible Notes do not elect to convert their Convertible Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Convertible Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.

         The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as the Convertible Notes, could have a material effect on our reported financial results.

        Under Accounting Standards Codification 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options ("ASC 470-20"), an entity must separately account for the liability and equity components of the convertible debt instruments (such as the Convertible Notes) that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion in a manner that reflects the issuer's economic interest cost. The effect of ASC 470-20 on the accounting for the Convertible Notes is that the equity component is required to be included in the additional paid-in capital section of stockholders' equity on our consolidated balance sheet at the issuance date and the value of the equity component would be treated as debt discount for purposes of accounting for the debt component of the Convertible Notes. As a result, we will be required to record a greater amount of non-cash interest expense as a result of the amortization of the discounted carrying value of the Convertible Notes to their face amount over the term of the Convertible Notes. We will report larger net losses (or lower net income) in our financial results because ASC 470-20 will require interest to include both the amortization of the debt discount and the instrument's non-convertible coupon interest rate, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, the trading price of our common stock and the trading price of the Convertible Notes.

        In addition, under certain circumstances, convertible debt instruments (such as the Convertible Notes) that may be settled entirely or partly in cash may be accounted for utilizing the treasury stock method, the effect of which is that the shares issuable upon conversion of such Convertible Notes are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share except to the extent that the conversion value of such Convertible Notes exceeds their principal amount. Under the treasury stock method, for diluted earnings per share purposes, the transaction is accounted for as if the number of shares of common stock that would be necessary to settle such excess, if we elected to settle such excess in shares, are issued. We cannot be sure that the accounting standards in the future will continue to permit the use of the treasury stock method. If we are unable or otherwise elect not to use the treasury stock method in accounting for the shares issuable upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, then our diluted earnings per share could be adversely affected.

         The capped call transactions may affect the value of the Convertible Notes and our common stock.

        In connection with the pricing the Convertible Notes and exercise of the over-allotment option to purchase additional Convertible Notes, we entered into capped call transactions with a financial institution. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce potential dilution upon conversion of the Convertible Notes and/or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted Convertible Notes, as the case may be, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap.

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        In connection with establishing its initial hedges of the capped call transactions, the financial institution or its affiliate likely purchased shares of our common stock and/or entered into various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock concurrently with or shortly after the pricing of the Convertible Notes. The financial institution or its affiliate may modify its hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions following the pricing of the Convertible Notes and prior to the maturity of the Convertible Notes (and are likely to do so during any observation period related to a conversion of Convertible Notes). This activity could also cause or avoid an increase or a decrease in the market price of our common stock or the Convertible Notes.

        The potential effect, if any, of these transactions and activities on the price of our common stock or the Convertible Notes will depend in part on market conditions and cannot be ascertained at this time. Any of these activities could adversely affect the value of our common stock.

         Conversion of the Convertible Notes will dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders, including holders who had previously converted their Convertible Notes, or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.

        The conversion of some or all of the Convertible Notes will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders to the extent we deliver shares of our common stock upon conversion of any of the Convertible Notes. The Convertible Notes are currently convertible and may from time to time in the future be convertible at the option of their holders prior to their scheduled terms under certain circumstances. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the Convertible Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Convertible Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the Convertible Notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

         The market price of our common stock may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors.

        Fluctuations in market price and volume are particularly common among securities of technology companies. As a result, you may be unable to sell your shares of common stock at or above the price you paid. The market price of our common stock and trading price of our Convertible Notes may fluctuate significantly in response to the factors described in this risk factor section as well as the following factors, among others, many of which are beyond our control:

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         If securities or industry analysts publish misleading or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

        The trading market for our common stock and our Convertible Notes depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts downgrades our stock or publishes misleading or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and the trading price of our Convertible Notes would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price or the trading price of our Convertible Notes or trading volume to decline. Announcements by analysts that may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock and the trading price of our Convertible Notes may relate to:

         As a public company, we are subject to financial and other reporting and corporate governance requirements that may be difficult for us to satisfy and may divert resources and management attention from operating our business.

        We are required to file annual, quarterly and other reports with the SEC. We must prepare and timely file financial statements that comply with SEC reporting requirements. We are also subject to other reporting and corporate governance requirements, under the listing standards of the NASDAQ Stock Market, or NASDAQ, which imposes significant compliance obligations upon us. We are required, among other things, to:

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If we fail to comply with the rules of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 related to accounting controls and procedures, or, if we discover material weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our financial results may be adversely effected and we may be subject to sanctions by regulatory authorities and our stock price and the trading price of our Convertible Notes could decline.

        Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (the "Act") requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and requires an attestation and report by our external auditing firm on our internal control over financial reporting. We believe our system and process evaluation and testing comply with the management certification and auditor attestation requirements of Section 404. We cannot be certain, however, that we will be able to satisfy the requirements in Section 404 in all future periods, especially as we grow our business. If we are not able to continue to meet the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC or the NASDAQ Stock Market. Any such action could adversely affect our financial results or investors' confidence in us and could cause our stock price and the trading price of our Convertible Notes to fall. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies deficiencies in our internal controls that are deemed to be material weaknesses, we may be required to incur significant additional financial and management resources to achieve compliance.

         If we need additional capital in the future, it may not be available on favorable terms, or at all.

        We may require additional capital from equity or debt financing in the future to fund our operations or respond to competitive pressures or strategic opportunities. We may not be able to secure timely additional financing on favorable terms, or at all. The terms of additional financing may place limits on our financial and operating flexibility. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity, convertible debt securities or other securities convertible into equity, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution in their percentage ownership of our company, and any new securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, if and when we require it, our ability to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges and opportunities could be significantly limited.

         Investors may experience dilution of their ownership interests because of the future issuance of additional shares of our capital stock.

        We are authorized to issue 100,000,000 shares of common stock and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of December 31, 2018, there were approximately 42,669,000 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding and no shares of preferred stock outstanding. In addition, as of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 3,119,000 unvested restricted stock units, approximately 304,000 exercisable stock options, approximately 2,979,000 shares available for grant under the 2011 Plan, and approximately 4,756,000 shares subject to conversion under the Convertible Notes.

        In the future, we may issue additional authorized but previously unissued equity securities resulting in the dilution of the ownership interests of our present stockholders. We may also issue additional shares of our capital stock or other securities that are convertible into or exercisable for our capital stock in connection with hiring or retaining employees or for other business purposes, including future sales of our securities for capital raising purposes. The future issuance of any such additional shares of

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capital stock may create downward pressure on the trading price of our common stock and our Convertible Notes.

         Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law and provisions in the indenture for our Convertible Notes could discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company and may affect the trading price of our common stock.

        We are a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in our management or control over us that stockholders may consider favorable. Institutional shareholder representative groups, shareholder activists and others may disagree with our corporate governance provisions or other practices, such as those listed below. We generally will consider recommendations of institutional shareholder representative groups, but we will make decisions based on what our board and management believe to be in the best long-term interests of our company and stockholders. These groups could make recommendations to our stockholders against our practices or our board members if they disagree with our positions. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that:

        In addition, as a Delaware corporation, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a certain period of time.

        In addition, if a fundamental change occurs prior to the maturity date of the Convertible Notes, holders of the Convertible Notes will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their Convertible Notes. If a "make-whole fundamental change" (as defined in the indenture) occurs prior to the maturity date, we will in some cases be required to increase the conversion rate of the Convertible Notes for a holder that elects to convert its Convertible Notes in connection with such make-whole fundamental change. Furthermore, the indenture prohibits us from

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engaging in certain mergers or acquisitions unless, among other things, the surviving entity assumes our obligations under the Convertible Notes.

        These and other provisions in our charter documents, Convertible Notes, indenture and in Delaware law could deter or prevent a third party from acquiring us or could make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirors to obtain control of our board of directors or initiate actions that are opposed by our then-current board of directors, including to delay or impede a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest involving our company. The existence of these provisions could negatively affect the price of our common stock and the trading price of the Convertible Notes and limit opportunities for you to realize value in a corporate transaction.

         Our business could be negatively affected as a result of a potential proxy contest for the election of directors at our annual meeting or other shareholder activism.

        In 2016, we were subjected to a proxy contest, which resulted in the negotiation of changes to the board of directors and considerable costs were incurred. A future proxy contest would most likely require us to incur significant legal fees and proxy solicitation expenses and require significant time and attention by management and our board of directors. The potential of a proxy contest or other shareholder activism could interfere with our ability to execute our strategic plan, give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future direction, result in the loss of potential business opportunities or make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

         We have incurred substantial losses in past and current years and may incur additional losses in the future.

        As of December 31, 2018, our accumulated deficit was $129.9 million. We generated a net loss for the year ended December 31, 2018 and we are also currently investing in our future growth through expanding our network and buildouts, investing in our software, and consideration of future business acquisitions. As a result, we will incur higher depreciation and other operating expenses, as well as potential acquisition costs, that may negatively impact our ability to achieve profitability in future periods unless and until these growth efforts generate enough revenue to exceed their operating costs and cover our additional overhead needed to scale our business for this anticipated growth. The current global financial condition may also impact our ability to achieve profitability if we cannot generate sufficient revenue to offset the increased costs. In addition, costs associated with the acquisition and integration of any acquired companies may also negatively impact our ability to achieve profitability. For example, in August 2018 we closed the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Elauwit Networks, LLC and our integration costs may negatively impact our ability to achieve profitability. Finally, given the competitive and evolving nature of the industry in which we operate, we may not be able to achieve or increase profitability.

         We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

        We do not intend to declare and pay dividends on our capital stock for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to invest our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth. Therefore, you are not likely to receive any dividends on your common stock for the foreseeable future and the success of an investment in shares of our common stock will depend upon any future appreciation in its value.

         Changes in accounting standards and their interpretations could adversely affect our operating results.

        U.S. GAAP are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, the SEC, and various other bodies that

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promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. These principles and related implementation guidelines and interpretations can be highly complex and involve subjective judgments. A change in these principles or interpretations, including the implementation of ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), or accounting for the Convertible Notes could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before or after the announcement of a change. Additionally, the adoption of these standards may potentially require enhancements or changes in our systems and will require significant time and cost on behalf of our financial management. A discussion of these standards and other pending changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, are further discussed in Footnote 2 in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

        None.

Item 2.    Properties

        As of December 31, 2018, we leased approximately 53,000 square feet of space for our corporate headquarters in Los Angeles, California. As of December 31, 2018, we also leased an approximately 27,000 additional square feet in aggregate office space in San Francisco, California; Oak Brook, Illinois; Charleston, South Carolina; Columbia, South Carolina; Lake Success, New York; New York, New York; McKinney, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; Sao Paolo, Brazil; and Dubai, United Arab Emirates. We believe that our office facilities will be adequate for the foreseeable future.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

        From time to time, we may be involved in or subject to claims, suits, investigations and proceedings arising out of the normal course of business. We are not currently a party to any litigation that we believe could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

        Not applicable.


PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

        Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol "WIFI."

        As of February 22, 2019, there were 22 stockholders of record of our common stock. Stockholders of record do not include a substantially greater number of "street name" holders or beneficial holders of our common stock whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.

        We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock, and currently do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends on our common stock, if permissible, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend

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upon, among other factors, our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, plans for expansion and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

        We did not sell any equity securities not registered under the Securities Act during the year ended December 31, 2018.

        On April 1, 2013, the Company approved a stock repurchase program to repurchase up to $10,000,000 of the Company's common stock in the open market, exclusive of any commissions, markups or expenses. The stock repurchased will be retired and will resume the status of authorized but unissued shares of common stock. The Company did not repurchase any of our common stock during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. As of December 31, 2018, the remaining approved amount for repurchases was approximately $5,180,000.

        On March 12, 2018, the Company filed a registration statement on Form S-8 to register 1,844,781 shares representing additional shares authorized as of January 1, 2018 under the Evergreen Provision of the 2011 Equity Incentive Plan. The Evergreen Provision of the 2011 Equity Incentive Plan terminated after January 1, 2018.

        The following performance graph shows the total stockholder return of an investment of $100 in cash made on December 31, 2013 in each of (i) our common stock, (ii) a broad equity market index, the securities comprising the Nasdaq Composite Index, and (iii) issuers with similar market capitalizations, the securities comprising the Russell 2000 index.

        The performance graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2013 in our common stock and in each index, and that all dividends were reinvested. No dividends have been declared nor paid on our common stock. The comparisons in the graph below are required by the SEC and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.

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COMPARISON OF 60 MONTHS CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Boingo Wireless, Inc., The NASDAQ Composite Index and The Russell 2000 Index**

GRAPHIC

 
  12/31/13   12/31/14   12/31/15   12/31/16   12/31/17   12/31/18  

NASDAQ Composite Index

  $ 100.00   $ 113.40   $ 119.89   $ 128.89   $ 165.29   $ 158.87  

Russell 2000 Index

  $ 100.00   $ 103.53   $ 97.62   $ 116.63   $ 131.96   $ 115.89  

Boingo

  $ 100.00   $ 119.66   $ 103.28   $ 190.17   $ 351.01   $ 320.90  

*
The material in this section is not "soliciting material" and is not deemed "filed" with the SEC. It is not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Boingo Wireless, Inc. made under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing, except to the extent we specifically incorporate this section by reference.

**
We chose the Russell 2000 index because it is comprised of issuers with similar market capitalizations. We do not believe that we can reasonably identify a peer group of issuers or an industry or line-of-business index.

ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

        The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 and our accompanying consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

        The consolidated statements of operations data set forth below for years 2018, 2017 and 2016 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of the end of years 2018 and 2017 are derived from, and qualified by reference to, the audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this report. The consolidated statements of operations data for years 2015 and 2014 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of the end of years 2016, 2015 and 2014 are derived from the audited financial statements previously filed with the SEC on Form 10-K. The results of businesses acquired in a business combination are included in the Company's consolidated financial statements from the date of the acquisition.

        On August 1, 2018, we acquired the assets of Elauwit Networks, LLC ("Elauwit") for $29.5 million, which included cash paid at closing, holdback consideration, and the fair value of additional contingent consideration that would be due and payable subject to certain conditions and the successful achievement of annual revenue targets during the 2018, 2019, and 2020 fiscal years. Elauwit provides data and video services to multi-unit dwelling properties including student housing,

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condominiums, apartments, senior living, and hospitality industries throughout the U.S. In addition, Elauwit builds and maintains the network that supports these services for property owners and managers and provides support for residents and employees. For further information on our Elauwit acquisition, refer to Footnote 3 in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.

        Prior to August 4, 2015, we had a 70% ownership of Concourse Communications Detroit, LLC. On August 4, 2015, we purchased the remaining 30% ownership interest from the non-controlling interest owners for $1.15 million. We accounted for this transaction as an acquisition of the remaining interest of an entity that had already been majority-owned by the Company. The purchase resulted in a reduction to additional paid-in capital of $1.15 million, representing excess purchase price over the carrying amount of the non-controlling interests. Prior to this purchase, we had a controlling interest in this subsidiary, and therefore, this subsidiary had been and will continue to be consolidated with the Company's operations.

        In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which replaced the accounting standards for revenue recognition under FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 605, Revenue Recognition, with a single comprehensive five-step model, eliminating industry-specific accounting rules. The core principle is to recognize revenue upon the transfer of control of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration expected to be received. The FASB amended several aspects of the guidance after the issuance of ASU 2014-09, and the new revenue recognition accounting standard, as amended, was codified within ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning on January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with ASC 605.

        Adoption of ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method required us to record a cumulative effect adjustment, net of tax, to accumulated deficit and non-controlling interests of $3,257,000 and $69,000, respectively, on January 1, 2018. In addition, adoption of the standard resulted in the following changes to the consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018:

 
  January 1, 2018
(Per ASC 605)
  Adjustment for
Adoption
  January 1, 2018
(Per ASC 606)
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Accounts receivable, net

  $ 26,148   $ (1,069 ) $ 25,079  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

  $ 6,369   $ 170   $ 6,539  

Other assets

  $ 10,082   $ (2,179 ) $ 7,903  

Deferred revenue, current

  $ 61,708   $ 14,176   $ 75,884  

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

  $ 149,168   $ (20,580 ) $ 128,588  

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        The below table summarizes the changes to our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 as a result of the adoption of ASC 606:

 
  December 31, 2018
(Per ASC 605)
  Adjustment for
Adoption
  December 31, 2018
(Per ASC 606)
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Accounts receivable, net

  $ 43,410   $ (644 ) $ 42,766  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

  $ 7,603   $ 212   $ 7,815  

Other assets

  $ 12,224   $ (2,288 ) $ 9,936  

Deferred revenue, current

  $ 82,731   $ (2,348 ) $ 80,383  

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

  $ 147,785   $ (10,580 ) $ 137,205  

Non-controlling interests

  $ 408   $ 1,803   $ 2,211  

        The below table summarizes the changes to our consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 as a result of the adoption of ASC 606 with income taxes calculated excluding the tax effect on the equity component of the Convertible Notes:

 
  Year Ended
December 31, 2018
(Per ASC 605)
  Adjustment for
Adoption
  Year Ended
December 31, 2018
(Per ASC 606)
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Revenue

  $ 244,307   $ 6,514   $ 250,821  

Income tax benefit

  $ (4,785 ) $ (368 ) $ (5,153 )

Non-controlling interests

  $ (245 ) $ 1,734   $ 1,489  

        The changes to the consolidated balance sheets as of January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018 and the consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 were primarily due to the following factors: (i) reclassification of unbilled receivables (contract assets) to a contra-liability account under ASC 606; and (ii) recognition of revenue related to our single performance obligation for our DAS contracts monthly over the contract term once the customer has the ability to access the DAS network and we commence maintenance on the DAS network under ASC 606 as compared to recognition of build-out fees for our DAS contracts monthly over the term of the estimated customer relationship period once the build-out is complete and minimum monthly access fees for our DAS contracts monthly over the term of the telecom operator agreement under ASC 605. The changes to the consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018 are reflected as non-cash changes within cash provided by operating activities in our consolidated statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2018.

        We early adopted FASB ASU 2016-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, as of January 1, 2016. As a result of this adoption, we recorded $6,933,000 and $589,000 of net deferred tax assets related to our federal and state net operating losses for excess windfall tax benefits, respectively, as of January 1, 2016. We established a full valuation allowance against those deferred tax assets as of January 1, 2016 based on the determination that it was more likely than not that those deferred tax assets would not be realized. We also elected to change our accounting policy to account for forfeitures when they occur on a modified retrospective basis. The change in our accounting policy resulted in a $94,000 increase to additional paid-in capital and accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2016.

        We early adopted FASB ASU 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, on a retrospective basis as of December 31, 2015. As a result, we reclassified $787,000 from current deferred

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tax assets to noncurrent deferred tax liabilities as of December 31, 2014 as the deferred tax assets and liabilities were related to the same tax-paying jurisdictions.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017(2)   2016(2)   2015(2)   2014(2)  
 
  (in thousands, except per share amounts)
 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

                               

Revenue

  $ 250,821   $ 204,369   $ 159,344   $ 139,626   $ 119,297  

Costs and operating expenses:

                               

Network access

    113,572     90,702     69,112     62,988     59,411  

Network operations

    52,215     47,615     42,307     33,537     25,475  

Development and technology

    31,372     26,754     22,126     19,147     14,879  

Selling and marketing

    22,647     20,933     18,729     19,653     16,382  

General and administrative

    30,302     35,568     29,719     22,356     17,460  

Amortization of intangible assets

    3,710     3,498     3,448     3,576     3,716  

Total costs and operating expenses

    253,818     225,070     185,441     161,257     137,323  

Loss from operations

    (2,997 )   (20,701 )   (26,097 )   (21,631 )   (18,026 )

Interest and other expense, net

    (1,887 )   (153 )   (459 )   (66 )   (41 )

Loss before income taxes

    (4,884 )   (20,854 )   (26,556 )   (21,697 )   (18,067 )

Income tax (benefit) expense

    (5,153 )   (2,078 )   427     481     700  

Net income (loss)

    269     (18,776 )   (26,983 )   (22,178 )   (18,767 )

Net income attributable to non-controlling interests

    1,489     590     348     114     754  

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

  $ (1,220 ) $ (19,366 ) $ (27,331 ) $ (22,292 ) $ (19,521 )

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:

                               

Basic

  $ (0.03 ) $ (0.49 ) $ (0.72 ) $ (0.60 ) $ (0.55 )

Diluted

  $ (0.03 ) $ (0.49 ) $ (0.72 ) $ (0.60 ) $ (0.55 )

Other Financial Data:

                               

Operating cash flows

  $ 93,321   $ 97,728   $ 115,205   $ 98,575   $ 21,207  

Investing cash flows

    (133,354 )   (74,458 )   (107,331 )   (101,502 )   (39,199 )

Financing cash flows

    162,825     (16,054 )   (3,121 )   8,843     (480 )

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

    91,818     68,916     40,798     29,636     20,300  

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  As of December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

                               

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 149,412   $ 26,685   $ 19,485   $ 14,718   $ 8,849  

Marketable securities

                    1,614  

Working capital

    28,802     (63,146 )   (31,388 )   (31,802 )   (14,489 )

Total assets

    602,900     384,309     380,981     341,012     218,615  

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

    137,205     149,168     152,719     106,825     27,267  

Long-term debt

    151,670         15,875     16,750     2,625  

Long-term portion of capital leases and notes payable

    4,911     6,747     4,612     2,336     581  

Total liabilities

    472,778     285,279     282,435     228,977     91,185  

Total stockholders' equity

    130,122     99,030     98,546     112,035     127,430  

(1)
We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss attributable to common stockholders plus depreciation and amortization of property and equipment, stock-based compensation expense, amortization of intangible assets, income tax (benefit) expense, interest and other expense, net, non-controlling interests, and excludes charges or gains that are non-recurring, infrequent, or unusual.

We believe that Adjusted EBITDA is useful to investors and other users of our financial statements in evaluating our operating performance because it provides them with an additional tool to compare business performance across companies and across periods. We believe that:

Adjusted EBITDA provides investors and other users of our financial information consistency and comparability with our past financial performance, facilitates period-to-period comparisons of operations and facilitates comparisons with other companies, many of which use similar non-generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP") financial measures to supplement their GAAP results; and

it is useful to exclude (i) non-cash charges, such as depreciation and amortization of property and equipment, amortization of intangible assets and stock-based compensation, from Adjusted EBITDA because the amount of such expenses in any specific period may not directly correlate to the underlying performance of our business operations, and these expenses can vary significantly between periods as a result of full amortization of previously acquired tangible and intangible assets or the timing of new stock-based awards and (ii) settlement expense related to a claim from one of our venue partners and charges related to our contested proxy election for the 2016 annual meeting of stockholders because they represent non-recurring charges and are not indicative of the underlying performance of our business operations.

We use Adjusted EBITDA in conjunction with traditional GAAP measures as part of our overall assessment of our performance, for planning purposes, including the preparation of our annual operating budget and quarterly forecasts, to evaluate the effectiveness of our business strategies and to communicate with our board of directors concerning our financial performance.

We do not place undue reliance on Adjusted EBITDA as our only measure of operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as a substitute for other measures of financial performance reported in accordance with GAAP. There are limitations to using non-GAAP financial measures, including that other companies may calculate these measures differently than we do.

We compensate for the inherent limitations associated with using Adjusted EBITDA through disclosure of these limitations, presentation of our financial statements in accordance with GAAP

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        The following provides a reconciliation of net loss attributable to common stockholders to Adjusted EBITDA:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017(2)   2016(2)   2015(2)   2014(2)  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

  $ (1,220 ) $ (19,366 ) $ (27,331 ) $ (22,292 ) $ (19,521 )

Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment

    78,837     69,097     49,202     38,293     27,446  

Stock-based compensation expense

    12,268     14,215     12,805     9,398     7,164  

Amortization of intangible assets

    3,710     3,498     3,448     3,576     3,716  

Income tax (benefit) expense

    (5,153 )   (2,078 )   427     481     700  

Interest and other expense, net

    1,887     153     459     66     41  

Non-controlling interests

    1,489     590     348     114     754  

Contested proxy election expense

            1,440          

Settlement expense

        2,807              

Adjusted EBITDA

  $ 91,818   $ 68,916   $ 40,798   $ 29,636   $ 20,300  

(2)
As noted above, prior period amounts have not been adjusted upon adoption of ASC 606 under the modified retrospective method.

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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

        The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with "Selected Consolidated Financial Data" and our audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this filing. This discussion contains forward-looking statements, based on current expectations and related to our plans, estimates, beliefs and anticipated future financial performance. These statements involve risks and uncertainties and our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those set forth under "Risk Factors," "Forward-Looking Statements" and elsewhere in this filing.

        We believe we are the leading global provider of neutral-host commercial mobile Wi-Fi Internet solutions and indoor DAS services in the world. Our software applications and solutions enable individuals to access our extensive global Wi-Fi networks that cover over 1.2 million hotspots. We operate 58 DAS networks containing approximately 29,900 nodes. Our offerings provide compelling cost and performance advantages to our customers and partners.

        We grew revenue from $204.4 million in 2017 to $250.8 million in 2018, an increase of 22.7%. We grew revenue from $159.3 million in 2016 to $204.4 million in 2017, an increase of 28.3%. We generated a net loss attributable to common stockholders of $1.2 million in 2018 compared to $19.4 million in 2017. Adjusted EBITDA increased from $68.9 million in 2017 to $91.8 million in 2018, an increase of 33.2%. For a discussion of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of net loss attributable to common stockholders to Adjusted EBITDA, see footnote 1 to "Selected Financial Data" in Part II, Item 6.

        The proliferation of smartphones, tablets, laptops, wearables, and other Wi-Fi enabled devices—in conjunction with the increased consumption of high-bandwidth activities like video, online gaming, streaming, cloud-based applications and mobile apps—has created a demand for high-speed, high-bandwidth Internet access in public places both large and small. These data intensive activities are driving a global surge in mobile Internet data traffic that is expected to increase seven-fold between 2017 and 2022, according to Cisco's 2018 Visual Networking Index. We believe these trends present us with opportunities to generate significant growth in revenue and profitability.

        The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") and rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at the date of the financial statements. Such estimates and assumptions also affect the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Although we believe these estimates are reasonable, actual results could differ from these estimates. On a regular basis, we evaluate our assumptions, judgments and estimates. We also discuss our critical accounting policies and estimates with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

        We believe that the assumptions and estimates associated with revenue recognition, goodwill, measuring recoverability of long-lived assets, stock-based compensation and income taxes have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements. Therefore, we believe the accounting policies discussed below are paramount to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving our management's judgments, assumptions and estimates.

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        We generate revenue from several sources including: (i) DAS customers that are telecom operators under long-term contracts for access to our DAS at our managed and operated locations, (ii) military and retail customers under subscription plans for month-to-month network access that automatically renew, and military and retail single-use access from sales of hourly, daily or other single-use access plans, (iii) arrangements with property owners for multifamily properties that provide for network installation and monthly Wi-Fi services and support to the residents and employees, (iv) arrangements with wholesale Wi-Fi customers that provide software licensing, network access, and/or professional services fees, and (v) display advertisements and sponsorships on our walled garden sign-in pages. Software licensed by our wholesale platform services customers can only be used during the term of the service arrangements and has no utility to them upon termination of the service arrangement.

        Revenues are recognized when a contract with a customer exists and control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services and the identified performance obligation has been satisfied. Contracts entered into at or near the same time with the same customer are combined and accounted for as a single contract if the contracts have a single commercial objective, the amount of consideration is dependent on the price or performance of the other contract, or the services promised in the contracts are a single performance obligation. Contract amendments are routine in the performance of our DAS, wholesale Wi-Fi, and advertising contracts. Contracts are often amended to account for changes in contract specifications or requirements to expand network access services. In most instances, our DAS and wholesale Wi-Fi contract amendments are for additional goods or services that are distinct, and the contract price increases by an amount that reflects the standalone selling price of the additional goods or services; therefore, such contract amendments are accounted for as separate contracts. Contract amendments for our advertising contracts are also generally for additional goods or services that are distinct; however, the contract price does not increase by an amount that reflects the standalone selling price of the additional goods or services. Advertising contract amendments are therefore generally accounted for as contract modifications under the prospective method. Contract amendments to transaction prices with no change in remaining services are accounted for as contract modifications under the cumulative catch-up method.

        A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is the unit of account in ASC 606. A contract's transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and is recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied, which typically occurs when the services are rendered. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment. Our contracts with customers may include multiple performance obligations. For such arrangements, we allocate revenue to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. We generally determine standalone selling prices based on the prices charged to customers. Judgment may be used to determine the standalone selling prices for items that are not sold separately, including services provided at no additional charge. Most of our performance obligations are satisfied over time as services are provided. We generally recognize revenue on a gross basis as we are primarily responsible for fulfilling the promises to provide the specified goods or services, we are responsible for paying all costs related to the goods or services before they have been transferred to the customer, and we have discretion in establishing prices for the specified goods or services. Revenue is presented net of any sales and value added taxes.

        Payment terms vary on a contract-by-contract basis, although terms generally include a requirement of payment within 30 to 60 days for non-recurring payments, the first day of the monthly or quarterly billing cycle for recurring payments for DAS and wholesale Wi-Fi contracts, and the first day of the

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month prior to the month that services are provided for multifamily contracts. We apply a practical expedient for purposes of determining whether a significant financing component may exist for our contracts if, at contract inception, we expect that the period between when we transfer the promised good or service to the customer and when the customer pays for that good or service will be one year or less. In instances where the customer pays for a good or service one year or more in advance of the period when we transfer the promised good or service to the customer, we have determined our contracts generally do not include a significant financing component. The primary purpose of our invoicing terms is not to receive financing from our customers or to provide customers with financing but rather to maximize our profitability on the customer contract. Specifically, inclusion of non-refundable upfront fees in our long-term customer contracts increases the likelihood that the customer will be committed through the end of the contractual term and ensures recoverability of the capital outlay that we incur in expectation of the customer fulfilling its contractual obligations. We may also provide service credits to our customers if we fail to meet contractual monthly system uptime requirements and we account for the variable consideration related to these service credits using the most likely amount method.

        For contracts that include variable consideration, we estimate the amount of consideration at contract inception under the expected value method or the most likely amount method and include the amount of variable consideration that is not considered to be constrained. Significant judgment is used in constraining estimates of variable consideration. We update our estimates at the end of each reporting period as additional information becomes available.

        Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers. We record unbilled receivables (contract assets) when revenue is recognized prior to invoicing, deferred revenue (contract liabilities) when revenue is recognized after invoicing, and receivables when we have an unconditional right to consideration to invoice and receive payment in the future. We present our DAS, multifamily, and wholesale Wi-Fi contracts in our consolidated balance sheet as either a contract asset or a contract liability with any unconditional rights to consideration presented separately as a receivable. Our other customer contracts generally do not have any significant contract asset or contract liability balances. Generally, a significant portion of the billing for our DAS contracts occurs prior to revenue recognition, resulting in our DAS contracts being presented as contract liabilities. In contrast, our wholesale Wi-Fi contracts that contain recurring fees with annual escalations are generally presented as contract assets as revenue is recognized prior to invoicing. Our multifamily contracts can be presented as either contract liabilities or contract assets primarily as a result of timing of invoicing for the network installations.

        We recognize an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if we expect the benefit of those costs to be longer than one year. We have determined that certain sales incentive programs meet the requirements to be capitalized. Total capitalized costs to obtain a contract were immaterial during the year ended December 31, 2018 and are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets and non-current other assets on our consolidated balance sheets. We apply a practical expedient to expense costs as incurred for costs to obtain a contract with a customer when the amortization period would have been one year or less, the most significant of which relates to sales commissions related to obtaining our advertising customer contracts. Contract costs are evaluated for impairment in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables.

        We enter into long-term contracts with telecom operators at our managed and operated locations. The initial term of our contracts with telecom operators generally range from five to twenty years and the agreements generally contain renewal options. Some of our contracts provide termination for convenience clauses that may or may not include substantive termination penalties. We apply judgment in determining the contract term, the period during which we have present and enforceable rights and

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obligations. Our DAS customer contracts generally contain a single performance obligationprovide non-exclusive access to our DAS or small cell networks to provide telecom operators' customers with access to the licensed wireless spectrum, together with providing telecom operators with construction, installation, optimization/engineering, maintenance services and agreed-upon storage space for the telecom operators' transmission equipment, each related to providing such licensed wireless spectrum to the telecom operators. The performance obligation is considered a series of distinct services as the performance obligation is satisfied over time and the same time-based input method would be used to measure our progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation to transfer each distinct service in the series to the customer. Our contract fee structure generally includes a non-refundable upfront fee and we evaluated whether customer options to renew services give rise to a material right that should be accounted for as a separate performance obligation because of those non-refundable upfront fees. We believe that a material right generally does not exist for our DAS customer contracts that contain renewal options because the telecom operators' decision to renew is highly dependent upon our ability to maintain our exclusivity as the DAS service provider at the venue location and our limited operating history with venue and customer renewals. The telecom operators will make the decision to incur the capital improvement costs at the venue location irrespective of our remaining exclusivity period with the venue as the telecom operators expect that the assets will continue to be serviced regardless of whether we will remain such exclusive DAS service provider. Our contracts also provide our DAS customers with the option to purchase additional future services such as upgrades or enhancements. This option is not considered to provide the customer with a material right that should be accounted for as a separate performance obligation since the cost of the additional future services depends entirely on the market rate of such services at the time such services are requested and we are not automatically obligated to stand ready to deliver these additional goods or services as the customer may reject our proposal. Periodically, we install and sell DAS networks to customers where we do not have service contracts or remaining obligations beyond the installation of those networks and we recognize build-out fees for such projects as revenue when the installation work is completed, and the network has been accepted by the customer.

        Our contract fee structure may include varying components of an upfront build-out fee and recurring access, maintenance, and other fees. The upfront build-out fee is generally structured as a firm-fixed price or cost-plus arrangement and becomes payable as certain contract and/or construction milestones are achieved. Our DAS and small cell networks are neutral-host networks that can accommodate multiple telecom operators. Some of our DAS customer contracts provide for credits that may be issued to existing telecom operators for additional telecom operators subsequently joining the DAS network. The credits are generally based upon a fixed dollar amount per additional telecom operator, a fixed percentage amount of the original build-out fee paid by the telecom operator per additional telecom operator, or a proportionate share based upon the split among the relevant number of telecom operators for the actual costs incurred by all telecom operators to construct the DAS network. In most cases, there is significant uncertainty on whether additional telecom operator contracts will be executed at inception of the contract with the existing telecom operator. We believe that the upfront build-out fee is fixed consideration once the build-out is complete and any subsequent credits that may be issued would be accounted for in a manner similar to a contract modification under the prospective method because (i) the execution of customer contracts with additional telecom carriers is at our sole election and (ii) we would not execute agreements with additional telecom carriers if it would not increase our revenues and gross profits at the venue level. Further, the credits issued to the existing telecom operator changes the transaction price on a go-forward basis, which corresponds with the decline in service levels for the existing telecom operator once the neutral-host DAS network can be accessed by the additional telecom operator. The recurring access, maintenance, and other fees generally escalate on an annual basis. The recurring fees are variable consideration until the contract term and annual escalation dates are fixed. We estimate the variable consideration for our recurring fees using the most likely amount method based on the expected commencement date for the services.

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We evaluate our estimates of variable consideration each period and record a cumulative catch-up adjustment in the period in which changes occur for the amount allocated to satisfied performance obligations.

        We generally recognize revenue related to our single performance obligation for our DAS customer contract monthly over the contract term once the customer has the ability to access the DAS network and we commence maintenance on the DAS network.

        Military and retail customers must review and agree to abide by our standard "Customer Agreement (With Acceptable Use Policy) and End User License Agreement" before they are able to sign-up for our subscription or single-use Wi-Fi network access services. Our military and retail customer contracts generally contain a single performance obligationprovide non-exclusive access to Wi-Fi services, together with performance of standard maintenance, customer support, and the Wi-Finder app to facilitate seamless connection to the Company's Wi-Fi network. The performance obligation is considered a series of distinct services as the performance obligation is satisfied over time and the same time-based input method would be used to measure our progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation to transfer each distinct service in the series to the customer. Our contracts also provide our military and retail subscription customers with the option to renew the agreement when the subscription term is over. We do not consider this option to provide the customer with a material right that should be accounted for as a separate performance obligation because the customer would not receive a discount if it decided to renew and the option to renew is cancellable within 5 days' notice prior to the end of the then current term by either party.

        The contract transaction price is determined based on the subscription or single-use plan selected by the customer. Our military and retail service plans are for fixed price services as described on our website. From time to time, we offer promotional discounts that result in an immediate reduction in the price paid by the customer. Subscription fees from military and retail customers are paid monthly in advance. We provide refunds for our military and retail services on a case-by-case basis. Refunds and credit card chargeback amounts are not significant and are recorded as contra-revenue in the period the refunds are made, or chargebacks are received.

        Subscription fee revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription period. Revenue generated from military and retail single-use access is recognized when access is provided, and the performance obligation is satisfied.

        We enter into long-term contracts with property owners. The initial term of our contracts with property owners generally range from three to five years and the contracts may contain renewal options. Some of our contracts provide termination for convenience clauses that may or may not include substantive termination penalties. We apply judgment in determining the contract term, which is the period during which we have present and enforceable rights and obligations. Our customer contracts generally contain two performance obligations: (i) install the network required to provide Wi-Fi services; and (ii) provide Wi-Fi services and technical support to the residents and employees. Our contracts may also provide our property owners with the option to renew the agreement. We do not consider this option to provide the property owner with a material right that should be accounted for as a separate performance obligation because the property owner would not receive a discount if it decided to renew and the option to renew is generally cancellable by either party subject to the notice of non-renewal requirements specified in the contract. Our contracts may also provide our customers with the option to purchase additional future services. We do not consider this option to provide the customer with a material right that should be accounted for as a separate performance obligation since

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the cost of the additional future services are generally at market rates for such services and we are not automatically obligated to stand ready to deliver these additional goods or services because the customer may reject our proposal.

        Our contract fee structure includes a network installation fee and recurring Wi-Fi service and support fees. The network installation fee is generally structured as a firm-fixed price arrangement and becomes payable as certain contract and/or installation milestones are achieved. We generally estimate variable consideration for unpriced change orders using the most likely amount method based on the expected price for those services. If network installations are not completed by specified dates, we may be subject to network installation penalties. We estimate the variable consideration for our network installation fees using the most likely amount method based on the amount of network installation penalties we expect to incur. Title to the network generally transfers to the property owner once installation is completed and the network has been accepted. We generally recognize revenue related to our network installation performance obligation using a cost-to-cost method over the network installation period. We may provide latent defect warranties for materials and installation labor services related to our network installation services. Our warranty obligations are generally not accounted for as separate performance obligations as warranties cannot be separately purchased and warranties do not provide a service in addition to the assurance that the network will function as expected.

        The recurring fees commence once the network is launched with recurring fees generally based upon a fixed or variable occupancy rate. The recurring Wi-Fi service fees may be adjusted prospectively for changes in circuit and/or video content costs, and Wi-Fi support fees may escalate on an annual basis. We estimate the variable consideration for our recurring fees using the expected value method with the exception of the variable consideration related to actual occupancy rates, which we record when we have the contractual right to bill. We evaluate our estimates of variable consideration each period and record a cumulative catch-up adjustment in the period in which changes occur for the amount allocated to satisfied performance obligations. We recognize revenue related to the recurring fees on a monthly basis over the contract term as the Wi-Fi services and support is rendered, and the performance obligation is satisfied.

        We enter into long-term contracts with enterprise customers such as telecom operators, cable companies, technology companies, and enterprise software/services companies, that pay us usage-based Wi-Fi network access and software licensing fees to allow their customers' access to our footprint worldwide. We also enter into long-term contracts with financial institutions and other enterprise customers who provide access to our Wi-Fi footprint as a value-added service for their customers. The initial term of our contracts with wholesale Wi-Fi customers generally range from one to three years and the agreements generally contain renewal options. Some of our contracts provide termination for convenience clauses that may or may not include substantive termination penalties. We apply judgment in determining the contract term, the period during which we have present and enforceable rights and obligations. Our wholesale Wi-Fi customer contracts generally contain a single performance obligationprovide non-exclusive rights to access our Wi-Fi networks to provide wholesale Wi-Fi customers' end customers with access to the high-speed broadband network that may be bundled together with integration services, support services, and/or performance of standard maintenance. The performance obligation is considered a series of distinct services as the performance obligation is satisfied over time and the same time-based input method or usage-based output method would be used to measure our progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation to transfer each distinct service in the series to the customer. Our contracts may also provide our enterprise customers with the option to renew the agreement. This option is not considered to provide the customer with a material right that should be accounted for as a separate performance obligation because the customer would not receive a discount if it decided to renew and the option to renew is

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generally cancellable by either party subject to the notice of non-renewal requirements specified in the contract. Our contracts may also provide our wholesale Wi-Fi customers with the option to purchase additional future services. We do not consider this option to provide the customer with a material right that should be accounted for as a separate performance obligation since the cost of the additional future services are generally at market rates for such services and we are not automatically obligated to stand ready to deliver these additional goods or services because the customer may reject our proposal. Periodically, we install and sell Wi-Fi networks to customers where we do not have service contracts or remaining obligations beyond the installation of those networks and we recognize build-out fees for such projects as revenue when the installation work is completed, and the network has been accepted by the customer.

        Our contract fee structure may include varying components of a minimum fee and usage-based fees. Minimum fees represent fixed price consideration while usage-based fees represent variable consideration. With respect to variable consideration, our commitment to our wholesale Wi-Fi customers consists of providing continuous access to the network. It is therefore a single performance obligation to stand ready to perform and we allocate the variable fees charged for usage when we have the contractual right to bill. The variable component of revenue is recognized based on the actual usage during the period.

        Wholesale Wi-Fi revenue is recognized as it is earned over the relevant contract term with variable consideration recognized when we have the contractual right to bill.

        We generally enter into short-term cancellable insertion orders with our advertising customers for advertising campaigns that are served at our managed and operated locations and other locations where we solely provide authorized access to a partner's Wi-Fi network through sponsored and promotional programs. Our sponsorship advertising arrangements are generally priced under a cost per engagement structure, which is a set price per click or engagement, or a cost per install structure for third party application downloads. Our display advertising arrangements are priced based on cost per thousand impressions. Insertion orders may also include bonus items. Our advertising customer contracts may contain multiple performance obligations with each distinct service. These distinct services may include an advertisement video or banner impressions in the contract bundled with the requirement to provide network, space on the website, and integration of customer advertisement onto the website, and each is generally considered to be its own performance obligation. The performance obligations are considered a series of distinct services as the performance obligations are satisfied over time and the same action-based output method would be used to measure our progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation to transfer each distinct service in the series to the customer.

        The contract transaction price is comprised of variable consideration based on the stated rates applied against the number of units delivered inclusive of the bonus units subject to the maximums provided for in the insertion order. It is customary for us to provide additional units over and above the amounts contractually required; however, there are a number of factors that can also negatively impact our ability to deliver the units required by the customer such as service outages at the venue resulting from power or circuit failures and customer cancellation of the remaining undelivered units under the insertion order due to campaign performance or budgetary constraints. Typically, the advertising campaign periods are short in duration. We therefore use the contractual rates per the insertion orders and actual units delivered to determine the transaction price each period end. The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation based on the standalone selling price of each performance obligation.

        Advertising revenue is recognized ratably over the service period based on actual units delivered subject to the maximums provided for in the insertion order.

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        We recognize revenue when an arrangement exists, services have been rendered, fees are fixed or determinable, no significant obligations remain related to the earned fees and collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured. Revenue is presented net of any sales and value added taxes.

        Revenue generated from access to our DAS networks consists of build-out fees and recurring access fees under certain long-term contracts with telecom operators. Build-out fees paid upfront are generally deferred and recognized ratably over the term of the estimated customer relationship period, once the build-out is complete. Periodically, we install and sell Wi-Fi and DAS networks to customers where we do not have service contracts or remaining obligations beyond the installation of those networks and we recognize build-out fees for such projects as revenue when the installation work is completed, and the network has been accepted by the customer. Minimum monthly access fees for usage of the DAS networks are non-cancellable and generally escalate on an annual basis. These minimum monthly access fees are recognized ratably over the term of the telecom operator agreement. The initial term of our contracts with telecom operators generally range from five to twenty years and the agreements generally contain renewal clauses. Revenue from DAS network access fees in excess of the monthly minimums is recognized when earned.

        Subscription fees from military and retail customers are paid monthly in advance and revenue is deferred for the portions of monthly recurring subscription fees collected in advance. We provide refunds for our military and retail services on a case-by-case basis. These amounts are not significant and are recorded as contra-revenue in the period the refunds are made. Subscription fee revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription period. Revenue generated from military and retail single-use access is recognized when access is provided.

        Services provided to wholesale Wi-Fi partners generally contain several elements including: (i) a term license to use our software to access our Wi-Fi network, (ii) access fees for Wi-Fi network usage, and/or (iii) professional services for software integration and customization and to maintain the Wi-Fi service. The term license, monthly minimum network access fees and professional services are billed monthly based upon predetermined fixed rates. Once the term license for integration and customization are delivered, the fees from the arrangement are recognized ratably over the remaining term of the service arrangement. The initial term of the license agreements is generally between one to three years and the agreements generally contain renewal clauses. Revenue for Wi-Fi network access fees in excess of the monthly minimum amounts is recognized when earned. All elements within existing service arrangements are generally delivered and earned concurrently throughout the term of the respective service arrangement.

        In instances where the minimum monthly Wi-Fi and DAS network access fees escalate over the term of the wholesale service arrangement, an unbilled receivable is recognized when performance is within our control and when we have reasonable assurance that the unbilled receivable balance will be collected.

        We adopted the provisions of ASU 2009-13, Revenue Recognition (Topic 605)—Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements, on a prospective basis on January 1, 2011. For multiple-deliverable arrangements entered into prior to January 1, 2011 that are accounted for under ASC 605-25, Revenue Recognition—Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements, we defer recognition of revenue for the full arrangement and recognize all revenue ratably over the term of the estimated customer relationship period for DAS arrangements and the wholesale service period for Wi-Fi platform service arrangements, as we do not have evidence of fair value for the undelivered elements in the arrangement. For multiple-deliverable arrangements entered into or materially modified after January 1, 2011 that are accounted for under ASC 605-25, we evaluate whether separate units of accounting exist and then allocate the arrangement consideration to all units of accounting based on the relative selling price method using estimated selling prices if vendor specific objective evidence and third-party evidence is not available. We

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recognize the revenue associated with the separate units of accounting upon completion of such services or ratably over the term of the estimated customer relationship period for DAS arrangements and the wholesale service period for Wi-Fi platform service arrangements.

        Advertising revenue is generated from advertisements on our managed and operated or partner networks. In determining whether an arrangement exists, we ensure that a binding arrangement is in place, such as a standard insertion order or a fully executed customer-specific agreement. Obligations pursuant to our advertising revenue arrangements typically include a minimum number of units or the satisfaction of certain performance criteria. Advertising and other revenue is recognized when the services are performed.

        Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over fair value of net assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized but instead is tested annually for impairment, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that fair value of the reporting unit has been reduced to less than its carrying value. We perform our impairment test annually as of December 31st. Entities have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the goodwill impairment test described in ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other. If, after assessing qualitative factors, an entity determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the impairment test is unnecessary. The impairment loss, if any, is measured by comparing the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill with the carrying amount of goodwill.

        At December 31, 2018 and 2017, we tested our goodwill for impairment using a market-based approach and no impairment was identified as the fair value of our sole reporting unit was substantially in excess of its carrying amount. To date, we have not recorded any goodwill impairment charges.

        Our long-lived assets are depreciated and amortized over the estimated useful lives of the related asset type using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives for property and equipment are as follows:

Software

  2 to 5 years

Computer equipment

  3 to 5 years

Furniture, fixtures and office equipment

  3 to 5 years

Leasehold improvements

  The shorter of the estimated useful life or the remaining term of the agreements, generally ranging from 2 to 18 years

        We perform an impairment review of long-lived assets held and used whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors we consider important that could trigger an impairment review include, but are not limited to, significant under-performance relative to projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or our overall business and/or product strategies and significant industry or economic trends. When we determine that the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of these indicators, we determine the recoverability by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to net future undiscounted cash flows that the asset is expected to generate or other indices of fair value. We would then recognize an impairment charge equal to the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair market value of the asset.

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        Stock-based compensation consists of stock options and restricted stock units ("RSUs"), which are granted to employees and non-employees. We recognize compensation expense equal to the grant date fair value on a straight-line basis, net of forfeitures, over the employee requisite service period. We recognize stock-based compensation expense for performance-based RSUs when we believe that it is probable that the performance objectives will be met. The grant date fair value of our stock option awards is determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model.

        Income taxes are provided based on the liability method, which results in income tax assets and liabilities arising from temporary differences. Temporary differences are differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years. The liability method requires the effect of tax rate changes on current and accumulated deferred income taxes to be reflected in the period in which the rate change was enacted. The liability method also requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance unless it is more likely than not that the assets will be realized.

        We may recognize the tax benefit from uncertain tax positions only if it is at least more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement with the taxing authorities.

        We establish valuation allowances when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized. We evaluate the need for, and the adequacy of, valuation allowances based on the expected realization of our deferred tax assets. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization include historical earnings, our latest forecast of taxable income and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets.

        Our effective tax rates are primarily affected by changes in our valuation allowances, the amount of our taxable income or losses in the various taxing jurisdictions in which we operate, the amount of federal and state net operating losses and tax credits, the extent to which we can utilize these net operating loss carryforwards and tax credits and certain benefits related to stock option activity.

        Information regarding recent accounting pronouncements is contained in Note 2 "Significant Accounting Policies" to the accompanying consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8, which is incorporated herein by this reference.

        In addition to monitoring traditional financial measures, we also monitor our operating performance using key performance indicators. Our key performance indicators follow:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

DAS nodes

    29.9     23.5     19.2  

Subscribers—military

    138     130     107  

Subscribers—retail

    122     188     195  

Connects

    277,744     223,960     142,802  

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        DAS nodes.    This metric represents the number of active DAS nodes as of the end of the period. A DAS node is a single communications endpoint, typically an antenna, which transmits or receives radio frequency signals wirelessly. This measure is an indicator of the reach of our DAS network. We are experiencing strong customer demand from telecom operators to gain access to our DAS networks; accordingly, we expect to continue to invest in securing, building out and upgrading our DAS networks to meet this demand.

        Subscribers—military and Subscribers—retail.    These metrics represent the number of paying customers who are on a month-to-month subscription plan at a given period end. Military subscribers have increased as we deploy our service on new military bases. We also expect to see modest increases in military subscribers as we increase signups for new customers on existing military bases through targeted marketing and by continuing to build the Boingo brand in the military vertical. Retail subscribers have continued to decline as we have expanded our product offerings and enhanced our focus on our wholesale and advertising service offerings.

        Connects.    This metric shows how often individuals connect to our global Wi-Fi network in a given period. The connects include wholesale and retail customers in both customer pay locations and customer free locations where we are a paid service provider or receive sponsorship or promotion fees. We count each connect as a single connect regardless of how many times that individual accesses the network at a given venue during their 24-hour period. This measure is an indicator of paid activity throughout our network.

        Our revenue consists of DAS revenue, military/multifamily revenue, retail revenue, wholesale Wi-Fi revenue, and advertising and other revenue.

        DAS.    We generate revenue from telecom operator partners that pay us network build-out fees, inclusive of network upgrades, and access fees for our DAS and small cell networks.

        Military/multifamily and retail.    We generate revenue from sales to military and retail individuals of month-to-month network access subscriptions that automatically renew and hourly, daily or other single-use access, primarily through charge card transactions. We also generate multifamily revenue from property owners who pay us a recurring monthly fee for Wi-Fi services including building and maintaining the network that supports these services and providing support for residents and employees of the properties.

        Wholesale—Wi-Fi.    We generate revenue from wholesale Wi-Fi partners that license our software and pay usage-based monthly network access fees to allow their customers to access our global Wi-Fi network. Usage-based network access fees may be measured in minutes, connects, megabytes or gigabytes, and in most cases are subject to minimum volume commitments. Other wholesale Wi-Fi partners pay us monthly fees to provide a Wi-Fi infrastructure that we install, manage and operate at their venues for their customers under a service provider arrangement.

        Advertising and other.    We generate revenue from advertisers that seek to reach visitors to our landing pages at our managed and operated network locations with online advertising, promotional and sponsored programs and at locations where we solely provide authorized access to a partner's Wi-Fi network through sponsored access and promotional programs. In addition, we receive revenue from partners in certain venues where we manage and operate the Wi-Fi network.

        For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, entities affiliated with Sprint Corporation accounted for 14%, 11% and 11%, respectively, of total revenue. For the years ended December 31,

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2018 and 2017, entities affiliated with T-Mobile USA, Inc. accounted for 12% and 11%, respectively, of total revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, entities affiliated with Verizon Communications Inc. accounted for 11% and 11%, respectively, of total revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, entities affiliated with AT&T Inc. accounted for 11% and 12%, respectively, of total revenue. The loss of these groups and the customers could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated statements of operations.

        We classify our costs and operating expenses as network access, network operations, development and technology, selling and marketing, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets. Network access costs consist primarily of payments to venues and network partners in our network. Other costs and operating expenses primarily consist of personnel costs, costs for contracted labor and development, marketing, legal, accounting and consulting services, and other professional service fees. Personnel costs include salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation and employee benefits. Facilities costs are generally allocated based on headcount. Depreciation and amortization expenses associated with specifically identifiable property and equipment are allocated to the appropriate expense categories.

        Network access.    Network access costs consist of revenue share payments to venue owners where our managed and operated hotspots are located, usage-based fees to our roaming network partners for access to their networks, depreciation of equipment related to network build-out projects in our managed and operated locations, sale of equipment, and bandwidth and other Internet connectivity expenses in our managed and operated locations.

        Network operations.    Network operations expenses consist of costs for our customer service department and for our operations staff who design, build, monitor and maintain our networks. Also included are expenses for our customer service provider that handles customer care inquiries and expenses for network operations contractors, equipment depreciation, and software and hardware maintenance fees.

        Development and technology.    Development and technology expenses consist of costs for our product development and engineering departments, developers and our information systems services staff, depreciation of our equipment and internal-use software, cloud computing, and hardware and software maintenance fees.

        Selling and marketing.    Selling and marketing expenses consist of costs for our business development and marketing employees and executives, travel and entertainment, and marketing programs.

        General and administrative.    General and administrative expenses consist of costs for our executive, finance and accounting, legal and human resources personnel, as well as legal, accounting, tax and other professional service fees. Also included are other corporate expenses such as charge card processing fees and bad debt expense.

        Amortization of intangible assets.    Amortization of intangible assets consists primarily of acquired backlog, customer and partnership relationships, technology, patents, trademarks, and non-compete agreements.

        Interest and other expense, net, primarily consists of interest expense, net of amounts capitalized, offset by interest income.

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        We established a full valuation allowance as a result of our assessment that it was more likely than not that certain federal and state deferred tax assets would not be realized, and we have continued to maintain the full valuation allowance as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.

        Non-controlling interests are comprised of minority holdings by third parties in our subsidiaries Chicago Concourse Development Group, LLC ("CCDG") and Boingo Holding Participacoes Ltda. ("BHPL").

        We are generally required to pay a portion of allocated net profits less capital expenditures of the preceding year to the non-controlling interest holders of CCDG. The limited liability company agreement for CCDG does not have a term. CCDG can be dissolved upon the unanimous agreement of the members, upon the sale of CCDG, upon declaration of bankruptcy, or upon the termination of the license agreement between CCDG and the City of Chicago.

        We attributed profits and losses to the non-controlling interest in BHPL under the terms of the limited liability company agreement in proportion to their holdings. The limited liability company agreement with BHPL does not have a term. We, by resolution of the members, may distribute profits against retained earnings or profit reserves existing on the most recent annual balance sheet or may draw up financial statements and distribute profits in shorter periods. BHPL can be dissolved by resolution of the members and as otherwise provided for by law.

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        The following tables set forth our results of operations for the specified periods.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017(1)   2016(1)  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

                   

Revenue

  $ 250,821   $ 204,369   $ 159,344  

Costs and operating expenses:

                   

Network access

    113,572     90,702     69,112  

Network operations

    52,215     47,615     42,307  

Development and technology

    31,372     26,754     22,126  

Selling and marketing

    22,647     20,933     18,729  

General and administrative

    30,302     35,568     29,719  

Amortization of intangible assets

    3,710     3,498     3,448  

Total costs and operating expenses

    253,818     225,070     185,441  

Loss from operations

    (2,997 )   (20,701 )   (26,097 )

Interest and other expense, net

    (1,887 )   (153 )   (459 )

Loss before income taxes

    (4,884 )   (20,854 )   (26,556 )

Income tax (benefit) expense

    (5,153 )   (2,078 )   427  

Net income (loss)

    269     (18,776 )   (26,983 )

Net income attributable to non-controlling interests

    1,489     590     348  

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

  $ (1,220 ) $ (19,366 ) $ (27,331 )

Depreciation and amortization expense included in the above line items:

                   

Network access

  $ 49,766   $ 42,435   $ 27,013  

Network operations

    17,590     16,382     13,966  

Development and technology

    10,443     9,247     7,207  

General and administrative

    1,038     1,033     1,016  

Total

  $ 78,837   $ 69,097   $ 49,202  

Stock-based compensation expense included in the above line items:

                   

Network operations

  $ 2,070   $ 2,174   $ 2,144  

Development and technology

    1,242     1,068     1,070  

Selling and marketing

    1,868     2,060     1,842  

General and administrative

    7,088     8,913     7,749  

Total

  $ 12,268   $ 14,215   $ 12,805  

(1)
As noted in Item 6, prior period amounts have not been adjusted upon adoption of ASC 606 under the modified retrospective method.

        Depreciation expense increased $9.7 million, or 14.1%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, and depreciation expense increased $19.9 million, or 40.4%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, primarily due to increased depreciation and amortization expense from our increased fixed assets for our DAS build-out projects, Wi-Fi networks, and software development in those periods.

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        Stock-based compensation expense decreased $1.9 million, or 13.7%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, and stock-based compensation expense increased $1.4 million, or 11.0%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, and the changes are primarily due to stock-based compensation expense related to our performance-based RSUs.

        We issue RSUs that vest over a specified service period. We also issue performance-based RSUs to executive personnel. We recognize stock-based compensation expense for performance-based RSUs when we believe that it is probable that the performance objectives will be met and based on the expected achievement levels. In 2018, 2017, and 2016, we capitalized $0.8 million, $0.7 million and $0.7 million, respectively, of stock-based compensation expense.

        At December 31, 2018, the total remaining stock-based compensation expense for unvested RSU awards is approximately $9.3 million which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.6 years.

        The following table sets forth our results of operations for the specified periods as a percentage of our revenue for those periods.

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017(2)   2016(2)  
 
  (as a percentage of revenue)
 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

                   

Revenue

    100.0 %   100.0 %   100.0 %

Costs and operating expenses:

                   

Network access

    45.3     44.4     43.4  

Network operations

    20.8     23.3     26.6  

Development and technology

    12.5     13.1     13.9  

Selling and marketing

    9.0     10.2     11.8  

General and administrative

    12.1     17.4     18.7  

Amortization of intangible assets

    1.5     1.7     2.2  

Total costs and operating expenses

    101.2     110.1     116.4  

Loss from operations

    (1.2 )   (10.1 )   (16.4 )

Interest and other expense, net

    (0.8 )   (0.1 )   (0.3 )

Loss before income taxes

    (1.9 )   (10.2 )   (16.7 )

Income tax (benefit) expense

    (2.1 )   (1.0 )   0.3  

Net income (loss)

    0.1     (9.2 )   (16.9 )

Net income attributable to non-controlling interests

    0.6     0.3     0.2  

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

    (0.5 )%   (9.5 )%   (17.2 )%

(2)
As noted in Item 6, prior period amounts have not been adjusted upon adoption of ASC 606 under the modified retrospective method.

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Years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017(3)   Change   % Change  
 
  (in thousands, except percentages)
 

Revenue:

                         

DAS

  $ 95,216   $ 80,552   $ 14,664     18.2  

Military/multifamily

    77,721     55,129     22,592     41.0  

Wholesale—Wi-Fi

    47,481     31,529     15,952     50.6  

Retail

    17,630     24,926     (7,296 )   (29.3 )

Advertising and other

    12,773     12,233     540     4.4  

Total revenue

  $ 250,821   $ 204,369   $ 46,452     22.7  

Key business metrics:

                         

DAS nodes

    29.9     23.5     6.4     27.2  

Subscribers—military

    138     130     8     6.2  

Subscribers—retail

    122     188     (66 )   (35.1 )

Connects

    277,744     223,960     53,784     24.0  

(3)
As noted in Item 6, prior period amounts have not been adjusted upon adoption of ASC 606 under the modified retrospective method.

        DAS.    DAS revenue increased $14.7 million, or 18.2%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, due to a $12.5 million increase from new build-out projects in our managed and operated locations, which is inclusive of a $6.4 million increase resulting from the adoption of ASC 606 as of January 1, 2018, and a $2.2 million increase in access fees, net of certain credits granted, from our telecom operators.

        Military/multifamily.    Military/multifamily revenue increased $22.6 million, or 41.0% in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to a $11.2 million increase in multifamily revenues resulting from our Elauwit acquisition in August 2018, and a $11.4 million increase in military subscriber revenue, which was driven primarily by the increase in military subscribers and a 11.1% increase in the average monthly revenue per military subscriber in 2018 compared to 2017.

        Wholesale—Wi-Fi.    Wholesale Wi-Fi revenue increased $16.0 million, or 50.6% in 2018, as compared to 2017, due to a $9.9 million increase in partner usage-based fees and a $6.1 million increase in fees primarily earned from our venue partners who pay us to provide a Wi-Fi infrastructure that we install, manage and operate at their venues.

        Retail.    Retail revenue decreased $7.3 million, or 29.3%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, due to a $4.2 million decrease in retail subscriber revenue, which was driven primarily by the decrease in retail subscribers, and a $3.1 million decrease in retail single-use revenue.

        Advertising and other.    Advertising and other revenue increased $0.5 million, or 4.4% in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to a $0.4 million increase in advertising sales at our managed and operated locations resulting from an increase in the number of premium ad units sold.

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  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   Change   % Change  
 
  (in thousands, except percentages)
 

Costs and operating expenses:

                         

Network access

  $ 113,572   $ 90,702   $ 22,870     25.2  

Network operations

    52,215     47,615     4,600     9.7  

Development and technology

    31,372     26,754     4,618     17.3  

Selling and marketing

    22,647     20,933     1,714     8.2  

General and administrative

    30,302     35,568     (5,266 )   (14.8 )

Amortization of intangible assets

    3,710     3,498     212     6.1  

Total costs and operating expenses

  $ 253,818   $ 225,070   $ 28,748     12.8  

        Network access.    Network access costs increased $22.9 million, or 25.2%, in 2018, as compared to 2017. The increase is primarily due to a $10.5 million increase in other direct cost of sales, a $7.3 million increase in depreciation expense related to our increased fixed assets from our DAS build-out projects, and a $5.4 million increase in revenue share paid to venues in our managed and operated locations. Network access includes $9.4 million of expenses related to our multifamily operations, which we acquired in August 2018.

        Network operations.    Network operations expenses increased $4.6 million, or 9.7%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to a $3.4 million increase in personnel related expenses, a $1.3 million increase in hardware and software maintenance expenses, a $1.2 million increase in depreciation expenses, and a $0.6 million increase in network maintenance expenses. The increases were partially offset by a $0.7 million decrease in impairment losses primarily related to construction in progress projects that were abandoned, a $0.6 million decrease in consulting expenses and a $0.4 million decrease in our third-party call center costs. Network operations includes $1.1 million of expenses related to our multifamily operations, which we acquired in August 2018.

        Development and technology.    Development and technology expenses increased $4.6 million, or 17.3%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to a $1.4 million increase in personnel related expenses, a $1.2 million increase in depreciation expense related to our increased fixed assets, a $0.6 million increase in hardware and software maintenance expenses, a $0.5 million increase in consulting expenses, and a $0.3 million increase in cloud computing expenses. Development and technology include $0.5 million of expenses related to our multifamily operations, which we acquired in August 2018.

        Selling and marketing.    Selling and marketing expenses increased $1.7 million, or 8.2%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to a $1.2 million increase in personnel related expenses and a $0.3 million increase in professional fees and consulting expenses. Selling and marketing includes $0.6 million of expenses related to our multifamily operations, which we acquired in August 2018.

        General and administrative.    General and administrative expenses decreased $5.3 million, or 14.8%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to a $2.8 million settlement expense accrual recorded in 2017 that did not reoccur in 2018, a $1.3 million decrease in professional fees and consulting expenses, a $1.3 million decrease in personnel related expenses, which was primarily due to the decrease in stock-based compensation expense, and a $0.4 decrease in bad debt expenses. General and administrative includes $0.8 million of expenses related to our multifamily operations, which we acquired in August 2018.

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        Amortization of intangible assets.    Amortization of intangible assets expense increased $0.2 million, or 6.1%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to the $1.0 million increase resulting from our Elauwit acquisition in August 2018, which was partially offset by certain intangible assets that became fully amortized during 2017 and 2018.

        Interest and other expense increased $1.7 million, or 1,133.3%, in 2018, as compared to 2017, primarily due to interest expense incurred related to the Convertible Notes we issued in October 2018. We capitalized $1.1 million and $0.8 million of interest expense to capital projects in 2018 and 2017, respectively.

        In December 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("TCJA") was enacted in the U.S. TCJA amended the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and included the following key provisions, which are generally effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, that are determined to have a significant impact on our effective tax rate:

        We completed our assessment of the impact of TCJA on our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2017 and recorded the impact of the enactment of TCJA in our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017.

        In 2018, we recorded an income tax benefit of $5.2 million, or an effective tax rate of 105.5%, which was inclusive of a $5.7 million benefit related to the reversal of our valuation allowance for the tax effect on the equity component of our Convertible Notes. In 2017, we recorded an income tax benefit of $2.1 million, or an effective tax rate of 10.0%, which was inclusive of a $1.3 million income tax benefit resulting from the reduction of the corporate federal tax rate, as well as a $1.7 million income tax benefit provided by the indefinite carryforward of NOLs, which were expected to be available to recover our deferred tax liabilities that have an indefinite reversal pattern. Our effective tax rate also differs from the statutory rate primarily due to our valuation allowance for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, as well as minimum state taxes and foreign tax expense for the year

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ended December 31, 2018. Income tax benefit for the year ended December 31, 2018 included an increase of $0.4 million resulting from the adoption of ASC 606 as of January 1, 2018.

        Our future effective tax rate depends on various factors, such as our level of future taxable income, tax legislation and credits and the geographic compositions of our pre-tax income. We do not expect to incur any significant income taxes until such time that we reverse our valuation allowance against our federal and state deferred tax assets upon return to sustained profitability.

        Non-controlling interests increased $0.9 million, or 152.4% in 2018, as compared to 2017. Non-controlling interests for the year ended December 31, 2018 included an increase of $1.7 million resulting from the adoption of ASC 606 as of January 1, 2018, which was partially offset by increased depreciation expense related to our increased fixed assets in 2018, as compared to 2017.

        Our net loss attributable to common stockholders in 2018 decreased $18.1 million as compared to 2017, primarily due to the $46.5 million increase in revenues and the $3.1 million increase in income tax benefit, which were partially offset by the $28.7 million increase in costs and operating expenses, the $1.7 million increase in interest and other expense, net, and the $0.9 million increase in non-controlling interests. Our diluted net loss per share decreased primarily as a result of the decrease in our net loss.

        Adjusted EBITDA was $91.8 million in 2018, an increase of 33.2% from $68.9 million recorded in 2017. As a percent of revenue, Adjusted EBITDA was 36.6% in 2018, up from 33.7% in 2017. The Adjusted EBITDA increase was due primarily to the $18.1 million decrease in our net loss attributable to common stockholders, an increase of $10.0 million for the addback of depreciation and amortization expense, a $1.7 million increase for the addback of interest and other expense, net and a $0.9 million increase for the addback of non-controlling interests in 2018 compared to 2017. The changes were partially offset by the $2.8 million decrease in settlement expense accrual recorded in 2017 that did not reoccur in 2018, a $3.1 million increase for the deduction for income tax benefit, and the $1.9 million decrease for the addback for stock-based compensation expense. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss attributable to common stockholders plus depreciation and amortization of property and equipment, stock-based compensation expense, amortization of intangible assets, income tax (benefit) expense, interest and other expense, net, non-controlling interests, and excludes charges or gains that are non-recurring, infrequent, or unusual. For a discussion of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of net loss attributable to common stockholders to Adjusted EBITDA, see footnote 1 to "Selected Financial Data" in Part II, Item 6.

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Years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2017(4)   2016(4)   Change   % Change  
 
  (in thousands, except percentages)
 

Revenue:

                         

DAS

  $ 80,552   $ 58,182   $ 22,370     38.4  

Military

    55,129     39,975     15,154     37.9  

Wholesale—Wi-Fi

    31,529     22,221     9,308     41.9  

Retail

    24,926     26,636     (1,710 )   (6.4 )

Advertising and other

    12,233     12,330     (97 )   (0.8 )

Total revenue

  $ 204,369   $ 159,344   $ 45,025     28.3  

Key business metrics:

                         

DAS nodes

    23.5     19.2     4.3     22.4  

Subscribers—military

    130     107     23     21.5  

Subscribers—retail

    188     195     (7 )   (3.6 )

Connects

    223,960     142,802     81,158     56.8  

(4)
As noted in Item 6, prior period amounts have not been adjusted upon adoption of ASC 606 under the modified retrospective method.

        DAS.    DAS revenue increased $22.4 million, or 38.4%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to a $20.5 million increase from new build-out projects in our managed and operated locations and a $1.9 million increase in access fees from our telecom operators. DAS build-out revenues in 2017 and 2016 include $0.2 million and $0.5 million, respectively, of short-term build projects that include sales of equipment that were completed during those periods.

        Military.    Military revenue increased $15.2 million, or 37.9%, in 2017, as compared to 2016 due to a $19.2 million increase in military subscriber revenue, which was driven primarily by the increase in military subscribers and a 1.7% increase in the average monthly revenue per military subscriber in 2017 compared to 2016. The increase was partially offset by a $4.0 million decrease in military single-use revenue.

        Wholesale—Wi-Fi.    Wholesale Wi-Fi revenue increased $9.3 million, or 41.9%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to a $7.3 million increase in partner usage-based fees and a $2.0 million increase in fees primarily earned from our venue partners who pay us to provide a Wi-Fi infrastructure that we install, manage and operate at their venues.

        Retail.    Retail revenue decreased $1.7 million, or 6.4%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, primarily due to a $1.6 million decrease in retail single-use revenue.

        Advertising and other.    Advertising and other revenue decreased $0.1 million, or 0.8%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to a $0.7 million decrease in advertising sales at our managed and operated locations, which was partially offset by a $0.6 million increase in revenues from other service agreements.

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  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2017   2016   Change   % Change  
 
  (in thousands, except percentages)
 

Costs and operating expenses:

                         

Network access

  $ 90,702   $ 69,112   $ 21,590     31.2  

Network operations

    47,615     42,307     5,308     12.5  

Development and technology

    26,754     22,126     4,628     20.9  

Selling and marketing

    20,933     18,729     2,204     11.8  

General and administrative

    35,568     29,719     5,849     19.7  

Amortization of intangible assets

    3,498     3,448     50     1.5  

Total costs and operating expenses

  $ 225,070   $ 185,441   $ 39,629     21.4  

        Network access.    Network access costs increased $21.6 million, or 31.2%, in 2017, as compared to 2016. The increase is primarily due to a $15.4 million increase in depreciation expense related to our increased fixed assets from our DAS build-out projects, a $5.2 million increase in revenue share paid to venues in our managed and operated locations, and a $0.8 million increase from customer usage at partner venues.

        Network operations.    Network operations expenses increased $5.3 million, or 12.5%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to a $2.4 million increase in depreciation expense related to our increased fixed assets, a $1.5 million increase in personnel related expenses, and a $1.3 million increase in other expenses. Other expenses for 2017 and 2016 include $0.9 million and $0.1 million, respectively, of impairment losses primarily related to construction in progress projects that were abandoned.

        Development and technology.    Development and technology expenses increased $4.6 million, or 20.9%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to a $2.0 million increase in depreciation expense related to our increased fixed assets, a $1.8 million increase in personnel related expenses, and a $0.8 million increase in cloud computing expenses.

        Selling and marketing.    Selling and marketing expenses increased $2.2 million, or 11.8%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, primarily due to a $1.6 million increase in personnel related expenses, a $0.3 million increase in marketing and advertising expenses, and a $0.2 million increase in other consulting expenses.

        General and administrative.    General and administrative expenses increased $5.8 million, or 19.7%, in 2017, as compared to 2016, due to a $2.8 million settlement expense accrual related to a claim from one of our venue partners recorded in 2017, a $2.6 million increase in personnel related expenses, which was inclusive of a $1.2 million increase in stock-based compensation, a $1.5 million increase in professional fees and consulting expenses, and a $0.7 million increase in bad debt expenses. The increases were partially offset by $1.4 million of costs we incurred in 2016 on our contested proxy election for the 2016 annual meeting of stockholders and a $0.4 million decrease in other expenses.

        Amortization of intangible assets.    Amortization of intangible assets expense remained relatively consistent in 2017, as compared to 2016.

        There were no significant changes in interest and other expense, net, in 2017, as compared to 2016. We capitalized $0.8 million of interest expense to capital projects in each of the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016.

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        In 2017, we recorded an income tax benefit of $2.1 million, or an effective tax rate of 10.0%, which is inclusive of a $1.3 million income tax benefit resulting from the reduction of the corporate federal tax rate as well as a $1.7 million income tax benefit provided by the indefinite carryforward of NOLs, which are expected to be available to recover our deferred tax liabilities that have an indefinite reversal pattern. In 2016, we recorded an income tax expense of $0.4 million, or an effective tax rate of 1.6%.

        There were no significant changes in non-controlling interests in 2017, as compared to 2016.

        Our net loss in 2017 decreased as compared to 2016, primarily as a result of the $45.0 million increase in revenues and the $2.5 million change in our income taxes, which were partially offset by the $39.6 million increase in costs and operating expenses. Our diluted net loss per share decreased primarily as a result of the decrease in our net loss.

        Adjusted EBITDA was $68.9 million in 2017, an increase of 68.9% from $40.8 million recorded in 2016. As a percent of revenue, Adjusted EBITDA was 33.7% in 2017, up from 25.6% of revenue in 2016. The Adjusted EBITDA increase was due primarily to the $19.9 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense, the $8.0 million decrease in our net loss attributable to common stockholders, and the $1.4 million increase in stock-based compensation expenses in 2017 compared to 2016. The changes were partially offset by the $2.5 million change in our income taxes in 2017 compared to 2016. Adjusted EBITDA in 2017 excludes $2.8 million of settlement expense accrual related to a claim from one of our venue partners. Adjusted EBITDA in 2016 excludes $1.4 million of expenses that we incurred on our contested proxy election for the 2016 annual meeting of stockholders. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss attributable to common stockholders plus depreciation and amortization of property and equipment, stock-based compensation expense, amortization of intangible assets, income tax (benefit) expense, interest and other expense, non-controlling interests, and excludes charges or gains that are non-recurring, infrequent, or unusual. For a discussion of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of net loss attributable to common stockholders to Adjusted EBITDA, see footnote 1 to "Selected Financial Data" in Part II, Item 6.

        We have financed our operations primarily through cash provided by operating activities and borrowings under our credit facility. Our primary sources of liquidity as of December 31, 2018 consisted of $149.4 million of cash and cash equivalents. At December 31, 2018, we had $8.2 million of outstanding Letter of Credit Authorization agreements.

        Our principal uses of liquidity have been to fund our operations, working capital requirements, capital expenditures and acquisitions. We expect that these requirements will be our principal needs for liquidity over the near term. Our capital expenditures in 2018 were $108.7 million, of which $82.7 million was reimbursed through revenue for DAS build-out projects from our telecom operators.

        In February 2019, we entered into a new Credit Agreement (the "New Credit Agreement") and related agreements with Bank of America, N.A. acting as agent for lenders named therein, including Bank of America, N.A., Silicon Valley Bank, Bank of the West, Zions Bancorporation, N.A. dba California Bank & Trust, and Barclays Bank PLC (the "Lenders"), for a secured credit facility in the

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form of a revolving line of credit up to $150.0 million (the "Revolving Line of Credit") and a term loan of $3.5 million (the "Term Loan" and together with the Revolving Line of Credit, the "New Credit Facility"). The New Credit Facility replaced the November 2014 Credit Facility with Bank of America, N.A. acting as agent for lenders named therein, which expired on November 21, 2018. Our New Credit Facility will mature on April 3, 2023. Amounts borrowed under the Revolving Line of Credit and Term Loan will bear variable interest at the greater of LIBOR plus 1.75% - 2.75% or Lender's Prime Rate plus 0.75% - 1.75% per year and we will pay a fee of 0.25% - 0.5% per year on any unused portion of the Revolving Line of Credit.

        Repayment of amounts borrowed under the New Credit Facility may be accelerated in the event that we are in violation of the representation, warranties and covenants made in the Credit Agreement, including certain financial covenants set forth therein, and under other specific default events including, but not limited to, non-payment or inability to pay debt, breach of cross default provisions, insolvency provisions, and change in control. We are subject to customary covenants, including a minimum quarterly consolidated senior secured leverage ratio, a minimum quarterly consolidated total leverage ratio, a maximum quarterly consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio, and cash on hand minimums. We were in compliance with all such financial and non-financial covenants through the date of this report. The New Credit Facility provides us with significant additional flexibility and liquidity to pursue our strategic objectives for capital expenditures and acquisitions that we may pursue from time to time.

        In October 2018, we sold, through the initial purchasers, convertible senior notes ("Convertible Notes") to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, for gross proceeds of $201.25 million. The Convertible Notes are senior, unsecured obligations with interest payable semi-annually in cash at a rate of 1.00% per annum on April 1st and October 1st of each year, beginning on April 1, 2019. The Convertible Notes will mature on October 1, 2023 unless they are redeemed, repurchased or converted prior to such date. Prior to April 1, 2023, the Convertible Notes are convertible at the option of holders only during certain periods and upon satisfaction of certain conditions. Thereafter, the Convertible Notes will be convertible at any time until the close of business on the second scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date. Upon conversion, the Convertible Notes may be settled in shares of our common stock, cash or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, at our election.

        The Convertible Notes have an initial conversion rate of 23.6323 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of the Convertible Notes, which will be subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments in certain circumstances. This represents an initial effective conversion price of approximately $42.31 per share, which represents a premium of approximately 30% to the $32.55 per share closing price of our common stock on October 2, 2018, the day we priced the offering.

        We may redeem all or any portion of the Convertible Notes, at our option, on or after October 5, 2021, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the redemption date, if the last reported sale price of our stock has been at least 130% of the conversion price then in effect for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during any 30 consecutive trading day period (including the last trading day of such period) ending on, and including, the trading day immediately preceding the date on which we provide written notice of redemption.

        Holders of Convertible Notes may require us to repurchase their Convertible Notes upon the occurrence of certain events that constitute a fundamental change under the indenture governing the Convertible Notes at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date of repurchase. In connection with certain corporate events or if we issue a notice of redemption prior to the maturity date, it will, under certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate for holders who elect to convert their Convertible Notes in connection with such corporate event or notice of redemption.

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        In connection with the pricing of the Convertible Notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions with a financial institution. The capped call transactions initially cover, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments, the number of shares of our common stock that initially underlie the Convertible Notes. The cap price of the capped call transactions is initially $65.10 per share of our common stock, representing a premium of 100% above the closing price of $32.55 per share of our common stock on October 2, 2018, and is subject to certain adjustments under the terms of the capped call transactions. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce potential dilution to our common stock upon conversion of the Convertible Notes and/or offset the potential cash payments that we could be required to make in excess of the principal amount of any converted Convertible Notes upon conversion thereof, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap based on the cap price. We paid approximately $24.0 million for the capped call transactions using a portion of the gross proceeds from the sale of the Convertible Notes.

        In connection with the offering of the Convertible Notes, we entered into an amendment to the November 2014 Credit Agreement that amended certain provisions of the November 2014 Credit Agreement to provide for the consummation of the offering and issuance of the Convertible Notes and the incurrence of the debt, and the execution of the capped call transactions

        We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, cash flow from operations and availability under the New Credit Facility will be sufficient to fund our operations and planned capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months from the date of issuance of our financial statements. There can be no assurance, however, that future industry-specific or other developments, general economic trends, or other matters will not adversely affect our operations or our ability to meet our future cash requirements. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our rate of revenue growth and corresponding timing of cash collections, the timing and size of our managed and operated location expansion efforts, the timing and extent of spending to support product development efforts, the timing of introductions of new solutions and enhancements to existing solutions and the continuing market acceptance of our solutions. We expect our capital expenditures for 2019 will range from $100.0 million to $120.0 million, including $75.0 million to $90.0 million of capital expenditures for DAS build-out projects which are reimbursed through revenue from our telecom operator customers. We anticipate the majority of our 2019 capital expenditures will be used to build out and upgrade Wi-Fi and DAS networks at our managed and operated venues. We used $15.0 million of the net proceeds from the offering of the Convertible Notes to repay the outstanding balance under our previous Credit Facility and we expect to use the remainder of the net proceeds from the offering of the Convertible Notes for general corporate purposes, potential acquisitions and strategic transactions, although we have no agreements or understandings with respect to any acquisitions or strategic transactions at this time and may not enter into any or consummate any transaction. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for ongoing repurchases of common stock to satisfy withholding obligations related to vesting and settlement of RSUs.

        We have contracts with the U.S. government. The U.S. government may modify, curtail or terminate its contracts with us, either at its convenience or for default based on performance. Any such modification, curtailment, or termination of one or more of our government contracts could have a material adverse effect on our earnings, cash flow and/or financial position. We may also enter into other acquisitions of complementary businesses, applications or technologies, which could require us to seek additional equity or debt financing. Additional funds may not be available on terms favorable to us, or at all.

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        The following table sets forth cash flow data for the periods indicated therein:

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 93,321   $ 97,728   $ 115,205  

Net cash used in investing activities

    (133,354 )   (74,458 )   (107,331 )

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    162,825     (16,054 )   (3,121 )

        In 2018, we generated $93.3 million of net cash from operating activities, a decrease of $4.4 million from 2017. The decrease is primarily due to a $29.3 million change in our operating assets and liabilities, which is primarily driven by a lower rate of cash collections and invoicing for our DAS build-out projects, a $3.0 million increase in the change in our deferred income taxes, a $1.9 million change in stock-based compensation expenses, a $0.9 million decrease in the addback for impairment loss and loss on disposal of fixed assets, net, and a $0.4 million change in bad debt expense in 2018. The changes were partially offset by a $19.0 million reduction of our net loss, a $10.0 million change in depreciation and amortization expenses primarily related to our recent increased fixed assets from our DAS build-out projects, Wi-Fi networks, and software development, a $2.2 million increase in the addback for amortization of deferred financing costs and debt discounts.

        In 2017, we generated $97.7 million of net cash from operating activities, a decrease of $17.5 million from 2016. The decrease is primarily due to a $46.0 million non-cash change in our operating assets and liabilities and a $2.9 million change in our deferred income taxes. The change was partially offset by a $19.9 million increase in depreciation and amortization expenses related to our recent increased fixed assets from our DAS build-out projects, Wi-Fi networks, and software development, an $8.2 million decrease in our net loss, a $1.4 million increase in stock-based compensation expenses, a $0.7 million increase in bad debt expenses, and a $1.1 million increase in impairment losses and losses on disposal of fixed assets, net.

        In 2016, we generated $115.2 million of net cash from operating activities, an increase of $16.6 million from 2015. The increase is primarily due to a $7.4 million change in our operating assets and liabilities, a $10.8 million increase in depreciation and amortization expenses related to our recent increased fixed assets from our DAS build-out projects, Wi-Fi networks, and software development, and a $3.4 million increase in stock-based compensation expenses. The increases were partially offset by the $4.8 million increase in our net loss.

        In 2018, we used $133.4 million in investing activities, an increase of $58.9 million from 2017. The increase is due to a $35.4 million increase in purchases of property and equipment and a $23.5 million increase in cash paid for asset and business acquisitions.

        In 2017, we used $74.5 million in investing activities, a decrease of $32.9 million from 2016. The decrease is primarily due to a $34.0 million decrease in purchases of property and equipment, which was partially offset by $1.2 million of cash paid for a caching technology intangible asset, which we acquired in November 2016.

        In 2016, we used $107.3 million in investing activities, an increase of $5.8 million from 2015. This increase is due to a $4.2 million increase in purchases of property and equipment related to our recent increased fixed assets from our DAS build-out projects, Wi-Fi networks, and software development, and a $1.6 million decrease in cash provided by net proceeds from sales of marketable securities.

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        In 2018, we received $162.8 million of cash provided by financing activities, an increase of $178.9 million from 2017. This increase is due to a $195.7 million increase in net proceeds from our Convertible Notes offering, a $15.0 million increase in proceeds from our Credit Facility, and a $0.7 million increase in proceeds from exercise of stock options. The increases were partially offset by a $24.0 million payment for capped call options in connection with the Convertible Notes offering, a $5.7 million increase in payments for federal, state, and local employment payroll taxes related to our RSUs that vested during the period, a $2.0 million increase in principal payments for our capital leases and notes payable, a $0.7 million increase in cash paid for debt issuance costs, and a $0.5 million increase in cash payments to our non-controlling interests.

        In 2017, we used $16.1 million of cash in financing activities, an increase of $12.9 million from 2016. This change is primarily due to a $10.4 million increase in payments on our Credit Facility, a $5.0 million decrease in proceeds from our Credit Facility, a $2.0 million increase in cash used to pay federal, state, and local employment payroll taxes related to our RSUs that vested during the period, and a $2.0 million increase in cash paid for our capital leases and notes payable. The changes were partially offset by a $6.3 million increase in proceeds from exercise of stock options.

        In 2016, we used $3.1 million of cash for financing activities compared to $8.8 million in cash provided by financing activities in 2015. This change is primarily due to a $14.8 million decrease in net proceeds from our Credit Facility, a $1.4 million increase in cash paid for capital leases and notes payable, and a $0.3 million decrease in cash used to pay federal, state, and local employment payroll taxes related to our RSUs that vested during the period. These changes were partially offset by a $1.6 million increase in proceeds from exercise of stock options, $2.8 million of non-recurring payments made in 2015 related to business combinations, and a $0.2 million decrease in payments to our non-controlling interests.

        The following table sets forth our contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2018:

 
  Payments Due by Period  
 
  Total   Less than
1 Year
  2 - 3 Years   4 - 5 Years   More than
5 Years
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Venue revenue share minimums(1)

  $ 49,625   $ 14,638   $ 15,788   $ 10,312   $ 8,887  

Operating leases for office and other spaces(2)

    26,158     3,573     6,841     6,909     8,835  

Open purchase commitments(3)

    32,769     32,168     601          

Convertible Notes(4)

    201,250             201,250      

Capital leases and notes payable for equipment and software(5)

    11,523     6,612     4,911          

Total

  $ 321,325   $ 56,991   $ 28,141   $ 218,471   $ 17,722  

(1)
Payments under exclusive long-term, non-cancellable contracts to provide wireless communications network access to venues such as airports. Expense is recorded on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

(2)
Office and other spaces under non-cancellable operating leases.

(3)
Open purchase commitments are for the purchase of property and equipment, supplies and services. They are not recorded as liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 as we have not received the related goods or services.

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(4)
Long-term debt associated with our Convertible Notes are based on contractual terms and intended timing of repayments of long-term debt.

(5)
Payments under non-cancellable capital leases and loans payable related to equipment, primarily for data communication and database software, and prepaid maintenance service purchases.

        We do not have any off-balance sheet financing arrangements and we do not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.

        Under our Audit Committee charter, our Audit Committee is responsible for reviewing and approving all related party transactions on a quarterly basis. In addition, our Board of Directors determines annually whether any related party relationships exist among the directors which would interfere with the judgment of individual directors in carrying out his responsibilities as director.

        Inflationary factors have not had a significant effect on our performance over the past several years. A significant increase in inflation may affect our future performance since we may not be able to recover the increases in our costs with similar increases in our prices.

Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

        Market risk represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in the value of financial instruments. The risk of loss is assessed based on the likelihood of adverse changes in fair values, cash flows or future earnings.

        We have established guidelines relative to the diversification and maturities of investments to maintain safety and liquidity. These guidelines are reviewed periodically and may be modified depending on market conditions. Although investments may be subject to credit risk, our investment policy specifies credit quality standards for our investments and limits the amount of credit exposure from any single issue, issuer, or type of investment. At December 31, 2018, we did not have any investments in marketable securities. In January 2019, we began investing in marketable available-for-sale securities comprised primarily of short-term commercial paper, corporate debt instruments and US treasury and agencies obligations.

        Our marketable available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value and are intended for use in meeting our ongoing liquidity needs. Unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities, which are deemed temporary, are reported as a separate component of stockholders' equity, net of tax. The cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. The amortization, along with realized gains and losses, would be included in interest and other expense, net.

        We are exposed to various market risks including: (i) interest rate risk and (ii) foreign currency exchange rate risk.

        Interest rate risk.    Our Convertible Notes bear a coupon rate of 1.00% per annum. Our New Credit Facility bears interest at a variable rate equal to the greater of LIBOR plus 1.75% - 2.75% or the Lender's Prime Rate plus 0.75% - 1.75% per year. Our use of variable rate debt exposes us to interest rate risk. A 100-basis point increase in the LIBOR or Lender's Prime Rate as of December 31,

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2018 would not have any impact on net loss and cash flow as we had no amounts outstanding under the New Credit Facility as of December 31, 2018.

        Foreign currency exchange rate risk.    We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk inherent in conducting business globally in numerous currencies, of which the most significant to our operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 was the Brazilian Real. We are primarily exposed to foreign currency fluctuations related to the operations of our subsidiary in Brazil whose financial statements are not denominated in the U.S. dollar. Our foreign operations are not material to our operations as a whole. As such, we currently do not enter into currency forward exchange or option contracts to hedge foreign currency exposures.

Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

        The information required by this Item is included in Part IV, Items 15(a)(1) and (2) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 9.    Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

        None.

Item 9A.    Controls and Procedures

        The Company maintains a system of disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in the reports that the Company files or submits under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, is processed, recorded, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission's rules and forms. These disclosure controls and procedures include, among other processes, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports that the Company files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer (our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, respectively), as appropriate, to allow for timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

        The Company carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2018 pursuant to Exchange Act Rule 13a-15. Based upon that evaluation, the Company's Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that the Company's disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e), were effective as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report.

        Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting at the Company. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed under the supervision of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the Company's financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with GAAP. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that:

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        Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

        Under the supervision and with the participation of management, including the certifying officers, the Company conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 based on the framework in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Management's assessment included an evaluation of the design of the Company's internal control over financial reporting and testing of the operational effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting.

        Management has excluded Boingo MDU, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company formed in 2018, from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 because Boingo MDU, LLC acquired the assets of Elauwit Networks, LLC in August 2018 and such assets comprise substantially all of the assets of Boingo MDU, LLC. Boingo MDU, LLC's total assets and total revenues represent 5.3% and 4.5%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018.

        Based on this assessment, management determined that, as of December 31, 2018, the Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting. The effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm. The registered public accounting firm's audit of internal control over financial reporting also excluded Boingo MDU, LLC. The Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm is filed with this Annual Report on Form 10-K in a separate section following Part IV, as shown on the index under Item 15 of this Annual Report.

        Throughout 2018, in order to facilitate the adoption of the new lease accounting standard on January 1, 2019, we implemented internal controls to help ensure we properly evaluated our lease contracts and assessed the impact to our consolidated financial statements. We expect to continue to implement additional internal controls related to the adoption of this standard in the first quarter of 2019.

        There have been no other changes in the Company's internal control over financial reporting (as defined by Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2018.

Item 9B.    Other Information

        On February 26, 2019, we entered into a new Credit Agreement (the "New Credit Agreement") and related agreements with Bank of America, N.A. acting as agent for lenders named therein, including Bank of America, N.A., Silicon Valley Bank, Bank of the West, Zions Bancorporation, N.A.

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dba California Bank & Trust, and Barclays Bank PLC (the "Lenders"), for a secured credit facility in the form of a revolving line of credit up to $150.0 million (the "Revolving Line of Credit") and a term loan of $3.5 million (the "Term Loan" and together with the Revolving Line of Credit, the "New Credit Facility"). Our New Credit Facility will mature on April 3, 2023. Amounts borrowed under the Revolving Line of Credit and Term Loan will generally bear variable interest at the greater of LIBOR plus 1.75% - 2.75% or Lender's Prime Rate plus 0.75% - 1.75% per year and we will pay a fee of 0.25% -0.5% per year on any unused portion of the Revolving Line of Credit. We may use borrowings under the New Credit Facility for general working capital and corporate purposes. In general, amounts borrowed under the New Credit Facility are secured by a lien against all of our assets, with certain exclusions.

        The Term Loan requires quarterly payments of interest and principal, amortizing fully over the term such that it is repaid in full on the maturity date of April 3, 2023, but may be prepaid in whole or part at any time. Repayment of amounts borrowed under the New Credit Facility may be accelerated in the event that we are in violation of the representation, warranties and covenants made in the Credit Agreement, including certain financial covenants set forth therein, and under other specific default events including, but not limited to, non-payment or inability to pay debt, breach of cross default provisions, insolvency provisions, and change in control. We are subject to customary covenants, including a minimum quarterly consolidated senior secured leverage ratio, a minimum quarterly consolidated total leverage ratio, a maximum quarterly consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio, and cash on hand minimums.

        Bank of America N.A., Silicon Valley Bank and the other lender parties to the New Credit Agreement, and certain of their respective affiliates, have provided, and in the future may provide, financial, banking and related services to us. These parties have received, and in the future may receive, compensation from us for these services.

        The foregoing description of the New Credit Facility does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the New Credit Agreement and related agreements, copies of which are filed as Exhibit 10.32 with this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


PART III

Item 10.    Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

        The information required by Item 10 will be included in the Company's definitive Proxy Statement under the caption "Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance" and "Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance," to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after the end of fiscal year 2018 pursuant to Regulation 14A, which information is incorporated herein by this reference.

Item 11.    Executive Compensation

        The Company maintains employee benefit plans and programs in which its executive officers are participants. Copies of certain of these plans and programs are set forth or incorporated by reference as Exhibits to this report. Information required by Item 11 will be included in the Company's definitive Proxy Statement under the captions "Director Compensation," "Executive Compensation," "Compensation Discussion and Analysis," and "Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance," to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after the end of fiscal year 2018 pursuant to Regulation 14A, which information is incorporated herein by this reference.

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Item 12.    Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

        The information required by Item 12 will be included in the Company's definitive Proxy Statement under the caption "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management," to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after the end of fiscal year 2018 pursuant to Regulation 14A, which information is incorporated herein by this reference. The information required to be disclosed by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K regarding our equity securities authorized for issuance under our equity incentive plans is incorporated herein by reference to the section entitled "Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans" in our definitive Proxy Statement for our Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after the end of fiscal year 2018 pursuant to Regulation 14A.

Item 13.    Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

        The information required by Item 13 of Form 10-K regarding transactions with related persons, promoters and certain control persons, if any, will be included in the Company's definitive Proxy Statement under the caption "Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions" to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after the end of fiscal year 2018 pursuant to Regulation 14A, which information is incorporated herein by this reference. The information required by Item 13 of Form 10-K regarding director independence will be included in the Company's definitive Proxy Statement under the caption "Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance—Corporate Governance and Board Matters—Independence of the Board of Directors," to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after the end of fiscal year 2018 pursuant to Regulation 14A, which information is incorporated herein by this reference.

Item 14.    Principal Accounting Fees and Services

        The information required by Item 14 will be included in the Company's definitive Proxy Statement under the caption "Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm" to be filed with the Commission within 120 days after the end of fiscal year 2018 pursuant to Regulation 14A, which information is incorporated herein by this reference.

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PART IV

Item 15.    Exhibits

        (a)   The following documents are filed as part of, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

Description
  Page
Number

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

  F-2

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017

  F-4

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016

  F-5

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016

  F-6

Consolidated Statements of Stockholder's Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016

  F-7

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016

  F-8

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

  F-9

        All financial statement schedules have been omitted because the required information is not applicable or not present in amounts sufficient to require submission of the schedule, or because the information required is included in our consolidated financial statements or the notes thereto.

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        (b)   The following exhibits are filed as part of, or incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

 
   
  Incorporated by Reference    
 
   
  Filed
Herewith
Exhibit No.   Description   Form   Date   Number
  3.1   Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.   S-1   03/21/2011   3.2    

 

3.2

 

Certificate of Amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation.

 

8-K

 

06/09/2017

 

3.1

 

 

 

3.3

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws.

 

8-K

 

06/09/2017

 

3.2

 

 

 

4.1

 

Amendment No. 1 to Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement, dated April 12, 2011.

 

S-1

 

04/13/2011

 

4.1

 

 

 

4.2

 

Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement among the Registrant and certain stockholders, dated June 27, 2006.

 

S-1

 

01/14/2011

 

4.2

 

 

 

4.3

 

Indenture (including form of Note) with respect to the Company's 1.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2023, dated as of October 5, 2018, between the Company and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee.

 

8-K

 

10/05/2018

 

4.1

 

 

 

10.1

 

Form of Indemnification Agreement to be entered into between the Registrant and each of its directors and officers.

 

S-1

 

03/21/2011

 

10.1

 

 

 

10.2

 

Amended and Restated 2001 Stock Incentive Plan.†

 

S-1

 

01/14/2011

 

10.2

 

 

 

10.3

 

2001 Stock Incentive Plan Notice of Option Grant and Option Agreement.†

 

10-Q

 

08/04/2017

 

10.1

 

 

 

10.4

 

Form of Vesting Extension Agreement.†

 

8-K

 

02/03/2016

 

99.1

 

 

 

10.5

 

Amended and Restated 2011 Equity Incentive Plan.

 

10-Q

 

08/10/2015

 

10.1

 

 

 

10.6

 

2011 Equity Incentive Plan Notice of Restricted Stock Unit Award and Restricted Stock Unit Agreement (Performance Stock Units).†

 

10-Q

 

08/04/2017

 

10.2

 

 

 

10.7

 

2011 Equity Incentive Plan Notice of Restricted Stock Unit Award and Restricted Stock Unit Agreement.†

 

10-Q

 

08/04/2017

 

10.3

 

 

 

10.8

 

Letter agreement between the Registrant and David Hagan, dated April 11, 2011.†

 

S-1

 

04/13/2011

 

10.5

 

 

 

10.9

 

2010 Management Incentive Compensation Plan.†

 

S-1

 

01/14/2011

 

10.7

 

 

 

10.10

 

Office Lease Agreement, dated April 2007, between CA-10960 Wilshire Limited Partnership and Registrant.

 

S-1

 

01/14/2011

 

10.8

 

 

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  Incorporated by Reference    
 
   
  Filed
Herewith
Exhibit No.   Description   Form   Date   Number
  10.11   Lease Amendment dated August 19, 2014 between CA-10960 Wilshire Limited Partnership and Registrant.   10-Q   11/10/2014   10.1    

 

10.12

 

License Agreement for Wireless Communications Access System, dated November 17, 2005, between City of Chicago and Chicago Concourse Development Group, LLC.^

 

S-1

 

04/29/2011

 

10.9

 

 

 

10.13

 

Consent to Change in Ownership and Amendment of Agreement, dated June 22, 2006, between City of Chicago and Chicago Concourse Development Group, LLC.

 

S-1

 

2/25/2011

 

10.9A

 

 

 

10.14

 

Amendment Agreement, dated December 31, 2014 between the Registrant and the City of Chicago.^

 

10-K

 

03/16/2015

 

10.11

 

 

 

10.15

 

2018 Amendment to License Agreement for Wireless Communications Access System between City of Chicago and Chicago Concourse Development Group, LLC, dated as of March 31, 2018

 

10-Q/A

 

07/20/2018

 

10.1

 

 

 

10.16

 

Telecommunications Network Access Agreement, dated August 26, 1999, between The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and New York Telecom Partners, LLC.^

 

S-1

 

04/29/2011

 

10.10

 

 

 

10.17

 

Supplemental Agreement, dated March 28, 2001 between The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and New York Telecom Partners, LLC.^

 

S-1

 

04/29/2011

 

10.10A

 

 

 

10.18

 

Supplemental Agreement, dated June 30, 2002 between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and New York Telecom Partners, LLC.^

 

10-Q

 

11/10/2014

 

10.2

 

 

 

10.19

 

Supplemental Agreement, dated November 30, 2006 between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and New York Telecom Partners, LLC.^

 

10-Q

 

11/10/2014

 

10.3

 

 

 

10.20

 

Letter, dated August 19, 2013, from New York Telecom Partners, LLC to The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.#

 

10-Q

 

11/12/2013

 

10.17

 

 

 

10.21

 

Supplemental Agreement, dated July 21, 2014 between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and New York Telecom Partners, LLC.^

 

10-Q

 

11/10/2014

 

10.4

 

 

 

10.22

 

Management Incentive Compensation Plan.

 

S-1

 

03/21/2011

 

10.11

 

 

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  Incorporated by Reference    
 
   
  Filed
Herewith
Exhibit No.   Description   Form   Date   Number
  10.23   Letter agreement between the Registrant and Peter Hovenier, dated April 1, 2013.†   8-K   04/02/2013   10.1    

 

10.24

 

Letter agreement between the Registrant and Dawn Callahan, dated January 1, 2013.†

 

10-K

 

03/17/2014

 

10.15

 

 

 

10.25

 

Letter agreement between the Registrant and Tom Tracey, dated September 23, 2011.†

 

10-K

 

03/17/2014

 

10.16

 

 

 

10.26

 

Letter agreement between the Registrant and Derek Peterson, dated January 30, 2013.†

 

10-K

 

03/17/2014

 

10.17

 

 

 

10.27

 

Notice of Restricted Stock Unit Award and Restricted Stock Unit Agreement (2016 Performance Stock Units) under 2011 Equity Incentive Plan.†

 

8-K

 

02/03/2016

 

99.2

 

 

 

10.28

 

Cooperation Agreement, dated June 1, 2016, by and among Boingo Wireless, Inc., each of Ides Capital Management LP, Ides Capital Opportunities Fund, LP, Ides Capital Advisors LLC, Ides Capital Partners LP, Ides Capital GP LLC, Dianne McKeever, Robert Longnecker, and each of Legion Partners, L.P. I, Legion Partners,  L.P. II, Legion Partners, LLC, Legion Partners Asset Management, LLC, Legion Partners Holdings, LLC, Christopher S. Kiper, Bradley S. Vizi and Raymond White.

 

8-K

 

06/01/2016

 

10.1

 

 

 

10.29

 

Asset Purchase Agreement, dated August 1, 2018, by and among Boingo Wireless, Inc., Boingo MDU, LLC, Elauwit Networks, LLC, Daniel McDonough, Jr., Barry Rubens and Taylor Jones and, solely with respect to Article VII, Elauwit, LLC and DragonRider Enterprises, LLC.

 

8-K

 

08/02/2018

 

10.1

 

 

 

10.30

 

Form of Base Capped Call Confirmation.

 

8-K

 

10/05/2018

 

99.1

 

 

 

10.31

 

Form of Additional Capped Call Confirmation.

 

8-K

 

10/05/2018

 

99.2

 

 

 

10.32

 

Credit Agreement between the Registrant and Bank of America, N.A.#

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

10.33

 

Letter agreement between the Registrant and Mike Finley, dated February 21, 2019.†

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

14.1

 

Code of Ethics and Business Conduct.

 

8-K

 

11/02/2017

 

14.1

 

 

 

21.1

 

List of subsidiaries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

23.1

 

Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

24.1

 

Power of Attorney (included in Signature Page)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

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  Incorporated by Reference    
 
   
  Filed
Herewith
Exhibit No.   Description   Form   Date   Number
  31.1   Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.               X

 

31.2

 

Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

32.1

 

Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

32.2

 

Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

101.INS

 

XBRL Instance Document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

101.SCH

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

101.CAL

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

101.DEF

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

101.LAB

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

101.PRE

 

XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

*
Furnished herewith.

^
Portions of this exhibit (indicated by asterisks) have been omitted pursuant to an order granting confidential treatment. These portions have been submitted separately to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

#
Portions of this exhibit (indicated by asterisks) have been omitted pursuant to a request for confidential treatment. These portions have been submitted separately to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Indicates a management contract or compensatory plan.

Item 16.    Form 10-K Summary

        Not applicable.

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INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 
  Page

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

  F-2

Consolidated Balance Sheets

  F-4

Consolidated Statements of Operations

  F-5

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

  F-6

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity

  F-7

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

  F-8

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements

  F-9

        All schedules are omitted because they are not applicable, or the required information is shown in the Company's consolidated financial statements or the related notes thereto.

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Boingo Wireless, Inc.

        We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Boingo Wireless, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

        In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

        As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for revenue from contracts with customers in 2018.

        The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company's consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

        We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

        Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our

F-2


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audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

        As described in Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, management has excluded Boingo MDU, LLC from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 because it was acquired by the Company in a purchase business combination during 2018. We have also excluded Boingo MDU, LLC from our audit of internal control over financial reporting. Boingo MDU, LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary whose total assets and total revenues excluded from management's assessment and our audit of internal control over financial reporting represent 5.3% and 4.5%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018.

        A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

        Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Los Angeles, California
March 1, 2019

        We have served as the Company's auditor since 2002, which includes periods before the Company became subject to SEC reporting requirements.

F-3


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Boingo Wireless, Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

 
  December 31,  
 
  2018   2017  

Assets

             

Current assets:

             

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 149,412   $ 26,685  

Accounts receivable, net

    42,766     26,148  

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

    7,815     6,369  

Total current assets

    199,993     59,202  

Property and equipment, net

    314,179     262,359  

Goodwill

    59,640     42,403  

Intangible assets, net

    19,152     10,263  

Other assets

    9,936     10,082  

Total assets

  $ 602,900   $ 384,309  

Liabilities and stockholders' equity

             

Current liabilities:

             

Accounts payable

  $ 21,543   $ 11,589  

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

    62,653     42,405  

Deferred revenue

    80,383     61,708  

Current portion of long-term debt

        875  

Current portion of capital leases and notes payable

    6,612     5,771  

Total current liabilities

    171,191     122,348  

Deferred revenue, net of current portion

    137,205     149,168  

Long-term debt

    151,670      

Long-term portion of capital leases and notes payable

    4,911     6,747  

Deferred tax liabilities

    1,073     1,004  

Other liabilities

    6,728     6,012  

Total liabilities

    472,778     285,279  

Commitments and contingencies (Note 15)

             

Stockholders' equity:

             

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 5,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding

         

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 100,000 shares authorized; 42,669 and 40,995 shares issued and outstanding for 2018 and 2017, respectively

    4     4  

Additional paid-in capital

    259,132     230,679  

Accumulated deficit

    (129,930 )   (131,967 )

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

    (1,295 )   (898 )

Total common stockholders' equity

    127,911     97,818  

Non-controlling interests

    2,211     1,212  

Total stockholders' equity

    130,122     99,030  

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

  $ 602,900   $ 384,309  

   

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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Boingo Wireless, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  

Revenue

  $ 250,821   $ 204,369   $ 159,344  

Costs and operating expenses:

                   

Network access

    113,572     90,702     69,112  

Network operations

    52,215     47,615     42,307  

Development and technology

    31,372     26,754     22,126  

Selling and marketing

    22,647     20,933     18,729  

General and administrative

    30,302     35,568     29,719  

Amortization of intangible assets

    3,710     3,498     3,448  

Total costs and operating expenses

    253,818     225,070     185,441  

Loss from operations

    (2,997 )   (20,701 )   (26,097 )

Interest and other expense, net

    (1,887 )   (153 )   (459 )

Loss before income taxes

    (4,884 )   (20,854 )   (26,556 )

Income tax (benefit) expense

    (5,153 )   (2,078 )   427  

Net income (loss)

    269     (18,776 )   (26,983 )

Net income attributable to non-controlling interests

    1,489     590     348  

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

  $ (1,220 ) $ (19,366 ) $ (27,331 )

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:

                   

Basic

  $ (0.03 ) $ (0.49 ) $ (0.72 )

Diluted

  $ (0.03 ) $ (0.49 ) $ (0.72 )

Weighted average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:

                   

Basic

    42,066     39,824     38,025  

Diluted

    42,066     39,824     38,025  

   

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

F-5


Table of Contents


Boingo Wireless, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)

(In thousands)

 
  Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2018   2017   2016  

Net income (loss)

  $ 269   $ (18,776 ) $ (26,983 )

Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax:

                   

Foreign currency translation adjustments

    (342 )   (19 )   211  

Comprehensive loss

    (73 )   (18,795 )   (26,772 )

Comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interest

    1,544     599     269  

Comprehensive loss attributable to common stockholders

  $ (1,617 ) $ (19,394 ) $ (27,041 )