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Section 1: 10-K (FORM 10-K)

 

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

_______________________

FORM 10-K
_______________________

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018

OR

o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM          TO         

COMMISSION FILE NUMBER: 814-00638

_______________________

OXFORD SQUARE CAPITAL CORP.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_______________________

Maryland

 

20-0188736

(State of Incorporation)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

8 Sound Shore Drive, Suite 255
Greenwich, CT 06830
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (203) 983-5275

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

 

NASDAQ Global Select Market

6.50% Notes due 2024

 

NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None

_______________________

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes o No x.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes o No x.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes x No o.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes o No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    S

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer £

 

Accelerated filer S

Non-accelerated filer £

 

Smaller reporting company £

 

Emerging growth company £

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x.

The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on June 29, 2018, based on the closing price on that date of $6.90 on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, was $313,350,433. For the purposes of calculating this amount only, all directors and executive officers of the Registrant have been treated as affiliates. There were 47,650,959 shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 27, 2019.

 

OXFORD SQUARE CAPITAL CORP.
FORM 10-K FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

Page

PART I

       

ITEM 1.

 

BUSINESS

 

1

ITEM 1A.

 

RISK FACTORS

 

23

ITEM 1B.

 

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

48

ITEM 2.

 

PROPERTIES

 

48

ITEM 3.

 

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

48

ITEM 4.

 

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

48

         

PART II

       

ITEM 5.

 

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

49

ITEM 6.

 

SELECTED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

 

52

ITEM 7.

 

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

53

ITEM 7A.

 

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

73

ITEM 8.

 

CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

74

ITEM 9.

 

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

 

75

ITEM 9A.

 

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

75

ITEM 9B.

 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

75

         

PART III

       

ITEM 10.

 

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

76

ITEM 11.

 

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

79

ITEM 12.

 

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

 

80

ITEM 13.

 

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

 

82

ITEM 14.

 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

 

83

         

PART IV

       

ITEM 15.

 

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

 

85

ITEM 16.

 

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

 

89

SIGNATURES

     

90

i

PART I

Item 1. Business

Oxford Square Capital Corp. (“OXSQ,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) is a closed-end, non-diversified management investment company that has elected to be regulated as a business development company (“BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). We have elected to be treated for tax purposes as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) beginning with our 2003 taxable year. Our investment objective is to maximize our portfolio’s total return. Our primary current focus is to seek an attractive risk-adjusted total return by investing primarily in corporate debt securities and collateralized loan obligation (“CLO”) structured finance investments that own corporate debt securities. CLO investments may also include warehouse facilities, which are financing structures intended to aggregate loans that may be used to form the basis of a CLO vehicle. We may also invest in publicly traded debt and/or equity securities. As a BDC, we may not acquire any asset other than “qualifying assets” unless, at the time we make the acquisition, the value of our qualifying assets represents at least 70% of the value of our total assets.

Our capital is generally used by our corporate borrowers to finance organic growth, acquisitions, recapitalizations and working capital. Our investment decisions are based on extensive analysis of potential portfolio companies’ business operations supported by an in-depth understanding of the quality of their recurring revenues and cash flow, variability of costs and the inherent value of their assets, including proprietary intangible assets and intellectual property. In making our CLO investments, we consider the indenture structure for that vehicle, its operating characteristics and compliance with its various indenture provisions, as well as its corporate loan-based collateral pool.

We generally expect to invest between $5.0 million and $50.0 million in each of our portfolio investments, although this investment size may vary as the size of our capital base changes and market conditions warrant. We invest in both fixed and variable interest rate structures. We expect that our investment portfolio will be diversified among a large number of investments with few investments, if any, exceeding 5% of the total portfolio.

The structures of our investments will vary and we seek to invest across a wide range of different industries. We seek to invest in entities that, as a general matter, have been operating for at least one year prior to the date of our investment and that will, at the time of our investment, have employees and revenues, and which are cash flow positive. Many of these companies are expected to have financial backing provided by other financial or strategic sponsors at the time we make an investment. The portfolio companies in which we invest, however, will generally be considered below investment grade, and their debt securities may in turn be referred to as “junk.” A portion of our investment portfolio may consist of debt investments for which issuers are not required to make significant principal payments until the maturity of the senior loans, which could result in a substantial loss to us if such issuers are unable to refinance or repay their debt at maturity. In addition, many of the debt securities we hold typically contain interest reset provisions that may make it more difficult for a borrower to repay the loan, heightening the risk that we may lose all or part of our investment.

We also purchase portions of equity and junior debt tranches of CLO vehicles. Substantially all of the CLO vehicles in which we may invest would be deemed to be investment companies under the 1940 Act but for the exceptions set forth in section 3(c)(1) or section 3(c)(7). Other than CLO vehicles, we do not intend to invest, and we would be limited to 15% of our net assets if we did invest, in any types of entities that rely on the exceptions set forth in section 3(c)(1) or section 3(c)(7) of the 1940 Act. Structurally, CLO vehicles are entities that are formed to originate and manage a portfolio of loans. The loans within the CLO vehicle are limited to loans which meet established credit criteria and are subject to concentration limitations in order to limit a CLO vehicle’s exposure to a single credit. A CLO vehicle is formed by raising various classes or “tranches” of debt (with the most senior tranches being rated “AAA” to the most junior tranches typically being rated “BB” or “B”) and equity. The tranches of CLO vehicles rated “BB” or “B” may be referred to as “junk.” The equity of a CLO vehicle is generally required to absorb the CLO’s losses before any of the CLO’s other tranches, yet it also has the lowest level of payment priority among the CLO’s tranches; therefore, the equity is typically the riskiest of CLO investments which, if it were rated, may also be referred to as “junk.” We primarily focus on investing in the junior tranches and the equity of CLO vehicles. The CLO vehicles which we focus on are collateralized primarily by senior secured loans made to companies whose debt is unrated or is rated below investment grade, and generally have very little or no direct exposure to real estate, mortgage loans or to pools of consumer-based debt, such as credit card receivables or auto loans. However, there can be no assurance that the collateral securing such senior secured loans would satisfy all of the unpaid principal and interest of our investment in the CLO vehicle in the event of default and the junior tranches, especially the equity tranches, of CLO vehicles are the last tranches to be paid, if at all, in the event of a default. Our investment strategy may also include warehouse facilities, which are financing structures intended to aggregate loans that may be used to form the basis of a CLO vehicle.

1

We have historically borrowed funds to make investments and may continue to do so. As a result, we are exposed to the risks of leverage, which may be considered a speculative investment technique. Borrowings, also known as leverage, magnify the potential for gain and loss on amounts invested and therefore increase the risks associated with investing in our securities. In addition, the costs associated with our borrowings, including any increase in the management fee payable to our investment adviser, Oxford Square Management, LLC (“Oxford Square Management”), will be borne by our common stockholders.

6.50% Unsecured Notes

On April 12, 2017, we completed an underwritten public offering of approximately $64.4 million in aggregate principal amount of our 6.50% unsecured notes due 2024, or the “6.50% Unsecured Notes.” The 6.50% Unsecured Notes will mature on March 30, 2024, and may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option on or after March 30, 2020. The 6.50% Unsecured Notes bear interest at a rate of 6.50% per year payable quarterly on March 30, June 30, September 30, and December 30 of each year. The 6.50% Unsecured Notes are listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol “OXSQL.”

OXSQ Facility

On June 21, 2018, Oxford Square Funding 2018, LLC (“OXSQ Funding”), a special purpose vehicle that is our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into a credit facility (the “OXSQ Facility”) with Citibank, N.A. On October 12, 2018, OXSQ Funding amended the OXSQ Facility to provide for additional borrowings under the OXSQ Facility. Pursuant to the terms of the OXSQ Facility, as amended, OXSQ Funding increased the outstanding principal borrowing to $125.0 million. As of December 31, 2018, the total principal outstanding was approximately $85.7 million. Subject to certain exceptions, pricing under the OXSQ Facility is based on the London interbank offered rate for an interest period equal to three months plus a spread of 2.25% per annum. Interest on the outstanding principal amount owing under the OXSQ Facility is payable quarterly in arrears. The OXSQ Facility will mature, and all outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest thereunder will be due and payable, on June 21, 2020, and is subject to periodic repayment prior to such date from collections on OXSQ Funding’s loan assets and certain other mandatory payment requirements.

Organizational and Regulatory Structure

Our investment activities are managed by Oxford Square Management. Oxford Square Management is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”). Oxford Square Management is owned by Oxford Funds, LLC (“Oxford Funds”), its managing member, and Charles M. Royce, a member of our Board of Directors who holds a minority, non-controlling interest in Oxford Square Management. Jonathan H. Cohen, our Chief Executive Officer, and Saul B. Rosenthal, our President and Chief Operating Officer, directly or indirectly own or control all of the outstanding equity interests of Oxford Funds. Under the investment advisory agreement, we have agreed to pay Oxford Square Management an annual base management fee based on our gross assets as well as an incentive fee based on our performance. Refer to “— Investment Advisory Agreement”.

We were founded in July 2003 and completed an initial public offering of shares of our common stock in November 2003. We are a Maryland corporation and a closed-end, non-diversified management investment company that has elected to be regulated as a BDC under the 1940 Act. As a BDC, we are required to meet certain regulatory tests, including the requirement to invest at least 70% of our total assets in eligible portfolio companies. Refer to “— Regulation as a Business Development Company.” In addition, we have elected to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and intend to qualify annually, as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).

2

Set forth below is a chart detailing our organizational structure.

Our headquarters are located at 8 Sound Shore Drive, Suite 255, Greenwich, Connecticut and our telephone number is (203) 983-5275.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). This information is available on our website at http://oxfordsquarecapital.com/. The information we file with the SEC is available free of charge by contacting us at 8 Sound Shore Drive, Suite 255, Greenwich, CT 06830 or by telephone at (203) 983-5275. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding registrants, including us, that file such information electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov. Information contained on our website or on the SEC’s website about us is not incorporated into this report and you should not consider information contained on our website or on the SEC’s website to be part of this report.

MARKET OVERVIEW AND OPPORTUNITY

The market volatility and downdraft in the fourth quarter made 2018 a challenging year for corporate loans and CLO equity. During the fourth quarter of 2018, the S&P / LSTA Leveraged Loan Index fell from a price of 98.60% to 93.84% by the end of December. We believe the decrease in U.S. loan prices during the fourth quarter of 2018 was in part driven by large outflows out of U.S. loan mutual funds and ETFs. We believe that the fundamentals across the U.S. loan market continue to be stable. Corporate loan default rates remain at low levels, providing investors with a generally lower-risk, lower-return corporate debt environment. At the present time, approximately only 1% of the S&P / LSTA Leveraged Loan Index trades at a price of “par” or higher. This environment may allow CLO managers to buy performing loan assets in the secondary market at discounts to par, which may build CLO asset value and spread over time, ultimately accruing to the benefit of CLO equity. Moreover, as we execute our corporate loan strategy of focusing primarily on smaller broadly-syndicated loans, narrowly syndicated loans and club deals, through purchases in both the primary and secondary markets, we remain mindful of maintaining overall portfolio liquidity. We believe this strategy allows us to maintain corporate debt investments which have sufficient liquidity in order to take advantage of market opportunities.

We continue to view our mandate as maximizing the risk-adjusted return on our stockholders’ investment in OXSQ. We view the market opportunity currently available to us as strong and, as a permanent capital vehicle, we have historically been able to take a longer-term view towards our investments. We believe this perspective served us well in 2018.

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

We believe that we are well positioned to provide financing to corporate borrowers and structured finance vehicles that, in turn, provide capital to corporate borrowers for the following reasons:

•     Expertise in credit analysis and monitoring investments; and

•     Established transaction sourcing network.

3

Expertise in credit analysis and monitoring investments

While our investment focus is on middle-market companies, we have invested, and in the future will likely continue to invest, in larger and smaller companies and in other investment structures on an opportunistic basis, including CLO investment vehicles. We believe our experience in analyzing middle-market companies and CLO investment structures, as detailed in the biographies of Oxford Square Management’s senior investment professionals, affords us a sustainable competitive advantage over lenders with limited experience in investing in these markets. In particular, we have expertise in evaluating the investment merits of middle-market companies as well as the structural features of CLO investments, and monitoring the credit risk of such investments after closing until full repayment.

•      Jonathan H. Cohen, our Chief Executive Officer, has more than 25 years of experience in debt and equity research and investment. Mr. Cohen has also served as the Chief Executive Officer and a Director of Oxford Lane Capital Corp. (NasdaqGS: OXLC), a registered closed-end fund, and as Chief Executive Officer of its investment adviser, Oxford Lane Management, LLC, or “Oxford Lane Management,” since 2010. Since 2015 and 2018, respectively, Mr. Cohen has also served as the Chief Executive Officer of each of Oxford Bridge Management, LLC, or “Oxford Bridge Management,” the investment adviser to Oxford Bridge, LLC and Oxford Bridge II, LLC (collectively, the “Oxford Bridge Funds”), and Oxford Gate Management, LLC, or “Oxford Gate Management,” the investment adviser to Oxford Gate Master Fund, LLC, Oxford Gate, LLC and Oxford Gate (Bermuda), LLC (collectively, the “Oxford Gate Funds”). The Oxford Bridge Funds and the Oxford Gate Funds are private investment funds. Previously, Mr. Cohen managed technology equity research groups at Wit Capital, Merrill Lynch, UBS and Smith Barney. Mr. Cohen is a member of the Board of Trustees of Connecticut College. Mr. Cohen received a B.A. in Economics from Connecticut College and an M.B.A. from Columbia University.

•      Saul B. Rosenthal, our President and Chief Operating Officer, has more than 20 years of experience in the capital markets, with a focus on middle-market transactions. In addition, Mr. Rosenthal has served as President and a Director of Oxford Lane Capital Corp. (NasdaqGS: OXLC), a registered closed-end fund, and as President of Oxford Lane Management, since 2010. Mr. Rosenthal has also served as President of Oxford Bridge Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Bridge Funds and Oxford Gate Management, the adviser to the Oxford Gate Funds, since 2015 and 2018, respectively. Mr. Rosenthal was previously an attorney at the law firm of Shearman & Sterling LLP. Mr. Rosenthal serves on the boards of Lift Forward, Inc. and the National Museum of Mathematics. Mr. Rosenthal received a B.S., magna cum laude, from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, a J.D. from Columbia University Law School, where he was a Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar, and a LL.M. (Taxation) from New York University School of Law.

•      Darryl Monasebian is the Executive Vice President and head of risk and portfolio management of Oxford Square Management, and also holds those same positions at Oxford Lane Management, the investment adviser to Oxford Lane Capital Corp., Oxford Bridge Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Bridge Funds and Oxford Gate Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Gate Funds. Prior to joining Oxford Square Management, Mr. Monasebian was a director in the Merchant Banking Group at BNP Paribas, and prior to that he was a director at Swiss Bank Corporation and a senior account officer at Citibank. He began his business career at Metropolitan Life Insurance Company as an investment analyst in the Corporate Investments Department. Mr. Monasebian received a B.S. in Management Science/Operations Research from Case Western Reserve University and a Masters of Business Administration from Boston University’s Graduate School of Management.

•      Debdeep Maji is a Senior Managing Director of Oxford Square Management, and also holds the same position at Oxford Lane Management, the investment adviser to Oxford Lane Capital Corp., at Oxford Bridge Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Bridge Funds and Oxford Gate Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Gate Funds. Mr. Maji graduated from the Jerome Fisher Program in Management and Technology at the University of Pennsylvania where he received a Bachelor of Science degree in Economics from the Wharton School (and was designated a Joseph Wharton Scholar) and a Bachelor of Applied Science from the School of Engineering.

•      Kevin Yonon is a Managing Director of Oxford Square Management, and also holds the same position at Oxford Lane Management, the investment adviser to Oxford Lane Capital Corp., at Oxford Bridge Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Bridge Funds and Oxford Gate Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Gate Funds. Previously, Mr. Yonon was an Associate at Deutsche Bank Securities and prior to that he was an Analyst at Blackstone Mezzanine Partners. Before joining Blackstone, he worked as an Analyst at Merrill Lynch in the Mergers & Acquisitions group. Mr. Yonon received a B.S. in Economics with concentrations in Finance and Accounting from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated magna cum laude, and an M.B.A. from the Harvard Business School.

4

Established deal sourcing network

Through the investment professionals of Oxford Square Management, we have extensive contacts and sources from which to generate investment opportunities. These contacts and sources include private equity funds, companies, brokers and bankers. We believe that senior professionals of Oxford Square Management have developed strong relationships within the investment community over their years within the banking, investment management and equity research fields.

INVESTMENT PROCESS

Identification

We identify opportunities in the CLO market through our network of brokers, dealers, agent banks, collateral mangers and sponsors that we have worked with for several years. The CLO vehicles which we focus on are collateralized primarily by senior secured loans made to companies whose debt is unrated or is rated below investment grade, and generally have very little or no direct exposure to real estate, mortgage loans or to pools of consumer-based debt, such as credit card receivables or auto loans.

We identify and source new prospective corporate debt investments through brokers, investment banks and direct company relationships. We have identified several criteria that we believe are important in seeking our investment objective. These criteria provide general guidelines for our investment decisions; however, we do not require each prospective investment to meet all or any specific number of these criteria.

•      Experienced management.    We generally require that our portfolio companies have an experienced management team. We also prefer the portfolio companies to have in place proper incentives to induce management to succeed and to act in concert with our interests as investors, including having significant equity interests.

•      Significant financial or strategic sponsor and/or strategic partner.    We prefer to invest in companies in which established private equity or venture capital funds or other financial or strategic sponsors have previously invested and are willing to make an ongoing contribution to the management of the business, including participation as board members or as business advisers.

•      Strong competitive position in industry.    We seek to invest in companies that have developed a competitive position within their respective sector or niche of a specific industry.

•      Profitable on a cash flow basis.    We focus on companies that are profitable or nearly profitable on an operating cash flow basis. Typically, we would not expect to invest in start-up companies.

•      Clearly defined exit strategy.    Prior to making a direct corporate equity investment and/or an investment in a debt security that is accompanied by an equity-based security in a portfolio company, we analyze the potential for that company to increase the liquidity of its common equity through a future event that would enable us to realize appreciation, if any, in the value of our equity interest. Liquidity events may include an initial public offering, a merger or an acquisition of the company, a private sale of our equity interest to a third party, or a purchase of our equity position by the company or one of its stockholders.

•      Liquidation value of assets.     Although we do not operate as an asset-based lender, the prospective liquidation value of the assets, if any, collateralizing the debt securities that we hold is a consideration in our credit analysis. We consider both tangible assets, such as accounts receivable, inventory and equipment, and intangible assets, such as intellectual property, software code, customer lists, networks and databases.

5

Due Diligence

Our due diligence process generally includes some or all of the following elements:

Corporate Loans

Management team and financial sponsor

•      management assessment including a review of management’s track record with respect to product development, sales and marketing, mergers and acquisitions, alliances, collaborations, research and development outsourcing and other strategic activities; and

•      financial sponsor reputation, track record, experience and knowledge (where a financial sponsor is present in a transaction).

Business

•      industry and competitive analysis;

•      assessment of likely exit strategies; and

•      potential regulatory/legal issues.

Financial condition

•      detailed review of the historical financial performance and the quality of earnings;

•      development of detailed pro forma financial projections; and

•      review of assets and liabilities, including contingent liabilities.

Structured Finance Vehicles

•      review of indenture structures;

•      review of underlying collateral loans;

•      analysis of projected future cash flows; and

•      analysis of compliance with covenants.

Contemporaneous with our due diligence process, the investment team presents the investment proposal to our Investment Committee, which currently consists of Messrs. Cohen, Rosenthal and Monasebian. Our Investment Committee reviews and approves each of our portfolio investments.

Investment Characteristics

In identifying corporate debt investments, we seek to ascertain the asset quality as well as the earnings quality of our prospective portfolio companies. Frequently, we obtain a senior secured position and thus receive a perfected, first or second priority security interest in substantially all of our portfolio companies’ assets, which entitles us to a preferred position on payments in the event of liquidation. It should be noted, however, that because we are not primarily an asset-based lender, in the current economic environment, the value of collateral and security interests may dissipate rapidly. In addition, in certain investments we seek loan covenants or to participate in syndicated loans that incorporate loan covenants that assist in the early identification of risk. Our loan documents may include affirmative covenants that require the portfolio company to take specific actions such as: periodic financial reporting; notification of material events and compliance with laws; restrictive covenants that prevent portfolio companies from taking a range of significant actions such as incurring additional indebtedness or making acquisitions without our consent; covenants requiring the portfolio company to maintain or achieve specified financial ratios such as debt to cash flow and interest coverage; and operating covenants requiring them to maintain certain operational benchmarks such as minimum revenue or minimum cash flow. Our loan documents also provide protection against customary events of default such as non-payment, breach of covenant, insolvency and change of control.

In identifying CLO investments, we seek to ascertain the asset quality of the underlying collateral pool, the structural integrity of the CLO liability capital structure, the expected return profile of the CLO equity or debt tranche we are investing in as well as the quality of the prospective collateral manager. The underlying portfolio of each CLO investment is typically diversified across approximately 100 to 250 broadly syndicated loans which are predominantly 1st lien senior secured term loans to U.S. corporations. Additionally, these collateral pools typically do not have direct exposure to real estate, mortgages, or consumer-based credit assets. Our investment focus is generally agnostic between the primary and secondary CLO markets. In both markets, we pursue opportunities which we view to have attractive optionality with regards to the ability to refinance or “reset” the CLO liability capital structure at some point in the future. A CLO “reset” typically includes an extension of the CLO’s reinvestment period in addition to the refinancing of the CLO liabilities. We continue to prefer CLO equity investments which have longer reinvestment periods which may give CLO managers additional time to rebuild collateral value from potential credit losses as well as take advantage of a potential disruption in the broader credit markets.

6

MONITORING RELATIONSHIPS WITH PORTFOLIO COMPANIES

Monitoring

We monitor the financial trends of each portfolio company to assess the appropriate course of action for each investment and to evaluate overall portfolio quality. We closely monitor the status and performance of each individual company on at least a quarterly and, in some cases, a monthly basis.

We have several methods of evaluating and monitoring the performance of our investments, including but not limited to the following:

•      assessment of business development success, and the portfolio company’s overall adherence to its business plan; and

•      review of monthly and/or quarterly financial statements and financial projections for portfolio companies.

In addition, we may from time to time identify investments that require closer monitoring or become workout assets. In such cases, we will develop a strategy for workout assets and periodically gauge our progress against that strategy. As a private debt holder, we may incur losses from our investing activities from time to time; however, we attempt, where possible, to work with troubled portfolio companies in order to recover as much of our investments as is practicable.

Portfolio Grading

We have developed a credit grading system to monitor the quality of our debt investment portfolio. We use an investment rating scale of 1 to 5. The following table provides a description of the conditions associated with each debt investment. Equity securities, including CLO equity tranches, are not graded.

Grade

 

Summary Description

1

 

Company is ahead of expectations and/or outperforming financial covenant requirements of the specific tranche and such trend is expected to continue.

2

 

Full repayment of the outstanding amount of OXSQ’s cost basis and interest is expected for the specific tranche.

3

 

Closer monitoring is required. Full repayment of the outstanding amount of OXSQ’s cost basis and interest is expected for the specific tranche.

4

 

A loss of interest income has occurred or is expected to occur and, in most cases, the investment is placed on non-accrual status. Full repayment of the outstanding amount of OXSQ’s cost basis is expected for the specific tranche.

5

 

Full repayment of the outstanding amount of OXSQ’s cost basis is not expected for the specific tranche and the investment is placed on non-accrual status.

Significant Managerial Assistance

As a BDC, we are required to offer significant managerial assistance to portfolio companies. This assistance, were it to be accepted, would typically involve monitoring the operations of portfolio companies, participating in their board and management meetings, consulting with and advising their officers and providing other organizational and financial guidance.

Portfolio Overview

We seek to create a portfolio that includes primarily CLO investments, senior secured loans, senior subordinated and junior subordinated debt investments, as well as warrants and other equity instruments we may receive in connection with such debt investments. We generally expect to invest between $5 million and $50 million in each of our portfolio companies. We expect that our investment portfolio will be diversified among a large number of investments with few investments, if any, exceeding 5% of the total portfolio.

7

The following is a representative list of the industries in which we have invested:

•   Structured Finance

 

•   IT Consulting

•   Business Services

 

•   Logistics

•   Software

 

•   Utilities

•   Healthcare

 

•   Aerospace and Defense

•   Telecommunication Services

 

•   Education

•   Financial Intermediaries

 

•   Printing and Publishing

•   Diversified Insurance

  •   Consumer Services

During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, we purchased approximately $244.6 million of investments, comprised of approximately $187.5 million in senior secured notes, $54.2 million in CLO equity, $0.9 million in CLO debt, and $2.0 million in all other securities. As of December 31, 2018, our portfolio was invested in approximately 63.5% in senior secured notes, 33.0% in CLO equity, 0.2% in CLO debt and 3.3% in equity and other investments.

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TEN LARGEST PORTFOLIO INVESTMENTS AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2018

Our ten largest portfolio company investments as of December 31, 2018, based on the combined fair value of the debt and equity securities we hold in each portfolio company, were as follows:

     

December 31, 2018

 
       

($ in millions)

 

Portfolio Company

 

Industry

 

Cost

 

Fair
Value

 

Fair Value

Percentage of

Total Portfolio

 

Sound Point CLO XVI, Ltd

 

Structure Finance

 

$

43.9

 

$

39.1

 

8.8

%

Quest Software, Inc.

 

Software

 

 

20.8

 

 

20.6

 

4.6

%

Keystone Acquisition Corp.

 

Healthcare

 

 

20.4

 

 

20.1

 

4.5

%

Premiere Global Services, Inc.

 

Business Services

 

 

23.7

 

 

19.8

 

4.4

%

ECI Software Solutions, Inc.

 

Software

 

 

19.9

 

 

19.6

 

4.4

%

Global Tel Link Corp.

 

Telecommunication Services

 

 

19.7

 

 

19.4

 

4.4

%

OMNIA Partners, Inc.

 

Business Services

 

 

19.9

 

 

19.4

 

4.4

%

Help/Systems Holdings, Inc.

 

Software

 

 

19.5

 

 

18.8

 

4.2

%

Access CIG, LLC

 

Business Services

 

 

17.4

 

 

16.9

 

3.8

%

Lighthouse Network, LLC (f/k/a Harbortouch Payments, LLC)

 

Financial Intermediaries

 

 

15.3

 

 

15.3

 

3.4

%
       

$

220.5

 

$

209.0

 

46.9

%

For a description of the factors relevant to the changes in the value of the above portfolio investments for the year ended December 31, 2018, refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Portfolio Grading.”

Set forth below are descriptions of the ten largest portfolio investments as of December 31, 2018:

Sound Point CLO XVI, Ltd.

Sound Point CLO XVI, Ltd. is a collateralized loan obligation investing primarily in U.S.-based senior secured loans. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $45.5 million remained outstanding on our investment.

Quest Software, Inc.

Quest Software, Inc. is an infrastructure software provider. They have five main product/service offerings: Platform Management, Information Management, Identity Management, Data Protection, and Endpoint Management. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $6.0 million and $15.0 million remained outstanding on our investment in the first lien notes and second lien notes, respectively.

Keystone Acquisition Corp.

Keystone Acquisition Corp. is a Quality Improvement Organization that is involved in healthcare care management, quality assurance, and cost containment services for providers of physical and behavioral health services. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $7.5 million and $13.0 million remained outstanding on our investment in the first lien notes and second lien notes, respectively.

Premiere Global Services, Inc.

Premiere Global Services, Inc. is a provider of audio conferencing, web-based and video collaboration services. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $14.7 million and $10.0 million remained outstanding on our investment in the first lien notes and second lien notes, respectively.

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ECI Software Solutions, Inc.

ECI Software Solutions, Inc. is a global end-to-end provider of enterprise resource planning software to more than 14,200 small- and medium-sized businesses primarily across four end-market verticals (i.e., manufacturing, distribution, field services, and building & construction), with an in-depth manufacturing capability. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $5.0 million and $15.0 million remained outstanding on our investment in the first lien notes and second lien notes, respectively.

Global Tel Link Corp.

Global Tel Link Corp. is a provider of telecom and technology products and services used by inmates, investigators and administrators in the corrections industry. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $3.0 million and $17.0 million remained outstanding on our investment in the first lien notes and second lien notes, respectively.

OMNIA Partners, Inc.

OMNIA Partners, Inc. is a group purchasing organization operating through both the public and private sectors. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $6.0 million and $14.0 million remained outstanding on our investment in the first lien notes and second lien notes, respectively.

Help/Systems Holdings, Inc.

Help/Systems Holdings, Inc. is a provider of a suite of infrastructure software solutions that automate IT operations, secure IT systems and inform key stakeholders for customers worldwide. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $4.0 million and $15.5 million remained outstanding on our investment in the first lien notes and second lien notes, respectively.

Access CIG, LLC

Access CIG, LLC is a records and documents storage firm. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $0.5 million and $16.8 million remained outstanding on our investment in the first lien incremental notes and second lien notes, respectively.

Lighthouse Network, LLC (f/k/a Harbortouch Payments, LLC)

Lighthouse Network, LLC is a non-bank merchant acquirer and integrated point-of-sale service provider that focuses on the small and medium-sized business segment in the U.S. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $3.5 and $12.0 million was outstanding on our first lien notes and second lien notes, respectively.

INVESTMENT ADVISORY AGREEMENT

Management Services

Oxford Square Management serves as our investment adviser. Oxford Square Management is registered as an investment adviser under the Advisers Act. Subject to the overall supervision of our Board of Directors, Oxford Square Management manages our day-to-day operations and provides investment advisory services to us. Under the terms of our Investment Advisory Agreement with Oxford Square Management (the “Investment Advisory Agreement”), Oxford Square Management:

•      determines the composition of our portfolio, the nature and timing of the changes to our portfolio and the manner of implementing such changes;

•      identifies, evaluates and negotiates the structure of the investments we make;

•      closes, monitors and services the investments we make; and

•     determines what securities we will purchase, retain or sell.

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Oxford Square Management’s services under the Investment Advisory Agreement are not exclusive, and it is free to furnish similar services to other entities so long as its services to us are not impaired. Oxford Square Management has agreed that, during the term of its Investment Advisory Agreement with us, it will not serve as investment adviser to any other public or private entity that utilizes a principal investment strategy of providing debt financing to middle-market companies similar to those we target.

Management Fee

We pay Oxford Square Management a fee for its services under the Investment Advisory Agreement consisting of two components — a base management fee (the “Base Fee”) and an incentive fee. The cost of both the Base Fee payable to Oxford Square Management and any incentive fees earned by Oxford Square Management are ultimately borne by our common stockholders.

Through March 31, 2016, the Base Fee was calculated at an annual rate of 2.00%. Effective April 1, 2016, the Base Fee is currently calculated at an annual rate of 1.50%. The Base Fee is payable quarterly in arrears, and is calculated based on the average value of our gross assets at the end of the two most recently completed calendar quarters, and appropriately adjusted for any equity or debt capital raises, repurchases or redemptions during the current calendar quarter (however, no Base Fee will be payable on the cash proceeds received by us in connection with any share or debt issuances until such proceeds have been invested in accordance with our investment objective). Accordingly, the Base Fee will be payable regardless of whether the value of our gross assets has decreased during the quarter. The Base Fee for any partial quarter will be appropriately prorated.

The incentive fee has two parts: the net investment income incentive fee and the capital gains incentive fee. The net investment income incentive fee is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears based on the amount by which (x) the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” for the immediately preceding calendar quarter exceeds (y) the “Preferred Return Amount” for the calendar quarter. For this purpose, “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” means interest income, dividend income and any other income (including any accrued income that we have not yet received in cash and any other fees such as commitment, origination, structuring, diligence and consulting fees or other fees that we receive from portfolio companies) accrued during the calendar quarter, minus our operating expenses accrued the calendar quarter (including the Base Fee, expenses payable under a separate agreement with Oxford Funds (the “Administration Agreement”) and any interest expense and dividends paid on any issued and outstanding preferred stock, but excluding the incentive fee). “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” includes, in the case of investments with a deferred interest feature (such as original issue discount, debt instruments with payment-in-kind (“PIK”) interest and zero coupon securities), accrued income that we have not yet received in cash. Oxford Square Management will not be under any obligation to reimburse us for any part of the incentive fee it received that was based on accrued income that we never receive as a result of a default by an entity on the obligation that resulted in the accrual of such income. “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” does not include any realized gains, realized losses or unrealized appreciation or depreciation. Given that this portion of the incentive fee is payable without regard to any gain, loss or unrealized depreciation that may occur during the quarter, this portion of Oxford Square Management’s incentive fee may be payable notwithstanding a decline in net asset value that quarter.

From January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2016, the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income,” which was expressed as a rate of return on the value of our net assets at the end of the immediately preceding calendar quarter, was compared to one-fourth of an annual hurdle rate that was determined as of the immediately preceding December 31 by adding 5.00% to the interest rate then payable on the most recently issued five-year U.S. Treasury Notes, up to a maximum annual hurdle rate of 10.00%. The annual hurdle used to calculate the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” for the quarter ended March 31, 2016 was 6.76%.

Effective April 1, 2016, a “Preferred Return Amount” is calculated on a quarterly basis by multiplying 1.75% by the Company’s net asset value at the end of the immediately preceding calendar quarter. The net investment income incentive fee is then calculated as follows: (a) no net investment income incentive fee is payable to Oxford Square Management in any calendar quarter in which the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” does not exceed the “Preferred Return Amount”; (b) 100% of the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” for such quarter, if any, that exceeds the “Preferred Return Amount” but is less than or equal to a “Catch-Up Amount” determined on a quarterly basis by multiplying 2.1875% by OXSQ’s net asset value at the end of such calendar quarter; and (c) for any quarter in which the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” exceeds the “Catch-Up Amount,” the net investment income incentive fee will be 20% of the amount of the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” for such quarter. There is no accumulation of amounts from quarter to quarter for the “Preferred Return Amount,” and accordingly there is no claw back of amounts previously paid to Oxford Square Management if the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” for subsequent quarters is below the quarterly “Preferred Return Amount,” and there is no delay of payment of incentive fees to Oxford Square Management if the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” for prior quarters is below the quarterly “Preferred Return Amount” for the quarter for which the calculation is being made.

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In addition, effective April 1, 2016, the calculation of the Company’s net investment income incentive fee is subject to a total return requirement (the “Total Return Requirement”), which provides that a net investment income incentive fee will not be payable to Oxford Square Management except to the extent 20% of the “cumulative net increase in net assets resulting from operations” (which is the amount, if positive, of the sum of the “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income,” realized gains and losses and unrealized appreciation and depreciation) during the calendar quarter for which such fees are being calculated and the eleven (11) preceding quarters (or if shorter, the number of quarters since April 1, 2016) exceeds the cumulative net investment income incentive fees accrued and/or paid for such eleven (11) preceding quarters (or if shorter, the number of quarters since April 1, 2016). Under the revised fee structure, under no circumstances will the aggregate fees earned from April 1, 2016 by Oxford Square Management in any quarterly period be higher than the aggregate fees that would have been earned prior to the adoption of these changes.

The capital gains part of the incentive fee is determined and payable in arrears as of the end of each calendar year (or upon termination of the Investment Advisory Agreement, as of the termination date), and equals 20% of our “Incentive Fee Capital Gains,” which consists of our realized capital gains for each calendar year, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation for that calendar year. For accounting purposes under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), the capital gains incentive fee calculated is based on a hypothetical liquidation of the Company. In such a calculation, in order to reflect the theoretical capital gains incentive fee that would be payable for a given period as if all unrealized gains were realized, we will accrue a capital gains incentive fee based upon net realized gains and unrealized depreciation for that calendar year (in accordance with the terms of the Investment Advisory Agreement), plus unrealized appreciation on investments held at the end of the period. It should be noted that a fee so calculated and accrued would not necessarily be payable under the Investment Advisory Agreement, and may never be paid based upon the computation of capital gains incentive fees in subsequent periods. Amounts paid under the Investment Advisory Agreement will be consistent with the formula reflected in the Investment Advisory Agreement.

Example 1: Net Investment Income Portion of Incentive Fee for Each Calendar Quarter

Alternative 1

Assumptions

Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 1.25%

Quarterly Hurdle rate = 1.75%

Management fee(1) = 0.375%

Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.) = 0.2%

Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income (investment income – (management fee + other expenses)) = 0.675%

Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income does not exceed hurdle rate, therefore there is no income-related incentive fee.

Alternative 2

Assumptions

Quarterly Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 2.50%

Quarterly Hurdle rate = 1.75%

Management fee(1) = 0.375%

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Quarterly Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.) = 0.2%

Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income (investment income – (management fee + other expenses)) = 1.925%

The Total Return Requirement is met (no net investment income incentive fee would be payable if the Total Return Requirement were not met).

The aggregate fees that would have been earned prior to the adoption of the April 1, 2016 changes, as described above, exceed the current aggregate fees.

Incentive fee = 100%* Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income in excess of the hurdle rate but less than 2.1875% and 20% of any Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income thereafter.

= 100%* (1.925% – 1.75%)

= 100%* 0.175%

= 0.175%

Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income exceeds the hurdle rate but is less than 2.1875%. Therefore the income-related incentive fee is 0.175%.

Alternative 3

Assumptions

Quarterly Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 4.00%

Quarterly Hurdle rate = 1.75%

Management fee(1) = 0.375%

Quarterly Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.) = 0.2%

Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income (investment income – (management fee + other expenses)) = 3.425%

The Total Return Requirement is met (no net investment income incentive fee would be payable if the Total Return Requirement were not met).

The aggregate fees that would have been earned prior to the adoption of the April 1, 2016 changes, as described above, exceed the current aggregate fees.

Incentive fee = 100% * Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income in excess of the hurdle rate but less than 2.1875% and 20% of any Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income thereafter.

= 100%* (2.1875% – 1.75%) + 20%* (3.425% – 2.1875%)

= 100%* 0.4375% + 20%* 1.2375%

= 0.4375% + 0.2475%

= 0.685%

Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income exceeds the hurdle rate and 2.1875%. Therefore the income-related incentive fee is 0.685%.

____________

(1) Represents 1.50% annualized management fee.

13

Example 2: Capital Gains Portion of Incentive Fee(*)

Capital Gains Incentive Fee = 20% × Incentive Fee Capital Gains (i.e., our realized capital gains for each calendar year, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation for that calendar year)

Assumptions:

•      Year 1 = no realized capital gains or losses

•      Year 2 = 9% realized capital gains, 0% realized capital losses, 1% unrealized depreciation and 0% unrealized appreciation

•      Year 3 = 12% realized capital gains, 0% realized capital losses, 2% unrealized depreciation and 2% unrealized appreciation

Year 1 incentive fee

 

•   Total Incentive Fee Capital Gains = 0

   

•   No capital gains incentive fee paid to Oxford Square Management in Year 1

Year 2 incentive fee

 

•   Total Incentive Fee Capital Gains = 8%

   

(9% realized capital gains less 1% unrealized depreciation)

   

•   Total capital gains incentive fee paid to Oxford Square Management in Year 2

   

= 20% × 8%

   

= 1.6%

Year 3 incentive fee

 

•   Total Incentive Fee Capital Gains = 10%

   

(12% realized capital gains less 2% unrealized depreciation; unrealized appreciation has no effect)

   

•   Total capital gains incentive fee paid to Oxford Square Management in Year 3

   

= 20% × 10%

   

= 2%

____________

(*)  The hypothetical amount of returns shown are based on a percentage of our total net assets and assumes no leverage. There is no guarantee that positive returns will be realized and actual returns may vary from those shown in this example.

Payment of our Expenses

Our primary operating expenses are the payment of the Base Fee and any incentive fees under the Investment Advisory Agreement and the allocable portion of overhead and other expenses incurred by Oxford Funds in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement. Our investment management fee compensates Oxford Square Management for its work in identifying, evaluating, negotiating, executing and servicing our investments. We bear all other expenses of our operations and transactions, including (without limitation) fees and expenses relating to:

•      expenses of offering our debt and equity securities;

•      the investigation and monitoring of our investments, including expenses and travel fees incurred in connection with investment due diligence and on-site visits;

•      the cost of calculating our net asset value (“NAV”);

•      the cost of effecting sales and repurchases of shares of our common stock and other securities;

•      management and incentive fees payable pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement;

•      fees payable to third parties relating to, or associated with, making investments and valuing investments (including third-party valuation firms);

•      transfer agent, trustee and custodial fees;

•     interest payments and other costs related to our borrowings;

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•     fees and expenses associated with our website, public relations and marketing efforts (including attendance at industry and investor conferences and similar events);

•      federal and state registration fees;

•      any exchange listing fees;

•      federal, state and local taxes;

•      independent directors’ fees and expenses, including travel expenses, and other costs of Board of Directors’ meetings and other costs associated with the performance of independent directors’ responsibilities;

•      brokerage commissions;

•      costs of preparing and mailing proxy statements, stockholders’ reports and notices, including annual proxy solicitations and shareholder meetings;

•      costs of preparing government filings, including periodic and current reports with the SEC;

•      fidelity bond, directors and officers/errors and omissions liability insurance and other insurance premiums; and

•      direct costs such as printing, mailing, long distance telephone, staff, rent, independent audits and outside legal costs and all other expenses incurred by either Oxford Funds or us in connection with administering our business, including payments under the Administration Agreement that will be based upon our allocable portion of overhead and other expenses incurred by Oxford Funds in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including a portion of the rent and the compensation and related expenses of our Chief Financial Officer, our accounting support staff and other administrative support personnel. Related expenses include but are not limited to employee benefit costs, payroll taxes and travel and training expenses. The costs associated with the functions performed by our Chief Compliance Officer are paid directly by us pursuant to the terms of an agreement between the Company and Alaric Compliance Services, LLC.

All of these expenses are ultimately borne by our common stockholders.

All personnel of our investment adviser when and to the extent engaged in providing investment advisory services, and the compensation and related expenses of such personnel allocable to such services, will be provided and paid for by Oxford Funds, the investment adviser’s managing member.

Duration and Termination

Unless earlier terminated as described below, the Investment Advisory Agreement will remain in effect if approved annually by our Board of Directors or by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities, including, in either case, approval by a majority of our directors who are not interested persons. The Investment Advisory Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment. The Investment Advisory Agreement may be terminated by either party without penalty upon 60 days’ written notice to the other. Refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks relating to our business and structure — We are dependent upon Oxford Square Management’s key management personnel for our future success, particularly Jonathan H. Cohen and Saul B. Rosenthal.”

Indemnification

The Investment Advisory Agreement provides that, absent willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence in the performance of their respective duties or by reason of the reckless disregard of their respective duties and obligations, Oxford Square Management and its officers, managers, agents, employees, controlling persons, members and any other person or entity affiliated with it, including without limitation Oxford Funds, are entitled to indemnification from OXSQ for any damages, liabilities, costs and expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees and amounts reasonably paid in settlement) arising from the rendering of Oxford Square Management’s services under the Investment Advisory Agreement or otherwise as an investment adviser of OXSQ.

15

Organization of the Investment Adviser

Oxford Square Management is a Delaware limited liability company that is registered as an investment adviser under the Advisers Act. Oxford Funds, a Delaware limited liability company, is Oxford Square Management’s managing member and provides it with all personnel necessary to manage our day-to-day operations and provide the services under the Investment Advisory Agreement. The principal address of Oxford Square Management and of Oxford Funds is 8 Sound Shore Drive, Suite 255, Greenwich, Connecticut 06830.

Oxford Funds is the managing member of Oxford Square Management. Charles M. Royce, a member of our Board of Directors, has a minority, non-controlling interest in Oxford Square Management.

ADMINISTRATION AGREEMENT

Pursuant to a separate Administration Agreement, Oxford Funds furnishes us with office facilities, together with equipment and clerical, bookkeeping and record keeping services at such facilities. Under the Administration Agreement, Oxford Funds also performs, or oversees the performance of, our required administrative services, which includes being responsible for the financial records which we are required to maintain and preparing reports to our stockholders and reports filed with the SEC. In addition, Oxford Funds assists us in determining and publishing our net asset value, overseeing the preparation and filing of our tax returns and the printing and dissemination of reports to our stockholders, and generally overseeing the payment of our expenses and the performance of administrative and professional services rendered to us by others. Payments under the Administration Agreement are based upon our allocable portion of overhead and other expenses incurred by Oxford Funds in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including a portion of the rent and the compensation of our Chief Financial Officer, our accounting support staff and other administrative support personnel. The Administration Agreement may be terminated by either party without penalty upon 60 days’ written notice to the other party.

The Administration Agreement provides that, absent willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence in the performance of their respective duties or by reason of the reckless disregard of their respective duties and obligations, Oxford Funds and its officers, managers, agents, employees, controlling persons, members and any other person or entity affiliated with it are entitled to indemnification from OXSQ for any damages, liabilities, costs and expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees and amounts reasonably paid in settlement) arising from the rendering of Oxford Funds’ services under the Administration Agreement or otherwise as administrator for OXSQ.

COMPETITION

Our primary competitors to provide financing to primarily non-public companies include private equity and venture capital funds, other equity and non-equity based investment funds, including other BDCs, and investment banks and other sources of financing, including traditional financial services companies such as commercial banks and specialty finance companies. Many of these entities may have greater financial and managerial resources than we have. For additional information concerning the competitive risks we face, refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business and Structure — We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.”

EMPLOYEES

We have no employees. Our day-to-day investment operations are managed by Oxford Square Management. In addition, we reimburse Oxford Funds for an allocable portion of expenses incurred by it in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including a portion of the rent and the compensation of our Chief Financial Officer, accounting staff and other administrative support personnel. We will also pay the costs associated with the functions performed by our Chief Compliance Officer under the terms of an agreement between the Company and Alaric Compliance Services.

CERTAIN U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

As a BDC, we have elected to be treated, and intend to qualify annually, as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code, beginning with our 2003 taxable year. As a RIC, we generally will not have to pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any ordinary income or capital gains that we distribute to our stockholders as dividends. To continue to qualify as a RIC, we must, among other things, meet certain source-of-income and asset diversification requirements (as described below). In addition, to qualify for RIC tax treatment we must distribute to our stockholders, for each taxable year, at least 90% of our “investment company taxable income,” which is generally our ordinary income plus the excess of our realized net short-term capital gains over our realized net long-term capital losses (the “Annual Distribution Requirement”).

16

Taxation as a RIC

If we:

•      qualify as a RIC; and

•      satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement,

then we will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the portion of our investment company taxable income and net capital gain (i.e., realized net long-term capital gains in excess of realized net short-term capital losses) we distribute to stockholders. We will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular corporate rates on any income or capital gains not distributed (or deemed distributed) to our stockholders.

We will be subject to a 4% nondeductible U.S. federal excise tax on certain undistributed income unless we distribute in a timely manner an amount at least equal to the sum of (1) 98% of our net ordinary income for each calendar year, (2) 98.2% of our capital gain net income for the one-year period ending October 31 in that calendar year and (3) any income realized, but not distributed, and on which we paid no corporate-level U.S. federal income tax, in preceding years (the “Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement”). We generally will endeavor in each taxable year to make sufficient distributions to our stockholders to satisfy the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement.

In order to qualify as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must, among other things:

•      at all times during each taxable year, be registered under the 1940 Act as a management company or unit investment trust, or have in effect an election under the 1940 Act to be treated as a BDC;

•      derive in each taxable year at least 90% of our gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to loans of certain securities, gains from the sale of stock or other securities, net income from certain “qualified publicly traded partnerships,” or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in such stock or securities (the “90% Income Test”); and

•      diversify our holdings so that at the end of each quarter of the taxable year:

•      at least 50% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities if such other securities of any one issuer do not represent more than 5% of the value of our assets or more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer; and

•      no more than 25% of the value of our assets is invested in the securities, other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs, of one issuer, of two or more issuers that are controlled, as determined under applicable Code rules, by us and that are engaged in the same or similar or related trades or businesses or of certain “qualified publicly traded partnerships” (the “Diversification Tests”).

We may be required to recognize taxable income in circumstances in which we do not receive cash. For example, if we hold debt obligations that are treated under applicable tax rules as having original issue discount (such as debt instruments with PIK interest or, in certain cases, increasing interest rates or issued with warrants), we must include in income each year a portion of the original issue discount that accrues over the life of the obligation, regardless of whether cash representing such income is received by us in the same taxable year. We may also have to include in income other amounts that we have not yet received in cash, such as PIK interest and deferred loan origination fees that are paid after origination of the loan or are paid in non-cash compensation such as warrants or stock. Because any original issue discount or other amounts accrued will be included in our investment company taxable income for the year of accrual, we may be required to make a distribution to our stockholders in order to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, even though we will not have received any corresponding cash amount. In addition, we may be required to accrue for U.S. federal income tax purposes amounts attributable to our investment in CLOs that may differ from the distributions received in respect of such investments. Although we do not presently expect to do so, we are authorized to borrow funds, to sell assets and to make taxable distributions of our stock and debt securities in order to satisfy distribution requirements. Our ability to dispose of assets to meet our distribution requirements may be limited by (1) the illiquid nature of our portfolio and/or (2) other requirements relating to our status as a RIC, including the Diversification Tests. If we dispose of assets in order to meet the Annual Distribution Requirement or the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement, we may make such dispositions at times that, from an investment standpoint, are not advantageous. If we are unable to obtain cash from other sources to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, we may fail to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC and become subject to tax as an ordinary corporation.

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Under the 1940 Act, we are not permitted to make distributions to our stockholders while our debt obligations and other senior securities are outstanding unless certain “asset coverage” tests are met. If we are prohibited to make distributions, we may fail to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC and become subject to tax as an ordinary corporation.

We have purchased and may in the future purchase residual or subordinated interests in CLOs that are treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as shares in a “passive foreign investment company” (a “PFIC”). We may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our allocable share of a portion of any “excess distribution” received on, or any gain from the disposition of, such shares, even if our allocable share of such income is distributed as a taxable distribution to the PFIC’s stockholders. Additional charges, in the nature of interest, generally will be imposed on us in respect of deferred taxes arising from any such excess distribution or gain. If we elect to treat a PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” under the Code (a “QEF”), in lieu of the foregoing requirements, we will be required to include in income each year our proportionate share of the ordinary earnings and net capital gain of the QEF, even if such income is not distributed by the QEF. Alternatively, we may be able to elect to mark-to-market at the end of each taxable year our shares in a PFIC; in this case, we will recognize as ordinary income our allocable share of any increase in the value of such shares, and as ordinary loss our allocable share of any decrease in such value to the extent that any such decrease does not exceed prior increases included in our income. Under either election, we may be required to recognize in a year income in excess of distributions from PFICs and proceeds from dispositions of PFIC shares during that year, and such income will nevertheless be subject to the Annual Distribution Requirement and will be taken into account for purposes of the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement.

If we hold more than 10% of the shares in a foreign corporation that is treated as a controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”) (including equity tranche investments in a CLO treated as a CFC), we may be treated as receiving a deemed distribution (taxable as ordinary income) each year from such foreign corporation in an amount equal to our pro rata share of the corporation’s income for the tax year (including both ordinary earnings and capital gains), whether or not the corporation makes an actual distribution during such year. This deemed distribution is required to be included in the income of a U.S. Stockholder (as defined below) of a CFC regardless of whether the stockholder has made a QEF election with respect to such CFC. In general, a foreign corporation will be classified as a CFC if more than 50% of the shares of the corporation, measured by reference to combined voting power or value, is owned (directly, indirectly or by attribution) by U.S. Stockholders. A “U.S. Stockholder,” for this purpose, is any U.S. person that possesses (actually or constructively) 10% or more of the combined voting power or value of all classes of shares of a corporation. If we are treated as receiving a deemed distribution from a CFC, we will be required to include such distribution in our investment company taxable income regardless of whether we receive any actual distributions from such CFC, and we must distribute such income to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement and the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement.

Although the Code generally provides that income inclusions from a QEF or a CFC will be “good income” for purposes of the 90% Income Test to the extent that the QEF or the CFC distribute such income to us in the same taxable year to which the income is included in our income, the Code does not specifically provide whether income inclusions would be “good income” for the 90% Income Test if we do not receive distributions from the QEF or CFC during such taxable year. The Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has issued a series of private rulings in which it has concluded that all income inclusions from a QEF or a CFC included in a RIC’s gross income would constitute “good income” for purposes of the 90% Income Test. Although such rulings are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the taxpayers to whom such rulings were issued under current law, we believe that the income inclusions from a QEF or a CFC would be “good income” for purposes of the 90% Income Test whether or not we receive a cash distribution from such CLOs in the same year as the required income inclusion. However, no guaranty can be made that the IRS would not assert that such income would not be “good income” for purposes of the 90% Income Test to the extent that we do not receive timely distributions of such income from the CLO. If such income were not considered “good income” for purposes of the 90% Income Test, we may fail to qualify as a RIC.

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Proposed regulations may impact our ability to qualify as a RIC if we do not receive timely distributions from our CLO Investments

The IRS and U.S. Treasury Department have issued proposed regulations that provide that the income inclusions from a QEF or a CFC would not be good income for purposes of the 90% Income Test unless we receive a cash distribution from such entity in the same year attributable to the included income. If these regulations are finalized, we will carefully monitor our investments in CLOs to avoid disqualification as a RIC.

Failure to Qualify as a RIC

If we were unable to qualify for treatment as a RIC, and certain cure provisions are not met, we would be subject to tax on all of our taxable income at regular corporate rates, regardless of whether we make any distributions to our stockholders. Distributions would not be required, and any distributions made would be taxable to our stockholders as ordinary dividend income that, subject to certain limitations, may be eligible for the 20.0% maximum rate to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. Subject to certain limitations under the Code, corporate distributees would be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits would be treated first as a return of capital to the extent of the stockholder’s tax basis, and any remaining distributions would be treated as a capital gain. To requalify as a RIC in a subsequent taxable year, we would be required to satisfy the RIC qualification requirements for that year and dispose of any earnings and profits from any year in which we failed to qualify as a RIC. Subject to a limited exception applicable to RICs that qualified as such under the Code for at least one year prior to disqualification and that requalify as a RIC no later than the second year following the nonqualifying year, we would be subject to tax on any unrealized net built-in gains in the assets held by us during the period in which we failed to qualify as a RIC that are recognized within the subsequent 5 years, unless we made a special election to pay corporate-level U.S. federal income tax on such built-in gains at the time of our requalification as a RIC.

REGULATION AS A BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT COMPANY

General

A BDC is regulated by the 1940 Act. A BDC must be organized in the United States for the purpose of investing in or lending to primarily private companies and making managerial assistance available to them. A BDC may use capital provided by public stockholders and from other sources to invest in long-term, private investments in businesses. A BDC provides stockholders the ability to retain the liquidity of a publicly traded stock, while sharing in the possible benefits, if any, of investing in primarily privately owned companies.

We may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or withdraw our election as, a BDC unless authorized by the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities, as required by the 1940 Act. A majority of the outstanding voting securities of a company is defined under the 1940 Act as the lesser of: (i) 67% or more of such company’s voting securities present at a meeting if more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of such company are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of such company. We currently do not anticipate any substantial change in the nature of our business.

As with other companies regulated by the 1940 Act, a BDC must adhere to certain substantive regulatory requirements. A majority of our directors must be persons who are not interested persons, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. Additionally, we are required to provide and maintain a bond issued by a reputable fidelity insurance company to protect the BDC. Furthermore, as a BDC, we are prohibited from protecting any director or officer against any liability to the company or our stockholders arising from willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of such person’s office.

As a BDC, we are required to meet a coverage ratio of the value of total assets to total senior securities, which includes all of our borrowings and any preferred stock we may issue in the future, of at least 200%. On March 23, 2018, the Small Business Credit Availability Act (the “SBCAA”) was signed into law, which included various changes to regulations under the federal securities laws that impact BDCs. The SBCAA included changes to the 1940 Act to allow BDCs to decrease their asset coverage requirement to 150% from 200% under certain circumstances. On April 6, 2018, the Board of Directors, including a “required majority” (as such term is defined in Section 57(o) of the 1940 Act) of the Board of Directors, approved the modified asset coverage requirements set forth in Section 61(a)(2) of the 1940 Act, as amended by the SBCAA. As a result, our asset coverage requirements for senior securities will be changed from 200% to 150%, effective as of April 6, 2019. We may also be prohibited under the 1940 Act from knowingly participating in certain transactions with our affiliates without the prior approval of our directors who are not interested persons and, in some cases, prior approval by the SEC.

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We are not generally able to sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share. Refer to “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to our Business and Structure — Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to, and the way in which we raise additional capital, which may expose us to risks, including the typical risks associated with leverage.” We may, however, sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share (i) in connection with a rights offering to our existing stockholders, (ii) with the consent of the majority of our common stockholders, or (iii) under such other circumstances as the SEC may permit. For example, we may sell our common stock, or warrants, options or rights to acquire our common stock, at a price below the then current net asset value of our common stock if our Board of Directors determines that such sale is in our best interests and the best interests of our stockholders, and our stockholders approve our policy and practice of making such sales. In any such case, under such circumstances, the price at which our common stock is to be issued and sold may not be less than a price which, in the determination of our Board of Directors, closely approximates the market value of such common stock. In addition, we may generally issue new shares of our common stock at a price below the net asset value in rights offerings to existing stockholders, in payment of distributions and in certain other limited circumstances.

We may be examined by the SEC for compliance with the 1940 Act.

As a BDC, we are subject to certain risks and uncertainties. Refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to our Business and Structure.”

Qualifying Assets

As a BDC, we may not acquire any asset other than “qualifying assets” unless, at the time we make the acquisition, the value of our qualifying assets represent at least 70% of the value of our total assets. The principal categories of qualifying assets relevant to our business are:

•      Securities purchased in transactions not involving any public offering, the issuer of which is an eligible portfolio company;

•      Securities received in exchange for or distributed with respect to securities described in the bullet above or pursuant to the exercise of options, warrants or rights relating to such securities; and

•      Cash, cash items, government securities or high quality debt securities (within the meaning of the 1940 Act), maturing in one year or less from the time of investment.

An eligible portfolio company is generally a domestic company that is not an investment company (other than a small business investment company wholly owned by a BDC) and that:

•      does not have a class of securities with respect to which a broker may extend margin credit at the time the acquisition is made;

•      is controlled by the BDC and has an affiliate of the BDC on its board of directors;

•      does not have any class of securities listed on a national securities exchange;

•      is a public company that lists its securities on a national securities exchange with a market capitalization of less than $250 million; or

•      meets such other criteria as may be established by the SEC.

Control, as defined by the 1940 Act, is presumed to exist where a BDC beneficially owns more than 25% of the outstanding voting securities of the portfolio company.

In addition, a BDC must have been organized and have its principal place of business in the United States and must be operated for the purpose of making investments in eligible portfolio companies, or in other securities that are consistent with its purpose as a BDC.

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Significant Managerial Assistance

BDCs generally must offer to make available to the issuer of the securities significant managerial assistance, except in circumstances where either (i) the BDC controls such issuer of securities or (ii) the BDC purchases such securities in conjunction with one or more other persons acting together and one of the other persons in the group makes available such managerial assistance. Making available managerial assistance means, among other things, any arrangement whereby the BDC offers to provide, and, if accepted, does so provide, significant guidance and counsel concerning the management, operations or business objectives and policies of a portfolio company. The Administrator or its affiliate provides such managerial assistance on our behalf to portfolio companies that request this assistance.

Code of Ethics and Insider Trading Policy

As required by the 1940 Act, we maintain a Code of Ethics and Insider Trading Policy, or “Code of Ethics,” that establishes procedures for personal investments and restricts certain transactions by our personnel. Refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to our Business and Structure — There are significant potential conflicts of interest between OXSQ and our management team.” Our Code of Ethics generally does not permit investments by our employees in securities that may be purchased or held by us. The Code of Ethics is available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may obtain copies of the Code of Ethics, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following email address: publicinfo@sec.gov. Our Code of Ethics is also available on our website at http://oxfordsquarecapital.com/.

Compliance Policies and Procedures

We and our investment adviser have adopted and implemented written policies and procedures reasonably designed to prevent violation of the federal securities laws, and are required to review these compliance policies and procedures annually for their adequacy and the effectiveness of their implementation, and to designate a Chief Compliance Officer to be responsible for administering the policies and procedures.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) imposes a wide variety of regulatory requirements on publicly-held companies and their insiders. Many of these requirements affect us. For example:

•      Pursuant to Rule 13a-14 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”), our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer must certify the accuracy of the financial statements contained in our periodic reports;

•      Pursuant to Item 307 of Regulation S-K, our periodic reports must disclose our conclusions about the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures;

•      Pursuant to Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act, our management must prepare a report regarding its assessment of our internal control over financial reporting; and

•      Pursuant to Item 308 of Regulation S-K and Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act, our periodic reports must disclose whether there were significant changes in our internal controls or in other factors that could significantly affect these controls subsequent to the date of their evaluation, including any corrective actions with regard to significant deficiencies and material weaknesses.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires us to review our current policies and procedures to determine whether we comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder. We will continue to monitor our compliance with all regulations that are adopted under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and will take actions necessary to ensure that we are in compliance therewith.

Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures

We have delegated our proxy voting responsibility to our investment adviser, Oxford Square Management. The Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures of Oxford Square Management are set forth below. The guidelines are reviewed periodically by Oxford Square Management, and, accordingly, are subject to change.

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Introduction

As an investment adviser registered under the Advisers Act, Oxford Square Management has a fiduciary duty to act solely in the best interests of its clients. As part of this duty, Oxford Square Management recognizes that it must vote client securities in a timely manner free of conflicts of interest and in the best interests of its clients.

These policies and procedures for voting proxies for Oxford Square Management’s investment advisory clients are intended to comply with Section 206 of, and Rule 206(4)-6 under, the Advisers Act.

Proxy Policies

Oxford Square Management will vote proxies relating to our portfolio securities in the best interests of our stockholders. Oxford Square Management will review on a case-by-case basis each proposal submitted to a stockholder vote to determine its impact on the portfolio securities held by OXSQ. Although Oxford Square Management will generally vote against proposals that may have a negative impact on our portfolio securities, it may vote for such a proposal if there exist compelling long-term reasons to do so. Oxford Square Management will abstain from voting only in unusual circumstances and where there is a compelling reason to do so.

The proxy voting decisions of Oxford Square Management are made by the senior officers of Oxford Square Management who are responsible for monitoring each of our investments. To ensure that its vote is not the product of a conflict of interest, Oxford Square Management requires that: (i) anyone involved in the decision making process disclose to Oxford Square Management’s Chief Compliance Officer any potential conflict that he or she is aware of and any contact that he or she has had with any interested party regarding a proxy vote; and (ii) employees involved in the decision making process or vote administration are prohibited from revealing how Oxford Square Management intends to vote on a proposal without the prior approval of the Chief Compliance Officer and senior management in order to reduce any attempted influence from interested parties.

Proxy Voting Records

You may obtain information about how Oxford Square Management voted proxies by making a written request for proxy voting information to: Chief Compliance Officer, Oxford Square Management, LLC, 8 Sound Shore Drive, Suite 255, Greenwich, CT 06830.

Periodic Reporting and Audited Financial Statements

We have registered our common stock under the Exchange Act, and have reporting obligations thereunder, including the requirement that we file annual and quarterly reports with the SEC. In accordance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, this annual report contains financial statements audited and reported on by our independent registered public accounting firm. You may obtain our annual reports on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and our current reports on Form 8-K on our website at http://oxfordsquarecapital.com/ free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such reports electronically with the SEC.

NASDAQ Global Select Market Requirements

We have adopted certain policies and procedures intended to comply with the NASDAQ Global Select Market’s corporate governance rules. We will continue to monitor our compliance with all future listing standards that are approved by the SEC and will take actions necessary to ensure that we are in compliance therewith.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Investing in our securities involves a number of significant risks. In addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report, you should consider carefully the following information before making an investment in our securities. The risk factors described below are the principal risk factors associated with an investment in our securities, as well as those factors generally associated with a business development company with investment objectives, investment policies, capital structure or trading markets similar to ours, including the risks associated with investing in a portfolio of small and developing or financially troubled businesses. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or not presently deemed material by us might also impair our operations and performance. If any of the following events occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In such case, our net asset value and the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS AND STRUCTURE

Any failure on our part to maintain our status as a business development company would reduce our operating flexibility, including our ability to borrow money.

If we do not remain a BDC, we might be regulated as a closed-end investment company under the 1940 Act, which would subject us to substantially more regulatory restrictions under the 1940 Act and correspondingly decrease our operating flexibility, including our ability to borrow money.

We are dependent upon Oxford Square Management’s key management personnel for our future success, particularly Jonathan H. Cohen and Saul B. Rosenthal.

We depend on the diligence, skill and network of business contacts of the senior management of Oxford Square Management. The senior management, together with other investment professionals, will evaluate, negotiate, structure, close, monitor and service our investments. Our future success will depend to a significant extent on the continued service and coordination of the senior management team, particularly Jonathan H. Cohen, the Chief Executive Officer of Oxford Square Management, and Saul B. Rosenthal, the President and Chief Operating Officer of Oxford Square Management. Neither Mr. Cohen nor Mr. Rosenthal will devote all of their business time to our operations, and both will have other demands on their time as a result of their other activities. Neither Mr. Cohen nor Mr. Rosenthal is subject to an employment contract. The departure of either of these individuals could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our investment objective. In addition, due to Oxford Square Management’s relatively small staff size, the departure of any of Oxford Square Management’s personnel, including investment, accounting and compliance professionals, could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our financial condition and results of operations will depend on our ability to manage our existing portfolio and future growth effectively.

Our ability to achieve our investment objective will depend on our ability to manage our existing investment portfolio and to grow, which will depend, in turn, on our investment adviser’s ability to identify, analyze, invest in and finance companies that meet our investment criteria, and our ability to raise and retain debt and equity capital. Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis is largely a function of our investment adviser’s structuring of the investment process, its ability to provide competent, attentive and efficient services to us and our access to financing on acceptable terms.

We and Oxford Square Management, through its managing member, Oxford Funds, will need to continue to hire, train, supervise and manage new employees. Failure to manage our future growth effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business and operation could be negatively affected if we become subject to any securities litigation or shareholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder execution of our investment strategy and impact our stock price.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Shareholder activism, which could take many forms or arise in a variety of situations, has been increasing in the BDC space recently. While we are currently not subject to any securities litigation, due to the volatility of our stock price and for a variety of other reasons, we may in the future become the target of additional securities litigation and the subject of additional shareholder activism. If at any time our current investment advisory agreement is terminated we may not be able to find a new investment adviser or hire internal management with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms. If we are unable to do so quickly, our operations are likely to experience a disruption, our financial condition, business and results of operations as well as our ability to pay distributions are likely to be adversely affected and the market price of our shares may decline.

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Securities litigation and shareholder activism, including potential proxy contests, could result in substantial costs and divert management’s and our board of directors’ attention and resources from our business. Additionally, such securities litigation and shareholder activism could give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future, adversely affect our relationships with service providers and make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel. Also, we may be required to incur significant legal fees and other expenses related to any securities litigation and activist shareholder matters. Further, our stock price could be subject to significant fluctuation or otherwise be adversely affected by the events, risks and uncertainties of any securities litigation and shareholder activism.

The SEC has raised questions regarding certain non-traditional investments, including investments in CLOs.

The staff of the Division of Investment Management has, in correspondence with certain BDCs, raised questions about the level and special risks of investments in CLOs. While it is not possible to predict what conclusions the staff will reach in these areas, or what recommendations the staff might make to the SEC, the imposition of limitations on investments by BDCs in CLOs could adversely impact our ability to implement our investment strategy and/or our ability to raise capital through public offerings, or cause us to take certain actions with potential negative impacts on our financial condition and results of operations. We are unable at this time to assess the likelihood or timing of any such regulatory development.

We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.

A large number of entities compete with us to make the types of investments that we make. We compete with a large number of hedge funds and CLO investment vehicles, other equity and non-equity based investment funds, including other BDCs, investment banks and other sources of financing, including traditional financial services companies such as commercial banks and specialty finance companies. Many of our competitors are substantially larger than us and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. For example, some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that are not available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. Furthermore, many of our competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act imposes on us as a BDC. If we are unable to source attractive investments, we may hold a greater percentage of our assets in cash than anticipated, which could impact potential returns on our portfolio. There can be no assurance that the competitive pressures we face will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, as a result of this competition, we may not be able to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities from time to time, and we can offer no assurance that we will be able to identify and make investments that are consistent with our investment objective.

Our business model depends to a significant extent upon strong referral relationships with financial sponsors, and the inability of the senior investment professionals of our investment adviser to maintain or develop these relationships, or the failure of these relationships to generate investment opportunities, could adversely affect our business.

We expect that the principals of our investment adviser will maintain and develop their relationships with financial sponsors, brokers and agents and we will rely to a significant extent upon these relationships to provide us with potential investment opportunities. If the senior investment professionals of our investment adviser fail to maintain their existing relationships or develop new relationships with other sponsors or sources of investment opportunities, we will not be able to grow our investment portfolio. In addition, individuals with whom the senior investment professionals of our investment adviser have relationships are not obligated to provide us with investment opportunities, and, therefore, there is no assurance that such relationships will generate investment opportunities for us. If our investment adviser is unable to source investment opportunities, we may hold a greater percentage of our assets in cash than anticipated, which could impact potential returns on our portfolio.

We may not realize gains from our equity investments.

When we invest in debt securities, we may acquire warrants or other equity securities as well. However, the equity interests we receive may not appreciate in value and, in fact, may decline in value. Accordingly, we may not be able to realize gains from our equity interests, and any gains that we do realize on the disposition of any equity interests may not be sufficient to offset any other losses we experience.

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There will be uncertainty as to the value of our portfolio investments, which may impact our net asset value.

A large percentage of our portfolio investments are in the form of securities that are not publicly traded. The fair value of securities and other investments that are not publicly traded may not be readily determinable. We value these securities on a quarterly basis in accordance with our valuation policy, which is consistent with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). Our board of directors utilizes the services of third-party valuation firms to aid it in determining the fair value of certain securities. The board of directors discusses valuations and determines the fair value in good faith based on the input of our investment adviser and the respective third-party valuation firms. The factors that may be considered in fair value pricing our investments include the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments and its earnings, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, comparisons to publicly traded companies, discounted cash flow and other relevant factors. Because such valuations, and particularly valuations of private securities and private companies, are inherently uncertain, may fluctuate over short periods of time and may be based on estimates, our determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that would have been used if a ready market for these securities existed. Our net asset value could be adversely affected if our determinations regarding the fair value of our investments were materially higher than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such securities.

The lack of liquidity in our investments may adversely affect our business.

As stated above, our investments are generally not in publicly traded securities. Substantially all of these securities are subject to legal and other restrictions on resale or will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments if the need arises. Also, if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our portfolio quickly, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have previously recorded our investments.

In addition, because we generally invest in debt securities with a term of up to seven years and generally intend to hold such investments until maturity of the debt, we do not expect realization events, if any, to occur in the near-term. We expect that our holdings of equity securities may require several years to appreciate in value, and we can offer no assurance that such appreciation will occur.

We may experience fluctuations in our operating results for any period, and as a result, our financial results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods.

We may experience fluctuations in our operating results due to a number of factors, including the rate at which we make new investments, the interest rates payable on the debt securities we acquire, the default rate on such securities, the level of our expenses, variations in and the timing of the recognition of realized and unrealized gains or losses, the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets and general economic conditions. As a result of these factors, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods.

If we cannot obtain additional capital because of either regulatory or market price constraints, we could be forced to curtail or cease our new lending and investment activities, our net asset value could decrease and our level of distributions and liquidity could be affected adversely.

Our ability to secure additional financing and satisfy our financial obligations under indebtedness outstanding from time to time will depend upon our future operating performance, which is subject to the prevailing general economic and credit market conditions, including interest rate levels and the availability of credit generally, and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. The worsening of current economic and capital market conditions could have a material adverse effect on our ability to secure financing on favorable terms, if at all.

If we are unable to obtain debt capital, then our equity investors will not benefit from the potential for increased returns on equity resulting from leverage to the extent that our investment strategy is successful and we may be limited in our ability to make new commitments or fundings to our portfolio companies.

Beginning on April 6, 2019, we will be permitted to borrow more money, which will further magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may further increase the risk of investing in us.

On March 23, 2018, the SBCAA was signed into law, which included various changes to regulations under the federal securities laws that impact BDCs. The SBCAA included changes to the 1940 Act to allow BDCs to decrease their asset coverage requirement to 150% from 200% under certain circumstances. On April 6, 2018, the Board, including a “required majority” (as such term is defined in Section 57(o) of the 1940 Act) of the Board, approved the modified asset coverage requirements set forth in Section 61(a)(2) of the 1940 Act, as amended by the SBCAA. As a result, our asset coverage requirements for senior securities will be changed from 200% to 150%, effective as of April 6, 2019. Prior to the enactment of the SBCAA, BDCs were required to maintain an asset coverage ratio of at least 200% in order to incur debt or to issue other senior securities. Generally, for every $1.00 of debt incurred or in senior securities issued, a BDC was required to have at least $2.00 of assets immediately following such incurrence or issuance. For those BDCs that satisfy the SBCAA’s disclosure and approval requirements, the minimum asset coverage ratio is reduced such that for every $1.00 of debt incurred or in senior securities issued, a BDC must now have at least $1.50 of assets. If we incur additional leverage, general interest rate fluctuations may have a more significant negative impact on our investments and investment opportunities than they would have absent such additional incurrence, and, accordingly, may have a material adverse effect on our investment objectives and rate of return on investment capital.

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Borrowings (including through the securitization transactions, which are consolidated in our financial statements), also known as leverage, magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and, therefore, increase the risks associated with investing in our securities. We may borrow from and issue senior debt securities to banks, insurance companies, and other lenders. Lenders of these senior securities have fixed dollar claims on our assets that are superior to the claims of our common stockholders. If the value of our assets increases, then leveraging would cause the net asset value attributable to our common stock to increase more sharply than it would have had we not leveraged. Conversely, if the value of our assets decreases, leveraging would cause net asset value to decline more sharply than it otherwise would have had we not leveraged. Similarly, any increase in our income in excess of interest payable on the borrowed funds would cause our net income to increase more than it would without the leverage, while any decrease in our income would cause net income to decline more sharply than it would have had we not borrowed. Such a decline could negatively affect our ability to make common stock distribution payments. Leverage is generally considered a speculative investment technique. Our ability to service any debt that we incur will depend largely on our financial performance and will be subject to prevailing economic conditions and competitive pressures. Moreover, as the management fee payable to Oxford Square Management will be payable on our gross assets, including those assets acquired through the use of leverage, Oxford Square Management may have a financial incentive to incur leverage which may not be consistent with our stockholders’ interests. In addition, our common stockholders will bear the burden of any increase in our expenses as a result of leverage, including any increase in the management fee payable to Oxford Square Management.

Market conditions affect debt and equity capital markets in the U.S. and abroad and may in the future have a negative impact on our business and operations.

Equity capital may be difficult to raise because, subject to some limited exceptions which apply to us, as a BDC we are generally not able to issue additional shares of our common stock at a price less than net asset value. In addition, our ability to incur indebtedness (including by issuing preferred stock) is limited by applicable regulations such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, must equal at least 200% (or 150% effective April 6, 2019) immediately after each time we incur indebtedness. The debt capital that will be available, if at all, may be at a higher cost and on less favorable terms and conditions in the future. Any inability to raise capital could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments if required. As a result, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have recorded our investments. In addition, significant changes in the capital markets, including the recent period of extreme volatility and disruption, have had, and may in the future have, a negative effect on the valuations of our investments and on the potential for liquidity events involving our investments. An inability to raise capital, and any required sale of our investments for liquidity purposes, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Economic recessions or downturns could impair our portfolio companies and harm our operating results.

Many of our portfolio companies may be susceptible to economic slowdowns or recessions and may be unable to repay our loans during these periods. Therefore, our non-performing assets may increase and the value of our portfolio may decrease during these periods as we are required to record the values of our investments. Adverse economic conditions also may decrease the value of collateral securing some of our loans and the value of our equity investments at fair value. Economic slowdowns or recessions could lead to financial losses in our portfolio and a decrease in revenues, net income and assets. Unfavorable economic conditions also could increase our funding costs, limit our access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to us. These events could prevent us from increasing investments and harm our operating results.

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A portfolio company’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by us or other lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, acceleration of the time when the loans are due and foreclosure on its secured assets, which could trigger cross-defaults under other agreements and jeopardize the portfolio company’s ability to meet its obligations under the debt that we hold. We may incur additional expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting portfolio company. In addition, if one of our portfolio companies were to go bankrupt, depending on the facts and circumstances, including the extent to which we actually provided significant managerial assistance to that portfolio company, a bankruptcy court might recharacterize our debt holding and subordinate all or a portion of our claim to that of other creditors. These events could harm our financial condition and operating results.

Our portfolio companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive research and development, manufacturing, marketing and service capabilities and greater number of qualified and experienced managerial and technical personnel. They may need additional financing which they are unable to secure and which we are unable or unwilling to provide, or they may be subject to adverse developments unrelated to the technologies they acquire.

Global capital markets could enter a period of severe disruption and instability. These market conditions have historically and could again have a materially adverse effect on debt and equity capital markets in the U.S., which could have a materially negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The U.S. and global capital markets have experienced periods of disruption characterized by the freezing of available credit, a lack of liquidity in the debt capital markets, significant losses in the principal value of investments, the re-pricing of credit risk in the broadly syndicated credit market, the failure of certain major financial institutions and general volatility in the financial markets. During these periods of disruption, general economic conditions deteriorated with material and adverse consequences for the broader financial and credit markets, and the availability of debt and equity capital for the market as a whole, and financial services firms in particular, was reduced significantly. These conditions may reoccur for a prolonged period of time or materially worsen in the future. In addition, signs of deteriorating sovereign debt conditions in Europe and concerns of economic slowdown in China create uncertainty that could lead to further disruptions and instability. We may in the future have difficulty accessing debt and equity capital, and a severe disruption in the global financial markets, deterioration in credit and financing conditions or uncertainty regarding U.S. government spending and deficit levels, European sovereign debt, Chinese economic slowdown or other global economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Further downgrades of the U.S. credit rating, impending automatic spending cuts or another government shutdown could negatively impact our liquidity, financial condition and earnings.

Recent U.S. debt ceiling and budget deficit concerns have increased the possibility of additional credit-rating downgrades and economic slowdowns, or a recession in the U.S. In the future, the U.S. government may not be able to meet its debt payments unless the federal debt ceiling is raised. If legislation increasing the debt ceiling is not enacted, as needed, and the debt ceiling is reached, the U.S. federal government may stop or delay making payments on its obligations. Any default by the U.S. government on its obligations or any prolonged U.S. Government shutdown could negatively impact the U.S. economy and our portfolio companies. Multiple factors relating to the international operations of some of our portfolio companies and to particular countries in which they operate could negatively impact their business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, disagreement over the federal budget has caused the U.S. federal government to shut down for periods of time. Continued adverse political and economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Global economic, political and market conditions may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition, including our revenue growth and profitability.

The current worldwide financial market situation, as well as various social and political tensions in the United States and around the world, may contribute to increased market volatility, may have long-term effects on the U.S. and worldwide financial markets, and may cause economic uncertainties or deterioration in the United States and worldwide. The U.S. and global capital markets experienced extreme volatility and disruption during the economic downturn that began in mid-2007, and the U.S. economy was in a recession for several consecutive calendar quarters during the same period. In 2010, a financial crisis emerged in Europe, triggered by high budget deficits and rising direct and contingent sovereign debt, which created concerns about the ability of certain nations to continue to service their sovereign debt obligations. Risks resulting from such debt crisis and any future debt crisis in Europe or any similar crisis elsewhere could have a detrimental impact on the global economic recovery, sovereign and non-sovereign debt in certain countries and the financial condition of financial institutions generally. In July and August 2015, Greece reached agreements with its creditors for bailouts that provide aid in exchange for certain austerity measures. These and similar austerity measures may adversely affect world economic conditions and have an adverse impact on our business and that of our portfolio companies. In the second quarter of 2015, stock prices in China experienced a significant drop, resulting primarily from continued sell-off of shares trading in Chinese markets. In August 2015, Chinese authorities sharply devalued China’s currency. In June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum in which voters approved an exit from the European Union (“Brexit”), and, accordingly, on February 1, 2017, the U.K. Parliament voted in favor of allowing the U.K. government to begin the formal process of Brexit. The initial negotiations on Brexit commenced in June 2017. Brexit created political and economic uncertainty and instability in the global markets (including currency and credit markets), and especially in the United Kingdom and the European Union, and this uncertainty and instability may last indefinitely. Because the U.K. Parliament rejected Prime Minister Theresa May’s proposed Brexit deal with the European Union in January 2019, there is increased uncertainty on the outcome of Brexit. There is continued concern about national-level support for the Euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among European Economic and Monetary Union member countries. In addition, the fiscal policy of foreign nations, such as Russia and China, may have a severe impact on the worldwide and U.S. financial markets.

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The Republican Party currently controls the executive branch and the senate portion of the legislative branch of government, which increases the likelihood that legislation may be adopted that could significantly affect the regulation of U.S. financial markets. Areas subject to potential change, amendment or repeal include the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and the authority of the Federal Reserve and the Financial Stability Oversight Council. For example, in March 2018, the U.S. Senate passed a bill that eased financial regulations and reduced oversight for certain entities. The United States may also potentially withdraw from or renegotiate various trade agreements and take other actions that would change current trade policies of the United States. We cannot predict which, if any, of these actions will be taken or, if taken, their effect on the financial stability of the United States. Such actions could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot predict the effects of these or similar events in the future on the U.S. economy and securities markets or on our investments. We monitor developments and seek to manage our investments in a manner consistent with achieving our investment objective, but there can be no assurance that we will be successful in doing so.

The effect of global climate change may impact the operations of our portfolio companies.

There may be evidence of global climate change. Climate change creates physical and financial risk and some of our portfolio companies may be adversely affected by climate change. For example, the needs of customers of energy companies vary with weather conditions, primarily temperature and humidity. To the extent weather conditions are affected by climate change, energy use could increase or decrease depending on the duration and magnitude of any changes. Increases in the cost of energy could adversely affect the cost of operations of our portfolio companies if the use of energy products or services is material to their business. A decrease in energy use due to weather changes may affect some of our portfolio companies’ financial condition, through decreased revenues. Extreme weather conditions in general require more system backup, adding to costs, and can contribute to increased system stresses, including service interruptions. In December 2015 the United Nations, of which the U.S. is a member, adopted a climate accord (the “Paris Agreement”) with the long-term goal of limiting global warming and the short-term goal of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Although the U.S. ratified the Paris Agreement on November 4, 2016, the current administration announced the U.S. would cease participation. As a result, some of our portfolio companies may become subject to new or strengthened regulations or legislation, at least through November 4, 2020 (the earliest date the U.S. may withdraw from the Paris Agreement), which could increase their operating costs and/or decrease their revenues.

Our business is subject to increasingly complex corporate governance, public disclosure and accounting requirements that could adversely affect our business and financial results.

We are subject to changing rules and regulations of federal and state government as well as the stock exchange on which our common stock is listed. These entities, including the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the SEC and the NASDAQ Stock Market, have issued a significant number of new and increasingly complex requirements and regulations over the course of the last several years and continue to develop additional regulations and requirements in response to laws enacted by Congress. Our efforts to comply with these requirements have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, an increase in expenses and a diversion of management’s time from other business activities.

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Uncertainty relating to the LIBOR calculation process may adversely affect the value of our portfolio of the LIBOR-indexed, floating-rate debt securities.

Concerns have been publicized that some of the member banks surveyed by the British Bankers’ Association (“BBA”) in connection with the calculation of LIBOR across a range of maturities and currencies may have been under-reporting or otherwise manipulating the inter-bank lending rate applicable to them in order to profit on their derivatives positions or to avoid an appearance of capital insufficiency or adverse reputational or other consequences that may have resulted from reporting inter-bank lending rates higher than those they actually submitted. A number of BBA member banks have entered into settlements with their regulators and law enforcement agencies with respect to alleged manipulation of LIBOR, and investigations by regulators and governmental authorities in various jurisdictions are ongoing.

On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. It is unclear if at that time whether or not LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large US financial institutions, is considering replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities. The future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain. If LIBOR ceases to exist, we may need to renegotiate the credit agreements extending beyond 2021 with our portfolio companies that utilize LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate to replace LIBOR with the new standard that is established.

A disruption in the capital markets and the credit markets could negatively affect our business.

As a BDC, we seek to maintain our ability to raise additional capital for investment purposes. Without sufficient access to the capital markets or credit markets, we may not be able to pursue new business opportunities. Disruptive conditions in the financial industry and the impact of new legislation in response to those conditions could restrict our business operations and could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.

Our ability to grow our business could be impaired by an inability to access the capital markets or to enter into new credit facilities. At various times over the past three years, reflecting concern about the stability of the financial markets, many lenders and institutional investors have reduced or ceased providing funding to borrowers. This market disruption and tightening of credit has led to increased market volatility and widespread reduction of business activity generally. If we are unable to raise additional equity capital or consummate new credit facilities on terms that are acceptable to us, we may not be able to initiate significant originations.

These situations may arise due to circumstances that we may be unable to control, such as access to the credit markets, a severe decline in the value of the U.S. dollar, a further economic downturn or an operational problem that affects third parties or us, and could materially harm our business. Even though such conditions have improved broadly and significantly over the short-term, adverse conditions in particular sectors of the financial markets could adversely impact our business over the long-term.

Price declines and illiquidity in the corporate debt markets have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, the fair value of our portfolio investments, reducing our net asset value through increased net unrealized depreciation. Any unrealized depreciation that we experience on our loan portfolio may be an indication of future realized losses, which could reduce our income available for distribution and could adversely affect our ability to service our outstanding borrowings.

As a BDC, we are required to carry our investments at fair value as determined in good faith by or under the direction of our Board of Directors. Decreases in fair values of our investments are recorded as unrealized depreciation. Any unrealized depreciation in our loan portfolio could be an indication of a portfolio company’s inability to meet its repayment obligations to us with respect to the affected loans. This could result in realized losses in the future and ultimately in reductions of our income available for distribution in future periods and could materially adversely affect our ability to service our outstanding borrowings. The unprecedented declines in prices and liquidity in the corporate debt markets from 2008 through mid-2010 resulted in significant net unrealized depreciation in our portfolio, reducing our net asset value. Depending on market conditions, we may incur substantial losses in future periods, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Even in the event the value of your investment declines, the management fee and, in certain circumstances, the incentive fee will still be payable.

The management fee is calculated as a percentage of our gross assets at a specific time. Accordingly, the management fee will be payable regardless of whether the value of our gross assets and/or your investment have decreased. Moreover, a portion of the incentive fee is payable if our net investment income for a calendar quarter exceeds a designated hurdle rate. Although this portion of the incentive fee is subject to the Total Return Requirement, the net investment income incentive fee may still be payable during a quarter with net capital losses. Accordingly, this portion of our adviser’s incentive fee may also be payable notwithstanding a decline in net asset value that quarter. In addition, in the event we recognize deferred loan interest income in excess of our available capital as a result of our receipt of payment-in-kind, or “PIK” interest, we may be required to liquidate assets in order to pay a portion of the incentive fee. Oxford Square Management, however, is not required to reimburse us for the portion of any incentive fees attributable to deferred loan interest income in the event of a subsequent default.

PIK interest payments we receive will increase our assets under management and, as a result, will increase the amount of base management fees and incentive fees payable by us to our investment adviser.

Certain of our debt investments contain provisions providing for the payment of contractual PIK interest. Because PIK interest results in an increase in the size of the loan balance of the underlying loan, the receipt by us of PIK interest will have the effect of increasing our assets under management. As a result, because the base management fee that we pay to our investment adviser is based on the value of our gross assets, the receipt by us of PIK interest will result in an increase in the amount of the base management fee payable by us. In addition, any such increase in a loan balance due to the receipt of PIK interest will cause such loan to accrue interest on the higher loan balance, which will result in an increase in our pre-incentive fee net investment income and, as a result, an increase in incentive fees that are payable by us to our investment adviser.

Our investment adviser is not obligated to reimburse us for any part of the incentive fee it receives that is based on accrued income that we never receive.

Part of the incentive fee payable by us to our investment adviser that relates to our net investment income is computed and paid on income that may include interest that has been accrued but not yet received in cash, such as market discount, debt instruments with PIK interest, preferred stock with PIK dividends and zero coupon securities. If a portfolio company defaults on a loan that is structured to provide accrued interest, it is possible that accrued interest previously used in the calculation of the incentive fee will become uncollectible. Our investment adviser will not be under any obligation to reimburse us for any part of the incentive fee it received that was based on accrued income that we never receive as a result of a default by an entity on the obligation that resulted in the accrual of such income.

Our investment adviser can resign on 60 days’ notice, and we may not be able to find a suitable replacement within that time, resulting in a disruption in our operations that could adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations.

Our investment adviser has the right, under our investment advisory agreement, to resign at any time upon 60 days’ written notice, whether we have found a replacement or not. If our investment adviser resigns, we may not be able to find a new investment adviser or hire internal management with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms within 60 days, or at all. If we are unable to do so quickly, our operations are likely to experience a disruption, our financial condition, business and results of operations as well as our ability to pay distributions are likely to be adversely affected and the market price of our shares may decline. In addition, the coordination of our internal management and investment activities is likely to suffer if we are unable to identify and reach an agreement with a single institution or group of executives having the expertise possessed by our investment adviser and its affiliates. Even if we are able to retain comparable management, whether internal or external, the integration of such management and their lack of familiarity with our investment objective may result in additional costs and time delays that may adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations.

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We are permitted to borrow money, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.

Borrowings (including through securitization transactions, which are consolidated in our financial statements), also known as leverage, magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and, therefore, increase the risks associated with investing in our securities. We may borrow from and issue senior debt securities to banks, insurance companies, and other lenders. Lenders of these senior securities have fixed dollar claims on our assets that are superior to the claims of our common stockholders. If the value of our assets increases, then leveraging would cause the net asset value attributable to our common stock to increase more sharply than it would have had we not leveraged. Conversely, if the value of our assets decreases, leveraging would cause net asset value to decline more sharply than it otherwise would have had we not leveraged. Similarly, any increase in our income in excess of interest payable on the borrowed funds would cause our net income to increase more than it would without the leverage, while any decrease in our income would cause net income to decline more sharply than it would have had we not borrowed. Such a decline could negatively affect our ability to make common stock distribution payments. Leverage is generally considered a speculative investment technique. Our ability to service any debt that we incur will depend largely on our financial performance and will be subject to prevailing economic conditions and competitive pressures. Moreover, as the management fee payable to Oxford Square Management will be payable on our gross assets, including those assets acquired through the use of leverage, Oxford Square Management may have a financial incentive to incur leverage which may not be consistent with our stockholders’ interests. In addition, our common stockholders will bear the burden of any increase in our expenses as a result of leverage, including any increase in the management fee payable to Oxford Square Management.

We completed a public offering of our 6.50% Unsecured Notes. The 6.50% Unsecured Notes will mature on March 30, 2024, and may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option on or after March 30, 2020. The 6.50% Unsecured Notes bear interest at a rate of 6.50% per year payable quarterly on March 30, June 30, September 30 and December 30. The 6.50% Unsecured Notes are our general unsecured obligations, rank equally in right of payment with our future senior unsecured debt, and rank senior in right of payment to any potential subordinated debt, should any be issued in the future.

On June 21, 2018, Oxford Funding entered into the OXSQ Facility. On October 12, 2018, OXSQ Funding amended the OXSQ Facility to provide for additional borrowings under the OXSQ Facility. Pursuant to the terms of the OXSQ Facility, as amended, OXSQ Funding may borrow up to $125.0 million. As of December 31, 2018, OXSQ Funding had approximately $85.7 million of principal outstanding. Subject to certain exceptions, pricing under the OXSQ Facility is based on the London interbank offered rate for an interest period equal to three months plus a spread of 2.25% per annum. Interest on the outstanding principal amount owing under the Facility is payable quarterly in arrears. The OXSQ Facility will mature, and all outstanding principal and accrued and unpaid interest thereunder will be due and payable, on June 21, 2020, and is subject to periodic repayment prior to such date from collections on OXSQ Funding’s loan assets and certain other mandatory payment requirements.

Illustration.    The following table illustrates the effect of leverage on returns from an investment in our common stock assuming various annual returns on the portfolio, net of expenses. The calculations in the table below are hypothetical and actual returns may be higher or lower than those appearing in the table below.

 

Assumed total return on our portfolio (net of expenses)

   

(10.0)%

 

 

(5.0)%

 

 

0.0%

 

 

5.0%

 

10.0%

Corresponding return to stockholder(1)

 

(17.6)%

 

(10.1)%

 

(2.7)%

 

4.7%

 

12.1%

____________

(1)  Assumes $467.1 million in total assets and $150.0 million in total debt principal outstanding, which reflects our total assets and total debt outstanding as of December 31, 2018, and a cost of funds of approximately 5.7%.

Our portfolio must have an annual return of at least 1.8% in order to cover the annual interest payments on our current borrowings.

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If we are unable to comply with the covenants or restrictions in our borrowings, our business could be materially adversely affected.

The OXSQ Facility includes covenants, among others, that, subject to exceptions, restrict our ability to pay distributions, create liens on assets, make investments, make acquisitions and engage in mergers or consolidations. The OXSQ Facility also includes a change of control provision that accelerates the indebtedness under the facility in the event of certain change of control events. Complying with these restrictions may prevent us from taking actions that we believe would help us grow our business or are otherwise consistent with our investment objective. These restrictions could also limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions or meet extraordinary capital needs or otherwise restrict corporate activities. In addition, the restrictions contained in the OXSQ Facility could limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in certain circumstances, which could result in us failing to qualify as a RIC and thus becoming subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income tax (and any applicable state and local taxes).

The breach of any of the covenants or restrictions, unless cured within the applicable grace period, would result in a default under the OXSQ Facility that would permit the lender thereunder to declare all amounts outstanding to be due and payable. In such an event, we may not have sufficient assets to repay such indebtedness. As a result, any default could have serious consequences to our financial condition. An event of default or an acceleration under the OXSQ Facility could also cause a cross-default or cross-acceleration of another debt instrument or contractual obligation, which would adversely impact our liquidity. We may not be granted waivers or amendments to the OXSQ Facility if for any reason we are unable to comply with it, and we may not be able to refinance the OXSQ Facility on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

The terms of the OXSQ Facility may contractually limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness.

We will need additional capital to fund new investments and grow our portfolio of investments. We intend to access the capital markets periodically to issue debt or equity securities or borrow from financial institutions in order to obtain such additional capital. We believe that having the flexibility to incur additional leverage could augment the returns to our stockholders and would be in the best interests of our stockholders. Contractual leverage limitations under our existing OXSQ Facility or future borrowings may limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness. We cannot assure you that we will be able to negotiate a change to the OXSQ Facility to allow us to incur additional leverage or that any such an amendment will be available to us on favorable terms. An inability on our part to amend the contractual asset coverage limitation and access additional leverage could limit our ability to take advantage of the benefits described above related to our ability to incur additional leverage and could decrease our earnings, if any, which would have an adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of our shares of common stock.

We may need to raise additional capital to grow because we must distribute most of our income.

We may need additional capital to fund growth in our investments. We expect to issue equity securities and expect to borrow from financial institutions in the future. A reduction in the availability of new capital could limit our ability to grow. We must distribute at least 90% of our investment company taxable income to our stockholders to maintain our regulated investment company status. As a result, any such cash earnings may not be available to fund investment originations. We expect to borrow from financial institutions and issue additional debt and equity securities. If we fail to obtain funds from such sources or from other sources to fund our investments, it could limit our ability to grow, which may have an adverse effect on the value of our securities. In addition, as a BDC, our ability to borrow or issue preferred stock may be restricted if our total assets are less than 200% (or 150% effective April 6, 2019) of our total borrowings and preferred stock.

Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to, and the way in which we raise additional capital, which may expose us to risks, including the typical risks associated with leverage.

Our ability to grow our business requires a substantial amount of capital, which we may acquire from the following sources:

Senior Securities and Other Indebtedness

We may issue debt securities or preferred stock and/or borrow money from banks or other financial institutions, which we refer to collectively as “senior securities,” up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act. Under the provisions of the 1940 Act, we are permitted, as a BDC, to issue senior securities in amounts such that our asset coverage ratio, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% (or 150% effective April 6, 2019) immediately after each issuance of senior securities.

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This requirement of sustaining a 200% (or 150% effective April 6, 2019) asset coverage ratio limits the amount that we may borrow. Because we will continue to need capital to grow our loan and investment portfolio, this limitation may prevent us from incurring debt. Further additional debt financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all, or may be restricted by the terms of our debt facilities. If we are unable to incur additional debt, we may be required to raise additional equity at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so.

As a result of the issuance of senior securities, including preferred stock and debt securities, we are exposed to typical risks associated with leverage, including an increased risk of loss and an increase in expenses, which are ultimately borne by our common stockholders. Because we may incur leverage to make investments, a decrease in the value of our investments would have a greater negative impact on the value of our common stock. When we issue debt securities or preferred stock, it is likely that such securities will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. In addition, such securities may be rated by rating agencies, and in obtaining a rating for such securities, we may be required to abide by operating and investment guidelines that could further restrict our operating flexibility. Refer to “— We are permitted to borrow money, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us” for a description of our outstanding senior securities.

On April 12, 2017 we issued approximately $64.4 million in aggregate principal of our 6.50% Unsecured Notes. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $64.4 million of the 6.50% Unsecured Notes remained outstanding. Refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources” for more information.

Our ability to pay distributions or issue additional senior securities may be restricted if our asset coverage ratio is not at least 200% (or 150% effective April 6, 2019). If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy this test. If that happens, we may be required to sell a portion of our investments and, depending on the nature of our leverage, repay a portion of our indebtedness at a time when such sales may be disadvantageous. Furthermore, any amounts that we use to service our indebtedness would not be available for distributions to our common stockholders.

Common Stock

We are not generally able to issue and sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share. We may, however, sell our common stock, or warrants, options or rights to acquire our common stock, at a price below the then-current net asset value of our common stock if our Board of Directors determines that such sale is in the best interests of OXSQ and its stockholders, and our stockholders approve such sale.

In certain limited circumstances, we may also issue shares at a price below net asset value in connection with a transferable rights offering so long as: (1) the offer does not discriminate among stockholders; (2) we use our best efforts to ensure an adequate trading market exists for the rights; and (3) the ratio of the offering does not exceed one new share for each three rights held. If we raise additional funds by issuing more common stock or senior securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock, the percentage ownership of our stockholders at that time would decrease and they may experience dilution. Moreover, we can offer no assurance that we will be able to issue and sell additional equity securities in the future, on favorable terms or at all.

Our Board of Directors is authorized to reclassify any unissued shares of common stock into one or more classes of preferred stock, which could convey special rights and privileges to its owners.

Our charter permits our Board of Directors to reclassify any authorized but unissued shares of stock into one or more classes of preferred stock. We are currently authorized to issue up to 100,000,000 shares of common stock, of which 47,650,959 shares are issued and outstanding as of February 27, 2019. In the event our Board of Directors opts to reclassify a portion of our unissued shares of common stock into a class of preferred stock, those preferred shares would have a preference over our common stock with respect to distributions and liquidation. The cost of any such reclassification would be borne by our existing common stockholders. The class voting rights of any preferred shares we may issue could make it more difficult for us to take some actions that may, in the future, be proposed by our Board of Directors and/or the holders of our common stock, such as a merger, exchange of securities, liquidation, or alteration of the rights of a class of our securities, if these actions were perceived by the holders of preferred shares as not in their best interests. The issuance of preferred shares convertible into shares of common stock might also reduce the net income and net asset value per share of our common stock upon conversion. These effects, among others, could have an adverse effect on your investment in our common stock.

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A change in interest rates may adversely affect our profitability and we may expose ourselves to risks if we engage in hedging transactions to mitigate changes in interest rates.

Currently, all of the debt investments in our investment portfolio are at variable rates. In addition, our CLO equity investments are sensitive to risks associated with changes in interest rates. Although we have not done so in the past, we may in the future choose to hedge against interest rate fluctuations by using standard hedging instruments such as futures, forward contracts, options and interest rate swaps, caps, collars and floors to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the relative values of our portfolio positions from changes in market interest rates. Hedging against a decline in the values of our portfolio positions does not eliminate the possibility of fluctuations in the values of such positions or prevent losses if the values of such positions decline. However, such hedging can establish other positions designed to gain from those same developments, thereby offsetting the decline in the value of such portfolio positions. Such hedging transactions may also limit the opportunity for gain if the values of the underlying portfolio positions should increase. It may not be possible to hedge against an interest rate fluctuation that is so generally anticipated that we are not able to enter into a hedging transaction at an acceptable price.

The success of our hedging transactions will depend on our ability to correctly predict movements in interest rates. Therefore, while we may enter into such transactions to seek to reduce interest rate risks, unanticipated changes in interest rates may result in poorer overall investment performance than if we had not engaged in any such hedging transactions. In addition, the degree of correlation between price movements of the instruments used in a hedging strategy and price movements in the portfolio positions being hedged may vary. Moreover, for a variety of reasons, we may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Any such imperfect correlation may prevent us from achieving the intended hedge and expose us to risk of loss. To the extent we engage in hedging transactions, we also face the risk that counterparties to the derivative instruments we hold may default, which may expose us to unexpected losses from positions where we believed that our risk had been appropriately hedged. These activities may limit our ability to participate in the benefits of lower interest rates with respect to the hedged portfolio. Adverse developments resulting from changes in interest rates or hedging transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, we have limited experience in entering into hedging transactions, and we will initially have to purchase or develop such expertise if we choose to employ hedging strategies in the future.

The SEC has proposed a new rule under the 1940 Act that would govern the use of derivatives (defined to include any swap, security-based swap, futures contract, forward contract, option or any similar instrument) as well as financial commitment transactions (defined to include reverse repurchase agreements, short sale borrowings and any firm or standby commitment agreement or similar agreement) by BDCs. Under the proposed rule, a BDC would be required to comply with one of two alternative portfolio limitations and manage the risks associated with derivatives transactions and financial commitment transactions by segregating certain assets. Furthermore, a BDC that engages in more than a limited amount of derivatives transactions or that uses complex derivatives would be required to establish a formalized derivatives risk management program. If the SEC adopts this rule in the form proposed, we may incur greater and indirect costs to engage in derivatives transactions or financial commitment transactions, and our ability to enter into transactions involving such instruments may be hindered, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We will be subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income tax if we are unable to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

To remain entitled to the tax benefits accorded to RICs under the Code, we must meet certain income source, asset diversification and Annual Distribution Requirements. In order to qualify as a RIC, we must derive each taxable year at least 90% of our gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale of stock or other securities, or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in such stock or securities. The Annual Distribution Requirement for a RIC is satisfied if we distribute at least 90% of our ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, to our stockholders on an annual basis. Because we use debt financing, we are subject to certain asset coverage ratio requirements under the 1940 Act and financial covenants under loan and credit agreements that could, under certain circumstances, restrict us from making distributions necessary to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement. If we are unable to obtain cash from other sources, we may fail to qualify for special tax treatment as a RIC and, thus, may be subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income tax on all of our income.

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To qualify as a RIC, we must also meet certain asset diversification requirements at the end of each calendar quarter. Failure to meet these tests may result in our having to dispose of certain investments quickly in order to prevent the loss of RIC treatment. Because most of our investments will be in private companies, any such dispositions could be made at disadvantageous prices and may result in substantial losses. If we fail to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC for any reason and remain or become subject to corporate income tax, the resulting corporate taxes could substantially reduce our net assets, the amount of income available for distribution and the amount of our distributions. Such a failure would have a material adverse effect on us and our stockholders.

We cannot predict how tax reform legislation will affect us, our investments, or our stockholders, and any such legislation could adversely affect our business.

Legislative or other actions relating to taxes could have a negative effect on us. The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department. We cannot predict with certainty how any changes in the tax laws might affect us, our stockholders, or our portfolio investments. New legislation and any U.S. Treasury regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions interpreting such legislation could significantly and negatively affect our ability to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC and the U.S. federal income tax consequences to us and our stockholders of such qualification, and could have other adverse consequences. Stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisor regarding tax legislative, regulatory, or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on an investment in our securities.

Our investments in CLOs may be subject to special anti-deferral provisions that could result in us incurring tax or recognizing income prior to receiving cash distributions related to such income.

We have purchased and may in the future purchase residual or subordinated interests in CLOs that are treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as shares in a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”). If we acquire investments in a PFIC (including equity tranche investments in CLOs that are PFICs), we may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” or gain from the disposition of such shares even if such income is distributed as a taxable distribution by us to our stockholders. Certain elections may be available to mitigate or eliminate such tax on excess distributions, but such elections (if available) will generally require us to recognize our share of the PFICs income for each year regardless of whether we receive any distributions from such PFICs. We must nonetheless distribute such income to maintain our tax treatment as a RIC.

If we hold more than 10% of the shares in a foreign corporation that is treated as a controlled foreign corporation (“CFC”) (including equity tranche investments in a CLO treated as CFC), we may be treated as receiving a deemed distribution (taxable as ordinary income) each year from such foreign corporation in an amount equal to our pro rata share of the corporation’s income for the tax year (including both ordinary earnings and capital gains). If we are required to include such deemed distributions from a CFC in our income, we will be required to distribute such income to maintain our RIC tax treatment regardless of whether or not the CFC makes an actual distribution during such year.

If we are required to include amounts in income prior to receiving distributions representing such income, we may have to sell some of our investments at times and/or at prices we would not consider advantageous, raise additional debt or equity capital or forgo new investment opportunities for this purpose. If we are not able to obtain cash from other sources, we may fail to qualify for RIC tax treatment and thus become subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income tax.

If we do not receive timely distributions from our CLO investments, we may fail to qualify as a RIC.

We are required to include in our taxable income our proportionate share of the income of certain CLO investments to the extent that such CLOs are PFICs for which we have made a qualifying electing fund, or “QEF,” election or are CFCs. To the extent that such CLOs do not distribute all of their earnings and profits on a current basis, we may fail to qualify as a RIC. To qualify as a RIC, we must, among other thing, derive in each taxable year at least 90% of our gross income from certain sources specified in the Code, or the “90% Income Test.” Although the Code generally provides that the income inclusions from a QEF or a CFC will be “good income” for purposes of this 90% Income Test to the extent that the QEF or the CFC distribute such income to us in the same taxable year to which the income is included in our income, the Code does not specifically provide whether these income inclusions would be “good income” for this 90% Income Test if we do not receive distributions from the QEF or CFC during such taxable year. The IRS has issued a series of private rulings in which it has concluded that all income inclusions from a QEF or a CFC included in a RIC’s gross income would constitute “good income” for purposes of the 90% Income Test. Such rulings are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the taxpayers to whom such rulings were issued. Recently, however, the IRS and U.S. Treasury Department issued proposed regulations that provide that the income inclusions from a QEF or a CFC would not be good income for purposes of the 90% Income Test unless we receive a cash distribution from such entity in the same year attributable to the included income. If such income were not considered “good income” for purposes of the 90% Income Test, we may fail to qualify as a RIC.

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The CLOs in which we invest may be subject to withholding tax if they fail to comply with certain reporting requirements.

Legislation commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, (“FATCA”), imposes a withholding tax of 30% on payments of U.S. source interest and distributions to certain non-U.S. entities, including certain non-U.S. financial institutions and investment funds, unless such non-U.S. entity complies with certain reporting requirements regarding its U.S. account holders and its U.S. owners. Most CLO vehicles in which we invest will be treated as non-U.S. financial entities for this purpose, and therefore will be required to comply with these reporting requirements to avoid the 30% withholding. If a CLO vehicle in which we invest fails to properly comply with these reporting requirements, it could reduce the amounts available to distribute to equity and junior debt holders in such CLO vehicle, which could materially and adversely affect our operating results and cash flows.

We may choose to pay distributions in our own common stock, in which case, our stockholders may be required to pay U.S. federal income taxes in excess of the cash distributions they receive.

We may distribute taxable distributions that are payable in cash or shares of our common stock at the election of each stockholder. Under certain applicable IRS guidance, distributions by publicly offered RICs that are payable in cash or in shares of stock at the election of stockholders are treated as taxable distributions. The Internal Revenue Service has published guidance indicating that this rule will apply even where the total amount of cash that may be distributed is limited to no more than 20% of the total distribution. Under this guidance, if too many stockholders elect to receive their distributions in cash, the cash available for distribution must be allocated among the stockholders electing to receive cash (with the balance of the distribution paid in stock). In no event will any stockholder electing to receive cash, receive less than the lesser of (a) the portion of the distribution such stockholder has elected to receive in cash or (b) an amount equal to his, her or its entire distribution times the percentage limitation on cash available for distribution. If we decide to make any distributions consistent with this guidance that are payable in part in our stock, taxable stockholders receiving such distributions will be required to include the full amount of the distribution (whether received in cash, our stock, or a combination thereof) as ordinary income (or as long-term capital gain to the extent such distribution is properly reported as a capital gain distribution) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, a U.S. stockholder may be required to pay tax with respect to such distributions in excess of any cash received. If a U.S. stockholder sells the stock it receives as a distribution in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the distribution, depending on the market price of our stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such distributions, including in respect of all or a portion of such distribution that is payable in stock. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders determine to sell shares of our stock in order to pay taxes owed on distributions, it may put downward pressure on the trading price of our stock.

We may have difficulty paying our required distributions if we recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income.

For U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will include in income certain amounts that we have not yet received in cash, such as original issue discount, which may arise if we receive warrants in connection with the making of a loan or possibly in other circumstances, or contracted PIK interest, which represents contractual interest added to the loan balance and due at the end of the loan term. In addition, we may be required to accrue for U.S. federal income tax purposes amounts attributable to our investment in CLOs that may differ from the distributions received in respect of such investments. We also may be required to include in income certain other amounts that we will not receive in cash.

Because in certain cases we may recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income, we may have difficulty satisfying the Annual Distribution Requirement applicable to RICs. Accordingly, we may have to sell some of our investments at times we would not consider advantageous, raise additional debt or equity capital, reduce new investments or make taxable distributions of our stock or debt securities to meet that distribution requirement. If we are not able to obtain cash from other sources, we may fail to qualify for RIC tax treatment and thus be subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income tax.

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In addition, original issue discount income for certain portfolio investments may or may not be included as a factor in the determination of the fair value of such investments.

There are significant potential conflicts of interest between OXSQ and our management team.

In the course of our investing activities, we pay management and incentive fees to Oxford Square Management, and reimburse Oxford Funds for certain expenses it incurs. As a result, investors in our common stock invest on a “gross” basis and receive distributions on a “net” basis after expenses, resulting in, among other things, a lower rate of return than one might achieve through direct investments. As a result of this arrangement, there may be times when the management team of Oxford Square Management has interests that differ from those of our stockholders, giving rise to a conflict.

Oxford Square Management receives a quarterly incentive fee based, in part, on our “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income,” if any, for the immediately preceding calendar quarter. This incentive fee is subject to a quarterly hurdle rate before providing an incentive fee return to Oxford Square Management. To the extent we or Oxford Square Management are able to exert influence over our portfolio companies, the quarterly pre-incentive fee may provide Oxford Square Management with an incentive to induce our portfolio companies to accelerate or defer interest or other obligations owed to us from one calendar quarter to another.

In addition, our executive officers and directors, and the executive officers of Oxford Square Management, and its managing member, Oxford Funds, serve or may serve as officers and directors of entities that operate in a line of business similar to our own. Accordingly, they may have obligations to investors in those entities, the fulfillment of which might not be in the best interests of us or our stockholders. Charles M. Royce, a member of our Board of Directors, holds a minority, non-controlling interest in our investment adviser.

Messrs. Cohen and Rosenthal currently serve as Chief Executive Officer and President, respectively, of Oxford Lane Capital Corp., a non-diversified closed-end management investment company that currently invests primarily in CLO debt and equity tranches, and its investment adviser, Oxford Lane Management. Messrs. Cohen and Rosenthal also currently serve as Chief Executive Officer and President, respectively, at Oxford Bridge Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Bridge Funds and Oxford Gate Management, the investment adviser to the Oxford Gate Funds. The Oxford Bridge Funds and Oxford Gate Funds are private funds that invest principally in CLO debt and equity. Oxford Funds is the managing member of Oxford Bridge Management, LLC. As a result, certain conflicts of interest may arise with respect to the management of our portfolio by Messrs. Cohen and Rosenthal, on the one hand, and the obligations of Messrs. Cohen and Rosenthal to manage the portfolios of Oxford Lane Capital Corp., the Oxford Bridge Funds and the Oxford Gate Funds, respectively, on the other hand. In addition, Bruce L. Rubin, our Chief Financial Officer, Corporate Secretary and Treasurer, currently serves in similar capacities for Oxford Lane Capital Corp. Mr. Rubin also currently serves as the Chief Financial Officer and Secretary of Oxford Lane Management, Oxford Square Management, LLC, Oxford Bridge Management, LLC, Oxford Gate Management, LLC and Oxford Funds. Further, Mr. Gerald Cummins, our Chief Compliance Officer, currently serves in similar capacities for Oxford Lane Management, Oxford Lane Capital Corp., Oxford Square Management, LLC, Oxford Bridge Management, LLC and Oxford Gate Management, LLC. Because of these possible conflicts of interest, these individuals may direct potential business and investment opportunities to other entities rather than to us or such individuals may undertake or otherwise engage in activities or conduct on behalf of such other entities that is not in, or which may be adverse to, our best interests.

Oxford Square Management, Oxford Lane Management, LLC, Oxford Bridge Management, LLC, and Oxford Gate Management, LLC, are subject to a written policy with respect to the allocation of investment opportunities among OXSQ, Oxford Lane Capital Corp., the Oxford Bridge Funds and the Oxford Gate Funds. Where investments are suitable for more than one entity, the allocation policy generally provides that, depending on size and subject to current and anticipated cash availability, the absolute size of the investment as well as its relative size compared to the total assets of each entity, current and anticipated weighted average costs of capital, and whether the proposed investment is an add-on investment to an existing investment, among other factors, an investment amount will be determined by the adviser to each entity. If the investment opportunity is sufficient for each entity to receive its investment amount, then each entity receives the investment amount; otherwise, the investment amount is reduced pro rata.

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On October 13, 2016, we filed an exemptive application with the SEC to permit us to co-invest with funds or entities managed by Oxford Square Management or its affiliates in certain negotiated transactions where co-investing would otherwise be prohibited under the 1940 Act. On June 14, 2017, the SEC issued an order permitting OXSQ and certain of its affiliates to complete negotiated co-investment transactions in portfolio companies, subject to certain conditions, (the “Order”). Subject to satisfaction of certain conditions to the Order, OXSQ and certain of its affiliates are now permitted, together with any future BDCs, registered closed-end funds and certain private funds, each of whose investment adviser is OXSQ ‘s investment adviser or an investment adviser controlling, controlled by, or under common control with OXSQ ‘s investment adviser, to co-invest in negotiated investment opportunities where doing so would otherwise be prohibited under the 1940 Act, providing OXSQ ‘s stockholders with access to a broader array of investment opportunities. Pursuant to the Order, we are permitted to co-invest in such investment opportunities with our affiliates if a “required majority” (as defined in Section 57(o) of the 1940 Act) of our independent directors make certain conclusions in connection with a co-investment transaction, including, but not limited to, that (1) the terms of the potential co-investment transaction, including the consideration to be paid, are reasonable and fair to us and our stockholders and do not involve overreaching in respect of us or our stockholders on the part of any person concerned, and (2) the potential co-investment transaction is consistent with the interests of our stockholders and is consistent with our then-current investment objective and strategies.

In the ordinary course of business, we may enter into transactions with portfolio companies that may be considered related party transactions. In order to ensure that we do not engage in any prohibited transactions with any persons affiliated with us, we have implemented certain policies and procedures whereby our executive officers screen each of our transactions for any possible affiliations between the proposed portfolio investment, us, companies controlled by us and our employees and directors. We will not enter into any agreements unless and until we are satisfied that doing so will not raise concerns under the 1940 Act or, if such concerns exist, we have taken appropriate actions to seek board review and approval or exemptive relief for such transaction. Our Board of Directors reviews these procedures on an annual basis.

We have also adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics which applies to, among others, our senior officers, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as well as all of our officers, directors and employees. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics requires that all employees and directors avoid any conflict, or the appearance of a conflict, between an individual’s personal interests and our interests. Pursuant to our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, each employee and director must disclose any conflicts of interest, or actions or relationships that might give rise to a conflict. Our Audit Committee is charged with approving any waivers under our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. As required by the NASDAQ Global Select Market corporate governance listing standards, the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors is also required to review and approve any transactions with related parties (as such term is defined in Item 404 of Regulation S-K).

Changes in laws or regulations governing our operations may adversely affect our business.

We and our portfolio companies are subject to regulation by laws at the local, state and federal levels. These laws and regulations, as well as their interpretation, may be changed from time to time. Any change in these laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business. In particular, legislative initiatives relating to climate change, tax reform, healthcare reform and similar public policy matters may impact the portfolio companies in which we invest to the extent they operate in industries that may be subject to such changes.

On May 24, 2018, President Trump signed into law the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act, which increased from $50 billion to $250 billion the asset threshold for designation of “systemically important financial institutions” or “SIFIs” subject to enhanced prudential standards set by the Federal Reserve Board, staggering application of this change based on the size and risk of the covered bank holding company. On May 30, 2018, the Federal Reserve Board voted to consider changes to the Volcker Rule that would loosen compliance requirements for all banks. The effect of this change and any further rules or regulations are and could be complex and far-reaching, and the change and any future laws or regulations or changes thereto could negatively impact our operations, cash flows or financial condition, impose additional costs on us, intensify the regulatory supervision of us or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes to U.S. tariff and import/export regulations may have a negative effect on our portfolio companies and, in turn, harm us.

There has been ongoing discussion and commentary regarding potential significant changes to U.S. trade policies, treaties and tariffs. The current U.S. presidential administration, along with the U.S. Congress, has created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and other countries with respect to trade policies, treaties and tariffs. These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and may significantly reduce global trade and, in particular, trade between the impacted nations and the United States. Any of these factors could depress economic activity and restrict our portfolio companies’ access to suppliers or customers and have a material adverse effect on their business, financial condition and results of operations, which in turn would negatively impact us.

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Uncertainty about presidential administration initiatives could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The current administration has called for significant changes to U.S. trade, healthcare, immigration, foreign and government regulatory policy. In this regard, there is significant uncertainty with respect to legislation, regulation and government policy at the federal level, as well as the state and local levels. Recent events have created a climate of heightened uncertainty and introduced new and difficult-to-quantify macroeconomic and political risks with potentially far-reaching implications. There has been a corresponding meaningful increase in the uncertainty surrounding interest rates, inflation, foreign exchange rates, trade volumes and fiscal and monetary policy. To the extent the U.S. Congress or the current administration implements changes to U.S. policy, those changes may impact, among other things, the U.S. and global economy, international trade and relations, unemployment, immigration, corporate taxes, healthcare, the U.S. regulatory environment, inflation and other areas. Although we cannot predict the impact, if any, of these changes to our business, they could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows. Until we know what policy changes are made and how those changes impact our business and the business of our competitors over the long term, we will not know if, overall, we will benefit from them or be negatively affected by them.

If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in qualifying assets, we could fail to qualify as a business development company or be precluded from investing according to our current business strategy.

As a BDC, we may not acquire any assets other than “qualifying assets” unless, at the time of and after giving effect to such acquisition, at least 70% of our total assets are qualifying assets.

We believe that most of our portfolio investments will constitute qualifying assets. However, we may be precluded from investing in what we believe are attractive investments if such investments are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 1940 Act. If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in qualifying assets, we could lose our status as a BDC, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, these rules could prevent us from making follow-on investments in existing portfolio companies (which could result in the dilution of our position) or could require us to dispose of investments at inappropriate times in order to comply with the 1940 Act. If we need to dispose of such investments quickly, it would be difficult to dispose of such investments on favorable terms. For example, we may have difficulty in finding a buyer and, even if we do find a buyer, we may have to sell the investments at a substantial loss.

Provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and of our charter and bylaws could deter takeover attempts and have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock.

The Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter and bylaws contain provisions that may discourage, delay or make more difficult a change in control of OXSQ or the removal of our directors. We are subject to the Maryland Business Combination Act, subject to any applicable requirements of the 1940 Act. Our board of directors has adopted a resolution exempting from the Business Combination Act any business combination between us and any other person, subject to prior approval of such business combination by our board, including approval by a majority of our disinterested directors. If the resolution exempting business combinations is repealed or our board does not approve a business combination, the Business Combination Act may discourage third parties from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating such an offer. Our bylaws exempt from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act acquisitions of our stock by any person. If we amend our bylaws to repeal the exemption from the Control Share Acquisition Act, the Control Share Acquisition Act also may make it more difficult for a third party to obtain control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating such a transaction. However, we will amend our bylaws to be subject to the Control Share Acquisition Act only if our board of directors determines that it would be in our best interests and if the SEC staff does not object to our determination that our being subject to the Control Share Acquisition Act does not conflict with the 1940 Act. The SEC staff has issued informal guidance setting forth its position that certain provisions of the Control Share Acquisition Act would, if implemented, violate Section 18(i) of the 1940 Act.

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We have also adopted measures that may make it difficult for a third party to obtain control of us, including provisions of our charter classifying our board of directors in three classes serving staggered three-year terms, and authorizing our board of directors to classify or reclassify shares of our stock in one or more classes or series, to cause the issuance of additional shares of our stock and to amend our charter without stockholder approval to increase or decrease the number of shares of stock that we have authority to issue. These provisions, as well as other provisions of our charter and bylaws, may delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

The foregoing provisions are expected to discourage certain coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our Board of Directors. However, these provisions may deprive a stockholder of the opportunity to sell such stockholder’s shares at a premium to a potential acquirer. We believe that the benefits of these provisions outweigh the potential disadvantages of discouraging any such acquisition proposals because, among other things, the negotiation of such proposals may improve their terms. Our Board of Directors has considered both the positive and negative effects of the foregoing provisions and determined that they are in the best interest of our stockholders.

Internal and external cyber threats, as well as other disasters, could impair our ability to conduct business effectively.

The occurrence of a disaster such as a cyber-attack against us or against a third-party that has access to our data or networks, a natural catastrophe, an industrial accident, a terrorist attack or war, events unanticipated in our disaster recovery systems, or a support failure from external providers, could have an adverse effect on our ability to conduct business and on our results of operations and financial condition, particularly if those events affect our computer-based data processing, transmission, storage, and retrieval systems or destroy data.

We depend heavily upon computer systems to perform necessary business functions. Despite our implementation of a variety of security measures, our computers, networks, and data, like those of other companies, could be subject to cyber-attacks and unauthorized access, use, alteration, or destruction, such as from physical and electronic break-ins or unauthorized tampering. If one or more of these events occurs, it could potentially jeopardize the confidential, proprietary and other information processed, stored in, and transmitted through our computer systems and networks. Such an attack could cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations, which could result in financial losses, litigation, regulatory penalties, client dissatisfaction or loss, reputational damage, and increased costs associated with mitigation of damages and remediation.

Third parties with which we do business may also be sources of cybersecurity or other technological risk. We outsource certain functions and these relationships allow for the storage and processing of our information, as well as client, counterparty, employee, and borrower information. While we engage in actions to reduce our exposure resulting from outsourcing, ongoing threats may result in unauthorized access, loss, exposure, destruction, or other cybersecurity incident that affects our data, resulting in increased costs and other consequences as described above.

We are highly dependent on information systems and systems failures could significantly disrupt our business, which may, in turn, negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay distributions.

Our business is highly dependent on our and third parties’ communications and information systems. Any failure or interruption of those systems, including as a result of the termination of an agreement with any third-party service providers, could cause delays or other problems in our activities. Our financial, accounting, data processing, backup or other operating systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled or damaged as a result of a number of factors including events that are wholly or partially beyond our control and adversely affect our business. There could be:

•      sudden electrical or telecommunications outages;

•      natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes;

•      events arising from local or larger scale political or social matters, including terrorist acts; and

•     cyber-attacks

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These events, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

Our board of directors may change our investment objective, operating policies and strategies without prior notice or stockholder approval.

Our board of directors has the authority to modify or waive certain of our operating policies and strategies without prior notice (except as required by the 1940 Act) and without stockholder approval. However, absent stockholder approval, we may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or withdraw our election as a BDC. We cannot predict the effect any changes to our current operating policies and strategies would have on our business, operating results and value of our stock. Nevertheless, the effects may adversely affect our business and impact our ability to make distributions.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR INVESTMENTS

Our investment portfolio may be concentrated in a limited number of portfolio companies, which will subject us to a risk of significant loss if any of these companies defaults on its obligations under any of its debt securities that we hold or if the sectors in which we invest experience a market downturn.

A consequence of our limited number of investments is that the aggregate returns we realize may be significantly adversely affected if a small number of investments perform poorly or if we need to write down the value of any one investment. Beyond the asset diversification requirements applicable to RICs, we do not have fixed guidelines for diversification, and our investments could be concentrated in relatively few issuers. While we have historically focused on the technology sector, we are actively seeking new investment opportunities outside this sector that otherwise meet our investment criteria. As a result, a market downturn, including a downturn in the sectors in which we invest, could materially adversely affect us.

Most of our debt investments will not fully amortize during their lifetime, which may subject us to the risk of loss of our principal in the event a portfolio company is unable to repay us prior to maturity.

Most of our debt investments are not structured to fully amortize during their lifetime. Accordingly, if a portfolio company has not previously pre-paid its debt investment to us, a significant portion of the principal amount due on such a debt investment may be due at maturity. In order to create liquidity to pay the final principal payment, a portfolio company typically must raise additional capital. If it is unable to raise sufficient funds to repay us, the debt investment may go into default, which may compel us to foreclose on the borrower’s assets, even if the debt investment was otherwise performing prior to maturity. This may prevent us from immediately obtaining full recovery on the debt investment and may prevent or delay the reinvestment of the investment proceeds in other, possibly more profitable investments.

The application of the risk retention rules to CLOs may have broader effects on the CLO and loan markets in general, potentially resulting in fewer or less desirable investment opportunities for the Company.

Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act added a provision to the Exchange Act requiring the seller, sponsor or securitizer of a securitization vehicle to retain no less than five percent of the credit risk in assets it sells into a securitization and prohibits such securitizer from directly or indirectly hedging or otherwise transferring the retained credit risk. The responsible federal agencies adopted final rules implementing these restrictions on October 22, 2014 and the final rules became effective on December 24, 2016. Under the final rules, the asset manager of a CLO is considered the sponsor of a securitization vehicle and is required to retain five percent of the credit risk in the CLO, which may be retained horizontally in the equity tranche of the CLO or vertically as a five percent interest in each tranche of the securities issued by the CLO. Although the final rules contain an exemption from such requirements for the asset manager of a CLO if, among other things, the originator or lead arranger of all of the loans acquired by the CLO retain such risk at the asset level and, at origination of such asset, takes a loan tranche of at least 20% of the aggregate principal balance, it is possible that the originators and lead arrangers of loans in this market will not agree to assume this risk or provide such retention at origination of the asset in a manner that would provide meaningful relief from the risk retention requirements for CLO managers.

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We believe that the U.S. risk retention requirements imposed for CLO managers under Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act has created some uncertainty in the market in regard to future CLO issuance. Given that certain CLO managers may require capital provider partners to satisfy this requirement, we believe that this may create additional opportunities (and additional risks) for us in the future.

On February 9, 2018, a panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that the federal agencies exceeded their authority under the Dodd-Frank Act in adopting the final rules as applied to asset managers of open-market CLOs. On April 5, 2018, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia entered an order implementing the D.C. Circuit ruling and thereby vacated the U.S. Risk Retention Rules insofar as they apply to CLO managers of “open market CLOs”.

Our investments in the companies that we target may be extremely risky and we could lose all or part of our investments.

Although a prospective portfolio company’s assets are one component of our analysis when determining whether to provide debt capital, we generally do not base investment decisions primarily on the liquidation value of a company’s balance sheet assets. Instead, given the nature of the companies that we invest in, we also review the company’s historical and projected cash flows, equity capital and “soft” assets, including intellectual property (patented and non-patented), databases, business relationships (both contractual and non-contractual) and the like. Accordingly, considerably higher levels of overall risk will likely be associated with our portfolio compared with that of a traditional asset-based lender whose security consists primarily of receivables, inventories, equipment and other tangible assets. Interest rates payable by our portfolio companies may not compensate for these additional risks, any of which could cause us to lose part or all of our investment.

Specifically, investment in certain of the companies that we are invested in involves a number of significant risks, including:

•      these companies may have limited financial resources and may be unable to meet their obligations under their debt securities that we hold, which may be accompanied by a deterioration in the value of any collateral and a reduction in the likelihood of us realizing any value from the liquidation of such collateral;

•      they may have limited operating histories, narrower product lines and smaller market shares than larger businesses, which may tend to render them more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns;

•      because many of them tend to be privately owned, there is generally little publicly available information about these businesses; therefore, although Oxford Square Management’s agents will perform “due diligence” investigations on these portfolio companies, their operations and their prospects, we may not learn all of the material information we need to know regarding these businesses;

•      some of these companies are more likely to depend on the management talents and efforts of a small group of persons; therefore, the death, disability, resignation or termination of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on our portfolio company and, in turn, on us;

•      some of these companies may have less predictable operating results, may from time to time be parties to litigation, may be engaged in rapidly changing businesses with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence, and may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, finance expansion or maintain their competitive position; and

•      many of these companies may be more susceptible to economic recessions or downturns than other better capitalized companies that operate in less capital-intensive industries.

A portfolio company’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by us or other lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, termination of its loans and foreclosure on its assets, which could trigger cross-defaults under other agreements and jeopardize our portfolio company’s ability to meet its obligations under the debt securities that we hold. We may incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting portfolio company. In addition, if a portfolio company goes bankrupt, even though we may have structured our interest as senior debt, depending on the facts and circumstances, including the extent to which we actually provided significant “managerial assistance” to that portfolio company, a bankruptcy court might recharacterize our debt holding and subordinate all or a portion of our claim to that of other creditors.

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Our failure to make follow-on investments in our portfolio companies could impair the value of our investment portfolio.

Following an initial investment in a portfolio company, we may make additional investments in that portfolio company as
“follow-on” investments, in order to: (i) increase or maintain in whole or in part our equity ownership percentage; (ii) exercise warrants, options or convertible securities that were acquired in the original or subsequent financing; or (iii) attempt to preserve or enhance the value of our investment.

We may elect not to make follow-on investments or otherwise lack sufficient funds to make those investments. We have the discretion to make any follow-on investments, subject to the availability of capital resources. The failure to make follow-on investments may, in some circumstances, jeopardize the continued viability of a portfolio company and our initial investment, or may result in a missed opportunity for us to increase our participation in a successful operation. Even if we have sufficient capital to make a desired follow-on investment, we may elect not to make a follow-on investment because we may not want to increase our concentration of risk, because we prefer other opportunities, or because we are inhibited by compliance with BDC requirements or the desire to maintain our tax status.

Our incentive fee may induce Oxford Square Management to use leverage and to make speculative investments.

The incentive fee payable by us to Oxford Square Management may create an incentive for Oxford Square Management to use leverage and to make investments on our behalf that are risky or more speculative than would be the case in the absence of such compensation arrangement. The way in which the incentive fee on “Pre-Incentive Fee Net Investment Income” is determined, which is calculated as a percentage of the return on invested capital, may encourage Oxford Square Management to use leverage to increase the return on our equity capital. Under certain circumstances, the use of leverage may increase the likelihood of default, which would disfavor holders of our common stock. Similarly, because Oxford Square Management may also receive an incentive fee based, in part, upon the capital gains realized on our investments, the investment adviser may invest more than would otherwise be appropriate in companies whose securities are likely to yield capital gains, as compared to income producing securities. Such a practice could result in our investing in more speculative securities than would otherwise be the case, which could result in higher investment losses, particularly during an economic downturn.

Our portfolio companies may incur debt that ranks equally with, or senior to, our investments in such companies.

We intend to invest primarily in senior debt securities, but may also invest in subordinated debt securities, issued by our portfolio companies. In some cases, portfolio companies will be permitted to have other debt that ranks equally with, or senior to, the debt securities in which we invest. By their terms, such debt instruments may provide that the holders thereof are entitled to receive payment of interest or principal on or before the dates on which we are entitled to receive payments in respect of the debt securities in which we invest. Also, in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of a portfolio company, holders of debt instruments ranking senior to our investment in that portfolio company would typically be entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distribution in respect of our investment. After repaying such senior creditors, such portfolio company may not have any remaining assets to use for repaying its obligations to us. In the case of debt ranking equally with debt securities in which we invest, we would have to share on an equal basis any distributions with other creditors holding such debt in the event of an insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of the relevant portfolio company. In addition, we will not be in a position to control any portfolio company by investing in its debt securities. As a result, we are subject to the risk that a portfolio company in which we invest may make business decisions with which we disagree and the management of such companies, as representatives of the holders of their common equity, may take risks or otherwise act in ways that do not best serve our interests as debt investors.

Because we generally do not hold controlling equity interests in our portfolio companies, we may not be in a position to exercise control over our portfolio companies or to prevent decisions by the managements of our portfolio companies that could decrease the value of our investments.

Although we have taken and may in the future take controlling equity positions in our portfolio companies from time to time, we generally do not do so. As a result, we are subject to the risk that a portfolio company may make business decisions with which we disagree, and the stockholders and management of a portfolio company may take risks or otherwise act in ways that are adverse to our interests. Due to the lack of liquidity for the debt and equity investments that we typically hold in our portfolio companies, we may not be able to dispose of our investments in the event we disagree with the actions of a portfolio company, and may therefore suffer a decrease in the value of our investments.

43

Our investments in CLO vehicles are riskier and less transparent than direct investments in portfolio companies.

From time to time we have invested and may in the future invest in debt and residual value interests of CLO vehicles. Generally, there may be less information available to us regarding the underlying debt investments held by such CLOs than if we had invested directly in the debt of the underlying companies. As a result, our stockholders may not know the details of the underlying securities of the CLO vehicles in which we may invest. Our CLO investments will also be subject to the risk of leverage associated with the debt issued by such CLOs and the repayment priority of debt holders senior to us in such CLOs.

The accounting and tax implications of such investments are complicated. In particular, reported earnings from the equity tranche investments of these CLO vehicles are recorded under GAAP based upon an effective yield calculation. Current taxable earnings on these investments, however, will generally not be determinable until after the end of the fiscal year of each individual CLO vehicle that ends within the Company’s fiscal year, even though the investments are generating cash flow. In general, the tax treatment of these investments may result in higher distributable earnings in the early years and a capital loss at maturity, while for reporting purposes the totality of cash flows are reflected in a constant yield to maturity.

Some instruments issued by CLO vehicles may not be readily marketable and may be subject to restrictions on resale. Securities issued by CLO vehicles are generally not listed on any U.S. national securities exchange and no active trading market may exist for the securities of CLO vehicles in which we may invest. Although a secondary market may exist for our investments in CLO vehicles, the market for our investments in CLO vehicles may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. As a result, these types of investments may be more difficult to value.

Failure by a CLO vehicle in which we are invested to satisfy certain tests will harm our operating results.

The failure by a CLO vehicle in which we invest to satisfy certain financial covenants, specifically those with respect to adequate collateralization and/or interest coverage tests, could lead to a reduction in its payments to us. In the event that a CLO vehicle failed these certain tests, holders of debt senior to us may be entitled to additional payments that would, in turn, reduce the payments we would otherwise be entitled to receive. Separately, we may incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms, which may include the waiver of certain financial covenants, with a defaulting CLO vehicle or any other investment we may make. If any of these occur, it could materially and adversely affect our operating results and cash flows.

Our financial results may be affected adversely if one or more of our significant equity or junior debt investments in a CLO vehicle defaults on its payment obligations or fails to perform as we expect or if the market price fluctuates significantly in such illiquid investments.

Up to 30% of our portfolio may consist of equity and junior debt investments in CLO vehicles, which involves a number of significant risks. CLO vehicles that we invest in are typically very highly levered, and therefore, the junior debt and equity tranches that we invest in are subject to a higher degree of risk of total loss. As of December 31, 2018, the CLO vehicles in which we were invested had average leverage of 10.4 times and ranged from approximately 6.8 times to 13.3 times levered. In particular, investors in CLO vehicles indirectly bear risks of the underlying debt investments held by such CLO vehicles. We will generally have the right to receive payments only from the CLO vehicles, and will generally not have direct rights against the underlying borrowers or the entity that sponsored the CLO vehicle. While the CLO vehicles we have and continue to target generally enable the investor to acquire interests in a pool of leveraged corporate loans without the expenses associated with directly holding the same investments, we will generally pay a proportionate share of the CLO vehicles’ administrative and other expenses. Although it is difficult to predict whether the prices of indices and securities underlying CLO vehicles will rise or fall, these prices (and, therefore, the prices of the CLO vehicles) will be influenced by the same types of political and economic events that affect issuers of securities and capital markets generally. The failure by a CLO vehicle in which we invest to satisfy certain financial covenants, specifically those with respect to adequate collateralization and/or interest coverage tests, could lead to a reduction in its payments to us. In the event that a CLO vehicle failed those tests, holders of debt senior to us may be entitled to additional payments that would, in turn, reduce the payments we would otherwise be entitled to receive. Separately, we may incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting CLO vehicle or any other investment we may make. If any of these occur, it could materially and adversely affect our operating results and cash flows.

44

The interests we intend to acquire in CLO vehicles will likely be thinly traded or have only a limited trading market. CLO vehicles are typically privately offered and sold, even in the secondary market. As a result, investments in CLO vehicles may be characterized as illiquid securities. In addition to the general risks associated with investing in debt securities, CLO vehicles carry additional risks, including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the fact that our investments in CLO tranches will likely be subordinate to other senior classes of note tranches thereof; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the CLO vehicle or unexpected investment results. Our net asset value may also decline over time if our principal recovery with respect to CLO equity investments is less than the price we paid for those investments

Investments in structured vehicles, including equity and junior debt instruments issued by CLO vehicles, involve risks, including credit risk and market risk. Changes in interest rates and credit quality may cause significant price fluctuations. Additionally, changes in the underlying leveraged corporate loans held by a CLO vehicle may cause payments on the instruments we hold to be reduced, either temporarily or permanently.

Structured investments, particularly the subordinated interests in which we intend to invest, are less liquid than many other types of securities and may be more volatile than the leveraged corporate loans underlying the CLO vehicles we intend to target. Fluctuations in interest rates may also cause payments on the tranches of CLO vehicles that we hold to be reduced, either temporarily or permanently.

Investments in foreign securities formed under the laws of the Cayman Islands may involve significant risks in addition to the risks inherent in U.S. investments.

Our investment strategy involves investments in securities issued by foreign entities, including foreign CLO vehicles that are formed under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Investing in foreign entities formed under the laws of the Cayman Islands may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in U.S. issues. These risks include changes in exchange control regulations, political and social instability, expropriation, imposition of foreign taxes, less liquid markets and less available information than is generally the case in the U.S., higher transaction costs, less government supervision of exchanges, brokers and issuers, less developed bankruptcy laws, difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations, lack of uniform accounting and auditing standards and greater price volatility. Further, we, and the CLO vehicles in which we invest, may have difficulty enforcing creditor’s rights in foreign jurisdictions, such as the Cayman Islands. In addition, the underlying companies of the CLO vehicles in which we invest may be foreign, which may create greater exposure for us to foreign economic developments.

Although we expect that most of our investments will be U.S. dollar-denominated, any investments denominated in a foreign currency will be subject to the risk that the value of a particular currency will change in relation to one or more other currencies. Among the factors that may affect currency values are trade balances, the level of short-term interest rates, differences in relative values of similar assets in different currencies, long-term opportunities for investment and capital appreciation, and political developments. We may employ hedging techniques to minimize these risks, but we can offer no assurance that we will, in fact, hedge currency risk, or that if we do, such strategies will be effective.

RISKS RELATED TO AN INVESTMENT IN OUR SECURITIES

Our common stock price may be volatile.

The trading price of our common stock may fluctuate substantially depending on many factors, some of which are beyond our control and may not be directly related to our operating performance. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:

•      price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;

•     significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of securities of regulated investment companies, BDCs or other financial services companies;

45

•     exclusion of our common stock from certain indices, such as the Russell 2000 Financial Services Index, which could reduce the ability of certain investment funds to own our common stock and put short-term selling pressure on our common stock;

•      changes in regulatory policies or tax guidelines with respect to regulated investment companies or BDCs;

•      actual or anticipated changes in our earnings or fluctuations in our operating results or changes in the expectations of securities analysts;

•      general economic conditions and trends;

•      loss of a major funding source; or

•      departures of key personnel.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Due to the potential volatility of our stock price, we may therefore be the target of securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business. Refer to “Risks relating to our business and structure — Our business and operation could be negatively affected if we become subject to any additional securities litigation or shareholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder execution of our investment strategy and impact our stock price.”

Our shares of common stock have traded at a discount from net asset value and may do so in the future.

Shares of closed-end investment companies have frequently traded at a market price that is less than the net asset value that is attributable to those shares. Our common stock traded below our net asset value per share during some periods from 2010 through 2018. Our common stock could trade at a discount to net asset value at any time in the future. The possibility that our shares of common stock may trade at a discount from net asset value over the long term is separate and distinct from the risk that our net asset value will decrease. We cannot predict whether shares of our common stock will trade above, at or below our net asset value. If our common stock trades below its net asset value, we will generally not be able to issue additional shares of our common stock at its market price without first obtaining the approval for such issuance from our stockholders and our independent directors. If additional funds are not available to us, we could be forced to curtail or cease our new lending and investment activities, and our net asset value could decrease and our level of distributions could be impacted. Our net asset value may also decline over time if our principal recovery with respect to CLO equity investments is less than the price that we paid for those investments.

You may not receive distributions or our distributions may decline or may not grow over time.

We cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results or maintain a tax treatment that will allow or require any specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. In particular, our future distributions are dependent upon the investment income we receive on our portfolio investments, including our higher-yielding CLO equity investments. To the extent such investment income, including income from our CLO equity investments (which we expect to decline as those vehicles de-leverage after the end of their respective re-investment periods), declines or if we transition our portfolio into lower-yielding investments, our ability to pay future distributions may be harmed.

Your interest in us may be diluted if you do not fully exercise your subscription rights in any rights offering.

In the event we issue subscription rights to purchase shares of our common stock, stockholders who do not fully exercise their rights should expect that they will, at the completion of the offer, own a smaller proportional interest in us than would otherwise be the case if they fully exercised their rights. We cannot state precisely the amount of any such dilution in share ownership because we do not know at this time what proportion of the shares will be purchased as a result of the offer.

In addition, if the subscription price is less than our net asset value per share, then our stockholders would experience an immediate dilution of the aggregate net asset value of their shares as a result of the offer. The amount of any decrease in net asset value is not predictable because it is not known at this time what the subscription price and net asset value per share will be on the expiration date of the rights offering or what proportion of the shares will be purchased as a result of the offer. Such dilution could be substantial.

46

If we issue preferred stock, the net asset value and market value of our common stock will likely become more volatile.

We cannot assure you that the issuance of preferred stock would result in a higher yield or return to the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock would likely cause the net asset value and market value of the common stock to become more volatile. If the distribution rate on the preferred stock were to approach the net rate of return on our investment portfolio, the benefit of leverage to the holders of the common stock would be reduced. If the distribution rate on the preferred stock were to exceed the net rate of return on our portfolio, the leverage would result in a lower rate of return to the holders of common stock than if we had not issued preferred stock. Any decline in the net asset value of our investments would be borne entirely by the holders of common stock. Therefore, if the market value of our portfolio were to decline, the leverage would result in a greater decrease in net asset value to the holders of common stock than if we were not leveraged through the issuance of preferred stock. This greater net asset value decrease would also tend to cause a greater decline in the market price for the common stock. We might be in danger of failing to maintain the required asset coverage of the preferred stock or of losing our ratings, if any, on the preferred stock or, in an extreme case, our current investment income might not be sufficient to meet the distribution requirements on the preferred stock. In order to counteract such an event, we might need to liquidate investments in order to fund a redemption of some or all of the preferred stock. In addition, we would pay (and the holders of common stock would bear) all costs and expenses relating to the issuance and ongoing maintenance of the preferred stock, including higher advisory fees if our total return exceeds the distribution rate on the preferred stock. Holders of preferred stock may have different interests than holders of common stock and may at times have disproportionate influence over our affairs.

Holders of any preferred stock we might issue would have the right to elect members of our Board of Directors and class voting rights on certain matters.

Holders of any preferred stock we might issue, voting separately as a single class, would have the right to elect two members of our Board of Directors at all times and in the event distributions become two full years in arrears would have the right to elect a majority of the directors until such arrearage is completely eliminated. In addition, preferred stockholders have class voting rights on certain matters, including changes in fundamental investment restrictions and conversion to open-end status, and accordingly can veto any such changes. Restrictions imposed on the declarations and payment of distributions or other distributions to the holders of our common stock and preferred stock, both by the 1940 Act and by requirements imposed by rating agencies, if any, or the terms of our credit facilities, if any, might impair our ability to maintain our tax treatment as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. While we would intend to redeem our preferred stock to the extent necessary to enable us to distribute our income as required to maintain our qualification as a RIC, there can be no assurance that such actions could be effected in time to meet the tax requirements.

The net asset value per share of our common stock may be diluted if we sell shares of our common stock in one or more offerings at prices below the then current net asset value per share of our common stock.

If we were to sell shares of our common stock below its then current net asset value per share, such sales would result in an immediate dilution to the net asset value per share of our common stock. This dilution would occur as a result of the sale of shares at a price below the then current net asset value per share of our common stock and a proportionately greater decrease in the stockholders’ interest in our earnings and assets and their voting interest in us than the increase in our assets resulting from such issuance. Because the number of shares of common stock that could be so issued and the timing of any issuance is not currently known, the actual dilutive effect cannot be predicted.

Further, if our current stockholders do not purchase any shares to maintain their percentage interest, regardless of whether such offering is above or below the then current net asset value per share, their voting power will be diluted. For example, if we sell an additional 10% of our common shares at a 10% discount from net asset value, a stockholder who does not participate in that offering for its proportionate interest will suffer net asset value dilution of up to 1.0% or $10 per $1,000 of net asset value.

Delays in the government budget process or a government shutdown may adversely affect our operations and may prevent us from conducting a securities offering.

Each year, the U.S. Congress must pass all spending bills in the federal budget. If any such spending bill is not timely passed, a government shutdown will close many federally run operations, which includes those of the SEC, and halt work for federal employees unless they are considered essential or such work is separately funded by industry. If a government shutdown were to occur, and the SEC were to remain closed for a prolonged period of time, we may not be able to conduct a securities offering. Our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of securities could be materially affected by any prolonged government shutdown.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 2. Properties

We do not own any real estate or other physical properties materially important to our operation. Our headquarters are located at 8 Sound Shore Drive, Suite 255, Greenwich, Connecticut, where we occupy our office space pursuant to our Administration Agreement with Oxford Funds. We believe that our office facilities are suitable and adequate for our business as it is presently conducted.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We and our consolidated subsidiaries are not currently subject to any pending material legal proceedings. From time to time, we and our consolidated subsidiaries may be a party to certain legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business, including proceedings relating to the enforcement of our rights under contracts with our portfolio companies. While the outcome of these legal proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not expect that these proceedings will have a material effect upon our financial condition or results of operations.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “OXSQ.” The last reported sale price for our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on February 27, 2019 was $7.03 per share. As of February 27, 2019, we had 157 stockholders of record.

Distributions

We currently intend to distribute a minimum of 90% of our ordinary income and short-term capital gains (net of short-term capital losses), if any, on a quarterly basis to our stockholders, in accordance with our election to be treated, and intention to qualify annually, as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. For a more detailed discussion of the requirements under Subchapter M, please refer to the discussion in “Business — Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” set forth above. In order to qualify as a RIC and to avoid corporate level tax on the income we distribute to our stockholders, we are required, under Subchapter M of the Code, to distribute at least 90% of our ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses to our stockholders on an annual basis.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, management estimated that a tax return of capital occurred of approximately $0.07 per share. A written statement identifying the nature of these distributions for tax reporting purposes for the year was posted on our website. The final determination of the nature of distribution can only be made upon the filing of our tax return. We may not be able to achieve operating results that will allow us to make distributions at a specific level or to increase the amount of these distributions from time to time. In addition, we may be limited in our ability to make distributions due to the asset coverage requirements applicable to us as a BDC under the 1940 Act. If we do not distribute a certain percentage of our income annually, we will suffer adverse tax consequences, including possible loss of RIC tax treatment. We cannot assure stockholders that they will receive any distributions.

To the extent our taxable earnings fall below the total amount of our distributions for that fiscal year, a portion of those distributions may be deemed a tax return of capital to our stockholders. Thus, the source of a distribution to our stockholders may be the original capital invested by the stockholder rather than our taxable ordinary income or capital gains. Stockholders should read any written disclosure accompanying a distribution payment carefully and should not assume that the source of any distribution is taxable ordinary income or capital gains.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

We did not engage in unregistered sales of equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2018, and we did not issue shares of common stock under our distribution reinvestment plan. During the year ended December 31, 2018, as part of our distribution reinvestment plan for our common stockholders, our distribution reinvestment administrator purchased 128,075 shares of our common stock for $0.8 million in the open market to satisfy the reinvestment portion of our distribution.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On February 5, 2018, the Board authorized a program for the purpose of repurchasing up to $25.0 million worth of our common stock. Under that repurchase program, we were authorized, but not obligated, to repurchase outstanding common stock in the open market from time to time through December 31, 2018, provided that repurchases comply with the prohibitions under our Insider Trading Policies and Procedures and the guidelines specified in Rule 10b-18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, including certain price, market volume and timing constraints. Further, any repurchases were to be conducted in accordance with the 1940 Act. During the year ended December 31, 2018, under that repurchase program, we repurchased 3,828,450 shares of outstanding common stock for approximately $25.0 million, while complying with the prohibitions under the Company’s Insider Trading Policies and Procedures and the guidelines specified in Rule 10b-18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, including certain price, market volume and timing constraints. This represents a discount of approximately 1.1% of the net asset value per share as of December 31, 2018. In addition, repurchases were conducted in accordance with the 1940 Act.

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The following table discloses on a monthly basis for the year ended December 31, 2018, the total number of shares repurchased (including the total number of shares repurchased under this program), the weighted average price paid per share, and the maximum number of shares (or approximate dollar value) of shares that may yet be repurchased under the program.

Period

 

Total Number

of Shares

Purchased

 

Average Price

Paid per Share

 

Cumulative

Number
of Shares

Purchased as

Part of Publicly

Announced
Program

 

Maximum
Number (or

Approximate

Dollar Value)
of Shares that

May Yet Be

Purchased

Under the
Program

January 1, 2018 – January 31, 2018

 

 

$

 

 

$

February 1, 2018 – February 28, 2018

 

336,921

 

$

5.66

 

336,921

 

$

23.1 million

March 1, 2018 – March 31, 2018

 

653,339

 

$

6.18

 

990,260

 

$

19.1 million

April 1, 2018 – April 30, 2018

 

100,456

 

$

6.14

 

1,090,716

 

$

18.5 million

May 1, 2018 – May 31, 2018

 

540,031

 

$

6.76

 

1,630,747

 

$

14.8 million

June 1, 2018 – June 30, 2018

 

441,053

 

$

6.95

 

2,071,800

 

$

11.7 million

July 1, 2018 – July 31, 2018

 

152,437

 

$

6.98

 

2,224,237

 

$

10.7 million

August 1, 2018 – August 31, 2018

 

108,906

 

$

6.98

 

2,333,143

 

$

9.9 million

September 1, 2018 – September 30, 2018

 

 

$

 

2,333,143

 

$

9.9 million

October 1, 2018 – October 31, 2018

 

696,450

 

$

6.57

 

3,029,593

 

$

5.3 million

November 1, 2018 – November 30, 2018

 

690,800

 

$

6.65

 

3,720,393

 

$

0.7 million

December 1, 2018 – December 31, 2018

 

108,057

 

$

6.71

 

3,828,450

 

$

Performance Graph

This graph compares the cumulative stockholder return on our common stock with that of the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Financial 100, as we do not believe there is an appropriate index of companies with an investment strategy similar to our own with which to compare the return on our common stock, for the period from December 31, 2013 through December 31, 2018. The graph assumes that, on December 31, 2013, a person invested $100 in each of our common stock, the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Financial 100, which includes the 100 largest domestic and international financial organizations listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market based on market capitalization. The NASDAQ Financial 100 contains banks and savings institutions and related holding companies, insurance companies, broker-dealers, investment companies and financial services organizations.

50

The graph measures cumulative total stockholder return, which takes into account both changes in stock price and distributions. It assumes that distributions paid are reinvested in like securities.

The graph and the information furnished under this Part II Item 5 of this Form 10-K shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act. The stock price performance included in the above graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 

51

Item 6. Selected Financial and Other Data

The following selected financial data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, and 2014 is derived from our consolidated financial statements, which have been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm. Other data included below is unaudited. The data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this report.

($ in millions, except share data)

 

Year Ended December 31, 2018

 

Year Ended December 31, 2017

 

Year Ended December 31, 2016

 

Year Ended December 31, 2015

 

Year Ended December 31, 2014

Total Investment Income

 

$

56.3

 

 

$

61.4

 

 

$

69.3

 

 

$

87.5

 

 

$

117.3

 

Total Expenses

 

$

22.8

 

 

$

30.7

 

 

$

42.5

 

 

$

47.8

 

 

$

48.7

 

Net Investment Income

 

$

33.5

 

 

$

30.7

 

 

$

26.8

 

 

$

39.6

 

 

$

68.6

 

Net (Decrease) Increase in Net Assets Resulting from Operations

 

$

(9.2

)

 

$

43.6

 

 

$

110.4

 

 

$

(66.1

)

 

$

(3.3

)

Per Share Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Increase in Net Assets Resulting from Net Investment Income per common share (Basic)

 

$

0.67

 

 

$

0.60

 

 

$

0.52

 

 

$

0.66

 

 

$

1.17

 

Net Increase in Net Assets Resulting from Net Investment Income per common share (Diluted)(1)

 

$

0.67

 

 

$

0.60

 

 

$

0.52

 

 

$

0.66

 

 

$

1.10

 

Net (Decrease) Increase in Net Assets Resulting from Operations per common share (Basic)

 

$

(0.19

)

 

$

0.85

 

 

$

2.13

 

 

$

(1.11

)

 

$

(0.06

)

Net (Decrease) Increase in Net Assets Resulting from Operations per common share (Diluted)(1)

 

$

(0.19

)

 

$

0.83

 

 

$

1.90

 

 

$

(1.11

)

 

$

(0.06

)

Distributions Declared per Share

 

$

0.80

 

 

$

0.80

 

 

$

1.16

 

 

$

1.14

 

 

$

1.16

 

Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Assets

 

$

467.1

 

 

$

454.1

 

 

$

612.5

 

 

$

718.3

 

 

$

1,037.0

 

Total Long Term Debt

 

$

148.2

 

 

$

62.3

 

 

$

220.0

 

 

$

347.7

 

 

$

495.4

 

Total Net Assets

 

$

314.7

 

 

$

388.4

 

 

$

386.0

 

 

$

360.9

 

 

$

520.8

 

Other Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Number of Portfolio Companies at
Period End

 

 

50

 

 

 

51

 

 

 

60

 

 

 

72

 

 

 

77

 

Purchases of Securities

 

$

244.6

 

 

$

208.8

 

 

$

171.6

 

 

$

234.8

 

 

$

556.7

 

Loan Repayments

 

$

131.5

 

 

$

189.2

 

 

$

115.2

 

 

$

224.2

 

 

$

311.9

 

Proceeds from Sales of Securities

 

$

25.9

 

 

$

171.4

 

 

$

176.8

 

 

$

196.2

 

 

$

127.5

 

Reductions to CLO Equity Cost Value

 

$

18.8

(5)

 

$

37.1

(6)

 

$

34.2

(7)

 

$

41.6

(8)

 

 

 

Total Return Based on Market Value(2)

 

 

26.95

%

 

 

(2.01

)%