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Section 1: S-3ASR (FORM S-3ASR)

Form S-3ASR
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 27, 2019

Registration No. 333-                    

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

Maryland   26-2749336

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

1555 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 1800

Atlanta, Georgia 30309

Telephone: (404) 892-0896

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Robert H. Rigsby, Esq.

1555 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 1800

Atlanta, Georgia 30309

Telephone: (404) 479-2945

Facsimile: (404) 962-8206

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

Mark C. Kanaly, Esq.

Alston & Bird LLP

1201 W. Peachtree Street

Atlanta, Georgia 30309-3424

Telephone: (404) 881-7000

Facsimile: (404) 253-8390

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer        Accelerated filer        Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company        Emerging growth company         

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Proposed
Maximum Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee

Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants, Stockholder Rights, Debt Securities, Units

  (1)   (1), (2)

 

(1)

In accordance with Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the securities registered pursuant to this registration statement include $ 310,420,000 of unsold securities previously registered on Form S-3 (Registration Statement No. 333-210454), as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 29, 2016. In connection with the prior registration of such unsold securities, the registrant paid a registration fee of $38,647.29 applicable to such unsold securities. In addition, an unspecified number of the securities of each identified class of securities is being registered for possible issuance from time to time at indeterminate prices. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities or that are issued in units or represented by depositary shares. Includes an indeterminate amount of our securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for, as the case may be, any other securities registered under this registration statement.

(2)

In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r), the registrant is deferring payment of the remaining registration fee subject to the conditions set forth in such rules.

 

 

 


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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

 

Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares, Warrants,

Stockholder Rights, Debt Securities and Units

 

 

By this prospectus, we may offer, from time to time:

 

   

shares of our common stock,

 

   

shares of our preferred stock,

 

   

depositary shares representing shares of our preferred stock,

 

   

warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares,

 

   

rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing,

 

   

debt securities, which may consist of debentures, notes, or other types of debt, and

 

   

units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.

We will provide specific terms of each issuance of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. We may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis. In addition, selling stockholders may sell these securities, from time to time, on terms described in the applicable prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and any supplement carefully before you decide to invest. This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of these securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

The New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, lists our common stock under the symbol “IVR.”

To assist us in continuing to qualify as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for federal income tax purposes, no person may own more than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding shares of common stock, unless our board of directors waives this limitation.

Our principal office is located at 1555 Peachtree Street N.E., Suite 1800, Atlanta, Georgia 30309. Our telephone number is (404) 892-0896.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves risk. You should carefully consider the information referred to under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 before you invest.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is February 27, 2019.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     4  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     5  

INVESCO MORTGAGE CAPITAL INC.

     6  

RISK FACTORS

     7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     12  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF STOCKHOLDER RIGHTS

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     28  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     29  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE MARYLAND GENERAL CORPORATION LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     33  

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     38  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     64  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     65  

LEGAL MATTERS

     69  

EXPERTS

     69  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC or Commission, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer to sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. It is important for you to consider the information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or set forth in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with additional or different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any other offering material is accurate as of any date other than the dates on the front of those documents.

When used in this prospectus, the terms “company,” “issuer,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified. “Invesco” refers to Invesco Ltd., together with its consolidated subsidiaries, which is the indirect parent company of Invesco Advisers, Inc., our external manager.

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

We make forward-looking statements in this prospectus and other filings we make with the SEC within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and such statements are intended to be covered by the safe harbor provided by the same. Forward-looking statements are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial strategies, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. When we use the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “may” or similar expressions, and future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” and “would,” and any other statement that necessarily depends on future events, we intend to identify forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed in our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

 

   

use of proceeds of this offering;

 

   

our business and investment strategy;

 

   

our investment portfolio;

 

   

our projected operating results;

 

   

general volatility of financial markets and effects of governmental responses, including actions and initiatives of the U.S. governmental agencies and changes to U.S. government policies, including the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), mortgage loan modification programs, actions and initiatives of foreign governmental agencies and central banks, monetary policy actions of the Federal Reserve, including actions relating to its agency mortgage-backed securities portfolio and the continuation of re-investment of principal payments, and our ability to respond to and comply with such actions, initiatives and changes;

 

   

the availability of financing sources, including our ability to obtain additional financing arrangements and the terms of such arrangements;

 

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financing and advance rates for our target assets;

 

   

changes to our expected leverage;

 

   

our expected investments;

 

   

our expected book value per diluted share of common stock;

 

   

interest rate mismatches between our target assets and our borrowings used to fund such investments;

 

   

the adequacy of our cash flow from operations and borrowings to meet our short-term liquidity needs;

 

   

our ability to maintain sufficient liquidity to meet any margin calls;

 

   

changes in the credit rating of the U.S. government;

 

   

changes in interest rates and interest rate spreads and the market value of our target assets;

 

   

changes in prepayment rates on our target assets;

 

   

the impact of any deficiencies in foreclosure practices of third parties and related uncertainty in the timing of collateral disposition;

 

   

our reliance on third parties in connection with services related to our target assets;

 

   

effects of hedging instruments on our target assets;

 

   

rates of default or decreased recovery rates on our target assets;

 

   

modifications to whole loans or loans underlying securities;

 

   

the degree to which our hedging strategies may or may not protect us from interest rate volatility;

 

   

the degree to which derivative contracts expose us to contingent liabilities;

 

   

counterparty defaults;

 

   

compliance with financial covenants in our financing arrangements;

 

   

changes in governmental regulations, zoning, insurance, eminent domain and tax law and rates, and similar matters and our ability to respond to such changes;

 

   

our ability to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

   

our ability to maintain our exception from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the 1940 Act;

 

   

availability of investment opportunities in mortgage-related, real estate-related and other securities;

 

   

availability of U.S. Government Agency guarantees with regard to payments of principal and interest on securities;

 

   

the market price and trading volume of our capital stock;

 

   

availability of qualified personnel of our Manager;

 

   

the relationship with our Manager;

 

   

estimates relating to taxable income and our ability to continue to make distributions to our stockholders in the future;

 

   

estimates relating to fair value of our target assets and loan loss reserves;

 

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our understanding of our competition;

 

   

changes to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP;

 

   

the adequacy of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting; and

 

   

market trends in our industry, interest rates, real estate values, the debt securities markets or the general economy.

The forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. Some of these factors are described in this prospectus in the information referred to under the heading “Risk Factors.” If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time, and it is not possible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements, information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is http://www.sec.gov. Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “IVR,” and all such reports, proxy statements and other information filed by us with the NYSE may be inspected at the NYSE’s offices at 11 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005. Finally, we maintain a website where you can find additional information. The address of our website is http://www.invescomortgagecapital.com. All internet addresses provided in this prospectus or in any accompanying prospectus supplement are for informational purposes only and are not intended to be hyperlinks. In addition, the information on our website, or any other website described herein, is not a part of, and is not incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials.

We have filed a registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, covering the securities offered hereby. As allowed by SEC rules, this prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits thereto. We refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits thereto for further information. This prospectus is qualified in its entirety by such other information.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of filing those documents. Any reports filed by us with the SEC on or after the date of this prospectus will automatically update and, where applicable, supersede any information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have filed the documents listed below with the SEC under the Exchange Act, and these documents are incorporated herein by reference (other than information in such documents that is furnished and not deemed to be filed):

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed on February 20, 2019;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on February 4, 2019 (Item 8.01 only), February 7, 2019 and February 15, 2019;

 

   

The description of our common stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A dated June 18, 2009;

 

   

The description of our 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (“Series A Preferred Stock”) on Form 8-A dated July 23, 2012;

 

   

The description of our 7.75% Fixed-to-Floating Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (“Series B Preferred Stock”) on Form 8-A dated September 8, 2014; and

 

   

The description of our 7.50% Fixed-to-Floating Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (“Series C Preferred Stock”) on Form 8-A dated August 11, 2017.

All documents we file pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities to which this prospectus relates (other than information in such documents that is furnished and not deemed to be filed) shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and to be part hereof from the date of filing of those documents.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of any or all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus (other than the exhibits to such documents which are not specifically incorporated by reference therein); we will provide this information at no cost to the requester upon written or oral request to Office of the Secretary, Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc., 1555 Peachtree Street N.E., Suite 1800, Atlanta, Georgia 30309; Tel.: (404) 892-0896; E-mail: company.secretary@invescomortgagecapital.com.

 

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INVESCO MORTGAGE CAPITAL INC.

Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc. is a Maryland corporation primarily focused on investing in, financing and managing residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities, or MBS, and mortgage loans. Our objective is to provide attractive risk-adjusted returns to our investors, primarily through dividends and secondarily through capital appreciation. To achieve this objective, we primarily invest in the following:

 

   

Residential mortgage-backed securities, or RMBS, that are guaranteed by a U.S. government agency such as the Government National Mortgage Association, or Ginnie Mae, or a federally chartered corporation such as the Federal National Mortgage Association, or Fannie Mae, or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or Freddie Mac, and are collectively referred to as Agency RMBS;

 

   

Commercial mortgage-backed securities, or CMBS, that are guaranteed by a U.S. government agency, such as Ginnie Mae, or a federally chartered corporation, such as Fannie Mae, or Freddie Mac, and are collectively referred to as Agency CMBS;

 

   

RMBS that are not guaranteed by a U.S. government agency or a federally chartered corporation, or non-Agency RMBS;

 

   

CMBS that are not guaranteed by a U.S. government agency or a federally chartered corporation, or non-Agency CMBS;

 

   

Credit risk transfer securities that are unsecured obligations issued by government-sponsored enterprises, or GSE CRT;

 

   

Residential and commercial mortgage loans; and

 

   

Other real estate-related financing arrangements.

We are externally managed and advised by Invesco Advisers, Inc., our Manager, which is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of Invesco Ltd., an independent global investment management firm listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE: IVZ), or Invesco. We elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2009. To maintain our REIT qualification, we are generally required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income to our stockholders annually. In addition, our charter contains various other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” We operate our business in a manner that permits our exclusion from the definition of “Investment Company” under the 1940 Act, as amended.

We generally finance our investments through short- and long-term borrowings structured as repurchase agreements and secured loans. We have historically financed our residential loans held-for-investment through asset-backed securities, or ABS, issued by consolidated securitization trusts. We have also financed investments through the issuances of debt and equity and may utilize other forms of financing in the future.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q which descriptions are incorporated by reference herein, as well as the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement hereto before making a decision to invest in our securities. See “Where You Can Find More Information,” above.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in an accompanying prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus and the related accompanying prospectus supplement to purchase assets within our target assets classes, subject to our investment guidelines and to the extent consistent with maintaining our REIT qualification, and for general corporate purposes. Unless otherwise indicated in an accompanying prospectus supplement, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by selling stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following is a summary of the rights and preferences of our capital stock. While we believe that the following description covers the material terms of our capital stock, the description may not contain all of the information that is important to you. We encourage you to read carefully this entire prospectus, our charter and bylaws and the other documents we refer to for a more complete understanding of our capital stock. Copies of our charter and bylaws are listed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

General

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 450,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, of which 5,600,000 shares are currently outstanding and designated as Series A Preferred Stock, 6,200,000 shares are currently outstanding and designated as Series B Preferred Stock, and 11,500,000 shares are currently outstanding and designated as Series C Preferred Stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series without stockholder approval. Under Maryland law, stockholders are not generally liable for our debts or obligations.

Shares of Common Stock

All shares of common stock offered by this prospectus will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of shares of stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of stock, holders of shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends on such shares of common stock out of assets legally available therefor if, as and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, and the holders of our shares of common stock are entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment of or adequate provision for all our known debts and liabilities.

The shares of common stock that we are offering will be issued by us and do not represent any interest in or obligation of Invesco or any of its affiliates. Further, the shares are not a deposit or other obligation of any bank, are not an insurance policy of any insurance company and are not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or FDIC, any other governmental agency or any insurance company. The shares of common stock will not benefit from any insurance guarantee association coverage or any similar protection.

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of shares of common stock, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of shares of stock, the holders of such shares of common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our board of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

Holders of shares of common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights, have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company and generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines that appraisal rights apply, with respect to all or any classes or series of stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which holders of such shares would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of stock, shares of common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

 

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Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge with another entity, convert into another entity, sell or transfer all or substantially all of its assets or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business unless approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides that these matters (other than certain amendments to the provisions of our charter related to the removal of directors, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of stock and the vote required for certain amendments) may be approved by a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of common or preferred stock into other classes or series of shares of stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, our board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of stock, the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series. Therefore, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common or preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common and Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we have authority to issue, to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock into other classes or series of stock and thereafter to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our shares of common stock is Computershare Inc.

Shares of Preferred Stock

The following description sets forth general terms and provisions of the preferred stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The statements below describing the preferred stock are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to our charter, our bylaws, as amended and restated, and any articles supplementary to our charter, designating terms of a series of preferred stock. The preferred stock, when issued, will be validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable. Because our board of directors has the power to establish the preferences, powers and rights of each series of preferred stock, our board of directors may afford the holders of any series of preferred stock preferences, powers and rights, voting or otherwise, senior to the rights of common stockholders.

 

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The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of each series of preferred stock will be fixed by the articles supplementary to our charter relating to the series. A prospectus supplement, relating to each series, will specify the terms of the preferred stock, as follows:

 

   

the title and stated value of the preferred stock;

 

   

the voting rights of the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the preemptive rights of the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the restrictions on alienability of the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the number of shares offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the shares;

 

   

liability to further calls or assessment of the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s) and payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate, if applicable;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing for the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for and any restriction on redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for and any restriction on repurchase, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

   

the terms and provisions, if any, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation) and conversion period;

 

   

the terms under which the rights of the preferred stock may be modified, if applicable;

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred stock;

 

   

a discussion of certain material federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs;

 

   

any limitation on issuance of any series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs; and

 

   

any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer of the preferred stock, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our qualification as a REIT.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

General

We may issue depositary shares, each of which would represent a fractional interest of a share of a particular series of preferred stock. We will deposit shares of preferred stock represented by depositary shares under a separate deposit agreement among the company, a preferred stock depositary and the holders of the depositary shares. Subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary share will possess, in proportion to the fractional interest of a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary shares.

Depositary receipts will evidence the depositary shares issued pursuant to the deposit agreement. Immediately after the company issues and delivers preferred stock to a preferred stock depositary, the preferred stock depositary will issue the depositary receipts.

Dividends and Other Distributions

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends on the preferred stock to the record holders of the depositary shares. Holders of depositary shares generally must file proofs, certificates and other information and pay for any duties requested by the holders that the deposit agreement does not expressly require the depositary to perform.

If a distribution on the preferred stock is other than in cash and it is feasible for the depositary to distribute the property it receives, the depositary will distribute the property to the record holders of the depositary shares. If such a distribution is not feasible, the depositary, with our approval, may sell the property and distribute the net proceeds from the sale to the holders of the depositary shares.

Withdrawal of Stock

Unless we have previously called the underlying preferred stock for redemption or the holder of the depositary shares has converted such shares, a holder of depositary shares may surrender them at the corporate trust office of the depositary in exchange for whole or fractional shares of the underlying preferred stock together with any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. Once a holder has exchanged the depositary shares, the holder may not redeposit the preferred stock and receive depositary shares again. If a depositary receipt presented for exchange into preferred stock represents more shares of preferred stock than the number to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver a new depositary receipt for the excess number of depositary shares.

Redemption of Depositary Shares

Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by a depositary, the depositary will redeem the corresponding amount of depositary shares with funds it receives from us for the preferred stock. The depositary will notify the record holders of the depositary shares to be redeemed not less than 30 days nor more than 60 days before the date fixed for redemption at the holders’ addresses appearing in the depositary’s books. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the applicable fraction of the redemption price and any other amounts payable with respect to the preferred stock. If we intend to redeem less than all of the underlying preferred stock, we and the depositary will select the depositary shares to be redeemed on as nearly a pro rata basis as practicable without creating fractional depositary shares or by any other equitable method determined by us that preserves our REIT status.

On the redemption date:

 

   

all dividends relating to the shares of preferred stock called for redemption will cease to accrue;

 

   

we and the depositary will no longer deem the depositary shares called for redemption to be outstanding; and

 

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all rights of the holders of the depositary shares called for redemption will cease, except the right to receive any money payable upon the redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares are entitled upon redemption.

Voting of the Preferred Stock

When a depositary receives notice regarding a meeting at which the holders of the underlying preferred stock have the right to vote, it will mail that information to the holders of the depositary shares. Each record holder of depositary shares on the record date may then instruct the depositary to exercise its voting rights for the amount of preferred stock represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will vote in accordance with these instructions. The depositary will abstain from voting to the extent it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares.

Liquidation Preference

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, a holder of depositary shares will receive the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of underlying preferred stock represented by the depositary share.

Conversion of Preferred Stock

Depositary shares will not themselves be convertible into common stock or any other securities or property of the company. However, if the underlying preferred stock is convertible, holders of depositary shares may surrender them to the depositary with written instructions to convert the preferred stock represented by their depositary shares into whole shares of common stock, other shares of our preferred stock or other shares of stock, as applicable. Upon receipt of these instructions and any amounts payable in connection with a conversion, we will convert the preferred stock using the same procedures as those provided for delivery of preferred stock. If a holder of depositary shares converts only part of its depositary shares, the depositary will issue a new depositary receipt for any depositary shares not converted. We will not issue fractional shares of common stock upon conversion. If a conversion will result in the issuance of a fractional share, we will pay an amount in cash equal to the value of the fractional interest based upon the closing price of the common stock on the last business day prior to the conversion.

Amendment and Termination of a Deposit Agreement

The company and the depositary may amend any form of depositary receipt evidencing depositary shares and any provision of a deposit agreement. However, unless the existing holders of at least two-thirds of the applicable depositary shares then outstanding have approved the amendment, we and the depositary may not make any amendment that:

 

   

would materially and adversely alter the rights of the holders of depositary shares; or

 

   

would be materially and adversely inconsistent with the rights granted to the holders of the underlying preferred stock.

Subject to exceptions in the deposit agreement and except in order to comply with the law, no amendment may impair the right of any holders of depositary shares to surrender their depositary shares with instructions to deliver the underlying preferred stock and all money and other property represented by the depositary shares. Every holder of outstanding depositary shares at the time any amendment becomes effective who continues to hold the depositary shares will be deemed to consent and agree to the amendment and to be bound by the amended deposit agreement.

We may terminate a deposit agreement upon not less than 30 days prior written notice to the depositary if:

 

   

the termination is necessary to preserve our REIT status; or

 

   

a majority of each series of preferred stock affected by the termination consents to the termination.

 

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Upon a termination of a deposit agreement, holders of the depositary shares may surrender their depositary shares and receive in exchange the number of whole or fractional shares of preferred stock and any other property represented by the depositary shares. If we terminate a deposit agreement to preserve our status as a REIT, then we will use our best efforts to list the preferred stock issued upon surrender of the related depositary shares on a national securities exchange.

In addition, a deposit agreement will automatically terminate if:

 

   

we have redeemed all underlying preferred stock subject to the agreement;

 

   

a final distribution of the underlying preferred stock in connection with any liquidation, dissolution or winding up has occurred, and the depositary has distributed the distribution to the holders of the depositary shares; or

 

   

each share of the underlying preferred stock has been converted into other capital stock of the company not represented by depositary shares.

Expenses of a Preferred Stock Depositary

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges and expenses arising in connection with a deposit agreement. In addition, we will generally pay the fees and expenses of a depositary in connection with the performance of its duties. However, holders of depositary shares will pay the fees and expenses of a depositary for any duties requested by the holders that the deposit agreement does not expressly require the depositary to perform.

Resignation and Removal of Depositary

A depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to resign. We may also remove a depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal will take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary. We will appoint a successor depositary within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal. The successor must be a bank or trust company with its principal office in the U.S. and have a combined capital and surplus of at least $50 million.

Miscellaneous

The depositary will forward to the holders of depositary shares any reports and communications from us with respect to the underlying preferred stock.

Neither the depositary nor the company will be liable if any law or any circumstances beyond their control prevent or delay them from performing their obligations under a deposit agreement. The obligations of the company and a depositary under a deposit agreement will be limited to performing their duties in good faith and without negligence. Neither the company nor a depositary must prosecute or defend any legal proceeding with respect to any depositary shares or the underlying preferred stock unless they are furnished with satisfactory indemnity.

The company and any depositary may rely on the written advice of counsel or accountants, or information provided by persons presenting shares of preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary shares or other persons they believe in good faith to be competent, and on documents they believe in good faith to be genuine and signed by a proper party.

In the event a depositary receives conflicting claims, requests or instructions from us and any holders of depositary shares, the depositary will be entitled to act on the claims, requests or instructions received from us.

 

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Depositary

The prospectus supplement will identify the depositary for the depositary shares.

Listing of the Depositary Shares

The applicable prospectus supplement will specify whether or not the depositary shares will be listed on any securities exchange.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

This section describes the general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer by this prospectus. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the warrants then offered, and the terms and provisions described in this section will apply only to the extent not superseded by the terms of the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock, depository shares, debt securities, other securities or any combination of these securities. Securities warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from such other securities. Each issuance of the warrants will be issued under a separate securities warrant agreement to be entered into by us and a bank or trust company, as securities warrant agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of offered warrants. Each issue of warrants will be evidenced by warrant certificates. The securities warrant agent will act solely as an agent of ours in connection with the securities warrant certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holder of securities warrant certificates or beneficial owners of warrants.

If we offer warrants pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such warrants, including the following, where applicable:

 

   

the offering price at which we will issue the warrants;

 

   

the total number of warrants;

 

   

any applicable anti-dilution provisions to adjust the number of shares to be delivered upon exercise of warrants to purchase common stock;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are being offered, if any, the number of the warrants being offered with each security, and the number of shares purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the price at which investors may purchase the underlying securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants, as well as related adjustment provisions affecting that exercise price;

 

   

the date on and after which the warrants and any related securities will be transferable separately;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;

 

   

federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other material terms of the warrants.

Prior to the exercise of their warrants, holders of warrants exercisable for debt securities will not have any of the rights of holders of the debt securities purchasable upon the exercise and will not be entitled to payments of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the debt securities purchasable upon the exercise. Prior to the exercise of their warrants, holders of warrants exercisable for shares of preferred stock, common stock or for depositary shares will not have any rights of holders of the preferred stock, common stock or depositary shares purchasable upon the exercise and will not be entitled to dividend payments, if any, or voting rights of the preferred stock, common stock or depositary shares purchasable upon the exercise.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF STOCKHOLDER RIGHTS

This section describes the general terms and provisions of the rights to purchase certain of our securities that we may issue to holders of our securities by this prospectus. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the rights then issued, and the terms and provisions described in this section will apply only to the extent not superseded by the terms of the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue, as a dividend at no cost, to holders of record of our securities or any class or series thereof on the applicable record date, rights to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, warrants, units or other securities. In this prospectus, we refer to such rights as “stockholder rights.” If stockholders rights are so issued to existing holders of securities, each stockholder right will entitle the registered holder thereof to purchase the securities issuable upon exercise of the rights pursuant to the terms set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If stockholder rights are issued, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such stockholder rights, including the following where applicable:

 

   

record date;

 

   

subscription price;

 

   

subscription agent;

 

   

aggregate number of shares of preferred stock, shares of common stock, warrants, units or other securities purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights and, in the case of stockholder rights for preferred stock or warrants exercisable for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights or warrants;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise such stockholder rights shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

 

   

federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

other material terms of such stockholder rights.

Prior to the exercise of their stockholder rights, holders of stockholder rights exercisable for debt securities will not have any of the rights of holders of the debt securities purchasable upon the exercise and will not be entitled to payments of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the debt securities purchasable upon the exercise. Prior to the exercise of their stockholder rights, holders of stockholder rights exercisable for shares of preferred stock, common stock or for depositary shares will not have any rights of holders of the preferred stock, common stock or depositary shares purchasable upon the exercise and will not be entitled to dividend payments, if any, or voting rights of the preferred stock, common stock or depositary shares purchasable upon the exercise.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

General

The following description of the terms of our senior debt securities and subordinated debt securities, together, referred to as the debt securities, sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities to which any prospectus supplement may relate. Unless otherwise noted, the general terms and provisions of our debt securities discussed below apply to both our senior debt securities and our subordinated debt securities. Our debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series. The particular terms of any series of debt securities and the extent to which the general provisions may apply to a particular series of debt securities will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series.

The senior debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and The Bank of New York Mellon, as “Senior Indenture Trustee,” referred to as the senior indenture. The subordinated debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and The Bank of New York Mellon, as “Subordinated Indenture Trustee,” referred to as the subordinated indenture and, together with the senior indenture, the indentures. The Senior Indenture Trustee and the Subordinated Indenture Trustee are both referred to, individually, as the Trustee. The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated obligations and the subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated obligations. A detailed description of the subordination provisions is provided below under the caption “- Ranking and Subordination-Subordination.” In general, however, if we declare bankruptcy, holders of the senior debt securities will be paid in full before the holders of subordinated debt securities will receive anything.

The statements set forth below are brief summaries of certain provisions contained in the indentures, which summaries do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the indentures, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Terms used herein that are otherwise not defined shall have the meanings given to them in the indentures. Such defined terms are incorporated herein by reference.

The indentures will not limit the amount of debt securities that may be issued under the applicable indenture, and debt securities may be issued under the applicable indenture up to the aggregate principal amount that may be authorized from time to time by us. Any such limit applicable to a particular series will be specified in the prospectus supplement relating to that series.

The prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will contain the following terms, among others, for each such series of debt securities:

 

   

the designation and issue date of the debt securities of such series;

 

   

the person to whom any interest on a debt security of such series is payable, if other than the registered holder at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest;

 

   

the date or dates on which the principal amount of the debt securities of such series is payable;

 

   

the rate or rates (or manner of calculation thereof), if any, per annum at which the debt securities of such series will bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which interest will accrue and the interest payment dates and regular record dates for the debt securities of such series;

 

   

the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on debt securities of such series is payable;

 

   

the period or periods within which, the redemption price or prices or the repayment price or prices, as the case may be, at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, the debt securities of such series may be redeemed or repaid at the company’s option or the option of the holder of such debt securities;

 

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the obligation, if any, of the company to purchase the debt securities of such series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of such debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities of such series will be purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

   

if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the debt securities of such series will be issuable;

 

   

provisions, if any, with regard to the conversion or exchange of the debt securities of such series, at the option of the holders of such debt securities or the company, as the case may be, for or into new securities of a different series or other securities;

 

   

if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies or units based on or related to currencies in which the debt securities of such series will be denominated and in which payments of principal of, and any premium and interest on, such debt securities shall or may be payable;

 

   

if the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the debt securities of such series are to be payable, at the election of the company or a holder of such debt securities, in a currency (including a composite currency) other than that in which such debt securities are stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

 

   

if the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the debt securities of such series may be determined with reference to an index based on a currency (including a composite currency) other than that in which such debt securities are stated to be payable, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of such series which may be authenticated and delivered under the applicable indenture;

 

   

provisions, if any, related to the exchange of the debt securities of such series, at the option of the holders of such debt securities, for other securities of the same series of the same aggregate principal amount or of a different authorized series or different authorized denomination or denominations, or both;

 

   

provisions, if any, with regard to the appointment by the company of an authenticating agent in one or more places other than the location of the office of the Trustee with power to act on behalf of the Trustee and subject to its direction in the authentication and delivery of the debt securities of any one or more series in connection with such transactions;

 

   

the portion of the principal amount of the debt securities of such series, if other than the principal amount thereof, which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof as more fully described under the section “- Events of Default, Notice and Waiver” below;

 

   

any event of default with respect to the debt securities of such series, if not set forth in the applicable indenture, and any additions, deletions or other changes to the events of default set forth in the applicable indenture that shall be applicable to the debt securities of such series;

 

   

any covenant solely for the benefit of the debt securities of such series and any additions, deletions or other changes to the provisions of the applicable indenture more fully described under the section “- Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance or Transfer on Certain Terms” below, under the section “- Certain Covenants” below, the section of the applicable indenture containing the defined terms or any definitions relating to such provisions of the applicable indenture that would otherwise be applicable to the debt securities of such series;

 

   

if the provisions of the applicable indenture more fully described under the section “- Defeasance” below will not be applicable to the debt securities of such series, and if such provisions shall be

 

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applicable to any covenant or event of default specified in the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities that has not already been established in the applicable indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities of such series will be issued in whole or in part in the form of global securities and, if so, the identity of the depositary with respect to such global securities and the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global securities may be exchanged for other securities;

 

   

if the debt securities of such series will be guaranteed, the terms and conditions of such guarantees and provisions for the accession of the guarantors to certain obligations under the applicable indenture;

 

   

with respect to subordinated debt securities only, the amendment or modification of the subordination provisions in the subordinated indenture with respect to the debt securities of such series; and

 

   

any other specific terms.

We may issue debt securities of any series at various times and we may reopen any series for further issuances from time to time without notice to existing holders of debt securities of that series.

Some of the debt securities may be issued as original issue discount debt securities. Original issue discount debt securities bear no interest or bear interest at below-market rates. These are sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. If we issue these debt securities, the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities will describe any special tax, accounting or other information which we think is important. We encourage you to consult with your own tax and financial advisors on these important matters.

Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, the covenants contained in the indentures will not provide special protection to holders of debt securities if we enter into a highly leveraged transaction, recapitalization or restructuring.

Unless otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, interest on outstanding debt securities will be paid to holders of record on the regular record date as specified in the applicable debt security. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, debt securities will be issued in fully registered form only. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the principal amount of the debt securities will be payable at the corporate trust office of the Trustee in New York, New York. The debt securities may be presented for transfer or exchange at such office unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, subject to the limitations provided in the applicable indenture, without any service charge, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charges payable in connection therewith.

Ranking and Subordination

General

The debt securities and any related guarantees will effectively rank junior in right of payment to any of our or the guarantors’ current and future secured obligations to the extent of the value of the assets securing such obligations. The debt securities and the guarantees, if any, will be effectively subordinated to all existing and future liabilities, including indebtedness and trade payables, of our non-guarantor subsidiaries. Unless otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, the indentures will not limit the amount of unsecured indebtedness or other liabilities that can be incurred by our non-guarantor subsidiaries.

Ranking of Debt Securities

The senior debt securities described in this prospectus will be unsecured, senior obligations of the company and will rank equally with the company’s other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. Any guarantees of the

 

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senior debt securities will be unsecured and senior obligations of each of the guarantors, and will rank equally with all other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of such guarantors. The subordinated debt securities will be unsecured, subordinated obligations of the company and any guarantees of the subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and subordinated obligations of each of the guarantors.

Subordination

If issued, the indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities will be subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our Senior Indebtedness (as defined below). During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our Senior Indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on the subordinated debt securities, except for certain sinking fund payments made in connection with the redemption of debt securities prior to such default and except for payments made in connection with a defeasance with monies deposited with the Trustee prior to such default. In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets to creditors upon any dissolution, winding up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all of our Senior Indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our Senior Indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The subordination provisions also apply in the same way to any guarantor with respect to the Senior Indebtedness of such guarantor.

The term “Senior Indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person for borrowed money, including any indebtedness secured by a mortgage or other lien which is (1) given to secure all or part of the purchase price of property subject to the mortgage or lien, whether given to the vendor of that property or to another lender, or (2) existing on property at the time that person acquires it;

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other similar instruments sold by that person for money;

 

   

all of the lease obligations which are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

   

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above, in each case, that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

   

all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, lease, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument or lease creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, lease, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities, and any unsubordinated guarantee obligations of ours or any guarantor to which we and the guarantors are a party, including the guarantors’ guarantees of our debt securities and other indebtedness for borrowed money, constitute Senior Indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated indenture.

 

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Pursuant to the subordinated indenture, the subordinated indenture may not be amended, at any time, to alter the subordination provisions of any outstanding subordinated debt securities without the consent of the requisite holders of each outstanding series or class of Senior Indebtedness (as determined in accordance with the instrument governing such Senior Indebtedness) that would be adversely affected thereby.

Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance or Transfer on Certain Terms

Except as described in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities, we will not consolidate with or merge into any other entity or convey or transfer our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any entity, unless:

 

  (1)

the entity formed by such consolidation or into which we are merged or the entity that acquires by conveyance or transfer our properties and assets substantially as an entirety shall be organized and existing under the laws of the U.S. or any State or the District of Columbia, and will expressly assume, by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on all the debt securities and the performance of every covenant of the applicable indenture (as supplemented from time to time) on our part to be performed or observed;

 

  (2)

immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default (as defined below), and no event which, after notice or lapse of time, or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and

 

  (3)

we have delivered to the Trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance or transfer and such supplemental indenture comply with the requirements set forth in paragraphs (1) and (2) above and that all conditions precedent relating to such transaction have been complied with.

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any conveyance or transfer of our properties and assets substantially as an entirety as set forth above, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into which we are merged or to which such conveyance or transfer is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of ours under the applicable indenture with the same effect as if such successor had been named in the applicable indenture. In the event of any such conveyance or transfer, we, as the predecessor, shall be discharged from all obligations and covenants under the applicable indenture and the debt securities issued under such indenture and may be dissolved, wound up or liquidated at any time thereafter.

Certain Covenants

Any covenants pertaining to a series of debt securities will be set forth in a prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities.

Except as described in the prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, the indentures and the debt securities do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of a recapitalization or highly leveraged transaction involving us.

Certain Definitions

The following are certain of the terms defined in the indentures:

Significant Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary which would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as in effect on the date of the applicable indenture.

 

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Subsidiary” means, with respect to any person, any corporation more than 50% of the voting stock of which is owned directly or indirectly by such person, and any partnership, association, joint venture or other entity in which such person owns more than 50% of the equity interests or has the power to elect a majority of the board of directors or other governing body.

Optional Redemption

Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may redeem any of the debt securities as a whole at any time or in part from time to time, at our option, on at least 15 days, but not more than 45 days, prior notice mailed to the registered address of each holder of the debt securities to be redeemed, at the price specified in the debt security at which it is to be redeemed. If specified in the applicable prospectus supplement for a series of debt securities, we may rescind the redemption of such debt securities upon the occurrence of any of the following: (a) a general suspension of trading or limitation on prices for securities on the securities exchange on which the shares of our stock are traded for more than 6.5 consecutive trading hours, (b) the decline of the Dow Jones Industrial Average or the S&P 500 (or any successor index) by more than certain percentages; (c) a banking moratorium declared by federal or state authorities; (d) an act of terrorism or commencement of war or other international calamity which in our reasonable judgment could have a material adverse effect on the market for our common stock; or (e) in the event of a redemption of any debt securities that is subject to one or more conditions precedent, a determination by the company that such conditions precedent will not be satisfied.

On and after the redemption date, interest will cease to accrue on the debt securities or any portion thereof called for redemption, unless we default in the payment of the Redemption Price, and accrued interest. On or before the redemption date, we shall deposit with a paying agent, or the applicable Trustee, money sufficient to pay the Redemption Price of and accrued interest on the debt securities to be redeemed on such date. If we elect to redeem less than all of the debt securities of a series, then the Trustee will select the particular debt securities of such series to be redeemed in a manner it deems appropriate and fair.

Defeasance

Except as otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, each indenture will provide that we and any applicable guarantors, at our option,

 

  (a)

will be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of any series of debt securities (except in each case for certain obligations to register the transfer or exchange of debt securities, replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities, maintain paying agencies and hold monies for payment in trust), or

 

  (b)

need not comply with any restrictive covenants described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, the guarantors will be released from the guarantees and certain Events of Default (other than those arising out of the failure to pay interest or principal on the debt securities of that series and certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency and reorganization) will no longer constitute Events of Default with respect to such series of debt securities,

in each case, if:

 

  (1)

we deposit with the Trustee, in trust, money or the equivalent in securities of the government which issued the currency in which the debt securities are denominated or government agencies backed by the full faith and credit of such government, or a combination thereof, which through the payment of interest thereon and principal thereof in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay all the principal (including any mandatory sinking fund payments) of, and interest on, such series on the dates such payments are due in accordance with the terms of such series;

 

  (2)

no event of default or event (including such deposit) which with notice or lapse of time would become an event of default with respect to the debt securities of such series shall have occurred

 

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  and be continuing on the date of such deposit (other than an event of default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit);

 

  (3)

we deliver to the Trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the deposit and related defeasance would not cause the holders of such series to recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes and, in the case of a discharge pursuant to clause (a) above, accompanied by a ruling to such effect received from or published by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS; and

 

  (4)

we deliver to the Trustee an officers’ certificate stating that such deposit was not made by us with the intent of preferring the holders over other creditors of ours or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding creditors of ours or others.

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

Except as otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, each indenture will provide that, if an Event of Default specified therein with respect to any series of debt securities issued thereunder shall have happened and be continuing, either the Trustee thereunder or the holders of 33-1/3% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series (or 33-1/3% in aggregate principal amount of all outstanding debt securities under such indenture, in the case of certain Events of Default affecting all series of debt securities issued under such indenture) may declare the principal of all the debt securities of such series to be due and payable.

Except as otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, an “Event of Default” in respect of any series will be defined in the indentures as being any one of the following events:

 

   

default for 30 days in payment of any interest with respect to such series;

 

   

default in payment of principal of, or premium, if any, on, or any sinking or purchase fund or analogous obligation with respect to, debt securities of such series when due at their stated maturity, by declaration or acceleration, when called for redemption or otherwise;

 

   

default for 90 days after written notice to us by the Trustee thereunder or by holders of 33-1/3% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or warranty pertaining to debt securities of such series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency and reorganization with respect to us or any Significant Subsidiary of ours which is organized under the laws of the U.S. or any political sub-division thereof or the entry of an order ordering the winding up or liquidation of our affairs; and

 

   

any other event of default specified in the prospectus supplement for a series of debt securities.

Each indenture will provide that the Trustee thereunder will, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default with respect to the debt securities of any series issued under such indenture, give to the holders of the debt securities of such series notice of all uncured and unwaived defaults known to it; provided, however, that, except in the case of default in the payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest, if any, on any of the debt securities of such series, the Trustee will be protected in withholding such notice if it in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the holders of the debt securities of such series. The term “default” for the purpose of this provision means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of such series.

Each indenture will contain provisions entitling the Trustee under such indenture, subject to the duty of the Trustee during an Event of Default to act with the required standard of care, to be indemnified to its reasonable satisfaction by the holders of the debt securities before proceeding to exercise any right or power under the applicable indenture at the request of holders of such debt securities.

 

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Each indenture will provide that the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series issued under such indenture may direct the time, method and place of conducting proceedings for remedies available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee in respect of such series, subject to certain conditions.

Except as otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the debt securities, in certain cases, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may waive, on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of such series, any past default or Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of such series except, among other things, a default not theretofore cured in payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest, if any, on any of the senior debt securities of such series or payment of any sinking or purchase fund or analogous obligations with respect to such senior debt securities.

Each indenture will include a covenant that we will file annually with the Trustee a certificate of no default or specifying any default that exists.

Modification of the Indentures

Except as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the debt securities, we and the Trustee may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities issued under the indenture governing such debt securities, enter into indentures supplemental to the applicable indenture for, among others, one or more of the following purposes:

 

  (1)

to evidence the succession of another person to us or to a guarantor, if any, and the assumption by such successor of our or the guarantor’s obligations under the applicable indenture and the debt securities of any series;

 

  (2)

to add to our covenants or those of any guarantor, if any, or to surrender any of our rights or powers or those of any guarantor for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any or all series issued under such indenture;

 

  (3)

to cure any ambiguity, to correct or supplement any provision in the applicable indenture which may be inconsistent with any other provision therein, or to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under such indenture;

 

  (4)

to add to the applicable indenture any provisions that may be expressly permitted by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the TIA, excluding the provisions referred to in Section 316(a)(2) of the TIA as in effect at the date as of which the applicable indenture was executed or any corresponding provision in any similar federal statute hereafter enacted;

 

  (5)

to establish the form or terms of any series of debt securities to be issued under the applicable indenture, to provide for the issuance of any series of debt securities and/or to add to the rights of the holders of debt securities;

 

  (6)

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of any successor Trustee with respect to one or more series of debt securities or to add or change any of the provisions of the applicable indenture as shall be necessary to facilitate the administration of the trusts thereunder by one or more trustees in accordance with the applicable indenture;

 

  (7)

to provide any additional Events of Default;

 

  (8)

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities; provided that the uncertificated securities are issued in registered form for certain federal tax purposes;

 

  (9)

to provide for the terms and conditions of converting those debt securities that are convertible into common stock or another such similar security;

 

  (10)

to secure any series of debt securities;

 

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  (11)

to add guarantees in respect of any series or all of the debt securities;

 

  (12)

to make any change necessary to comply with any requirement of the SEC in connection with the qualification of the applicable indenture or any supplemental indenture under the TIA; and

 

  (13)

to make any other change that does not adversely affect the rights of the holders of the debt securities.

No supplemental indenture for the purpose identified in clauses (2), (3) or (5) above may be entered into if to do so would adversely affect the rights of the holders of debt securities of any series issued under the same indenture in any material respect.

Except as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities, each indenture will contain provisions permitting us and the Trustee under such indenture, with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of all series issued under such indenture to be affected voting as a single class, to execute supplemental indentures for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing or eliminating any of the provisions of the applicable indenture or modifying the rights of the holders of the debt securities of such series to be affected, except that no such supplemental indenture may, without the consent of the holders of affected debt securities, among other things:

 

   

change the maturity of the principal of, or the maturity of any premium on, or any installment of interest on, any such debt security, or reduce the principal amount or the interest or any premium of any such debt securities, or change the method of computing the amount of principal or interest on any such debt securities on any date or change any place of payment where, or the currency in which, any debt securities or any premium or interest thereon is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the maturity of principal or premium, as the case may be;

 

   

reduce the percentage in principal amount of any such debt securities the consent of whose holders is required for any supplemental indenture, waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the applicable indenture or certain defaults under the applicable indenture;

 

   

modify any of the provisions of the applicable indenture related to (i) the requirement that the holders of debt securities issued under such indenture consent to certain amendments of the applicable indenture, (ii) the waiver of past defaults and (iii) the waiver of certain covenants, except to increase the percentage of holders required to make such amendments or grant such waivers; or

 

   

impair or adversely affect the right of any holder to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on, or with respect to, such senior debt securities on or after the maturity of such debt securities.

In addition, the subordinated indenture will provide that we may not make any change in the terms of the subordination of the subordinated debt securities of any series in a manner adverse in any material respect to the holders of any series of subordinated debt securities without the consent of each holder of subordinated debt securities that would be adversely affected.

The Trustee

The Trustee shall be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Governing Law

The indentures will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

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Global Securities

We may issue debt securities through global securities. A global security is a security, typically held by a depositary, that represents the beneficial interests of a number of purchasers of the security. If we do issue global securities, the following procedures will apply.

We will deposit global securities with the depositary identified in the prospectus supplement. After we issue a global security, the depositary will credit on its book-entry registration and transfer system the respective principal amounts of the debt securities represented by the global security to the accounts of persons who have accounts with the depositary. These account holders are known as “participants.” The underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the debt securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Only a participant or a person who holds an interest through a participant may be the beneficial owner of a global security. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global security will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary and its participants.

We and the Trustee will treat the depositary or its nominee as the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by a global security. Except as set forth below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the debt securities represented by the global security registered in their names. They also will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the debt securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the debt securities.

Principal, any premium and any interest payments on debt securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, the Trustee or any paying agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to the beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary, upon receipt of any payments, will immediately credit participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of the global security as shown on the depositary’s records. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in the global security will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers registered in “street names,” and will be the responsibility of the participants.

If the depositary is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary and a successor depositary is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue registered securities in exchange for the global security. In addition, we may at any time in our sole discretion determine not to have any of the debt securities of a series represented by global securities. In that event, we will issue debt securities of that series in definitive form in exchange for the global securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. Units may also include debt obligations of a third party. These units may be issuable as, and for a specified period of time may be transferable only as, a single security, rather than as the separate constituent securities comprising such units. The statements made in this section relating to the units are summaries only and are not complete. When we issue units, we will provide the specific terms of the units in a prospectus supplement. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

When we issue units, we will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the units being issued when applicable:

 

   

the title of any series of units;

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

   

information with respect to any book-entry procedures;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in the units; and

 

   

any other material terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our shares of stock must be owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our shares of common stock and other outstanding shares of stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding shares of common stock (the common share ownership limit), or 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock (the aggregate share ownership limit). We refer to the common share ownership limit and the aggregate share ownership limit collectively as the “ownership limits.” In addition, different ownership limits will apply to Invesco. These ownership limits, which our board of directors has determined will not jeopardize our REIT qualification, will allow Invesco to hold up to 25% of our outstanding common stock or up to 25% of our outstanding capital stock. A person or entity that becomes subject to the ownership limits by virtue of a violative transfer that results in a transfer to a trust, as set forth below, is referred to as a “purported beneficial transferee” if, had the violative transfer been effective, the person or entity would have been a record owner and beneficial owner or solely a beneficial owner of our shares of stock, or is referred to as a “purported record transferee” if, had the violative transfer been effective, the person or entity would have been solely a record owner of our shares of stock.

The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause shares of stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding shares of common stock, or 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our shares of stock by an individual or entity), could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding shares of common stock, or 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock and thereby subject the shares of common stock or total shares of stock to the applicable ownership limits.

Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, exempt a person (prospectively or retroactively) from the above-referenced ownership limits. However, the board of directors may not exempt any person whose ownership of our outstanding stock would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. In order to be considered by the board of directors for exemption, a person also must not own, directly or indirectly, an interest in one of our tenants (or a tenant of any entity which we own or control) that would cause us to own, directly or indirectly, more than a 9.9% interest in the tenant. The person seeking an exemption must represent to the satisfaction of our board of directors that it will not violate these two restrictions. The person also must agree that any violation or attempted violation of these restrictions will result in the automatic transfer to a trust of the shares of stock causing the violation. As a condition of its waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or an IRS ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to our qualification as a REIT.

In connection with the waiver of the ownership limits or at any other time, our board of directors may from time to time increase or decrease the ownership limits for all other persons and entities; provided, however, that any decrease may be made only prospectively as to existing holders; and provided further that the ownership limits may not be increased if, after giving effect to such increase, five or fewer individuals could own or constructively

 

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own in the aggregate, more than 49.9% in value of the shares then outstanding. Prior to the modification of the ownership limits, our board of directors may require such opinions of counsel, affidavits, undertakings or agreements as it may deem necessary or advisable in order to determine or ensure our qualification as a REIT. Reduced ownership limits will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership in our shares of common stock or total shares of stock, as applicable, is in excess of such decreased ownership limits until such time as such person’s or entity’s percentage of our shares of common stock or total shares of stock, as applicable, equals or falls below the decreased ownership limits, but any further acquisition of our shares of common stock or total shares of stock, as applicable, in excess of such percentage ownership of our shares of common stock or total shares of stock will be in violation of the ownership limits.

Our charter further prohibits:

 

   

any person from beneficially or constructively owning, applying certain attribution rules of the Code, shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of our shares of stock that will or may violate any of the foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will be required to give written notice immediately to us (or, in the case of a proposed or attempted acquisition, to give at least 15 days prior written notice to us) and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our qualification as a REIT. The foregoing provisions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance is no longer required for REIT qualification.

Pursuant to our charter, if any transfer of our shares of stock would result in our shares of stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of our shares of stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit established by our board of directors or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause us to violate such restrictions will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the purported record transferee, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for distribution to the beneficiary by the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limits or our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then our charter provides that the transfer of the shares will be void.

Shares of stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the purported record transferee for the shares (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of such devise or gift) and (2) the market price on the date we, or our designee, accepts such offer. We may reduce the amount payable to the purported record transferee, however, by the amount of any dividends or other distributions paid to the purported record transferee on the shares and owed by the purported record transferee to the trustee. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of stock held in the trust pursuant to the clauses discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the

 

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charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates, the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the purported record transferee and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such shares of stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or such other limit as established by our board of directors. After that, the trustee must distribute to the purported record transferee an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the purported record transferee for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares, the last reported sales price reported on the NYSE (or other applicable exchange) on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trust for the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the purported record transferee by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the purported record transferee and owed by the purported record transferee to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the purported record transferee will be immediately paid to the beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if prior to discovery by us that shares of stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of stock are sold by a purported record transferee, then such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and to the extent that the purported record transferee received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such purported record transferee was entitled to receive, such excess amount will be paid to the trustee upon demand. The purported beneficial transferee or purported record transferee has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.

The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any purported record transferee or purported beneficial transferee. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares held in trust and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares held in trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary. Any dividend or other distribution paid prior to our discovery that shares of stock have been transferred to the trust will be paid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand. Any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid will be paid when due to the trustee.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

   

to rescind as void any vote cast by a purported record transferee prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

In addition, if our board of directors or a duly authorized committee determines in good faith that a proposed transfer would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors or a duly authorized committee will take such action as it deems or they deem advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem the shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, is required to give us written notice, stating the owner’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock which the owner beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner shall provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, each

 

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stockholder shall upon demand be required to provide us with such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our status as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.

These ownership limits could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for the common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of the stockholders.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE MARYLAND GENERAL

CORPORATION LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following description of the terms of our charter, bylaws and of certain provisions of Maryland law is only a summary. For a complete description, we refer you to the MGCL, our charter and our bylaws. Copies of our charter and bylaws constitute exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Our Board of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors we have may be established by our board of directors but our current bylaws provide that such number may not be more than 15. Pursuant to Title 3 of Subtitle 8 of the MGCL, our charter and bylaws currently provide that, except as may be provided by the board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, any vacancy may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum. Any individual elected to fill such vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies.

Each of our directors is elected by our common stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Holders of shares of common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote will be able to elect all of our directors.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause and by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes of stockholders entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. Cause means, with respect to any particular director, a conviction of a felony or a final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction holding that such director caused demonstrable, material harm to us through bad faith or active and deliberate dishonesty. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on our board of directors, precludes stockholders from (1) removing incumbent directors except upon a substantial affirmative vote and with cause and (2) filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation) or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding voting shares of stock of the corporation and two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting shares of stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested

 

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stockholder for its shares. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. Our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has by resolution exempted business combinations between us and any person, provided that such business combination is first approved by our board of directors (including a majority of our directors who are not affiliates or associates of such person). Consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any person described above. As a result, any person described above may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interest of our stockholders without compliance by our company with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute.

Should our board of directors opt back into the statute or otherwise fail to approve a business combination, the business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved at a special meeting of stockholders by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (1) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) an officer of the corporation or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer, or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (A) one-tenth or more but less than one-third; (B) one-third or more but less than a majority; or (C) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

 

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The control share acquisition statute does not apply to (1) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. There is no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of the following five provisions:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors in office and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

Without our having elected to be subject to Subtitle 8, our charter and bylaws already (1) require the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors for the removal of any director from the board, which removal will be allowed only for cause and (2) require, unless called by our Chairman of the board of directors, Chief Executive Officer or President or the board of directors, the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast on any matter to call a special meeting to act on such matter.

Meetings of Stockholders

Pursuant to our bylaws, a meeting of our stockholders for the election of directors and the transaction of any business will be held annually on a date and at the time set by our board of directors. In addition, the Chairman of our board of directors, Chief Executive Officer, President or board of directors may call a special meeting of our stockholders. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of our stockholders will also be called by our Secretary to act on any matter upon the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at the meeting.

Amendment to Our Charter and Bylaws

Except for amendments related to removal of directors, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of stock and the vote required for certain amendments to the charter (each of which must be declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) and those amendments permitted to be made without stockholder approval under the MGCL, our charter may be amended only if the amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Our board of directors has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws. In addition, stockholders may alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and adopt new bylaws with approval by a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

 

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Dissolution of Our Company

The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of directors or on the proposal of other business and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.

With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) provided that our board of directors has determined that directors will be elected at such meeting, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.

Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders, including business combination provisions, restrictions on transfer and ownership of our stock and advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. Likewise, if the provision in the bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition and business combination provisions of the MGCL were rescinded or if we were to opt in to the classified board or other provisions of Subtitle 8, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Limitation and Indemnification of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires us (unless our charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

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the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate ourselves and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan, limited liability company or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee of such corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan, limited liability company or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.

 

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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the acquisition, holding, and disposition of our common stock. For purposes of this section, references to “we,” “our,” “us” or “our company” mean only Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc. and not our subsidiaries or other lower-tier entities, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is based upon the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), the Treasury Regulations, current administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) (including administrative interpretations and practices expressed in private letter rulings which are binding on the IRS only with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings) and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect.

No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. No advance ruling has been or will be sought from the IRS regarding any matter discussed in this summary. The summary is also based upon the assumption that the operation of our company, and of its subsidiaries and other lower-tier and affiliated entities, including our operating partnership, will, in each case, be in accordance with its applicable organizational documents. This summary is for general information only, and does not purport to discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be important to a particular stockholder in light of its investment or tax circumstances or to stockholders subject to special tax rules, such as:

 

   

U.S. expatriates;

 

   

persons who mark-to-market our common stock;

 

   

subchapter S corporations;

 

   

U.S. stockholders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

   

financial institutions;

 

   

insurance companies;

 

   

broker-dealers;

 

   

regulated investment companies, or RICs;

 

   

trusts and estates;

 

   

holders who receive our common stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;

 

   

persons holding our common stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;

 

   

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Code;

 

   

persons holding their interest through a partnership or similar pass-through entity;

 

   

persons holding a 10% or more (by vote or value) beneficial interest in us; and, except to the extent discussed below;

 

   

tax-exempt organizations; and

 

   

non-U.S. stockholders (as defined below).

This summary assumes that stockholders will hold our common stock as capital assets, which generally means as property held for investment. The U.S. federal income tax treatment of holders of our common stock depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. In addition, the tax consequences of

 

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holding our common stock to any particular stockholder will depend on the stockholder’s particular tax circumstances. You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal, state, local, and non-U.S. income and other tax consequences to you, in light of your particular investment or tax circumstances, of acquiring, holding, and disposing of our common stock.

On December 22, 2017, tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was signed into law, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations. Most of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. While the Treasury Department and the IRS have issued extensive guidance on various aspects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, much of the guidance is only in the form of proposed Treasury Regulations, which may change, there is still no guidance on other issues, and Congress has not enacted technical corrections legislation to address drafting errors that are not capable of being addressed in Treasury Regulations or other administrative guidance. Prospective stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors with respect to the effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and any other regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on investment in our common stock.

This summary of certain material federal income tax considerations is for general information purposes only and is not tax advice. You are advised to consult your tax advisor regarding the federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock.

Taxation of Our Company in General

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2009. We believe that we have been organized and have operated, and we intend to continue to operate in a manner that allows us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code.

Qualification and taxation as a REIT depends on our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, through actual results of operations, distribution levels, diversity of share ownership and various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Code. Our ability to qualify as a REIT also requires that we satisfy certain asset and income tests, some of which depend upon the fair market values of assets directly or indirectly owned by us or which serve as security for loans made by us. Such values may not be susceptible to a precise determination. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any taxable year will satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT.

Taxation of REITs in General

As indicated above, qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Code. The material qualification requirements are summarized below, under “- Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.” While we believe that we will operate so that we qualify as a REIT, no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification as a REIT or that we will be able to operate in accordance with the REIT requirements in the future. See “- Failure to Qualify.”

Provided that we qualify as a REIT, we will generally be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay and, therefore, will not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our net taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” at the corporate and stockholder levels that results generally from investment in a corporation. Rather, income generated by a REIT generally is taxed only at the stockholder level, upon a distribution of dividends by the REIT.

 

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Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, however, we will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation as follows:

 

   

We will be taxed at regular corporate income tax rates on any undistributed income, including undistributed net capital gains.

 

   

If we have net income from prohibited transactions, which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax. See “- Prohibited Transactions” and “- Foreclosure Property” below.

 

   

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction), but the net income from the sale or operation of the property that is not otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test described below would be subject to corporate income tax at the highest corporate income tax rate.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on an amount equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or (B) the amount by which we fail the 95% gross income test, as the case may be, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy any of the REIT asset tests, as described below, other than a failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests that do not exceed a statutory de minimis amount as described more fully below, but our failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the product of the highest corporate income tax rate and the amount of net income generated by the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a gross income or asset test requirement) and the violation is due to reasonable cause, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods (or the required distribution), we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (A) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior years), plus (B) retained amounts on which income tax is paid at the corporate level.

 

   

We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of our stockholders, as described below in “- Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

 

   

A 100% tax may be imposed on some items of income and expense that are directly or constructively paid between us and any taxable REIT subsidiaries (“TRSs”) we may own if and to the extent that the IRS successfully adjusts the reported amounts of these items.

 

   

If we acquire appreciated assets from a corporation that is not a REIT in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our hands is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the assets in the hands of the non-REIT corporation, we will be subject to tax on such appreciation at the highest corporate income tax rate then applicable if we subsequently recognize gain on a

 

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disposition of any such assets during the five-year period following their acquisition from the non-REIT corporation. The results described in this paragraph apply only if the non-REIT corporation will not elect, in lieu of this treatment, to be subject to an immediate tax when the asset is acquired by us.

 

   

We will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any excess inclusion income derived from an investment in residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits or REMICs to the extent our stock is held by specified tax-exempt organizations not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income. Similar rules will apply if we own an equity interest in a taxable mortgage pool through a subsidiary REIT of our operating partnership. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a TRS, we will not be subject to this tax.

 

   

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the stockholder’s basis in our common stock.

 

   

We may have interests in entities, including TRSs, that are subchapter C corporations, the earnings of which could be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

In addition, we may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state, local, and foreign income, franchise, property and other taxes. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for the special Code provisions applicable to REITs;

 

  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to specific provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months;

 

  (6)

in which, during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Code to include specified entities);

 

  (7)

which meets other tests described below, including with respect to the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions; and

 

  (8)

that makes an election to be a REIT for the current taxable year or has made such an election for a previous taxable year that has not been terminated or revoked.

Conditions (1) through (4) must be met during the entire taxable year, and condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year.

 

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Conditions (5) and (6) do not need to be satisfied for the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT has been made. Our charter provides restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of its shares, which are intended to assist in satisfying the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. For purposes of condition (6), an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

Our charter contains restrictions on ownership or transfer of our stock that are designed to ensure that we satisfy the share ownership requirements. In addition, to monitor compliance with the share ownership requirements, we are generally required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of our shares. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of our shares of stock, in which the record holders are to disclose the actual owners of the shares (i.e., the persons required to include in gross income the dividends paid by us). A list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand must be maintained as part of our records. Failure by us to comply with these record-keeping requirements could subject us to monetary penalties. If we satisfy these requirements and after exercising reasonable diligence would not have known that condition (6) is not satisfied, we will be deemed to have satisfied such condition. A stockholder that fails or refuses to comply with the demand is required by Treasury Regulations to submit a statement with its tax return disclosing the actual ownership of the shares and other information.

In addition, a corporation generally may not elect to become a REIT unless its taxable year is the calendar year. We satisfy this requirement.

Effect of Subsidiary Entities

Ownership of Partnership Interests

In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company or other entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company or other entity), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT is deemed to own its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets and to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s gross income based on its pro rata share of capital interests in the partnership for purposes of the asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, as described below. However, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, described below, the determination of a REIT’s interest in partnership assets will be based on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding, for these purposes, certain securities as described in the Code.

If we become a limited partner in any partnership and such partnership takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such partnership. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

We have control of our operating partnership and intend to operate it in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. Prior to December 1, 2018, our operating partnership was treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. On November 30, 2018, Invesco Investments (Bermuda) Ltd.’s interests in our operating partnership were completely redeemed, and a subsidiary of ours that is treated as a disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes became the only other partner in our operating partnership. Accordingly, upon redemption of Invesco Investments (Bermuda) Ltd.’s interests in our operating partnership, the partnership status for U.S. federal income tax purposes of our operating partnership terminated,

 

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and our operating partnership became a disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, so that we are treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of all of the assets owned by our operating partnership and as earning all of the income earned by our operating partnership.

In addition, the assets and gross income of the partnership generally are deemed to retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of partnerships in which we own an equity interest (including our interest in our operating partnership and its equity interests in lower-tier partnerships) is treated as assets and items of income of our company for purposes of applying the REIT requirements described below. Consequently, to the extent that we directly or indirectly hold a preferred or other equity interest in a partnership, the partnership’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control or only limited influence over the partnership. A summary of certain rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships and their partners is provided below in “- Tax Aspects of Ownership of Equity Interests in Partnerships.”

Disregarded Subsidiaries

If a REIT owns a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” that subsidiary is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT itself, including for purposes of the gross income and asset tests applicable to REITs, as summarized below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is any corporation, other than a TRS, that is wholly owned by a REIT, by other disregarded subsidiaries of the REIT or by a combination of the two. Single member limited liability companies are also generally disregarded as separate entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including for purposes of the REIT gross income and asset tests. Disregarded subsidiaries, along with partnerships in which we hold an equity interest, are sometimes referred to herein as “pass-through subsidiaries.”

In the event that a disregarded subsidiary ceases to be wholly owned by us (for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of us), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “- Asset Tests” and “- Gross Income Tests.”

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries

A REIT, in general, may jointly elect with a subsidiary corporation, whether or not wholly owned, to treat the subsidiary corporation as a TRS. We generally may not own more than 10% of the securities of a taxable corporation, as measured by voting power or value, unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a TRS. The separate existence of a TRS or other taxable corporation, unlike a disregarded subsidiary as discussed above, is not ignored for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, such an entity would generally be subject to corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow generated by us and our subsidiaries in the aggregate and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or other taxable subsidiary corporation or as receiving any income that the subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the subsidiary. This treatment can affect the gross income and asset test calculations that apply to the REIT, as described below.

Because a parent REIT does not include the assets and income of such subsidiary corporations in determining the parent’s compliance with the REIT requirements, such entities may be used by the parent REIT

 

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to undertake indirectly activities that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude it from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries or render commercially unfeasible (for example, activities that give rise to certain categories of income such as non-qualifying hedging income or inventory sales). We may hold certain assets in one or more TRSs, subject to the limitation that securities in TRSs may not represent more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of our assets. In general, we intend that loans that we acquire with an intention of selling in a manner that might expose us to a 100% tax on “prohibited transactions” will be acquired by a TRS. If dividends are paid to us by one or more TRSs we may own, then a portion of the dividends that we distribute to stockholders who are taxed at individual rates generally will be eligible for taxation at preferential qualified dividend income tax rates rather than at ordinary income rates. See “- Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders” and “- Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Certain restrictions imposed on TRSs are intended to ensure that such entities will be subject to appropriate levels of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, various rules impose a 100% excise tax with respect to certain non-arm’s length transactions that would understate the income, or overstate the expenses, of a TRS.

Gross Income Tests

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we annually must satisfy two gross income tests. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year, excluding gross income from sales of inventory or dealer property in “prohibited transactions” and certain hedging transactions, must be derived from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends received from and gains from the disposition of other shares of REITs, interest income derived from mortgage loans secured by real property (including certain types of RMBS and CMBS), gains from the sale of real estate assets, and income from certain kinds of temporary investments. Second, at least 95% of our gross income in each taxable year, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging transactions, must be derived from some combination of income that qualifies under the 75% gross income test described above, as well as other dividends, interest, and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, which need not have any relation to real property.

For purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, a REIT is deemed to have earned a proportionate share of the income earned by any partnership, or any limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in which it owns an interest, which share is determined by reference to its capital interest in such entity, and is deemed to have earned the income earned by any qualified REIT subsidiary or other disregarded subsidiary.

Interest Income

Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation upon which such interest is paid is secured by a mortgage on real property. If we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and other property and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date that we acquired the mortgage loan, the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other property, and our income from the arrangement will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Debt obligations secured by a mortgage on both real and personal property are treated as a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test, and interest thereon is treated as interest on an obligation secured by real property, if the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the fair market value of all property securing the debt. Thus, there will be no apportionment for purposes of the asset tests or the gross income tests if the fair market value of personal property securing the loan does not exceed 15% of the fair market value of all property securing the loan.

 

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We intend to invest in RMBS and CMBS that are either pass-through certificates or CMOs as well as mortgage loans and mezzanine loans. We expect that the RMBS and CMBS will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income from our RMBS and CMBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of mortgage-backed securities treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property, as discussed above. In the case of RMBS or CMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. If less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce non-qualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities. Among the assets we may hold are certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than a direct mortgage on the real property. Revenue Procedure 2003-65 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan, if it meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests (described below), and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. The mezzanine loans that we acquire may not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. Hence, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of such assets as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests (described below) or the interest generated by these loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test. To the extent we make corporate mezzanine loans, such loans will not qualify as real estate assets and interest income with respect to such loans will not be qualifying income for the 75% gross income test.

We believe that substantially all of our income from our mortgage-backed securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests. However, to the extent that we own non-REMIC CMOs or other debt instruments secured by mortgage loans (rather than by real property), the interest income received with respect to such securities generally will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. We have made loans and acquired debt instruments that are not, or may not be considered to be, secured by real property. Interest on such debt instruments will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test but not the 75% gross income test. In addition, the loan amount of a mortgage loan that we own may exceed the value of the real property securing the loan. In that case, a portion of the interest may not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test.

We have entered into “to-be-announced” forward contracts (“TBAs”) for hedging purposes or to acquire Agency RMBS or CMBS, transactions that have not generated gross income for purposes of the gross income tests. We may recognize income or gains from the disposition of TBAs through dollar roll transactions. There is no direct authority with respect to the qualifications of income or gains from dispositions of TBAs as gains from the sale of real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property) or other qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. We will not treat these items as qualifying for purposes of the 75% gross income test unless we receive advice of our counsel that such income and gains should be treated as qualifying for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Absent such advice, we will attempt to limit gains of any such dollar roll transactions and other nonqualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to less than 25% of our total gross income, which may limit our ability to enter into TBAs. Moreover, even if we were to receive advice of counsel that such income and gains should be treated as qualifying for purposes of the 75% gross income test, it is possible that the IRS could assert that such income is not qualifying income. In the event that such income were determined not to be qualifying for the 75% gross income test, we could be subject to a penalty tax or we could fail to qualify as a REIT if such income when added to any other non-qualifying income exceeded 25% of our gross income.

 

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Dividend Income

We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions are generally classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Any dividends received by us from a REIT is qualifying income in our hands for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

Hedging Transactions

We may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent provided by Treasury Regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we enter into (1) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as specified in Treasury Regulations before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, (2) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income tests which is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, or (3) income from hedging transactions entered into to hedge existing hedging positions after a portion of the hedged indebtedness or property is disposed of, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT.

Rents from Real Property

We currently do not intend to acquire real property with the proceeds of this offering. However, to the extent that we own real property or interests therein, rents we receive qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income tests described above, only if several conditions are met, including the following. If rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with real property is greater than 15% of the total rent received under any particular lease, then all of the rent attributable to such personal property will not qualify as rents from real property. The determination of whether an item of personal property constitutes real or personal property under the REIT provisions of the Code is subject to both legal and factual considerations and is therefore subject to different interpretations.

In addition, in order for rents received by us to qualify as “rents from real property,” the rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property, if earned directly by us. Moreover, for rents received to qualify as “rents from real property,” we generally must not operate or manage the property or furnish or render certain services to the tenants of such property, other than through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from which we derive no income or through a TRS. We are permitted, however, to perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered rendered to the occupant of the property. In addition, we may directly or indirectly provide non-customary services to tenants of our properties without disqualifying all of the rent from the property if the payment for such services does not exceed 1% of the total gross income from the property. In such a case, only the amounts for non-customary services are not treated as rents from real property, and the provision of the services does not disqualify the related rent.

 

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Rental income will qualify as rents from real property only to the extent that we do not directly or constructively own, (1) in the case of any tenant which is a corporation, stock possessing either 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, or 10% or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such tenant, or (2) in the case of any tenant which is not a corporation, an interest of 10% or more in the assets or net profits of such tenant.

Failure to Satisfy the Gross Income Tests

We intend to monitor our sources of income, including any non-qualifying income received by us, so as to ensure our compliance with the gross income tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may still qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under applicable provisions of the Code. These relief provisions will generally be available if the failure of our company to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and, following the identification of such failure, we set forth a description of each item of our gross income that satisfies the gross income tests in a schedule for the taxable year filed in accordance with the Treasury Regulations. It is not possible to state whether we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions in all circumstances. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances involving us, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above under “- Taxation of REITs in General,” even where these relief provisions apply, a tax would be imposed upon the profit attributable to the amount by which we fail to satisfy the particular gross income test.

Phantom Income

Due to the nature of the assets in which we will invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from certain of our assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and we may be required to report taxable income in early periods that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

We may acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount. The discount at which such debt instruments are acquired may reflect doubts about their ultimate collectability rather than current market interest rates. The amount of such discount will nevertheless generally be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Market discount on a debt instrument generally accrues on the basis of the constant yield to maturity of the debt instrument, based generally on the assumption that all future payments on the debt instrument will be made. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal on the debt instrument is made. In the case of residential mortgage loans, principal payments are ordinarily made monthly, and consequently, accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus any market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions in a subsequent taxable year.

Some of the mortgage-backed securities that we purchase will likely have been issued with original issue discount (“OID”). We will be required to accrue OID based on a constant yield method and income will accrue on the debt instrument based on the assumption that all future payments on such mortgage-backed securities will be made. If such mortgage-backed securities turn out not to be fully collectible, an offsetting loss deduction will only become available in a later year when uncollectability is provable.

In addition, we may acquire distressed debt investments that are subsequently modified by agreement with the borrower. If the amendments to the outstanding debt are “significant modifications” under applicable Treasury Regulations, the modified debt may be considered to have been reissued to us at a gain in a debt-for-debt exchange with the borrower. In that event, we may be required to recognize income to the extent that principal amount of the modified debt exceeds our adjusted tax basis in the unmodified debt, and we would hold the modified loan with a cost basis equal to its principal amount for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

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In the event that any mortgage-related assets acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event a borrower with respect to a particular debt instrument acquired by us encounters financial difficulty rendering it unable to pay stated interest as due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income.

Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, we generally will be required to take certain amounts in income no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. The application of this rule may require the accrual of income with respect to our debt instruments or mortgage-backed securities, such as original issue discount, earlier than would be the case under the general tax rules, although the precise application of this rule is unclear at this time. This rule generally will be effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 or, for debt instruments or mortgage-backed securities issued with original issue discount, for tax years beginning after December 31, 2018. The IRS issued a Notice that they intend to issue Treasury Regulations, applicable as of January 1, 2018, providing that accrued market discount is not includible under these new rules. We have not identified any material import of these new rules.

Due to each of these potential differences between income recognition or expense deduction and cash receipts or disbursements, there is a significant risk that we may have substantial taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “- Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Asset Tests

At the close of each calendar quarter, we must satisfy multiple tests relating to the nature of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by some combination of “real estate assets,” cash, cash items, U.S. government securities, under some circumstances, stock or debt instruments purchased with new capital and, debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs. For this purpose, real estate assets include interests in real property, such as land, buildings, leasehold interests in real property, stock of other corporations that qualify as REITs and certain kinds of RMBS, CMBS and mortgage loans. Regular or residual interest in REMICs are generally treated as a real estate asset. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets of the REMIC. In the case of interests in grantor trusts, we will be treated as owning an undivided beneficial interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% test are subject to the additional asset tests. Second, the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our gross assets. Third, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, as measured by either voting power or value. Fourth, the aggregate value of all securities of TRSs held by us may not exceed 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the value of our gross assets. Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of debt instruments that are issued by publicly offered REITs and would not be treated as real estate assets if not issued by a publicly offered REIT.

To the extent rent attributable to personal property is treated as rents from real property, the personal property is treated as a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. Similarly, a debt obligation secured by a mortgage on both real and personal property is treated as a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test, and interest thereon is treated as interest on an obligation secured by real property, if the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the fair market value of all property securing the debt. Thus, there is no apportionment for purposes of the asset tests or the gross income tests if the fair market value of personal property securing the loan does not exceed 15% of the fair market value of all property securing the loan.

The 5% and 10% asset tests do not apply to securities of TRSs and qualified REIT subsidiaries. The 10% value test does not apply to certain “straight debt” and other excluded securities, as described in the Code, including but not limited to any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property

 

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and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, (1) a REIT’s interest as a partner in a partnership is not considered a security for purposes of applying the 10% value test; (2) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or other excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income is derived from sources that would qualify for the 75% REIT gross income test; and (3) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or other excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership to the extent of the REIT’s interest as a partner in the partnership.

For purposes of the 10% value test, “straight debt” means a written unconditional promise to pay on demand on a specified date a sum certain in money if (1) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, (2) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors other than certain contingencies relating to the timing and amount of principal and interest payments, as described in the Code and (3) in the case of an issuer which is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our “controlled taxable REIT subsidiaries” as defined in the Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer which (A) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (B) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, for the purposes of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

We may hold certain mezzanine loans that do not qualify for the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2003-65 discussed above pursuant to which certain loans secured by a first priority security interest in equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly own real property will be treated as qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test and therefore not be subject to the 10% vote or value test. In addition such mezzanine loans may not qualify as “straight debt” securities or for one of the other exclusions from the definition of “securities” for purposes of the 10% value test. We intend to make any such investments in such a manner as not to fail the asset tests described above.

We may hold certain participation interests, including B Notes, in mortgage loans and mezzanine loans originated by other lenders. B Notes are interests in underlying loans created by virtue of participations or similar agreements to which the originators of the loans are parties, along with one or more participants. The borrower on the underlying loan is typically not a party to the participation agreement. The performance of this investment depends upon the performance of the underlying loan and, if the underlying borrower defaults, the participant typically has no recourse against the originator of the loan. The originator often retains a senior position in the underlying loan and grants junior participations which absorb losses first in the event of a default by the borrower. We generally expect to treat our participation interests as qualifying real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests and interest that we derive from such investments as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test discussed above. The appropriate treatment of participation interests for U.S. federal income tax purposes is not entirely certain, however, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our treatment of our participation interests. In the event of a determination that such participation interests do not qualify as real estate assets, or that the income that we derive from such participation interests does not qualify as mortgage interest for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests, we could be subject to a penalty tax, or could fail to qualify as a REIT.

After initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our qualification as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy the asset tests because we acquire securities during a quarter, we can cure this failure by disposing of sufficient non-qualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. If we fail the 5% asset test, or the 10% vote or value asset tests at the end of any quarter and such failure is not cured within 30 days thereafter, we may dispose of sufficient assets (generally within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure to satisfy these asset tests occurred) to cure such a violation that does not exceed the lesser of 1% of our assets at the end of the relevant quarter or $10,000,000. If we fail any of the other asset tests or our failure of the 5% and 10% asset tests is in excess of the de minimis amount described above, as

 

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long as such failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, we are permitted to avoid disqualification as a REIT, after the 30-day cure period, by taking steps including the disposition of sufficient assets to meet the asset test (generally within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure to satisfy the REIT asset test occurred) and paying a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate income tax rate of the net income generated by the non-qualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset test.

We expect that the assets and mortgage-backed securities that we own generally will be qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test. However, to the extent that we own non-REMIC CMOs or other debt instruments secured by mortgage loans (rather than by real property) or secured by non-real estate assets, or debt securities issued by C corporations that are not secured by mortgages on real property, those securities may not be qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test. We have entered into TBAs for hedging purposes and to purchase Agency RMBS or CMBS. There is no direct authority with respect to the qualification of TBAs as real estate assets or Government securities for purposes of the 75% asset test. We will not treat TBAs as such unless we receive advice of our counsel that TBAs should be treated as qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test. As a result of the quarterly 75% asset test and the requirement that we limit the value of securities of each counterparty to less than 5% of our total gross assets, our ability to purchase TBAs could be limited. Moreover, even if we were to receive advice of counsel that TBAs should be treated as qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, it is possible that the IRS could assert that TBAs are not qualifying assets in which case we could be subject to a penalty tax or fail to qualify as a REIT if such assets, when combined with other non-real estate assets exceeds 25% of our total gross assets. We believe that our holdings of securities and other assets will be structured in a manner that will comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements and intend to monitor compliance on an ongoing basis. Moreover, values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future. Furthermore, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity (or something else) for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset tests. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our interests in subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers (including REIT issuers) cause a violation of the REIT asset tests.

In addition, we intend to enter into repurchase agreements under which we will nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any such agreement notwithstanding that we may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements

In order to qualify as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:

 

  (a)

the sum of:

 

   

90% of our “REIT taxable income” (computed without regard to our deduction for dividends paid and our net capital gains); and

 

   

90% of the net income (after tax), if any, from foreclosure property (as described below); minus

 

  (b)

the sum of specified items of non-cash income that exceeds a percentage of our income.

These distributions must be paid in the taxable year to which they relate or in the following taxable year if such distributions are declared in October, November or December of the taxable year, are payable to stockholders of record on a specified date in any such month and are actually paid before the end of January of the following year. Such distributions are treated as both paid by us and received by each stockholder on

 

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December 31 of the year in which they are declared. In addition, at our election, a distribution for a taxable year may be declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and be paid with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided that such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such taxable year. These distributions are taxable to our stockholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement.

To the extent that we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to tax at regular corporate income tax rates on the retained portion. In addition, we may elect to retain, rather than distribute, our net long-term capital gains and pay tax on such gains. In this case, we could elect to have our stockholders include their proportionate share of such undistributed long-term capital gains in income and receive a corresponding credit for their proportionate share of the tax paid by us. Our stockholders would then increase the adjusted basis of their stock in us by the difference between the designated amounts included in their long-term capital gains and the tax deemed paid with respect to their proportionate shares.

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior periods) and (y) the amounts of income retained on which we have paid corporate income tax. We intend to make timely distributions so that we are not subject to the 4% excise tax.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act contains provisions that may change the way that we calculate our REIT taxable income and that our subsidiaries calculate their taxable income in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, we will have to accrue certain items of income before they would otherwise be taken into income under the Code if they are taken into account in our applicable financial statements. We have not yet identified any material import of this provision. Additionally, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act limits interest deductions for businesses, whether in corporate or pass-through form, to the sum of the taxpayer’s business interest income for the tax year and 30% of the taxpayer’s adjusted taxable income for the tax year. We expect to have net business interest income, in which case this limitation should not apply to us. Finally, there are new limitations on use of net operating losses arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017.

It is possible that we, from time to time, may not have sufficient cash to meet the distribution requirements due to timing differences between (1) the actual receipt of cash, including receipt of distributions from our subsidiaries and (2) the inclusion of items in income by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, we may acquire assets, including debt instruments requiring us to accrue OID or recognize market discount income that generate taxable income in excess of economic income or in advance of the receipt of corresponding cash flow. See “- Gross Income Tests - Phantom Income.” In addition, we may be required under the terms of certain indebtedness to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on such indebtedness. In the event that such timing differences occur, in order to meet the distribution requirements, it might be necessary to arrange for short-term, or possibly long-term, borrowings or to pay dividends in the form of taxable stock dividends. We may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirements for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In this case, we may be able to avoid losing our qualification as a REIT or being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. However, we will be required to pay interest and a penalty based on the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

Recordkeeping Requirements

We are required to maintain records and request on an annual basis information from specified stockholders. These requirements are designed to assist us in determining the actual ownership of our outstanding stock and maintaining our qualifications as a REIT.

 

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Prohibited Transactions

Net income we derive from a prohibited transaction (including any foreign currency gain, as defined in Section 988(b)(1) of the Code, minus any foreign currency loss, as defined in Section 988(b)(2) of the Code) is subject to a 100% tax, unless we qualify for a safe harbor exception. The term “prohibited transaction” generally includes a sale or other disposition of property (other than foreclosure property) that is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business by a REIT, by a lower-tier partnership in which the REIT holds an equity interest or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to the REIT. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset owned by us or our pass-through subsidiaries will be held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers and that a sale of any assets owned by us directly or through a pass-through subsidiary will not be in the ordinary course of business. However, whether property is held as inventory or “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends on the particular facts and circumstances. No assurance can be given that any particular asset in which we hold a direct or indirect interest will not be treated as property held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers or that certain safe harbor provisions of the Code that prevent such treatment will apply. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates.

Foreclosure Property

Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the maximum corporate income tax rate on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. We do not anticipate that we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but if we do receive any such income, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income

An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool, or TMP, under the Code if:

 

   

substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

 

   

more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

 

   

the entity has issued debt obligations (liabilities) that have two or more maturities; and

 

   

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations (liabilities) “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

Under Treasury Regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets,

 

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and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP. Certain financing and securitization arrangements we may employ may give rise to TMPs, with the consequences as described below.

Where an entity, or a portion of an entity, is classified as a TMP, it is generally treated as a taxable corporation for federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT, or a portion of a REIT, or a disregarded subsidiary of a REIT, that is a TMP, however, special rules apply. The TMP is not treated as a corporation that is subject to corporate income tax, and the TMP classification does not directly affect the tax status of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would, in general, except as described below, be limited to the stockholders of the REIT.

A portion of the REIT’s income from the TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” The REIT’s excess inclusion income, including any excess inclusion income from a residual interest in a REMIC, must be allocated among its stockholders in proportion to dividends paid. The REIT is required to notify stockholders of the amount of “excess inclusion income” allocated to them. A stockholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

 

   

cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the stockholder;

 

   

is subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of stockholders that are otherwise generally exempt from federal income tax; and

 

   

results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate, without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption, to the extent allocable to most types of foreign stockholders.

To the extent that excess inclusion income is allocated to a tax-exempt stockholder of a REIT that is not subject to unrelated business income tax (such as a government entity or charitable remainder trust), the REIT may be subject to tax on this income at the highest applicable corporate income tax rate. In that case, the REIT could reduce distributions to such stockholders by the amount of such tax paid by the REIT attributable to such stockholder’s ownership. Treasury Regulations provide that such a reduction in distributions does not give rise to a preferential dividend that could adversely affect the REIT’s compliance with its distribution requirements. The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make such determinations using a reasonable method. Tax-exempt investors, foreign investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors.

If we hold an interest, directly or indirectly, in an entity that would be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes that is, or holds an interest in, a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership or holding thereof that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements.

We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our status as a REIT.

 

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Failure to Qualify

In the event that we violate a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, other than a violation under the gross income or asset tests described above (for which other specified relief provisions are available), we may nevertheless continue to qualify as a REIT under specified relief provisions available to us to avoid such disqualification if the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each failure to satisfy a requirement for qualification as a REIT. This cure provision reduces the instances that could lead to our disqualification as a REIT for violations due to reasonable cause. If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and none of the relief provisions of the Code apply, we will be subject to tax on our taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates. Dividends that we distribute to our stockholders in any year in which we are not a REIT will not be deductible by us, nor will they be required to be made. In this situation, to the extent of current and accumulated earnings and profits, and, subject to limitations of the Code, dividends that we distribute to our stockholders will generally be qualified dividend income to our stockholders who are individual U.S. stockholders (as defined below), taxable as long-term capital gains, and dividends in the hands of our corporate U.S. stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. Unless we are entitled to relief under the specific statutory provisions, we will also be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following a year during which qualification was lost. It is not possible to state whether, in all circumstances, we will be entitled to statutory relief.

Tax Aspects of Ownership of Equity Interests in Partnerships

General

We may hold assets through entities that are classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Prior to December 1, 2018, our operating partnership was treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. On November 30, 2018, Invesco Investments (Bermuda) Ltd.’s interests in our operating partnership were completely redeemed, and a subsidiary of ours that is treated as a disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes became the only other partner in our operating partnership. Accordingly, upon redemption of Invesco Investments (Bermuda) Ltd.’s interests in our operating partnership, the partnership status for U.S. federal income tax purposes of our Operating Partnership terminated, and our operating partnership became a disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

In general, partnerships are “pass-through” entities that are not subject to U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners are allocated their proportionate shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a partnership, and are subject to tax on these items without regard to whether the partners receive a distribution from the partnership. We will include in our income our proportionate share of these partnership items for purposes of the various REIT income tests, based on our capital interest in such partnership, and in the computation of our REIT taxable income. Moreover, for purposes of the REIT asset tests, we will include our proportionate share of assets held by subsidiary partnerships, based on our capital interest in such partnerships (other than for purposes of the 10% value test, for which the determination of our interest in partnership assets will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership excluding, for these purposes, certain excluded securities as described in the Code). Consequently, to the extent that we hold an equity interest in a partnership, the partnership’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control, or only limited influence, over the partnership.

Entity Classification

The ownership by us of equity interests in partnerships, limited liability companies and other non-corporate entities, including our operating partnership, involves special tax considerations, including the possibility of a challenge by the IRS of the status of any such entity as a partnership or a disregarded entity, as opposed to an association taxable as a corporation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership, limited liability company or other non-corporate entity were treated as

 

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an association for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would be taxable as a corporation and, therefore, could be subject to an entity-level tax on its income. In such a situation, the character of our assets and items of our gross income would change and would preclude us from satisfying the REIT asset tests (particularly the tests generally preventing a REIT from owning more than 10% of the voting securities, or more than 10% of the value of the securities, of a corporation) or the gross income tests as discussed in “- Asset Tests” and “- Gross Income Tests” above, and in turn would prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “- Failure to Qualify,” above, for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests for a taxable year.

In addition, any change in the status of any of our subsidiary partnerships for tax purposes might be treated as a taxable event, in which case we could have taxable income that is subject to the REIT distribution requirements without receiving any cash.

Tax Allocations with Respect to Partnership Properties

If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. Under the Code and the Treasury Regulations, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated for tax purposes in a manner such that the contributing partner is charged with, or benefits from, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value of the contributed property and the adjusted tax basis of such property at the time of the contribution, or a book-tax difference. Such allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect partnership capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners. To the extent that any of our subsidiary partnerships acquires appreciated (or depreciated) properties by way of capital contributions from its partners, allocations would need to be made in a manner consistent with these requirements.

Partnership Audits

For partnership tax returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, new rules apply for U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Such audits will continue to be conducted at the partnership level, but unless such partnership qualifies for and affirmatively elects an alternative procedure, any adjustments to the amount of tax due (including interest and penalties) will be payable by the partnership itself. Under the alternative procedure, if elected, a partnership would issue information returns to persons who were partners in the audited year, who would then be required to take the adjustments into account in calculating their own tax liability, and the partnership would not be liable for the adjustments. If a partnership is able to and in fact elects the alternative procedure for a given adjustment, the amount of taxes for which such persons will be liable will be increased by any applicable penalties and a special interest charge. There can be no assurance that any such entities will be eligible to make such an election or that it will, in fact, make such an election for any given adjustment.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

This section summarizes the taxation of U.S. stockholders that are not tax-exempt organizations. For these purposes, a U.S. stockholder is a beneficial owner of our common stock that for U.S. federal income tax purposes is:

 

   

a citizen or resident of the U.S.;

 

   

a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the U.S. or of a political subdivision thereof (including the District of Columbia);

 

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an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

any trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.

If an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A partner of a partnership holding our common stock should consult its own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to the partner of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our stock by the partnership.

Unearned Income Medicare Tax

High-income U.S. individuals, estates, and trusts are subject to an additional 3.8% tax on net investment income. For these purposes, net investment income includes dividends and gains from sales of stock. In the case of an individual, the tax will be 3.8% of the lesser of the individual’s net investment income or the excess of the individual’s modified adjusted gross income over $250,000 in the case of a married individual filing a joint return or a surviving spouse, $125,000 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return, or $200,000 in the case of a single individual. The 20% deduction for “qualified REIT dividends” described below is not taken into account in computing net investment income.

Distributions

Provided that we qualify as a REIT, distributions made to U.S. stockholders out of our current and accumulated earnings and profits that are not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividends will generally be taken into account by U.S. stockholders as ordinary income and will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction for corporations. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, individuals and other non-corporate taxpayers are entitled to up to a 20% deduction for “qualified REIT dividends,” dividends that are not designated as capital gain dividends or qualified dividends. The amount of the deduction may be up to 20% of the amount of the non-corporate U.S. stockholder’s aggregate qualified dividend income, but may be less than 20% of the amount of qualified REIT dividends if the U.S. stockholder has losses from publicly traded partnerships or the U.S. stockholder’s taxable income, not taking into account net capital gain, is less than the amount of the U.S. stockholder’s qualified REIT dividends. In addition, Treasury Regulations under section 199A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), impose a minimum holding period for the 20% deduction that was not set forth in the Code. Under the Treasury Regulations, in order for a REIT dividend with respect to a share of REIT stock to be treated as a qualified REIT dividend, the U.S. stockholder (i) must have held the share for more than 45 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend and (ii) cannot have been under an obligation to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property, e.g., pursuant to a short sale.

In determining the extent to which a distribution with respect to our common stock constitutes a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock, if any, and then to our common stock. Dividends received from REITs are generally not eligible to be taxed at the preferential qualified dividend income rates applicable to individual U.S. stockholders who receive dividends from taxable subchapter C corporations.

Distributions from us that we designate as capital gain dividends will be taxed to U.S. stockholders as long-term capital gains to the extent that they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year, without regard to the period for which the U.S. stockholder has held its stock. To the extent that we elect under the applicable provisions of the Code to retain our net capital gains, U.S. stockholders will be treated as having

 

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received, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our undistributed capital gains as well as a corresponding credit for taxes paid by us on such retained capital gains. U.S. stockholders will increase their adjusted tax basis in our common stock by the difference between their allocable share of such retained capital gain and their share of the tax paid by us. Corporate U.S. stockholders may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. stockholder to the extent that they do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the U.S. stockholder’s shares in respect of which the distributions were made, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of these shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the adjusted tax basis of an individual U.S. stockholder’s shares, they will be included in income as long-term capital gain, or short-term capital gain if the shares have been held for one year or less. Any dividend declared by us in October, November or December of any year and payable to a U.S. stockholder of record on a specified date in any such month will be treated as both paid by us and received by the U.S. stockholder on December 31 of such year, provided that the dividend is actually paid by us before the end of January of the following calendar year.

With respect to U.S. stockholders who are taxed at the rates applicable to individuals, we may elect to designate a portion of our distributions paid to such U.S. stockholders as “qualified dividend income.” A portion of a distribution that is properly designated as qualified dividend income is taxable to non-corporate U.S. stockholders as capital gain, provided that the U.S. stockholder has held the common stock with respect to which the distribution is made for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which such common stock became ex-dividend with respect to the relevant distribution. The maximum amount of our distributions eligible to be designated as qualified dividend income for a taxable year is equal to the sum of:

 

  (a)

the qualified dividend income received by us during such taxable year from non-REIT C corporations (including any TRS in which we may own an interest);

 

  (b)

the excess of any “undistributed” REIT taxable income recognized during the immediately preceding year over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such undistributed REIT taxable income; and

 

  (c)

the excess of any income recognized during the immediately preceding year attributable to the sale of a built-in-gain asset that was acquired in a carry-over basis transaction from a non-REIT C corporation over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such built-in gain.

Generally, dividends that we receive will be treated as qualified dividend income for purposes of (a) above if the dividends are received from a domestic C corporation (other than a REIT or a RIC), any TRS we may form, or a “qualifying foreign corporation” and specified holding period requirements and other requirements are met. We do not anticipate that a substantial portion of our dividends will be qualified dividends.

To the extent that we have available net operating losses and capital losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce, subject to applicable limitations, our REIT taxable income and the amount of distributions that must be made in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “- Taxation of Our Company in General” and “- Annual Distribution Requirements.” Such losses, however, are not passed through to U.S. stockholders and do not offset income of U.S. stockholders from other sources, nor do they affect the character of any distributions that are actually made by us, which are generally subject to tax in the hands of U.S. stockholders to the extent that we have current or accumulated earnings and profits.

Dispositions of Our Common Stock

In general, a U.S. stockholder will realize gain or loss upon the sale, redemption or other taxable disposition of our common stock in an amount equal to the difference between the sum of the fair market value

 

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of any property and the amount of cash received in such disposition and the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in the common stock at the time of the disposition. In general, a U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis will equal the U.S. stockholder’s acquisition cost, increased by the excess of net capital gains deemed distributed to the U.S. stockholder (discussed above) less tax deemed paid on it and reduced by the amount of distributions that are treated as returns of capital. In general, capital gains recognized by individuals and other non-corporate U.S. stockholders upon the sale or disposition of shares of our common stock will be subject to a maximum U.S. federal income tax rate of 20% if our common stock is held for more than 12 months, and will be taxed at ordinary income rates if our common stock is held for 12 months or less. Gains recognized by U.S. stockholders that are corporations are subject to U.S. federal income tax whether or not classified as long-term capital gains. The IRS has the authority to prescribe, but has not yet prescribed, regulations that would apply a capital gain tax rate of 25% (which is generally higher than the long-term capital gain tax rates for non-corporate holders) to a portion of capital gain realized by a non-corporate holder on the sale of REIT stock or depositary shares that would correspond to the REIT’s “unrecaptured Section 1250 gain.”

U.S. stockholders are advised to consult with their tax advisors with respect to their capital gain tax liability. Capital losses recognized by a U.S. stockholder upon the disposition of our common stock held for more than one year at the time of disposition will be considered long-term capital losses, and are generally available only to offset capital gain income of the U.S. stockholder but not ordinary income (except in the case of individuals, who may offset up to $3,000 of ordinary income each year). In addition, any loss upon a sale or exchange of shares of our common stock by a U.S. stockholder who has held the shares for six months or less, after applying holding period rules, will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of distributions received from us that were required to be treated by the U.S. stockholder as long-term capital gain.

Passive Activity Losses, Excess Business Losses and Investment Interest Limitations

Dividends that we distribute and gains arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. stockholder of our common stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. stockholders will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against income or gain relating to our common stock. Similarly, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, non-corporate U.S. holders cannot apply “excess business losses” against dividends that we distribute and gains arising from the disposition of our common stock. Dividends generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation. A U.S. stockholder that elects to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of stock or qualified dividend income as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitation will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amounts.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt U.S. Stockholders

U.S. tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from U.S. federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI. The IRS has ruled that dividend distributions from a REIT to a tax-exempt entity do not constitute UBTI. Based on that ruling, and provided that (1) a tax-exempt U.S. stockholder has not held our common stock as “debt financed property” within the meaning of the Code (i.e., where the acquisition or holding of the property is financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt stockholder), (2) our common stock is not otherwise used in an unrelated trade or business and (3) we do not hold an asset that gives rise to “excess inclusion income,” distributions from us and income from the sale of our common stock generally should not give rise to UBTI to a tax-exempt U.S. stockholder.

Tax-exempt U.S. stockholders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, and qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) and (c)(20) of the Code, respectively, are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions from us as UBTI.

 

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In certain circumstances, a pension trust (1) that is described in Section 401(a) of the Code, (2) that is tax exempt under Section 501(a) of the Code, and (3) that owns more than 10% of our stock could be required to treat a percentage of the dividends from us as UBTI if we are a “pension-held REIT.” We will not be a pension-held REIT unless (1) either (A) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock, or (B) a group of pension trusts, each individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock, collectively owns more than 50% of such stock; and (2) we would not have qualified as a REIT but for the fact that Section 856(h)(3) of the Code provides that stock owned by such trusts shall be treated, for purposes of the requirement that not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding stock of a REIT is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Code to include certain entities), as owned by the beneficiaries of such trusts. Certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock should generally prevent a tax-exempt entity from owning more than 10% of the value of our stock or us from becoming a pension-held REIT.

Tax-exempt U.S. stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of owning our stock.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

The following is a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock applicable to non-U.S. stockholders of our common stock. For purposes of this summary, a non-U.S. stockholder is a beneficial owner of our common stock that is not a U.S. stockholder or an entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The discussion is based on current law and is for general information only. It addresses only selective and not all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation.

Ordinary Dividends

The portion of dividends received by non-U.S. stockholders payable out of our earnings and profits that are not attributable to gains from sales or exchanges of U.S. real property interests and which are not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder will generally be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless reduced or eliminated by an applicable income tax treaty. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. In addition, any portion of the dividends paid to non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as excess inclusion income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding tax or a reduced treaty rate. As previously noted, we expect to engage in transactions that result in a portion of our dividends being considered excess inclusion income, and, accordingly, it is likely that a portion of our dividend income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding rate or a reduced treaty rate.

In general, non-U.S. stockholders will not be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business solely as a result of their ownership of our stock. In cases where the dividend income from a non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is, or is treated as, effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. stockholder generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. stockholders are taxed with respect to such dividends, and may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on the income after the application of the income tax in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation.

Non-Dividend Distributions

Unless (1) our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest, or USRPI, or (2) either (A) the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain) or (B) the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the

 

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U.S. (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gain for the year), distributions by us which are not dividends out of our earnings and profits will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax. If it cannot be determined at the time at which a distribution is made whether or not the distribution will exceed current and accumulated earnings and profits, the distribution will be subject to withholding at the rate applicable to dividends. However, the non-U.S. stockholder may seek a refund from the IRS of any amounts withheld if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. If our common stock constitutes a USRPI, as described below, distributions by us in excess of the sum of our earnings and profits plus the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our common stock will be taxed under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital gains rates, that would apply to a U.S. stockholder of the same type (e.g., an individual or a corporation, as the case may be), and the collection of the tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding at a rate of 15% of the amount by which the distribution exceeds the stockholder’s share of our earnings and profits.

Capital Gain Dividends

Under FIRPTA, a distribution made by us to a non-U.S. stockholder, to the extent attributable to gains from dispositions of USRPIs held by us directly or through pass-through subsidiaries (or USRPI capital gains), will be considered effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, without regard to whether the distribution is designated as a capital gain dividend. In addition, we will be required to withhold tax equal to the highest federal corporate income tax rate on the amount of capital gain dividends to the extent the dividends constitute USRPI capital gains. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. However, the withholding tax will not apply to any capital gain dividend with respect to any class of our stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the U.S. if the non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the taxable year. Instead any capital gain dividend will be treated as a distribution subject to the rules discussed above under “- Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders - Ordinary Dividends.” Also, the branch profits tax will not apply to such a distribution. A distribution is not a USRPI capital gain if we held the underlying asset solely as a creditor, although the holding of a shared appreciation mortgage loan would not be solely as a creditor. Capital gain dividends received by a non-U.S. stockholder from a REIT that are not USRPI capital gains are generally not subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax, unless either (1) the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain) or (2) the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S. (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gain for the year).

“Qualified foreign pension funds” and “qualified shareholders,” as defined in the Code, generally are not taxable under FIRPTA or subject to FIRPTA withholding, although certain investors in a qualified shareholder may be subject to FIRPTA withholding, and capital gain dividends that are attributable to a REIT’s disposition of a USRPI and are paid to a qualified shareholder will be recharacterized as ordinary dividends that may be subject to withholding tax as described above. Potential non-U.S. stockholders eligible for these special rules should discuss with their tax advisors the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our common stock.

Dispositions of Our Common Stock

Unless our common stock constitutes a USRPI, a sale of the stock by a non-U.S. stockholder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA. Our stock will not be treated as a USRPI if less than 50% of our assets throughout a prescribed testing period consists of USRPIs (which does not include interests in real property solely in a capacity as a creditor). We do not expect that more than 50% of our assets will consist of USRPIs.

 

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Even if our shares of common stock otherwise would be a USRPI under the foregoing test, our shares of common stock will not constitute a USRPI if we are a domestically controlled REIT. A domestically controlled REIT is a REIT in which, at all times during a specified testing period (generally the lesser of the 5-year period ending on the date of disposition of our shares of common stock or the period of our existence), less than 50% in value of its outstanding shares of common stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. stockholders. The following rules apply to such determination:

 

   

In the case of a publicly traded REIT, a person holding less than 5% of a publicly traded class of stock at all times during the testing period is treated as a U.S. person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a U.S. person. Our stock is publicly traded.

 

   

In the case of REIT stock held by a publicly traded REIT or certain publicly global traded or open-ended regulated investment companies (RICs), the REIT or RIC will be treated as a U.S. person if the REIT or RIC is domestically controlled and will be treated as a non-U.S. person otherwise.

 

   

In the case of REIT stock held by a REIT or RIC not described in the previous rule, the REIT or RIC is treated as a U.S. person or a non-U.S. person on a look-through basis.

We believe we will be a domestically controlled REIT and, therefore, the sale of our common stock should not be subject to taxation under FIRPTA. However, because our stock will be widely held, we cannot assure our investors that we will be a domestically controlled REIT. Even if we do not qualify as a domestically controlled REIT, a non-U.S. stockholder’s sale of our common stock nonetheless will generally not be subject to tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI, provided that (1) our common stock owned is of a class that is “regularly traded,” as defined by the applicable Treasury Regulation, on an established securities market, and (2) the selling non-U.S. stockholder owned, actually or constructively, 10% or less of our outstanding stock of that class at all times during a specified testing period.

If gain on the sale of our common stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. stockholder would be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. stockholder with respect to such gain, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of non-resident alien individuals, and the purchaser of the stock could be required to withhold 15% of the purchase price and remit such amount to the IRS.

Gain from the sale of our common stock that would not otherwise be subject to FIRPTA will nonetheless be taxable in the U.S. to a non-U.S. stockholder in two cases: (1) if the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder, the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. stockholder with respect to such gain, or (2) if the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S., the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gain.

FATCA

Under the provisions in the Code commonly referred to as FATCA, withholding at a rate of 30% is required on dividends in respect of shares of our common stock held by or through certain foreign financial institutions (including investment funds), unless such institution enters into an agreement with the Secretary of the Treasury (unless alternative procedures apply pursuant to an applicable intergovernmental agreement between the United States and the relevant foreign government) to report, on an annual basis, information with respect to shares in, and accounts maintained by, the institution to the extent such shares or accounts are held by certain U.S. persons or by certain non-U.S. entities that are wholly or partially owned by U.S. persons. Accordingly, the entity through which our shares are held will affect the determination of whether such withholding is required. Similarly, withholding at a rate of 30% is required on dividends in respect of our shares

 

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held by an investor that is a passive non-financial non-U.S. entity, unless such entity either (i) certifies to us that such entity does not have any “substantial U.S. owners” or (ii) provides certain information regarding the entity’s “substantial U.S. owners,” which we will in turn provide to the Secretary of the Treasury. While withholding under FATCA also would have applied to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock after December 31, 2018, recently proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Non-U.S. stockholders are encouraged to consult with their tax advisers regarding the possible implications of these rules on their investment in our common stock.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

We will report to our U.S. stockholders and the IRS the amount of dividends paid during each calendar year and the amount of any tax withheld. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. stockholder may be subject to backup withholding with respect to dividends paid unless the holder is a corporation or comes within other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact or provides a taxpayer identification number or social security number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. Any U.S. stockholder that does not provide their correct taxpayer identification number or social security number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distribution to any U.S. stockholder who fails to certify their non-foreign status.

We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. stockholder the amount of dividends paid to such holder and the tax withheld with respect to such dividends, regardless of whether withholding was required. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which the non-U.S. stockholder resides under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty. A non-U.S. stockholder may be subject to backup withholding unless applicable certification requirements are met.

Payment of the proceeds of a sale of our common stock within the U.S. is subject to both backup withholding and information reporting unless the beneficial owner certifies under penalties of perjury that it is a non-U.S. stockholder (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that the beneficial owner is a U.S. person) or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Payment of the proceeds of a sale of our common stock conducted through certain U.S. related financial intermediaries is subject to information reporting (but not backup withholding) unless the financial intermediary has documentary evidence in its records that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. stockholder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against such holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability provided the required information is furnished to the IRS.

Reporting requirements generally will apply with respect to the dispositions of REIT shares acquired after 2010 (2011 in the case of shares acquired in connection with a distribution reinvestment plan). Brokers that are required to report the gross proceeds from a sale of shares on Form 1099-B will also be required to report the customer’s adjusted basis in the shares and whether any gain or loss with respect to the shares is long-term or short-term. In some cases, there may be alternative methods of determining the basis in shares that are disposed of, in which case your broker will apply a default method of its choosing if you do not indicate which method you choose to have applied. You should consult with your own tax advisor regarding the new reporting requirements and your election options.

 

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State, Local and Foreign Taxes

We and our stockholders may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various jurisdictions, including those in which we or they transact business, own property or reside. The state, local or foreign tax treatment of our company and our stockholders may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax treatment discussed above. Any foreign taxes incurred by us would not pass through to stockholders as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability. Prospective stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application and effect of state, local and foreign income and other tax laws on an investment in our company’s common stock.

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department. No assurance can be given as to whether, when, or in what form, U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to us and our stockholders may be enacted, possibly with retroactive effect. Changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws and interpretations of U.S. federal income tax laws could adversely affect an investment in our shares of common stock.

 

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SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

Selling stockholders are persons or entities that, directly or indirectly, have acquired or will from time-to-time acquire from us common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, stockholder rights, debt securities or units, as applicable, in various private transactions. Such selling stockholders may be parties to registration rights agreements with us, or we otherwise may have agreed or will agree to register their securities for resale. The initial purchasers of our securities, as well as their transferees, pledgees, donees or successors, all of whom we refer to as “selling stockholders,” may from time to time offer and sell the securities pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the securities by the selling stockholders, but in certain cases we may pay fees and expenses relating to the registration or an offering of such securities, such as registration and filing fees, fees and expenses for complying with federal and state securities laws and NYSE and FINRA rules and regulations, and fees and expenses incurred in connection with a listing, if any, of any of the securities on any securities exchange or association.

The selling stockholders may offer for sale all or some portion of the securities that they hold. To the extent that any of the selling stockholders are brokers or dealers, they are deemed to be, under interpretations of the SEC, “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act.

The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the name of each of the selling stockholders, the number and classes of our securities beneficially owned by such selling stockholders that are covered by such prospectus supplement, the amount to be offered for the stockholder’s account, and the amount and (if one percent or more) the percentage of the class to be owned by such stockholder after completion of the offering. The applicable prospectus supplement will also disclose whether any of the selling stockholders has held any position or office with, has been employed by or otherwise has had a material relationship with us during the three years prior to the date of the prospectus supplement.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We and any selling stockholders may sell the securities offered by this prospectus from time to time in one or more transactions, including, without limitation:

 

   

through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters;

 

   

to or through underwriters or dealers;

 

   

to or through agents;

 

   

in ordinary brokerage transactions;

 

   

through block trades;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers;

 

   

in “at the market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise;

 

   

in a rights offering;

 

   

through a combination of any such methods of sale; or

 

   

through any other method permitted by applicable law and described in a prospectus supplement.

A prospectus supplement with respect to each series of securities will state the terms of the offering of the securities, including:

 

   

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them, if any;

 

   

the public offering price or purchase price of the securities and the net proceeds to be received by us or the selling stockholders from the sale;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any underwriting discounts, commissions or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange on which the securities may be listed.

The offer and sale of the securities described in this prospectus by us, the underwriters, any selling stockholders, or the third parties described above may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including privately negotiated transactions, either:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

General

Any public offering price and any discounts, commissions, concessions or other items constituting compensation allowed or reallowed or paid to underwriters, dealers, agents or remarketing firms may be changed from time to time. Underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms that participate in the distribution of the offered securities may be “underwriters” as defined in the Securities Act. Any discounts or commissions they receive

 

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from us and any profits they receive on the resale of the offered securities may be treated as underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. We will identify any underwriters, agents or dealers and describe their commissions, fees or discounts in the applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be.

At-the-Market Offerings

We may enter into a distribution agency agreement with a sales agent pursuant to which such sales agent would use its commercially reasonable efforts upon written instructions from us to sell on our behalf, as our agent, shares of common stock or preferred stock offered as agreed upon by us and the sales agent. We will designate the maximum amount of shares to be sold through the sales agent, on a daily basis or otherwise as we and the sales agent agree. Subject to the terms and conditions of the applicable distribution agency agreement, the sales agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell, as our sales agent and on our behalf, all of the designated shares. We may instruct the sales agent not to sell shares if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. We may suspend the offering under any distribution agency agreement by notifying the sales agent. Likewise, the sales agent may suspend the offering under the applicable distribution agency agreement by notifying us of such suspension.

We also may sell shares to the sales agent as principal for its own account at a price agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to the sales agent as principal, we will enter into a separate agreement setting forth the terms of such transaction.

The offering of common or preferred stock pursuant to a distribution agency agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all shares subject to the distribution agency agreement or (2) the termination of the distribution agency agreement by us or by the sales agent.

Sales agents under our distribution agency agreements may make sales in privately negotiated transactions and/or any other method permitted by law, including sales deemed to be an “at-the-market” offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act, sales made directly on the NYSE, the existing trading market for our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock, sales made directly on another exchange, or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange. The name of any such underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of our shares, the amounts underwritten, and the nature of its obligations to take shares of our common or preferred stock will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Dividend Reinvestment and Share Purchase Plan

We may enter into a dividend reinvestment and share purchase plan (“DRSPP”) that would allow participating stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock directly from us. DRSPP participants would also be able to automatically reinvest all or a portion of their dividends in exchange for additional shares of our common stock. Stockholders who acquire shares of our common stock through the DRSPP and resell them after acquiring them, including coverage of short positions, could under certain circumstances be deemed to be participating in a distribution of securities that would require compliance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act and may be considered to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act. We would not extend to any such person any rights or privileges other than those to which they would be entitled as a participant, nor would we enter into any agreement with any such person regarding the resale or distribution by any such person of the shares of our common stock so purchased.

Underwriters and Agents

If underwriters are used in a sale, they will acquire the offered securities for their own account. The underwriters may resell the offered securities in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. These sales may be made at a fixed public offering price or prices, which may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of the sale, at prices related to such prevailing market price or at negotiated prices. We may offer the securities to

 

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the public through an underwriting syndicate or through a single underwriter. The underwriters in any particular offering will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be.

Unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the offered securities will be subject to certain conditions contained in an underwriting agreement that we will enter into with the underwriters at the time of the sale to them. The underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities of the series offered if any of the securities are purchased, unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities. Any initial offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed, reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time.

We may designate agents to sell the offered securities. Unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities, the agents will agree to use their best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of their appointment. We may also sell the offered securities to one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. These firms will remarket the offered securities upon purchasing them in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to the terms of the offered securities. A prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be, will identify any remarketing firm and will describe the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation.

In connection with offerings made through underwriters or agents, we may enter into agreements with such underwriters or agents pursuant to which we receive our outstanding securities in consideration for the securities being offered to the public for cash. In connection with these arrangements, the underwriters or agents may also sell securities covered by this prospectus to hedge their positions in these outstanding securities, including in short sale transactions. If so, the underwriters or agents may use the securities received from us under these arrangements to close out any related open borrowings of securities.

Dealers

We may sell the offered securities to dealers as principals. We may negotiate and pay dealers’ commissions, discounts or concessions for their services. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public either at varying prices to be determined by the dealer or at a fixed offering price agreed to with us at the time of resale. Dealers engaged by us may allow other dealers to participate in resales.

Direct Sales

We may choose to sell the offered securities directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved.

Institutional Purchasers

We may authorize agents, dealers or underwriters to solicit certain institutional investors to purchase offered securities on a delayed delivery basis pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified future date. The applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be will provide the details of any such arrangement, including the offering price and commissions payable on the solicitations.

We will enter into such delayed contracts only with institutional purchasers that we approve. These institutions may include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions. The obligations of any purchaser under any such delayed delivery contract will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which the purchaser is subject.

Indemnification; Other Relationships

We may have agreements with agents, underwriters, dealers and remarketing firms to indemnify them against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Agents, underwriters, dealers and remarketing firms, and their affiliates, may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business. This includes commercial banking and investment banking transactions.

 

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Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of the securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock, which are currently listed on the NYSE. We currently intend to list any shares of common stock sold pursuant to this prospectus on the NYSE, but we are not obligated to do so. We may elect to list any new series of preferred stock on an exchange, but are not obligated to do so. We have no current plans for listing of the offered securities on any securities exchange (other than the common stock and the preferred stock that is already listed on the NYSE); any such listing with respect to any particular securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be.

If the offered securities are traded after their initial issuance, they may trade at a discount from their initial offering price, depending upon prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities and other factors. While it is possible that an underwriter could inform us that it intended to make a market in the offered securities, such underwriter would not be obligated to do so, and any such market making could be discontinued at any time without notice. Therefore, no assurance can be given as to whether an active trading market will develop for the offered securities.

In connection with any offering of common or preferred stock, the underwriters may purchase and sell common and/or preferred stock in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, syndicate covering transactions and stabilizing transactions. Short sales involve syndicate sales of common or preferred stock in excess of the number of shares to be purchased by the underwriters in the offering, which creates a syndicate short position. “Covered” short sales are sales of shares made in an amount up to the number of shares represented by the underwriters’ overallotment option. In determining the source of shares to close out the covered syndicate short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the overallotment option. Transactions to close out the covered syndicate short involve either purchases of the common or preferred stock in the open market after the distribution has been completed or the exercise of the overallotment option. The underwriters may also make “naked” short sales of shares in excess of the overallotment option. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing common or preferred stock in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the shares in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of bids for or purchases of shares in the open market while the offering is in progress for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities.

In connection with any offering, the underwriters may also engage in penalty bids. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.

Fees and Commissions

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be; however, it is anticipated that the maximum commission or discount to be received in any particular offering of securities will be significantly less than this amount.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Legal matters in connection with this offering, including the validity of the offered securities, are being passed upon for us by Alston & Bird LLP.

EXPERTS

The financial statements and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth the estimated expenses (all of which will be borne by the registrant) incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered, other than underwriting discounts and commissions (if any).

 

SEC registration fee

   *

FINRA filing fee

   **

Trustee and registrar fees and expenses

   **

Printing and distributing

   **

Legal fees and expenses

   **

Accounting fees and expenses

   **

Miscellaneous

   **
  

 

Total

   **
  

 

 

*

The filing fee shall be deferred pursuant to Rule 456(b) and calculated in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement pursuant to Rule 457(r).

**

To be filed by amendment, Rule 424 filing or a Current Report on Form 8-K in connection with an offering of securities hereunder.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment as being material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires us (unless our charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against

 

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judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate ourselves and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of the final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan, limited liability company or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee of such corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan, limited liability company or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

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Item 16. Exhibits

The following exhibits are filed as part of this Registration Statement:

 

1.1    Form of Underwriting Agreement*
4.1    Articles of Amendment and Restatement of Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on August 12, 2009.
4.2    Articles Supplementary Classifying Invesco Mortgage Capital, Inc.’s 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.3 to our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 23, 2012.
4.3    Articles Supplementary Classifying Invesco Mortgage Capital, Inc.’s 7.75% Fixed-to-Floating Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.3 to our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on September 8, 2014.
4.4    Articles Supplementary of 7.50% Fixed-to-Floating Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on August 11, 2017.
4.5    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit  3.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on February 17, 2017.
4.6    Specimen Common Stock Certificate of Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc., incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Pre-Effective Amendment No. 8, filed with the SEC on June 18, 2009.
4.7    Specimen 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock Certificate, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 23, 2012.
4.8    Specimen 7.75% Series B Fixed-to-Floating Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock Certificate, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on September 8, 2014.
4.9    Specimen 7.50% Fixed-to-Floating Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock Certificate, incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.5 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on August 11, 2017.
4.10    Form of Senior Indenture
4.11    Form of Subordinated Indenture
4.12    Form of Senior Debt Security*
4.13    Form of Subordinated Debt Security*
4.14    Form of Preferred Stock Certificate*
4.15    Form of Warrant Agreement (including form of warrant certificate)*
4.16    Form of Subscription Rights Agreement (including form of subscription rights certificate)*
4.17    Form of Depositary Agreement*
4.18    Form of Depositary Receipt*
4.19    Form of Unit Agreement*
5.1    Opinion of Alston & Bird LLP
8.1    Tax Opinion of Alston & Bird LLP

 

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Table of Contents
23.1    Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
23.2    Consent of Alston & Bird LLP (included in Exhibits 5.1 and 8.1)
24.1    Power of Attorney (included in signature pages hereto)
25.1    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of The Bank of New York Mellon with respect to the form of the Senior Indenture
25.2    Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of The Bank of New York Mellon with respect to the form of the Subordinated Indenture

 

*

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated by reference herein.

Item 17. Undertakings.

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of a prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or

 

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(x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report, pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under
Section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

(d) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

73


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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Atlanta, State of Georgia, on February 27, 2019.

 

Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc.
By:  

/s/ John M. Anzalone

John M. Anzalone
Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

Each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Robert H. Rigsby his true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this Registration Statement, and any additional related registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (including post-effective amendments to the registration statement and any such related registration statements), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and any other documents in connection therewith, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent, or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signatures

  

Title

 

Date

By:  

/s/ John M. Anzalone

  

Chief Executive Officer

(principal executive officer)

  February 27, 2019
          John M. Anzalone  
By:  

/s/ R. Lee Phegley, Jr.

  

Chief Financial Officer

(principal financial officer)

  February 27, 2019
          R. Lee Phegley, Jr.  
By:  

/s/ Roseann M. Perlis

  

Chief Accounting Officer

(principal accounting officer)

  February 27, 2019
          Roseann M. Perlis  
By:  

/s/ John S. Day

   Director   February 27, 2019
          John S. Day     
By:  

/s/ Carolyn B. Handlon

   Director   February 27, 2019
          Carolyn B. Handlon     
By:  

/s/ Edward J. Hardin

   Director   February 27, 2019
          Edward J. Hardin     
By:  

/s/ James R. Lientz, Jr.

   Director   February 27, 2019
          James R. Lientz, Jr.     


Table of Contents

Signatures

  

Title

 

Date

By:  

/s/ Dennis P. Lockhart

   Director   February 27, 2019
          Dennis P. Lockhart     
By:  

/s/ Gregory G. McGreevey

   Director   February 27, 2019
          Gregory G. McGreevey     
By:  

/s/ Colin D. Meadows

   Director   February 27, 2019
          Colin D. Meadows     
(Back To Top)

Section 2: EX-4.10 (EX-4.10)

EX-4.10

EXHIBIT 4.10

 

 

 

INVESCO MORTGAGE CAPITAL INC.

and

The Bank of New York Mellon,

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of         ,             

Providing for Issuance of Senior Debt Securities in Series

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ARTICLE I Definitions and Other Provisions of General Application

     1  

Section 1.01

 

Definitions

     1  

Section 1.02

 

Compliance Certificates and Opinions

     9  

Section 1.03

 

Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee

     9  

Section 1.04

 

Acts of Securityholders

     10  

Section 1.05

 

Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company

     12  

Section 1.06

 

Notices to Securityholders; Waiver

     12  

Section 1.07

 

Conflict with Trust Indenture Act

     13  

Section 1.08

 

Effect of Headings and Table of Contents

     13  

Section 1.09

 

Successors and Assigns

     13  

Section 1.10

 

Separability Clause

     13  

Section 1.11

 

Benefits of Indenture

     13  

Section 1.12

 

Governing Law

     13  

Section 1.13

 

Counterparts

     13  

Section 1.14

 

Judgment Currency

     13  

Section 1.15

 

Legal Holidays

     14  

Section 1.16

 

Agent for Service; Submission to Jurisdiction; Waiver of Immunities and Jury Trial

     14  

Section 1.17

 

Tax Matters

     14  

ARTICLE II Security Forms

     15  

Section 2.01

 

Forms Generally

     15  

Section 2.02

 

Forms of Securities

     15  

Section 2.03

 

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

     16  

Section 2.04

 

Securities Issuable in the Form of a Global Security

     16  

ARTICLE III The Securities

     18  

Section 3.01

 

General Title; General Limitations; Issuable in Series; Terms of Particular Series

     18  

Section 3.02

 

Denominations

     20  

Section 3.03

 

Execution, Authentication and Delivery and Dating

     20  

Section 3.04

 

Temporary Securities

     22  

Section 3.05

 

Registration, Transfer and Exchange

     22  

Section 3.06

 

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     23  

Section 3.07

 

Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved

     24  

Section 3.08

 

Persons Deemed Owners

     25  

Section 3.09

 

Cancellation

     26  

Section 3.10

 

CUSIP and CINS Numbers

     26  

Section 3.11

 

Computation of Interest

     26  

Section 3.12

 

Delayed Issuance of Securities

     26  

 

i


ARTICLE IV Satisfaction and Discharge; Defeasance

     27  

Section 4.01

 

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

     27  

Section 4.02

 

Application of Trust Money

     28  

Section 4.03

 

Defeasance Upon Deposit of Funds or Government Obligations

     28  

Section 4.04

 

Reinstatement

     30  

ARTICLE V Remedies

     31  

Section 5.01

 

Events of Default

     31  

Section 5.02

 

Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment

     32  

Section 5.03

 

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

     33  

Section 5.04

 

Trustee May File Proofs of Claim

     34  

Section 5.05

 

Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities

     35  

Section 5.06

 

Application of Money Collected

     35  

Section 5.07

 

Limitation on Suits

     35  

Section 5.08

 

Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Receive Principal, Premium and Interest

     36  

Section 5.09

 

Restoration of Rights and Remedies

     36  

Section 5.10

 

Rights and Remedies Cumulative

     36  

Section 5.11

 

Delay or Omission Not Waiver

     36  

Section 5.12

 

Control by Securityholders

     37  

Section 5.13

 

Waiver of Past Defaults

     37  

Section 5.14

 

Undertaking for Costs

     37  

Section 5.15

 

Waiver of Stay or Extension Laws

     38  

ARTICLE VI The Trustee

     38  

Section 6.01

 

Certain Duties and Responsibilities

     38  

Section 6.02

 

Notice of Defaults

     39  

Section 6.03

 

Certain Rights of Trustee

     40  

Section 6.04

 

Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities

     41  

Section 6.05

 

May Hold Securities

     41  

Section 6.06

 

Money Held in Trust

     41  

Section 6.07

 

Compensation and Reimbursement

     42  

Section 6.08

 

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

     42  

Section 6.09

 

Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility

     42  

Section 6.10

 

Resignation and Removal

     43  

Section 6.11

 

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor

     44  

Section 6.12

 

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business

     45  

Section 6.13

 

Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company

     45  

Section 6.14

 

Appointment of Authenticating Agent

     45  

ARTICLE VII Securityholders’ Lists and Reports by Trustee and Company

     47  

Section 7.01

 

Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders

     47  

Section 7.02

 

Preservation of Information; Communications to Securityholders

     47  

Section 7.03

 

Reports by Trustee

     48  

Section 7.04

 

Reports by Company

     48  

 

ii


ARTICLE VIII Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance or Transfer

     48  

Section 8.01

 

Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance or Transfer on Certain Terms

     48  

Section 8.02

 

Successor Person Substituted

     49  

ARTICLE IX Supplemental Indentures

     49  

Section 9.01

 

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders

     49  

Section 9.02

 

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

     51  

Section 9.03

 

Execution of Supplemental Indentures

     52  

Section 9.04

 

Effect of Supplemental Indentures

     52  

Section 9.05

 

Conformity with Trust Indenture Act

     52  

Section 9.06

 

Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures

     52  

Section 9.07

 

Notice of Supplemental Indentures

     53  

Section 9.08

 

Revocation and Effect of Consents, Waivers and Actions

     53  

ARTICLE X Covenants

     53  

Section 10.01

 

Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest

     53  

Section 10.02

 

Maintenance of Office or Agency

     53  

Section 10.03

 

Money for Security Payments to Be Held in Trust

     54  

Section 10.04

 

Statement as to Compliance

     55  

Section 10.05

 

Legal Existence

     55  

Section 10.06

 

Waiver of Certain Covenants

     56  

ARTICLE XI Redemption of Securities

     56  

Section 11.01

 

Applicability of Article

     56  

Section 11.02

 

Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee

     56  

Section 11.03

 

Selection of Securities to Be Redeemed

     56  

Section 11.04

 

Notice of Redemption

     57  

Section 11.05

 

Deposit of Redemption Price

     58  

Section 11.06

 

Securities Payable on Redemption Date

     58  

Section 11.07

 

Securities Redeemed in Part

     59  

Section 11.08

 

Provisions with Respect to Any Sinking Funds

     59  

Section 11.09

 

Rescission of Redemption

     60  

ARTICLE XII Guarantees

     61  

Section 12.01

 

Guarantees

     61  

 

iii


Table Showing Reflection in Indenture of Certain Provisions

of Trust Indenture Act of 1939,

as amended by the Trust Indenture Reform Act of 1990

Reflected in Indenture

 

Trust Indenture Act Section    Indenture Section
§310   (a)(1)    6.09
  (a)(2)    6.09
  (a)(3)    Not Applicable
  (a)(4)    Not Applicable
  (a)(5)    6.09
  (b)    6.08
§311   (a)    6.13(a)
  (b)    6.13(b)
  (b)(2)    7.03(a)
     7.03(b)
§312   (a)    7.01
     7.02(a)
  (b)    7.03(b)
  (c)    7.02(c)
§313   (a)    7.03(a)
  (b)    7.03(b)
  (c)    7.03(a)
     7.03(b)
  (d)    7.03(c)
§314   (a)(1)    7.04
  (a)(2)    7.04
  (a)(3)    7.04
  (a)(4)    10.04
  (b)    Not Applicable
  (c)(1)    1.02
  (c)(2)    1.02
  (c)(3)    Not Applicable
  (d)    Not Applicable
  (e)    1.02
§315   (a)    6.01(a)
     6.01(c)
  (b)    6.02
     7.03(a)
  (c)    6.01(b)
  (d)    6.01
  (d)(1)    6.01(a)
  (d)(2)    6.01(c)(2)
  (d)(3)    6.01(c)(3)
  (e)    5.14

 

iv


Trust Indenture Act Section    Indenture Section
§316   (a)    1.01
  (a)(1)(A)    5.02
     5.12
  (a)(1)(B)    5.13
  (a)(2)    Not Applicable
  (b)    5.08
  (c)    1.04(d)
§317   (a)(1)    5.03
  (a)(2)    5.04
  (b)    10.03
§318   (a)    1.07

Note: This table shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

Section 318(c) of the Trust Indenture Act provides that the provisions of Sections 310 to and including 317 of the Trust Indenture Act are a part of and govern every qualified indenture, whether or not physically contained therein.

 

v


THIS INDENTURE between INVESCO MORTGAGE CAPITAL INC., a Maryland corporation (hereinafter called the “Company”) having its principal office at 1555 Peachtree Street N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30309, and The Bank of New York Mellon, as trustee (hereinafter called the “Trustee”), is made and entered into as of                     ,             .

Recitals of the Company

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of its debentures, notes, bonds or other evidences of indebtedness, in an unlimited aggregate principal amount, to be issued in one or more fully registered series.

This Indenture is subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are deemed to be incorporated into this Indenture and shall, to the extent applicable, be governed by such provisions.

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid and binding agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms have been done.

Agreements of the Parties

To set forth or to provide for the establishment of the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are and are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed as follows, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of a series thereof, as the case may be:

ARTICLE I

Definitions and Other Provisions

of General Application

Section 1.01    Definitions. For all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto, except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires:

(1)    the terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article, and include the plural as well as the singular;

(2)    all other terms used herein which are defined in the Trust Indenture Act or by Commission rule under the Trust Indenture Act, either directly or by reference therein, have the meanings assigned to them herein;

(3)    all accounting terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them in accordance with GAAP and, except as otherwise herein expressly provided, the term “generally accepted accounting principles” with respect to any computation required or permitted hereunder shall mean such accounting principles and any accounting rules or interpretations promulgated by the Commission as are generally accepted in the United States of America at the date of this Indenture; and

 

1


(4)    all references in this instrument to designated “Articles”, “Sections” and other subdivisions are to the designated Articles, Sections and other subdivisions of this instrument as originally executed. The words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

Certain terms, used principally in Article VI, are defined in that Article.

Act”, when used with respect to any Securityholder, has the meaning specified in Section 1.04.

Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

Authenticating Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to authenticate Securities under Section 6.14.

Board of Directors” means (i) the board of directors of the Company, (ii) any duly authorized committee of such board, (iii) any committee of officers of the Company or (iv) any officer of the Company acting, in the case of clauses (iii) or (iv), pursuant to authority granted by the board of directors of the Company or any committee of such board.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, in an indenture supplemental hereto or an Officers’ Certificate with respect to a particular series of Securities, each day which is not a Saturday, Sunday or other day on which banking institutions in the pertinent Place or Places of Payment or the city in which the Corporate Trust Office is located are authorized or required by law or executive order to be closed.

Closing Price” of the Common Stock or other Marketable Security, as the case may be, shall mean the last reported sale price of such stock or other Marketable Security (regular way) as shown on the Composite Tape of the NYSE (or, if such stock or other Marketable Security is not listed or admitted to trading on the NYSE, on the principal national securities exchange on which such stock or other Marketable Security is listed or admitted to trading, including the NASDAQ), or, in case no such sale takes place on such day, the average of the closing bid and asked prices on the NYSE (or, if such stock or other Marketable Security is not listed or admitted to trading on the NYSE, on the principal national securities exchange on which such stock or other Marketable Security is listed or admitted to trading, including the NASDAQ), or if such stock or other Marketable Security is not so reported, the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by any member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, selected from time to time by the Company for that purpose.

 

2


Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Common Stock” shall mean the Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company authorized at the date of this Indenture as originally signed, or any other class of stock resulting from successive changes or reclassifications of such Common Stock, and in any such case including any shares thereof authorized after the date of this Indenture.

Company” means the Person named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor.

Company Request”, “Company Order” and “Company Consent” mean a written request, order or consent, respectively, signed in the name of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, President, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer, Controller, General Counsel, Secretary or any Vice President, and delivered to the Trustee.

Conversion Price” means, with respect to any series of Securities which are convertible into Common Stock or other Marketable Securities, the price per share of Common Stock or the price per designated unit of other Marketable Security at which the Securities of such series are so convertible as set forth in the Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series (or in any indenture supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to Section 9.01(9) with respect to such series), as the same may be adjusted from time to time in accordance with an indenture supplemental hereto.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at 240 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10286, Attn: Corporate Trust Administration, with a copy to 500 Ross Street, 12 Floor, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15262 Attn: Corporate Trust Administration.

Current Market Price” on any date shall mean the average of the daily Closing Prices per share of Common Stock or of such other Marketable Securities for any 30 consecutive Trading Days selected by the Company prior to the day in question, which 30 consecutive Trading Day period shall not commence more than 45 Trading Days prior to the day in question.

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 3.07.

Depository” means, unless otherwise specified by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.04 or 3.01, with respect to Securities of any series issuable or issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, or any successor thereto registered as a clearing agency under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or other applicable statute or regulation.

 

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Discharged” has the meaning specified in Section 4.03.

Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Article V.

Federal Bankruptcy Act” has the meaning specified in Section 5.01(5).

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles as such principles are in effect in the United States as of the date of this Indenture.

Global Security”, when used with respect to any series of Securities issued hereunder, means a Security which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depository or pursuant to the Depository’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture and an indenture supplemental hereto, if any, or Board Resolution and pursuant to a Company Request, which shall be registered in the name of the Depository or its nominee and which shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series or any portion thereof, in either case having the same terms, including, without limitation, the same original issue date, date or dates on which principal is due, and interest rate or method of determining interest.

Guarantee” means the guarantees specified in Section 12.01(a).

Guarantor” means any Person who guarantees any series of Securities issued hereunder as specified in Section 12.01(a).

Holder”, when used with respect to any Security, means a Securityholder, which means a Person in whose name a security is registered in the Security Register.

Indenture” or “this Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 3.01.

Interest”, with respect to the Securities, means interest on the Securities; provided, that, when used with respect to an Original Issue Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, the term means interest payable after Maturity.

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any series of Securities, means the Stated Maturity of any installment of interest on those Securities.

Marketable Security” means any common stock, debt security or other security of a Person which is (or will, upon distribution thereof, be) listed on the NYSE, the American Stock Exchange, NASDAQ or any other national securities exchange registered under Section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or approved for quotation in any system of automated dissemination of quotations of securities prices in the United States or for which there is a recognized market maker or trading market.

Maturity”, when used with respect to any Securities, means the date on which the principal of any such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether on a Repayment Date, at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

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NASDAQ” shall mean the NASDAQ Global Select Market, the NASDAQ Global Market or the NASDAQ Capital Market.

NYSE” shall mean the New York Stock Exchange, Inc.

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by any two of the Chairman of the Board, President, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer, Controller, General Counsel, Secretary or any Vice President, and delivered to the Trustee. Wherever this Indenture requires that an Officers’ Certificate be signed also by a financial expert or an accountant or other expert, such financial expert, accountant or other expert (except as otherwise expressly provided in this Indenture) may be in the employ of the Company, and shall be acceptable to the Trustee.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may (except as otherwise expressly provided in this Indenture) be an employee of or of counsel to the Company, which is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Original Issue Discount Security” means (i) any Security which provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof, and (ii) any other security which is issued with “original issue discount” within the meaning of Section 1273(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations thereunder.

Outstanding”, when used with respect to the Securities or Securities of any series, means, as of the date of determination, all such Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except:

(i)    such Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

(ii)    such Securities for whose payment or redemption money in the necessary amount has been theretofore deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent in trust for the Holders of such Securities; provided that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee has been made; and

(iii)    such Securities in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, or which shall have been paid pursuant to the terms of Section 3.06 (except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a Person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company).

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of such Securities Outstanding have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, (i) the principal amount of any Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed

 

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to be Outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of the taking of such action upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof, and (ii) Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding. In determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities with respect to which a Responsible Officer assigned to the Corporate Trust Department of the Trustee has received written notice as being so owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or such other obligor shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right to act as owner with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or such other obligor.

Paying Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to pay the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities on behalf of the Company. The Company initially authorizes the Trustee to act as Paying Agent for the Securities on its behalf. The Company may at any time and from time to time authorize one or more Persons to act as Paying Agent in addition to or in place of the Trustee with respect to any series of Securities issued under this Indenture.

Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

Place of Payment” means with respect to any series of Securities issued hereunder, the city or political subdivision so designated with respect to the series of Securities in question in accordance with the provisions of Section 3.01.

Predecessor Securities” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 3.06 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

Redemption Date”, when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture.

Redemption Price”, when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the price specified in the Security, as calculated by the Company, at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

Redemption Rescission Event” shall mean the occurrence of (a) any general suspension of trading in, or limitation on prices for, securities on the principal national securities exchange on which shares of Common Stock or Marketable Securities are registered and listed for trading (or, if shares of Common Stock or Marketable Securities are not registered and listed for trading on any such exchange, in the over-the-counter market) for more than six-and-one-half (6-1/2)

 

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consecutive trading hours, (b) any decline in either the Dow Jones Industrial Average or the S&P 500 Index (or any successor index published by Dow Jones & Company, Inc. or S&P) by either (i) an amount in excess of 10%, measured from the close of business on any Trading Day to the close of business on the next succeeding Trading Day during the period commencing on the Trading Day preceding the day notice of any redemption of Securities is given (or, if such notice is given after the close of business on a Trading Day, commencing on such Trading Day) and ending at the time and date fixed for redemption in such notice or (ii) an amount in excess of 15% (or if the time and date fixed for redemption is more than 15 days following the date on which such notice of redemption is given, 20%), measured from the close of business on the Trading Day preceding the day notice of such redemption is given (or, if such notice is given after the close of business on a Trading Day, from such Trading Day) to the close of business on any Trading Day at or prior to the time and date fixed for redemption, (c) a declaration of a banking moratorium or any suspension of payments in respect of banks by Federal or state authorities in the United States, (d) the occurrence of an act of terrorism or commencement of a war or armed hostilities or other national or international calamity directly or indirectly involving the United States which in the reasonable judgment of the Company could have a material adverse effect on the market for the Common Stock or Marketable Securities or (e) in the event of a redemption of any Securities that is subject to one or more conditions precedent, a determination by the Company that such conditions precedent will not be satisfied.

Regular Record Date” for the interest payable on any Security on any Interest Payment Date means the date specified in such Security as the Regular Record Date.

Repayment Date”, when used with respect to any Security to be repaid, means the date fixed for such repayment pursuant to such Security.

Repayment Price”, when used with respect to any Security to be repaid, means the price at which it is to be repaid pursuant to such Security.

Required Currency”, when used with respect to any Security, has the meaning set forth in Section 1.14.

Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer of the Trustee with direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject. “Responsible Officer”, when used with respect to the Company, means any of the Chairman of the Board, President, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer, Controller, General Counsel, Secretary or any Vice President (or any equivalent of the foregoing officers).

S&P” means Standard & Poor’s Rating Service or any successor to the rating agency business thereto.

Security” or “Securities” means any note or notes, bond or bonds, debenture or debentures, or any other evidences of indebtedness, as the case may be, of any series authenticated and delivered from time to time under this Indenture.

Security Register” shall have the meaning specified in Section 3.05.

 

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Security Registrar” means the Person who keeps the Security Register specified in Section 3.05. The Company initially appoints the Trustee to act as Security Registrar for the Securities on its behalf. The Company may at any time and from time to time authorize any Person to act as Security Registrar in place of the Trustee with respect to any series of Securities issued under this Indenture.

Securityholder” means a Person in whose name a security is registered in the Security Register.

Significant Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary which would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as in effect on the date of this Indenture.

Special Record Date” for the payment of any Defaulted Interest means a date fixed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.07.

Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation more than 50% of the voting stock of which is owned directly or indirectly by such Person, and any partnership, association, joint venture or other entity in which such Person owns more than 50% of the equity interests or has the power to elect a majority of the board of directors or other governing body.

Trading Day” shall mean, with respect to the Common Stock or a Marketable Security, so long as the common stock or such Marketable Security, as the case may be, is listed or admitted to trading on the NYSE, a day on which the NYSE is open for the transaction of business, or, if the Common Stock or such Marketable Security, as the case may be, is not listed or admitted to trading on the NYSE, a day on which the principal national securities exchange on which the Common Stock or such Marketable Security, as the case may be, is listed is open for the transaction of business, or, if the Common Stock or such Marketable Security, as the case may be, is not so listed or admitted for trading on any national securities exchange, a day on which the member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority selected by the Company to provide pricing information for the Common Stock or such Marketable Security is open for the transaction of business.

Trust Indenture Act” or “TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this instrument was executed; provided, however, that, in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “Trust Indenture Act” or “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as so amended.

Trustee” means the Person named as the Trustee in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean and include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder. If at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

 

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Vice President” when used with respect to the Company or the Trustee means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title “vice president”, including without limitation, an assistant vice president.

Voting Stock”, as applied to the stock of any corporation, means stock of any class or classes (however designated) having by the terms thereof ordinary voting power to elect a majority of the members of the board of directors (or other governing body) of such corporation other than stock having such power only by reason of the happening of a contingency.

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of Securities, calculated by the Company at the time of issuance of such series of Securities, or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, in accordance with accepted financial practice.

Section 1.02    Compliance Certificates and Opinions. Upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent, if any (including any covenants compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent), provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent, if any (including any covenants compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent), have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or request as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or request, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

Every certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than annual statements of compliance provided pursuant to Section 10.04) shall include:

(1)    a statement that each individual signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;

(2)    a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(3)    a statement that, in the opinion of each such individual, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(4)    a statement as to whether, in the opinion of each such individual, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 1.03    Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee. In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons may certify or give an opinion as to the other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or several documents.

 

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Any Officers’ Certificate or Opinion of Counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his certificate or opinion is based are erroneous. Any such certificate or Opinion of Counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company stating that the information with respect to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company, unless such counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous.

Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

Section 1.04    Acts of Securityholders.

(a)     Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by Securityholders or Securityholders of any series may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Securityholders in person or by an agent duly appointed in writing or may be embodied in or evidenced by an electronic transmission which identifies the documents containing the proposal on which such consent is requested and certifies such Securityholders’ consent thereto and agreement to be bound thereby; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee, and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company. If any Securities are denominated in coin or currency other than that of the United States, then for the purposes of determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Securities have taken any action as herein described, the principal amount of such Securities shall be deemed to be that amount of United States dollars that could be obtained for such principal amount on the basis of the spot rate of exchange into United States dollars for the currency in which such Securities are denominated (as evidenced to the Trustee by an Officers’ Certificate) as of the date the taking of such action by the Holders of such requisite principal amount is evidenced to the Trustee as provided in the immediately preceding sentence. If any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, then for the purposes of determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Securities have taken any action as herein described, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed to be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof as of the date the taking of such action by the Holders of such requisite principal amount is evidenced to the Trustee as provided in the first sentence of this Section 1.04(a). Such instrument or instruments (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the “Act” of the Securityholders signing such instrument or instruments. Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Section 6.01) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section.

 

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(b)    The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved by the affidavit of a witness to such execution or by the certificate of any notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments of deeds, certifying that the individual signing such instrument or writing acknowledged to him the execution thereof. Where such execution is by an officer of a corporation or a member of a partnership, on behalf of such corporation or partnership, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of his authority. The fact and date of the execution of any such instrument or writing, or the authority of the person executing the same, may also be proved in any other manner which the Trustee deems sufficient.

(c)    The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register.

(d)    If the Company shall solicit from the Holders any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, fix in advance a record date for the determination of Holders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. Such record date shall be the later of 10 days prior to the first solicitation of such action or the date of the most recent list of Holders furnished to the Trustee pursuant to Section 7.01. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Holders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Holders for the purposes of determining whether Holders of the requisite proportion of Securities outstanding have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Securities outstanding shall be computed as of the record date; provided that no such authorization, agreement or consent by the Holders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date, and that no such authorization, agreement or consent may be amended, withdrawn or revoked once given by a Holder, unless the Company shall provide for such amendment, withdrawal or revocation in conjunction with such solicitation of authorizations, agreements or consents or unless and to the extent required by applicable law.

(e)    Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action by the Holder of any Security shall bind the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof, in respect of anything done or suffered to be done by the Trustee or the Company in reliance thereon whether or not notation of such action is made upon such Security.

 

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Section 1.05    Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or Act of Securityholders or other document provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with:

(1)    the Trustee by any Securityholder or by the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing to or with the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office, Attention: Corporate Trust Administration; or

(2)    the Company by the Trustee or by any Securityholder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (except as provided in Section 5.01(4) or, in the case of a request for repayment, as specified in the Security carrying the right to repayment) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to the Company addressed to it at the address of its principal office specified in the first paragraph of this instrument, Attention: Chief Financial Officer, or at the address last furnished in writing to the Trustee by the Company.

The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, pdf, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that the Trustee shall have received an incumbency certificate listing persons designated to give such instructions or directions and containing specimen signatures of such designated persons, which such incumbency certificate shall be amended and replaced whenever a person is to be added or deleted from the listing. If the Company elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction except to the extent such losses are determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to have been caused by the gross negligence or intentional misconduct of the Trustee. The Company agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties.

Section 1.06    Notices to Securityholders; Waiver. Where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice to Securityholders of any event, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein or in such Security expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder affected by such event, at his address as it appears in the Security Register, not later than the latest date, and not earlier than the earliest date, prescribed for the giving of such notice. In any case where notice to Securityholders is given by mail, neither the failure to mail such notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed, to any particular Securityholder shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Securityholders. Where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Securityholders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

In case, by reason of the suspension of regular mail service as a result of a strike, work stoppage or otherwise, it shall be impractical to mail notice of any event to any Securityholder

 

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when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any method of notification as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee and the Company shall be deemed to be a sufficient giving of such notice.

Section 1.07    Conflict with Trust Indenture Act. If and to the extent that any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by, or with another provision (an “incorporated provision”) included in this Indenture by operation of, any of Sections 310 to 318, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties or incorporated provision shall control.

Section 1.08    Effect of Headings and Table of Contents. The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

Section 1.09    Successors and Assigns. All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company and the Guarantors, if any, shall bind their respective successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 1.10    Separability Clause. In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 1.11    Benefits of Indenture. Nothing in this Indenture or in any Securities, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and their successors hereunder, any Authenticating Agent or Paying Agent, the Security Registrar and the Holders of Securities (or such of them as may be affected thereby), any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture.

Section 1.12    Governing Law. This Indenture shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York.

Section 1.13    Counterparts. This instrument may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which so executed shall be deemed to be an original, but all such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

Section 1.14    Judgment Currency. The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of, or premium or interest, if any, on the Securities of any series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Company could purchase in the City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding that on which a final unappealable judgment is given and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an

 

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alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.

Section 1.15    Legal Holidays. In any case where any Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, date established for payment of Defaulted Interest pursuant to Section 3.07, Stated Maturity or Maturity with respect to any Security or other day on which principal or interest is due, shall not be a Business Day, then (notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security) payment of principal or interest need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, date established for payment of Defaulted Interest pursuant to Section 3.07 or Stated Maturity or Maturity; provided that no interest shall accrue for the period from and after such Interest Payment Date or other such day, Redemption Date, date established for payment of Defaulted Interest pursuant to Section 3.07, Stated Maturity or Maturity, as the case may be, to the next succeeding Business Day.

Section 1.16    Agent for Service; Submission to Jurisdiction; Waiver of Immunities and Jury Trial. The Company and each Guarantor agree that any suit, action or proceeding against the Company or any Guarantor arising out of or based upon this Indenture or the transactions contemplated hereby may be instituted in any State or Federal court in The City of New York, New York, and waives any objection which it may now or hereafter have to the laying of venue of any such proceeding, and irrevocably submits to the nonexclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any suit, action or proceeding. The Company and each Guarantor shall maintain in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York an office or agency to act as its authorized agent (the “Authorized Agent”) upon whom process may be served in any suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Indenture, any Security or the transactions contemplated herein or thereby which may be instituted in any State or Federal court in The City of New York, New York, and expressly accepts the nonexclusive jurisdiction of any such court in respect of any such suit, action or proceeding. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and of any change in the location, of such office or agency. The Company and each Guarantor further agree to take any and all action as may be necessary to maintain such designation and appointment of such agent in full force and effect for a period of ten years from the date of this Indenture. If for any reason the Authorized Agent shall cease to be available to act as such authorized agent for the Company and any Guarantor, the Company and each Guarantor agree to designate a new agent in the State of New York on the terms and for the purpose of this Section 1.16. The Company and each Guarantor hereby represent and warrant that the Authorized Agent has accepted such appointment and has agreed to act as said agent for service of process, and the Company and each Guarantor agree to take any and all action, including the filing of any and all documents that may be necessary to continue such appointment in full force and effect as aforesaid. Service of process upon the Authorized Agent shall be deemed, in every respect, effective service of process upon the Company.

Section 1.17    Tax Matters. In order to comply with applicable tax laws, rules and regulations (inclusive of directives, guidelines and interpretations promulgated by competent authorities) in effect from time to time (“Applicable Law”) that a foreign financial institution, issuer, trustee, paying agent, holder or other institution is or has agreed to be subject to related to

 

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the Indenture, the Company agrees (i) to provide to the Trustee upon its request information in the Company’s possession about holders or other applicable parties and/or transactions to enable the Trustee to determine whether any payments pursuant to the Indenture are subject to any withholding requirements set forth under Applicable Law, and (ii) the Trustee shall be entitled to make any withholding or deduction from payments under the Indenture to the extent necessary to comply with Applicable Law for which the Trustee shall not have any liability.

ARTICLE II

Security Forms

Section 2.01    Forms Generally. The Securities shall have such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon, as may be required to comply with the rules of any securities exchange, or as may, consistently herewith, be determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of the Securities. Any portion of the text of any Security may be set forth on the reverse thereof, with an appropriate reference thereto on the face of the Security.

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved or produced by any combination of these methods on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities, subject, with respect to the Securities of any series, to the rules of any securities exchange on which such Securities are listed.

Section 2.02    Forms of Securities. Each Security shall be in one of the forms approved from time to time by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the delivery of a Security to the Trustee for authentication in any form approved by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee the Board Resolution by or pursuant to which such form of Security has been approved, which Board Resolution shall have attached thereto a true and correct copy of the form of Security which has been approved thereby or, if a Board Resolution authorizes a specific officer or officers to approve a form of Security, a certificate of such officer or officers approving the form of Security attached thereto. Any form of Security approved by or pursuant to a Board Resolution is deemed to be acceptable as to form to the Trustee, such acceptance to be evidenced by the Trustee’s authentication of Securities in that form or a certificate signed by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee and delivered to the Company.

 

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Section 2.03    Form of Trustees Certificate of Authentication. The form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication for any Security issued pursuant to this Indenture shall be substantially as follows:

TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICATION

This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

  [TRUSTEE]
  by  

 

    Authorized Signatory
  Dated:  

 

Section 2.04    Securities Issuable in the Form of a Global Security.

(a)     If the Company shall establish pursuant to Sections 2.02 and 3.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee or its agent shall, in accordance with Section 3.03 and the Company Order delivered to the Trustee or its agent thereunder, authenticate and deliver, such Global Security or Securities, which (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, the Outstanding Securities of such series to be represented by such Global Security or Securities, or such portion thereof as the Company shall specify in a Company Order, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depository for such Global Security or Securities or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee or its agent to the Depository or pursuant to the Depository’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Unless this certificate is presented by an authorized representative of the Depository to Issuer or its agent for registration of transfer, exchange, or payment, and any certificate issued is registered in the name of the nominee of the Depository or in such other name as is requested by an authorized representative of the Depository (and any payment is made to the nominee of the Depository or to such other entity as is requested by an authorized representative of the Depository), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE, OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL inasmuch as the registered owner hereof, the nominee of the Depository, has an interest herein.”

(b)    Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.04 or of Section 3.05, and subject to the provisions of paragraph (c) below, unless the terms of a Global Security expressly permit such Global Security to be exchanged in whole or in part for individual Securities, a Global Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 3.05, only to a nominee of the Depository for such Global Security, or to the Depository, or a successor Depository for such Global Security selected or approved by the Company, or to a nominee of such successor Depository.

(c)    

(i)     If at any time the Depository for a Global Security notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or if at any time the Depository for the Securities for such series shall no longer be eligible or in good standing under

 

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the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or other applicable statute or regulation, the Company shall appoint a successor Depository with respect to such Global Security. If a successor Depository for such Global Security is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Company will execute, and the Trustee or its agent, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of individual Securities of such series in exchange for such Global Security, will authenticate and deliver, individual Securities of such series of like tenor and terms in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security in exchange for such Global Security.

(ii)    The Company may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities of any series or portion thereof issued or issuable in the form of one or more Global Securities shall no longer be represented by such Global Security or Securities. In such event the Company will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of individual Securities of such series in exchange in whole or in part for such Global Security, will authenticate and deliver individual Securities of such series of like tenor and terms in definitive form in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such Global Security or Securities representing such series or portion thereof in exchange for such Global Security or Securities.

(iii)    If specified by the Company pursuant to Sections 2.02 and 3.02 with respect to Securities issued or issuable in the form of a Global Security, the Depository for such Global Security may surrender such Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for individual Securities of such series of like tenor and terms in definitive form on such terms as are acceptable to the Company and such Depository. Thereupon the Company shall execute, and the Trustee or its agent shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge, (1) to each Person specified by such Depository a new Security or Securities of the same series of like tenor and terms and of any authorized denomination as requested by such Person in aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest as specified by such Depository in the Global Security; and (2) to such Depository a new Global Security of like tenor and terms and in an authorized denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Securities delivered to Holders thereof.

(iv)    In any exchange provided for in any of the preceding three paragraphs, the Company will execute and the Trustee or its agent will authenticate and deliver individual Securities in definitive registered form in authorized denominations. Upon the exchange of the entire principal amount of a Global Security for individual Securities, such Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee or its agent. Except as provided in the preceding paragraph, Securities issued in exchange for a Global Security pursuant to this Section shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depository for such Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee or the Security Registrar. The Trustee or the Security Registrar shall deliver at its Corporate Trust Office such Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

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ARTICLE III

The Securities

Section 3.01    General Title; General Limitations; Issuable in Series; Terms of Particular Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered and Outstanding under this Indenture is not limited.

The Securities may be issued in one or more series as from time to time may be authorized by the Board of Directors. There shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto, subject to Section 3.12, prior to the issuance of Securities of any such series:

(1)    the title of the Securities of such series (which shall distinguish the Securities of such series from Securities of any other series);

(2)    the Person to whom any interest on a Security of such series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest;

(3)    the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of such series is payable;

(4)    the rate or rates (or manner of calculation thereof) at which the Securities of such series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which any such interest shall be payable and the Regular Record Date for any interest payable on any Interest Payment Date;

(5)    the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on Securities of such series shall be payable;

(6)    the period or periods within which, the Redemption Price or Prices or the Repayment Price or Prices, as the case may be, at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of such series may be redeemed or repaid (including the applicability of Section 11.09), as the case may be, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company or the Holder;

(7)    the obligation, if any, of the Company to purchase Securities of such series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of such series shall be purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(8)    if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of such series shall be issuable;

 

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(9)    provisions, if any, with regard to the conversion or exchange of the Securities of such series, at the option of the Holders thereof or the Company, as the case may be, for or into new Securities of a different series or other securities;

(10)    if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies or units based on or related to currencies in which the Securities of such series shall be denominated and in which payments of principal of, and any premium and interest on, such Securities shall or may be payable;

(11)    if the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the Securities of such series are to be payable, at the election of the Company or a Holder thereof, in a coin or currency (including a composite currency) other than that in which the Securities are stated to be payable, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made;

(12)    if the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the Securities of such series may be determined with reference to an index based on a coin or currency (including a composite currency) other than that in which the Securities are stated to be payable, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

(13)    any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of such series pursuant to Sections 3.04, 3.05, 3.06, 9.06 and 11.07 and except for any Securities which, pursuant to Section 3.03, are deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder);

(14)    provisions, if any, with regard to the exchange of Securities of such series, at the option of the Holders thereof, for other Securities of the same series of the same aggregate principal amount or of a different authorized series or different authorized denomination or denominations, or both;

(15)    provisions, if any, with regard to the appointment by the Company of an Authenticating Agent in one or more places other than the location of the office of the Trustee with power to act on behalf of the Trustee and subject to its direction in the authentication and delivery of the Securities of any one or more series in connection with such transactions as shall be specified in the provisions of this Indenture or in or pursuant to such Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto;

(16)    the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series, if other than the principal amount thereof, which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.02 or provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 5.04;

(17)    any Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series, if not set forth herein, and any additions, deletions or other changes to the Events of Default set forth herein that shall be applicable to the Securities of such series;

 

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(18)    any covenant solely for the benefit of the Securities of such series and any additions, deletions or other changes to the provisions of Article VIII, Article X or Section 1.01 or any definitions relating to such Article that would otherwise be applicable to the Securities of such series;

(19)    if Section 4.03 of this Indenture shall not be applicable to the Securities of such series and if Section 4.03 shall be applicable to any covenant or Event of Default established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto as described above that has not already been established herein;

(20)    if the Securities of such series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities, the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depository for such Global Security or Securities;

(21)    if the Securities of such series shall be guaranteed, the terms and conditions of such Guarantees and provisions for the accession of the guarantors to certain obligations hereunder; and

(22)    any other terms of such series, including, without limitations, any restrictions on transfer related thereto.

all upon such terms as may be determined in or pursuant to such Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series.

The form of the Securities of each series shall be established pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture in or pursuant to the Board Resolution or in the indenture supplemental hereto creating such series. The Securities of each series shall be distinguished from the Securities of each other series in such manner, reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, as the Board of Directors may determine.

Unless otherwise provided with respect to Securities of a particular series, the Securities of any series may only be issuable in registered form, without coupons.

Any terms or provisions in respect of the Securities of any series issued under this Indenture may be determined pursuant to this Section by providing for the method by which such terms or provisions shall be determined.

Section 3.02    Denominations. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in such denominations and currency as shall be provided in the provisions of this Indenture or in or pursuant to the Board Resolution or the indenture supplemental hereto creating such series. In the absence of any such provisions with respect to the Securities of any series, the Securities of that series shall be issuable only in fully registered form in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof.

Section 3.03    Execution, Authentication and Delivery and Dating. The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by any Responsible Officer. The signature of any of these officers on the Securities may be manual or facsimile.

 

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Securities bearing the manual or facsimile signatures of individuals who were at any time the proper officers of the Company shall bind the Company, notwithstanding that such individuals or any of them have ceased to hold such offices prior to the authentication and delivery of such Securities or did not hold such offices at the date of such Securities.

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication; and the Trustee shall, upon Company Order, authenticate and deliver such Securities as in this Indenture provided and not otherwise.

Prior to any such authentication and delivery, the Trustee shall be provided with the Officers’ Certificate and Opinion of Counsel required to be furnished to the Trustee pursuant to Section 1.02, the Board Resolution and any certificate relating to the issuance of the series of Securities required to be furnished pursuant to Section 2.02, and an Opinion of Counsel substantially to the effect that:

(1)    all instruments furnished to the Trustee conform to the requirements of the Indenture and constitute sufficient authority hereunder for the Trustee to authenticate and deliver such Securities;

(2)    the form and terms of such Securities have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture;

(3)    all laws and requirements with respect to the execution and delivery by the Company of such Securities have been complied with, the Company has the corporate power to issue such Securities and such Securities have been duly authorized and delivered by the Company and, assuming due authentication and delivery by the Trustee, constitute legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable in accordance with their terms (subject, as to enforcement of remedies, to applicable bankruptcy, reorganization, insolvency, moratorium or other laws and legal principles affecting creditors’ rights generally from time to time in effect and to general equitable principles, whether applied in an action at law or in equity) and entitled to the benefits of this Indenture, equally and ratably with all other Securities, if any, of such series Outstanding;

(4)    when applicable, the Indenture is qualified under the Trust Indenture Act; and

(5)    such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request;

and, if the authentication and delivery relates to a new series of Securities created by an indenture supplemental hereto, also stating that all laws and requirements with respect to the form and execution by the Company of the supplemental indenture with respect to that series of Securities have been complied with, the Company has corporate power to execute and deliver any such supplemental indenture and has taken all necessary corporate action for those purposes and any such supplemental indenture has been duly executed and delivered and constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms (subject, as to enforcement of remedies, to applicable bankruptcy, reorganization, insolvency, moratorium or other laws and legal principles affecting creditors’ rights generally from time to time in effect and to general equitable principles, whether applied in an action at law or in equity).

 

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The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue thereof will adversely affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture.

Unless otherwise provided in the form of Security for any series, all Securities shall be dated the date of their authentication.

No Security shall be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose unless there appears on such Security a certificate of authentication substantially in the form provided for herein executed by the Trustee by manual signature, and such certificate upon any Security shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that such Security has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any Security shall have been authenticated and delivered hereunder but never issued and sold by the Company, and the Company shall deliver such Security to the Trustee for cancellation as provided in Section 3.09, for all purposes of this Indenture such Security shall be deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder and shall never be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 3.04    Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and, upon receipt of the documents required by Section 3.03, together with a Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities which are printed, lithographed, typewritten or otherwise produced, in any authorized denomination, substantially of the tenor of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued and with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as the officers executing such Securities may determine, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

If temporary Securities of any series are issued, the Company will cause definitive Securities of such series to be prepared without unreasonable delay. After the preparation of definitive Securities, the temporary Securities of such series shall be exchangeable for definitive Securities of such series upon surrender of the temporary Securities of such series at the office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment, without charge to the Holder; and upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a like principal amount of definitive Securities of such series of authorized denominations and of like tenor and terms. Until so exchanged the temporary Securities of such series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.

Section 3.05    Registration, Transfer and Exchange. The Company shall keep or cause to be kept a register or registers (herein sometimes referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall provide for the registration of Securities, or of Securities of a particular series, and of transfers of Securities or of Securities of such series. Any such register shall be in written form or in any other form capable of being converted into written form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times the

 

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information contained in such register or registers shall be available for inspection by the Trustee at the office or agency to be maintained by the Company as provided in Section 10.02. There shall be only one Security Register per series of Securities.

Subject to Section 2.04, upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Security of any series at the office or agency of the Company maintained for such purpose in a Place of Payment, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the name of the designated transferee or transferees, one or more new Securities of such series of any authorized denominations, of a like aggregate principal amount and Stated Maturity and of like tenor and terms.

Subject to Section 2.04, at the option of the Holder, Securities of any series may be exchanged for other Securities of such series of any authorized denominations, of a like aggregate principal amount and Stated Maturity and of like tenor and terms, upon surrender of the Securities to be exchanged at such office or agency. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Securityholder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Trustee) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee duly executed, by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

Unless otherwise provided in the Security to be registered for transfer or exchanged, no service charge shall be made on any Securityholder for any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, but the Company may (unless otherwise provided in such Security) require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 3.04, 9.06 or 11.07 not involving any transfer.

The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange any Security of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of such series selected for redemption under Section 11.03 and ending at the close of business on the date of such mailing, or (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Security so selected for redemption in whole or in part.

None of the Company, the Trustee, any agent of the Trustee, any Paying Agent or the Security Registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests of a Global Security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

Section 3.06    Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. If (i) any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, or the Company and the Trustee receive evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security, and (ii) there is delivered to the

 

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Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a protected purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its written request the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in exchange for or in lieu of any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of like tenor, series, Stated Maturity and principal amount, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

Section 3.07    Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved. Unless otherwise provided with respect to such Security pursuant to Section 3.01, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest.

Any interest on any Security which is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered Holder on the relevant Regular Record Date by virtue of his having been such Holder; and, except as hereinafter provided, such Defaulted Interest may be paid by the Company, at its election in each case, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1)    The Company may elect to make payment of any Defaulted Interest to the Persons in whose names any such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner (the “Special Record Date”). The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to

 

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the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause (1) provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall be not more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such Special Record Date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to the Holder of each such Security at his address as it appears in the Security Register, not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such Special Record Date and shall no longer be payable pursuant to the following clause (2).

(2)    The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause (2), such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

If any installment of interest the Stated Maturity of which is on or prior to the Redemption Date for any Security called for redemption pursuant to Article XI is not paid or duly provided for on or prior to the Redemption Date in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this Section, such interest shall be payable as part of the Redemption Price of such Securities.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security delivered under this Indenture upon registration of transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, which were carried by such other Security.

Section 3.08    Persons Deemed Owners. The Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name any Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of principal of (and premium, if any), and (subject to Section 3.07) interest on, such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, whether or not such Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

None of the Company, the Trustee, any Paying Agent or the Security Registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a Global Security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

 

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Section 3.09    Cancellation. All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption, registration of transfer, exchange or credit against a sinking fund shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee and, if not already canceled, shall be promptly canceled by it. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and all Securities so delivered shall be promptly canceled by the Trustee. No Security shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities canceled as provided in this Section, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture. The Trustee shall dispose of all canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of such disposition to the Company upon its written request therefor.

Section 3.10    CUSIP and CINS Numbers. The Company in issuing any Securities may use “CUSIP” and “CINS” numbers (if then generally in use) and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” and “CINS” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Securityholders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on such Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on such Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers in such notices of redemption.

Section 3.11    Computation of Interest. Unless otherwise provided as contemplated in Section 3.01, interest on the Securities shall be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

Section 3.12    Delayed Issuance of Securities. Notwithstanding any contrary provision herein, if all Securities of a series are not to be originally issued at one time, it shall not be necessary for the Company to deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate, Board Resolution, indenture supplemental hereto, Opinion of Counsel or Company Order otherwise required pursuant to Sections 1.02, 2.02, 3.01 and 3.03 at or prior to the time of authentication of each Security of such series if such documents are delivered to the Trustee or its agent at or prior to the authentication upon original issuance of the first Security of such series to be issued; provided that any subsequent request by the Company to the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series upon original issuance shall constitute a representation and warranty by the Company that as of the date of such request, the statements made in the Officers’ Certificate or other certificates delivered pursuant to Sections 1.02 and 2.02 shall be true and correct as if made on such date.

A Company Order, Officers’ Certificate or Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto delivered by the Company to the Trustee in the circumstances set forth in the preceding paragraph may provide that Securities which are the subject thereof will be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee or its agent on original issue from time to time in the aggregate principal amount, if any, established for such series pursuant to such procedures reasonably acceptable to the Trustee as may be specified from time to time by Company Order upon the telephonic, electronic or written order of Persons designated in such Company Order, Officers’ Certificate, indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution (any such telephonic or electronic instructions to be promptly confirmed in writing by such Persons) and that such Persons are authorized to determine, consistent with such Company Order, Officers’ Certificate, indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution, such terms and conditions of said Securities as are specified in such Company Order, Officers’ Certificate, indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution.

 

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ARTICLE IV

Satisfaction and Discharge;

Defeasance

Section 4.01    Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. Unless pursuant to Section 3.01 provision is made that this Section shall not be applicable to the Securities of any series, this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to any series of Securities (except as to any surviving rights of registration of transfer or exchange of Securities of such series expressly provided for herein or in the form of Security for such series), and the Trustee, on receipt of a Company Request and at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments (in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee) acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture as to such series, when:

(1)    either

(A)    all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than (i) Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 3.06 and (ii) Securities of such series for whose payment money in the Required Currency has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereafter repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 10.03) have been delivered to the Trustee canceled or for cancellation; or

(B)    all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee canceled or for cancellation:

(i)    have become due and payable, or

(ii)    will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

(iii)    are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company,

and the Company, in the case of (i), (ii) or (iii) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose an amount in the Required Currency sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee canceled or for cancellation, for principal (and premium, if any) and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable), or to the Stated Maturity or Redemption Date, as the case may be;

 

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(2)    the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to the Securities of such series; and

(3)    the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series have been complied with.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to any series of Securities, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee with respect to that series under Section 6.07 shall survive and the obligations of the Company and the Trustee under Sections 3.05, 3.06, 4.02, 10.02 and 10.03 shall survive such satisfaction and discharge.

Section 4.02    Application of Trust Money. Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 10.03, all money, property and securities deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 4.01 or Section 4.03 shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the series of Securities in respect of which it was deposited and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Persons entitled thereto, of the principal (and premium, if any) and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with the Trustee; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

Anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money, property or securities deposited with and held by it as provided in Section 4.03 and this Section 4.02 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent satisfaction and discharge, Discharge (as defined below) or covenant defeasance, provided that the Trustee shall not be required to liquidate any securities in order to comply with the provisions of this paragraph.

Section 4.03    Defeasance Upon Deposit of Funds or Government Obligations. Unless pursuant to Section 3.01 provision is made that this Section shall not be applicable to the Securities of any series, at the Company’s option, either (a) the Company and the Guarantors, if any, shall be deemed to have been Discharged (as defined below) from its obligations with respect to any series of Securities after the applicable conditions set forth below have been satisfied or (b) the Company shall cease to be under any obligation to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in Section 10.05 and Article VIII (and any other Sections or covenants applicable to such Securities that are determined pursuant to Section 3.01 to be subject to this provision), the Guarantors, if any, shall be released from the Guarantees and clause (4) of Section 5.01 of this Indenture (and any other Events of Default applicable to such Securities that are determined pursuant to Section 3.01 to be subject to this provision) shall be deemed not to be

 

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an Event of Default with respect to any series of Securities at any time after the applicable conditions set forth below have been satisfied:

(1)    the Company shall have deposited or caused to be deposited irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series, (i) money in an amount, or (ii) the equivalent in securities of the government which issued the currency in which the Securities are denominated or government agencies backed by the full faith and credit of such government which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide freely available funds on or prior to the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (iii) a combination of (i) and (ii), sufficient, in the opinion (with respect to (ii) and (iii)) of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund payments) and any premium of, interest on and any repurchase or redemption obligations with respect to the outstanding Securities of such series on the dates such installments of interest or principal or repurchase or redemption obligations are due (before such a deposit, if the Securities of such series are then redeemable or may be redeemed in the future pursuant to the terms thereof, in either case at the option of the Company, the Company may give to the Trustee, in accordance with Section 11.02, a notice of its election to redeem all of the Securities of such series at a future date in accordance with Article XI);

(2)    no Event of Default or event (including such deposit) which with notice or lapse of time would become an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit (other than an Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit);

(3)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of the Securities of such series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the Company’s exercise of its option under this Section 4.03 and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such option had not been exercised, and, in the case of Securities being Discharged, accompanied by a ruling to that effect from the Internal Revenue Service, unless, as set forth in such Opinion of Counsel, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law since the date of this Indenture such that a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service is no longer required;

(4)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit referred to in paragraph (1) above was not made by the Company with the intent of preferring the Holders over other creditors of the Company or with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding creditors of the Company or others; and

(5)    the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series have been complied with.

 

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If the Company, at its option, with respect to a series of Securities, satisfies the applicable conditions pursuant to either clause (a) or (b) of the first sentence of this Section, then (A), in the event the Company satisfies the conditions to clause (a) and elects clause (a) to be applicable, each of the Guarantors, if any, shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by, and obligations under, its respective guarantee of the Securities of such series and to have satisfied all the obligations under this Indenture relating to the Securities of such series and (B) in either case, each of the Guarantors, if any, shall cease to be under any obligation to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in any covenants applicable to such Securities that are determined pursuant to Section 3.01 to be subject to this provision, and any Events of Default applicable to such series of Securities that are determined pursuant to Section 3.01 to be subject to this provision shall be deemed not to be an Event of Default with respect to such series of Securities at any time thereafter.

Discharged” means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by, and obligations under, the Securities of such series and to have satisfied all the obligations under this Indenture relating to the Securities of such series (and the Trustee, on receipt of a Company Request and at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except (A) the rights of Holders of Securities to receive, from the trust fund described in clause (1) above, payment of the principal and any premium of and any interest on such Securities when such payments are due; (B) the Company’s obligations with respect to such Securities under Sections 3.05, 3.06, 4.02, 6.07, 10.02 and 10.03; (C) the Company’s right of redemption, if any, with respect to any Securities of such series pursuant to Article XI, in which case the Company may redeem the Securities of such series in accordance with Article XI by complying with such Article and depositing with the Trustee, in accordance with Section 11.05, an amount of money sufficient, together with all amounts held in trust pursuant to Section 4.02 with respect to Securities of such series, to pay the Redemption Price of all the Securities of such series to be redeemed; and (D) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder. A “Discharge” shall mean the meeting by the Company of the foregoing requirements.

Section 4.04    Reinstatement. If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any money, property or securities in accordance with Section 4.02 of this Indenture, by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s and, if applicable, the Guarantors’ obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 4.01 or 4.03 of this Indenture, as the case may be, until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money, property or securities in accordance with Section 4.02 of this Indenture; provided that, if the Company has made any payment of principal of or interest on any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money, property or securities held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

 

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ARTICLE V

Remedies

Section 5.01    Events of Default. “Event of Default”, wherever used herein, means with respect to any series of Securities any one of the following events (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body), unless such event is either inapplicable to a particular series or it is specifically deleted or modified in or pursuant to the indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution creating such series of Securities or in the form of Security for such series:

(1)    default in the payment of any interest upon any Security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days; or

(2)    default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any Security of that series at its Maturity; or

(3)    default in the payment of any sinking or purchase fund or analogous obligation when the same becomes due by the terms of the Securities of such series; or

(4)    default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or warranty of the Company in this Indenture in respect of the Securities of such series (other than a covenant or warranty in respect of the Securities of such series a default in the performance of which or the breach of which is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with), all of such covenants and warranties in the Indenture which are not expressly stated to be for the benefit of a particular series of Securities being deemed in respect of the Securities of all series for this purpose, and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 33 1/3 % in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

(5)    the entry of an order for relief against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary thereof under Title 11, United States Code (the “Federal Bankruptcy Act”) by a court having jurisdiction in the premises or a decree or order by a court having jurisdiction in the premises adjudging the Company or any Significant Subsidiary thereof a bankrupt or insolvent under any other applicable Federal or State law, or the entry of a decree or order approving as properly filed a petition seeking reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition of or in respect of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary thereof under the Federal Bankruptcy Act or any other applicable Federal or State law, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator (or other similar official) of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary thereof or of any substantial part of its property, or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and the continuance of any such decree or order unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

 

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(6)    the consent by the Company or any Significant Subsidiary thereof to the institution of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings against it, or the filing by it of a petition or answer or consent seeking reorganization or relief under the Federal Bankruptcy Act or any other applicable Federal or State law, or the consent by it to the filing of any such petition or to the appointment of a receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator (or other similar official) of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary thereof or of any substantial part of its property, or the making by it of an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or the admission by it in writing of its inability to pay its debts generally as they become due, or the taking of corporate action by the Company or any Significant Subsidiary thereof in furtherance of any such action; or

(7)    any other Event of Default provided in the indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution under which such series of Securities is issued or in the form of Security for such series.

Section 5.02    Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment. If an Event of Default described in paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4) or (7) (if the Event of Default under clause (4) or (7) is with respect to less than all series of Securities then Outstanding) of Section 5.01 occurs and is continuing with respect to any series, then and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities of such series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 33 1/3% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding hereunder (each such series acting as a separate class), by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), may declare the principal amount (or, if the Securities of such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of all the Securities of such series and all accrued interest thereon to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable, anything in this Indenture or in the Securities of such series contained to the contrary notwithstanding. If an Event of Default described in clause (4) or (7) (if the Event of Default under clause (4) or (7) is with respect to all series of Securities then Outstanding), of Section 5.01 occurs and is continuing, then and in each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 33 1/3% in aggregate principal amount of all the Securities then Outstanding hereunder (treated as one class), by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the Securities then Outstanding and all accrued interest thereon to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable, anything in this Indenture or in the Securities contained to the contrary notwithstanding. If an Event of Default of the type set forth in clause (5) or (6) of Section 5.01 occurs and is continuing, the principal of and any interest on the Securities then Outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

 

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At any time after such a declaration of acceleration has been made with respect to the Securities of any or all series, as the case may be, and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

(1)    the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay:

(A)    all overdue installments of interest on the Securities of such series; and

(B)    the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any Securities of such series which have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, and interest thereon at the rate or rates prescribed therefor by the terms of the Securities of such series, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful; and

(C)    interest upon overdue installments of interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor by the terms of the Securities of such series to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful; and

(D)    all sums paid or advanced by the Trustee hereunder and the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel and all other amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.07; and

(2)    all Events of Default with respect to such series of Securities, other than the nonpayment of the principal of the Securities of such series which have become due solely by such acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 5.13.

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 5.03    Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee. The Company covenants that if:

(1)    default is made in the payment of any installment of interest on any Security of any series when such interest becomes due and payable; or

(2)    default is made in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any Security at the Maturity thereof; or

(3)    default is made in the payment of any sinking or purchase fund or analogous obligation when the same becomes due by the terms of the Securities of any series;

and any such default continues for any period of grace provided with respect to the Securities of such series, the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the

 

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Holder of any such Security (or the Holders of any such series in the case of clause (3) above), the whole amount then due and payable on any such Security (or on the Securities of any such series in the case of clause (3) above) for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, with interest, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and upon overdue installments of interest, at such rate or rates as may be prescribed therefor by the terms of any such Security (or of Securities of any such series in the case of clause (3) above); and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel and all other amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.07.

If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities of such series and collect the money adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

If an Event of Default with respect to any series of Securities occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

Section 5.04    Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceedings or otherwise:

(i)    to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal (or portion thereof determined pursuant to Section 3.01 (16) to be provable in bankruptcy) (and premium, if any) and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary and advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel and all other amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.07) and of the Securityholders allowed in such judicial proceeding; and

(ii)    to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same;

and any receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator (or other similar official) in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Securityholder to make such payment to the

 

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Trustee and in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.07.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

Section 5.05    Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities. All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities of any series may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities of such series or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agent and counsel and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.07, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities of the series in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

Section 5.06    Application of Money Collected. Any money collected by the Trustee with respect to a series of Securities pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of such series and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.07.

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon the Securities of that series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively.

THIRD: To the Company.

Section 5.07    Limitation on Suits. No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

(1)    such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to Securities of such series;

(2)    the Holders of not less than 33 1/3% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

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(3)    such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(4)    the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(5)    no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series;

it being understood and intended that no one or more Holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other Holders of Securities of such series, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and proportionate benefit of all the Holders of all Securities of such series.

Section 5.08    Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Receive Principal, Premium and Interest. Notwithstanding any other provisions in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and (subject to Section 3.07) interest on such Security on the respective Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption or repayment, on the Redemption Date or Repayment Date, as the case may be) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such right shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

Section 5.09    Restoration of Rights and Remedies. If the Trustee or any Securityholder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, then and in every such case the Company, the Trustee and the Securityholders shall, subject to any determination in such proceeding, be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder, and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Securityholders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

Section 5.10    Rights and Remedies Cumulative. No right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Securityholders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 5.11    Delay or Omission Not Waiver. No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Security to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default

 

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shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders, as the case may be.

Section 5.12    Control by Securityholders. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series, provided that:

(1)    the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that the action so directed may not lawfully be taken or would conflict with this Indenture or if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer, determine that the proceedings so directed would involve it in personal liability or be unjustly prejudicial to the Holders not taking part in such direction, and

(2)    the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction.

Section 5.13    Waiver of Past Defaults. The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any past default hereunder with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default not theretofore cured:

(1)    in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, or in the payment of any sinking or purchase fund or analogous obligation with respect to the Securities of such series, or

(2)    in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which under Article IX cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security of such series.

Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 5.14    Undertaking for Costs. All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the

 

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Outstanding Securities of any series to which the suit relates, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on an Security on or after the respective Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption or repayment, on or after the Redemption Date or Repayment Date, as the case may be).

Section 5.15    Waiver of Stay or Extension Laws. The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay or extension law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law, and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

ARTICLE VI

The Trustee

Section 6.01    Certain Duties and Responsibilities.

(a)     Except during the continuance of an Event of Default with respect to any series of Securities:

(1)    the Trustee undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(2)    in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may, with respect to Securities of such series, conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy of mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein).

(b)    In case an Event of Default of which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has received actual written notice at the Corporate Trust Office, with respect to any series of Securities has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise with respect to the Securities of such series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and any indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution relating to such series of Securities, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

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(c)    No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(1)    this Subsection shall not be construed to limit the effect of Subsection (a) of this Section;

(2)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

(3)    the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series; and

(4)    no provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it.

(d)    Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Section.

Section 6.02    Notice of Defaults. Within 90 days after the occurrence of any default hereunder with respect to Securities of any series, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register, notice of all defaults hereunder known to the Trustee, unless such default shall have been cured or waived; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series or in the payment of any sinking or purchase fund installment or analogous obligation with respect to Securities of such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of such series; and provided, further, that in the case of any default of the character specified in Section 5.01(4) with respect to Securities of such series no such notice to Securityholders of such series shall be given until at least 90 days after the occurrence thereof. For the purpose of this Section, the term “default”, with respect to Securities of any series, means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to Securities of such series.

 

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Section 6.03    Certain Rights of Trustee. Except as otherwise provided in Section 6.01:

(a)    the Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(b)    any request or direction of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Company Request or Company Order and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution;

(c)    whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, rely upon an Officers’ Certificate;

(d)    the Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the written advice of such counsel or an Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

(e)    the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction;

(f)    the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit, and, if the Trustee shall determine to make such further inquiry or investigation, it shall be entitled to examine the books, records and premises of the Company, personally or by agent or attorney;

(g)    the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

(h)    the Trustee shall not be charged with knowledge of any default (as defined in Section 6.02) or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series for which it is acting as Trustee unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have received actual written notice of such default or Event of Default from the Company or any other obligor on such Securities or by any Holder of such Securities at the Corporate Trust Office;

(i)     the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

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(j)     the rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder;

(k)    in no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for punitive, special, indirect, or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

(l)    the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken, suffered, or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and reasonably believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(m)    in no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its reasonable control, including, without limitation strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

Section 6.04    Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for their correctness. The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities. The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of Securities or the proceeds thereof.

Section 6.05    May Hold Securities. The Trustee, any Authenticating Agent, any Paying Agent, the Security Registrar or any other agent of the Company, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and, subject to Sections 6.08 and 6.13, may otherwise deal with the Company or any Guarantor, if applicable, with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, Authenticating Agent, Paying Agent, Security Registrar or such other agent.

Section 6.06    Money Held in Trust. Subject to the provisions of Section 10.03 hereof, all moneys in any currency or currency received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any money received by it hereunder except as otherwise agreed in writing with the Company.

 

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Section 6.07    Compensation and Reimbursement. The Company agrees:

(1)    to pay to the Trustee from time to time reasonable compensation for all services rendered by it hereunder (which compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust);

(2)    except as otherwise expressly provided herein, to reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its agents and counsel), except any such expense, disbursement or advance as shall be determined to have been caused by its own negligence or bad faith; and

(3)    to indemnify the Trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, damages, claims, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part (as determined by a court of competent jurisdiction in a final, nonappealable judgment), arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim (whether asserted by the Company, any Holder or any other Person) or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder, or in connection with enforcing the provisions of this Section.

As security for the performance of the obligations of the Company under this Section the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the payment of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on particular Securities.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 5.01(5) or (6), the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law.

The Company’s obligations under this Section 6.07 and any lien arising hereunder shall survive the resignation or removal of any Trustee, the discharge of the Company’s obligations pursuant to Article IV of this Indenture and/or the termination of this Indenture.

Section 6.08    Disqualification; Conflicting Interests. The Trustee for the Securities of any series issued hereunder shall be subject to the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act during the period of time provided for therein. In determining whether the Trustee has a conflicting interest as defined in Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to the Securities of any series, there shall be excluded this Indenture with respect to Securities of any particular series of Securities other than that series. Nothing herein shall prevent the Trustee from filing with the Commission the application referred to in the second to last paragraph of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 6.09    Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility. There shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder with respect to each series of Securities, which shall be either:

(i)    a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or of any State, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers and subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authority, or

 

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(ii)    a corporation or other Person organized and doing business under the laws of a foreign government that is permitted to act as Trustee pursuant to a rule, regulation or order of the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, and subject to supervision or examination by authority of such foreign government or a political subdivision thereof substantially equivalent to supervision or examination applicable to United States institutional trustees;

in either case having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. Neither the Company nor any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company shall serve as trustee for the Securities of any series issued hereunder. If at any time the Trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 6.10.

Section 6.10    Resignation and Removal.

(a)     No resignation or removal of the Trustee and no appointment of a successor Trustee pursuant to this Article shall become effective until the acceptance of appointment by the successor Trustee under Section 6.11.

(b)    The Trustee may resign with respect to any series of Securities at any time by giving written notice thereof to the Company. If an instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

(c)    The Trustee may be removed with respect to any series of Securities at any time by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that series, delivered to the Trustee and to the Company. If an instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of removal, the removed Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

(d)    If at any time:

(1)    the Trustee shall fail to comply with Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act pursuant to Section 6.08 with respect to any series of Securities after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of that series for at least six months, unless the Trustee’s duty to resign is stayed in accordance with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, or

(1)    the Trustee shall cease to be eligible under Section 6.09 with respect to any series of Securities and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder, or

 

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(2)    the Trustee shall become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or

(3)    the Trustee shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation, then, in any such case, (i) the Company by a Board Resolution may remove the Trustee, with respect to the series, or in the case of clause (4), with respect to all series, or (ii) subject to Section 5.14, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of such series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the series, or, in the case of clause (4), with respect to all series.

(e)    If the Trustee shall resign, be removed or become incapable of acting with respect to any series of Securities, or if a vacancy shall occur in the office of the Trustee with respect to any series of Securities for any cause, the Company, by Board Resolution, shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee for that series of Securities.

If, within one year after such resignation, removal or incapacity, or the occurrence of such vacancy, a successor Trustee with respect to such series of Securities shall be appointed by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series delivered to the Company and the retiring Trustee, the successor Trustee so appointed shall, forthwith upon its acceptance of such appointment, become the successor Trustee with respect to such series and supersede the successor Trustee appointed by the Company with respect to such series. If no successor Trustee with respect to such series shall have been so appointed by the Company or the Securityholders of such series and accepted appointment in the manner hereinafter provided, subject to Section 5.14, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of that series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to such series.

(f)    The Company shall give notice of each resignation and each removal of the Trustee with respect to any series and each appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to any series by mailing written notice of such event by first-class mail, postage prepaid, to the Holders of Securities of that series as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register. Each notice shall include the name of the successor Trustee and the address of its principal Corporate Trust Office.

Section 6.11    Acceptance of Appointment by Successor. Every successor Trustee appointed hereunder shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the predecessor Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the predecessor Trustee shall become effective with respect to any series as to which it is resigning or being removed as Trustee, and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor Trustee with respect to any such series; but, on request of the Company or the successor Trustee, such predecessor Trustee shall, upon payment of its reasonable charges, if

 

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any, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all the rights, powers and trusts of the predecessor Trustee, and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such predecessor trustee hereunder with respect to all or any such series, subject nevertheless to its lien, if any, provided for in Section 6.07. Upon request of any such successor Trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers and trusts.

In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the predecessor Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any applicable series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto which shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the predecessor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series as to which the predecessor Trustee is not being succeeded shall continue to be vested in the predecessor Trustee, and shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such indenture supplemental hereto shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be Trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee.

No successor Trustee with respect to any series of Securities shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor Trustee shall be qualified and eligible with respect to that series under this Article.

Section 6.12    Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided such corporation shall be otherwise qualified and eligible under this Article, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

Section 6.13    Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.

Section 6.14    Appointment of Authenticating Agent. At any time when any of the Securities remain Outstanding the Trustee, with the approval of the Company, may appoint an Authenticating Agent or Agents with respect to one or more series of Securities which shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon original issuance, exchange, registration of transfer or partial redemption thereof or pursuant to

 

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Section 3.06, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. Wherever reference is made in this Indenture to the authentication and delivery of Securities by the Trustee or the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, such reference shall be deemed to include authentication and delivery on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent and a certificate of authentication executed on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America, any State thereof or the District of Columbia, authorized under such laws to act as an Authenticating Agent, having a combined capital and surplus of not less than $50,000,000 and, if other than the Company itself, subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authority. If such Authenticating Agent publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of said supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such Authenticating Agent shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time an Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, such Authenticating Agent shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Section.

Any corporation into which an Authenticating Agent may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which such Authenticating Agent shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate agency or corporate trust business of an Authenticating Agent, shall continue to be an Authenticating Agent, provided such corporation shall be otherwise eligible under this Section, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of the Trustee or the Authenticating Agent.

An Authenticating Agent may resign at any time by giving written notice thereof to the Trustee and, if other than the Company, to the Company. The Trustee may at any time terminate the agency of an Authenticating Agent by giving written notice thereof to such Authenticating Agent and, if other than the Company, to the Company. Upon receiving such a notice of resignation or upon such a termination, or in case at any time such Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee, with the approval of the Company, may appoint a successor Authenticating Agent which shall be acceptable to the Company and shall mail written notice of such appointment by first-class mail, postage prepaid, to all Holders of Securities of the series with respect to which such Authenticating Agent will serve, as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register. Any successor Authenticating Agent upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent. No successor Authenticating Agent shall be appointed unless eligible under the provisions of this Section.

The Company agrees to pay to each Authenticating Agent from time to time reasonable compensation for its services under this Section.

 

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If an appointment with respect to one or more series is made pursuant to this Section, the Securities of such series may have endorsed thereon, in addition to the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, an alternate certificate of authentication in the following form:

This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

[Name of Authenticating Agent]
by  

 

  As Authenticating Agent
by  

 

  As Authenticating Agent
Dated  

 

ARTICLE VII

Securityholders’ Lists and Reports by

Trustee and Company

Section 7.01    Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee:

(1)    semi-annually, not more than 15 days after December 15 and June 15 in each year in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, a list of the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities of each series as of such December 15 and June 15, as applicable, and

(2)    at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that if and so long as the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar for Securities of a series, no such list need be furnished with respect to such series of Securities.

Section 7.02    Preservation of Information; Communications to Securityholders.

(a)     The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, the names and addresses of Holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to the Trustee as provided in Section 7.01 and the names and addresses of Holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar, if so acting. The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 7.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

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(b)    The rights of the Holders to communicate with other Holders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and the corresponding rights and privileges of the Trustee, will be as provided by the Trust Indenture Act.

(c)    Every Holder of Securities, by receiving and holding the same, agrees with the Company and the Trustee that neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any agent of either of them shall be held accountable by reason of any disclosure of information as to the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities made pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 7.03    Reports by Trustee.

(a)     Within 60 days after May 15 of each year commencing with the first May 15 after the issuance of Securities, the Trustee shall transmit by mail (or in accordance with the procedures of any applicable depository), at the Company’s expense, to all Holders as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register, as provided in Trust Indenture Act 313(c), a brief report dated as of May 15 in accordance with and with respect to the matters required by Trust Indenture Act Section 313(a).

(b)    The Trustee shall transmit by mail (or in accordance with the procedures of any applicable depository), at the Company’s expense, to all Holders as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register, as provided in Trust Indenture Act 313(c), a brief report in accordance with and with respect to the matters required by Trust Indenture Act Section 313(b).

(c)    A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Holders, be furnished to the Company and, in accordance with Trust Indenture Act Section 313(d), be filed by the Trustee with each stock exchange upon which the Securities are listed, and also with the Commission. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee in writing when any Securities are listed on any stock exchange or of any delisting thereof.

Section 7.04    Reports by Company. The Company shall file with the Trustee, and transmit to Holders, such information, documents and other reports, and such summaries thereof, as may be required pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided pursuant to such Act; provided that any such information, documents or reports required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 shall be filed with the Trustee within 15 days after the same is so required to be filed with the Commission. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of Trust Indenture Act Section 314(a). Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates).

ARTICLE VIII

Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance or Transfer

Section 8.01    Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance or Transfer on Certain Terms. Except as otherwise set forth in an indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution creating such

 

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series of Securities or in the form of security for such Series, the Company shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person or convey or transfer its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, unless:

(1)    the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer the properties and assets of the Company substantially as an entirety shall be organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America or any State thereof or the District of Columbia, and shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on all the Securities and the performance of every covenant of this Indenture (as supplemented from time to time) on the part of the Company to be performed or observed;

(2)    immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time, or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have happened and be continuing; and

(3)    the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance or transfer and such indenture supplemental hereto comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

Section 8.02    Successor Person Substituted. Upon any consolidation or merger, or any conveyance or transfer of the properties and assets of the Company substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 8.01, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which such conveyance or transfer is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor had been named as the Company herein. In the event of any such conveyance or transfer, the Company as the predecessor shall be discharged from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities and may be dissolved, wound up or liquidated at any time thereafter.

ARTICLE IX

Supplemental Indentures

Section 9.01    Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders. Except as otherwise set forth in an indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution creating such series of Securities or in the form of Security for such series, without the consent of the Holders of any Securities, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee, at any time and from time to time, may enter into one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, for any of the following purposes:

(1)    to evidence the succession of another corporation or Person to the Company or any Guarantor, if any, and the assumption by any such successor of the respective covenants of the Company or any Guarantor herein and in the Securities contained; or

 

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(2)    to add to the covenants of the Company or any Guarantor, if any, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company or any Guarantor, for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of any or all series (and if such covenants or the surrender of such right or power are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included or such surrenders are expressly being made solely for the benefit of one or more specified series); or

(3)    to cure any ambiguity, to correct or supplement any provision herein which may be inconsistent with any other provision herein, or to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture; or

(4)    to add to this Indenture such provisions as may be expressly permitted by the TIA, excluding, however, the provisions referred to in Section 316(a)(2) of the TIA as in effect at the date as of which this instrument was executed or any corresponding provision in any similar federal statute hereafter enacted; or

(5)    to establish any form of Security, as provided in Article II, to provide for the issuance of any series of Securities as provided in Article III and to set forth the terms thereof, and/or to add to the rights of the Holders of the Securities of any series; or

(6)    to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment by another corporation as a successor Trustee hereunder with respect to one or more series of Securities and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to Section 6.11; or

(7)    to add any additional Events of Default in respect of the Securities of any or all series (and if such additional Events of Default are to be in respect of less than all series of Securities, stating that such Events of Default are expressly being included solely for the benefit of one or more specified series); or

(8)    to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities and to provide for bearer Securities; provided that uncertificated Securities are issued in registered form for purposes of Section 163(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or in a manner such that the uncertificated Securities are described in Section 163(f)(2)(B) of such Internal Revenue Code; or

(9)    to provide for the terms and conditions of conversion into Common Stock or other Marketable Securities of the Securities of any series which are convertible into Common Stock or other Marketable Securities, if any; or

(10)    to secure the Securities of any series; or

(11)    to add Guarantees in respect of any series or all of the Securities; or

 

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(12)    to make any other change that does not adversely affect the rights of the Holders of any or all series of Securities; or

(13)    to make any change necessary to comply with any requirement of the Commission in connection with the qualification of this Indenture or any supplemental indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

No supplemental indenture for the purposes identified in clauses (2), (3) or (5) above may be entered into if to do so would adversely affect the rights of the Holders of Outstanding Securities of any series in any material respect.

Section 9.02    Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders. Except as otherwise set forth in an indenture supplemental hereto or Board Resolution creating such series of Securities or in the form of security for such Series, with the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of all series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures (acting as one class), by Act of said Holders delivered to the Company and the Trustee (in accordance with Section 1.04 hereof), the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby:

(1)    change the Maturity of the principal of, or the Stated Maturity of any premium on, or any installment of interest on, any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof or the interest or any premium thereon, or change the method of computing the amount of principal thereof or interest thereon on any date or change any Place of Payment where, or the coin or currency in which, any Security or any premium or interest thereon is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Maturity or the Stated Maturity, as the case may be, thereof (or, in the case of redemption or repayment, on or after the Redemption Date or the Repayment Date, as the case may be), or alter the provisions of this Indenture so as to affect adversely the terms, if any, of conversion of any Securities into Common Stock or other securities; or

(2)    reduce the percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose Holders is required for any such supplemental indenture, or the consent of whose Holders is required for any waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences, provided for in this Indenture; or

(3)    modify any of the provisions of this Section 9.02, Section 5.13 or Section 10.06, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby; or

 

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(4)    impair or adversely affect the right of any Holder to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on, or with respect to, the Securities of any series on or after the Stated Maturity of such Securities (or in the case of redemption, on or after the Redemption Date); or

(5)    amend or modify Section 12.01 of this Indenture in any manner adverse to the rights of the Holders of the Outstanding Securities of any series.

For purposes of this Section 9.02, if the Securities of any series are issuable upon the exercise of warrants, each holder of an unexercised and unexpired warrant with respect to such series shall be deemed to be a Holder of Outstanding Securities of such series in the amount issuable upon the exercise of such warrant. For such purposes, the ownership of any such warrant shall be determined by the Company in a manner consistent with customary commercial practices. The Trustee for such series shall be entitled to rely on an Officers’ Certificate as to the principal amount of Securities of such series in respect of which consents shall have been executed by holders of such warrants.

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture which has expressly been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or which modifies the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or other provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of Holders of Securities of any other series.

It shall not be necessary for any Act of Securityholders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such Act shall approve the substance thereof.

Section 9.03    Execution of Supplemental Indentures. In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel and an Officers’ Certificate stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Section 9.04    Effect of Supplemental Indentures. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and such supplemental indenture shall form a part of this Indenture for all purposes; and every Holder of Securities theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder shall be bound thereby to the extent provided therein.

Section 9.05    Conformity with Trust Indenture Act. Every supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article shall conform to the requirements of TIA as then in effect.

Section 9.06    Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures. Securities authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to this Article may, and shall if required by the Trustee, bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee

 

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as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Board of Directors, to any such supplemental indenture may be prepared and executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee in exchange for Outstanding Securities.

Section 9.07    Notice of Supplemental Indentures. Promptly after the execution by the Company, any affected Guarantor and the Trustee of any Supplemental Indenture pursuant to the provisions of Section 9.02, the Company shall give notice thereof to the Securityholders of each Outstanding Security affected, in the manner provided for in Section 1.06, setting forth in general terms the substance of such Supplemental Indenture. Any failure by the Company to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment or waiver.

Section 9.08    Revocation and Effect of Consents, Waivers and Actions. Until an amendment, waiver or other action by Securityholders becomes effective, a consent to it or any other action by a Securityholder of any series hereunder is a continuing consent by such Securityholder and every subsequent Securityholder of that Security, even if notation of the consent, waiver or action is not made on such Security. However, any such Securityholder or subsequent Securityholder may revoke the consent, waiver or action as to such Securityholder’s Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the consent of the requisite aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series affected then outstanding has been obtained and not revoked. After an amendment, waiver or action becomes effective, it shall bind every Securityholder of the affected series, except as provided in Section 9.02.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Securityholders entitled to consent to any amendment or waiver. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the first two sentences of the immediately preceding paragraph, those persons who were Securityholders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, supplement or waiver or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such persons continue to be Securityholders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 90 days after such record date.

ARTICLE X

Covenants

Section 10.01    Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest. With respect to each series of Securities, the Company will duly and punctually pay the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Securities in accordance with their terms and this Indenture, and will duly comply with all the other terms, agreements and conditions contained in, or made in the Indenture for the benefit of, the Securities of such series.

Section 10.02    Maintenance of Office or Agency. The Company will maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment where Securities may be presented or surrendered for payment, where Securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where any Securities with conversion privileges, if any, may be presented and surrendered for

 

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conversion. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and of any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain such office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands.

Unless otherwise set forth in, or pursuant to, a Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto with respect to a series of Securities, the Company hereby initially designates as the Place of Payment for each series of Securities, the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and initially appoints the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office as the Company’s office or agency for each such purpose in such city.

Section 10.03    Money for Security Payments to Be Held in Trust. If the Company shall at any time act as its own Paying Agent for any series of Securities, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on, any of the Securities of such series, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided, and will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure to act.

Whenever the Company shall have one or more Paying Agents for any series of Securities, it will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on, any Securities of such series, deposit with a Paying Agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal (and premium, if any) or interest, and (unless such Paying Agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.

The Company will cause each Paying Agent other than the Trustee for any series of Securities to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such Paying Agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section, that such Paying Agent will:

(1)    hold all sums held by it for the payment of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of such series in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided;

(2)    give the Trustee notice of any default by the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities of such series) in the making of any such payment of principal (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of such series; and

(3)    at any time during the continuance of any such default, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such Paying Agent.

The Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to any series of Securities or for any other purpose, pay,

 

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or by Company Order direct any Paying Agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such Paying Agent in respect of each and every series of Securities as to which it seeks to discharge this Indenture or, if for any other purpose, all sums so held in trust by the Company in respect of all Securities, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same trusts as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such Paying Agent; and, upon such payment by any Paying Agent to the Trustee, such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

Any money deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or then held by the Company, in trust for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Security of any series and remaining unclaimed for two years after such principal (and premium, if any) or interest has become due and payable shall be paid to the Company on Company Request, or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and the Holder of such Security shall thereafter as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money, and all liability of the Company as trustee thereof, shall thereupon cease. The Trustee or such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may at the expense of the Company mail to the Holders of the Securities as to which the money to be repaid was held in trust, as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register, a notice that such moneys remain unclaimed and that, after a date specified in the notice, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date on which the notice was first mailed to the Holders of the Securities as to which the money to be repaid was held in trust, any unclaimed balance of such moneys then remaining will be paid to the Company free of the trust formerly impressed upon it.

Section 10.04    Statement as to Compliance. The Company will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, a written statement signed by the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer of the Company stating that:

(1)    a review of the activities of the Company during such year and of performance under this Indenture and under the terms of the Securities has been made under his supervision; and

(2)    to the best of his knowledge, based on such review, the Company has fulfilled all its obligations under this Indenture and has complied with all conditions and covenants on its part contained in this Indenture through such year, or, if there has been a default in the fulfillment of any such obligation, covenant or condition, specifying each such default known to him and the nature and status thereof.

For the purpose of this Section 10.04, default and compliance shall be determined without regard to any grace period or requirement of notice provided pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

Section 10.05    Legal Existence. Subject to Article VIII, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its legal existence.

 

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Section 10.06    Waiver of Certain Covenants. The Company may omit in respect of any series of Securities, in any particular instance, to comply with any covenant or condition set forth in Sections 10.04 or 10.05 or set forth in a Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto with respect to the Securities of such series, unless otherwise specified in such Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto, if before or after the time for such compliance the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of all series affected by such waiver (voting as one class) shall, by Act of such Securityholders delivered to the Company and the Trustee (in accordance with Section 1.04 hereof), either waive such compliance in such instance or generally waive compliance with such covenant or condition, but no such waiver shall extend to or affect such covenant or condition except to the extent so expressly waived, and, until such waiver shall become effective, the obligations of the Company and the duties of the Trustee in respect of any such covenant or condition shall remain in full force and effect. Nothing in this Section 10.06 shall permit the waiver of compliance with any covenant or condition set forth in such Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto which, if in the form of an indenture supplemental hereto, would not be permitted by Section 9.02 without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby.

ARTICLE XI

Redemption of Securities

Section 11.01    Applicability of Article. The Company may reserve the right to redeem and pay before Stated Maturity all or any part of the Securities of any series, either by optional redemption, sinking or purchase fund or analogous obligation or otherwise, by provision therefor in the form of Security for such series established and approved pursuant to Section 2.02 and on such terms as are specified in such form or in the Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto with respect to Securities of such series as provided in Section 3.01. Redemption of Securities of any series shall be made in accordance with the terms of such Securities and, to the extent that this Article does not conflict with such terms, the succeeding Sections of this Article.

Section 11.02    Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee. The election of the Company to redeem any Securities redeemable at the election of the Company shall be evidenced by, or pursuant to authority granted by, a Board Resolution. In case of any redemption at the election of the Company of less than all of the Securities of any series, the Company shall, at least 45 days prior to the Redemption Date fixed by the Company (unless a shorter notice shall be reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee), notify the Trustee of such Redemption Date and of the principal amount of Securities of such series and the Tranche (as defined in Section 11.03) to be redeemed.

In the case of any redemption of Securities (i) prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, or (ii) pursuant to an election of the Company which is subject to a condition specified in the terms of such Securities, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel evidencing compliance with such restriction or condition.

Section 11.03    Selection of Securities to Be Redeemed. If less than all the Securities of like tenor and terms of any series (a “Tranche”) are to be redeemed, the particular Securities to

 

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be redeemed shall be selected from the Outstanding Securities of such Tranche not previously called for redemption, in accordance with applicable procedures of the Depository. Unless otherwise provided in the terms of a particular series of Securities, the portions of the principal of Securities so selected for partial redemption shall be equal to the minimum authorized denomination of the Securities of such series, or an integral multiple thereof, and the principal amount which remains outstanding shall not be less than the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series. If less than all the Securities of unlike tenor and terms of a series are to be redeemed, the particular Tranche of Securities to be redeemed shall be selected by the Company.

With respect to Securities of a series that are not represented by Global Securities, Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in a written statement signed by a Responsible Officer of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at least 45 days prior to the Redemption Date (unless a shorter period shall be reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee) as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either, (a) the Company or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as being an Affiliate of the Company.

For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed.

Section 11.04    Notice of Redemption. Notice of redemption shall be given in accordance with the procedures of any applicable depository or by first-class mail, postage prepaid, mailed not less than 15 (unless otherwise provided in the Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto establishing the relevant series) nor more than 45 days prior to the Redemption Date, to each holder of Securities to be redeemed, at his address appearing in the Security Register.

All notices of redemption shall state:

(1)    the Redemption Date;

(2)    the Redemption Price;

(3)    if less than all Outstanding Securities of any series are to be redeemed, the identification (and, in the case of partial redemption, the respective principal amounts) of the Securities to be redeemed;

(4)    that on the Redemption Date the Redemption Price will become due and payable upon each such Security, and that interest, if any, thereon shall cease to accrue from and after said date;

(5)    the place where such Securities are to be surrendered for payment of the Redemption Price, which shall be the office or agency of the Company in the Place of Payment;

 

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(6)    that the redemption is on account of a sinking or purchase fund, or other analogous obligation, if that be the case;

(7)    if such Securities are convertible into Common Stock or other securities, the Conversion Price or other conversion price and the date on which the right to convert such Securities into Common Stock or other securities will terminate;

(8)    if applicable, any conditions precedent that must be satisfied prior to the redemption; and

(9)    if applicable, that the redemption may be rescinded by the Company, at its sole option, pursuant to Section 11.09 of this Indenture upon the occurrence of a Redemption Rescission Event.

Notice of redemption of Securities to be redeemed at the election of the Company shall be given by the Company or, at the Company’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Company; provided that if the Trustee is asked to give such notice it shall be given at least five Business Days prior notice.

Section 11.05    Deposit of Redemption Price. On or prior to any Redemption Date and subject to Section 11.09, the Company shall deposit with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 10.03) an amount of money sufficient to pay the Redemption Price, as calculated by the Company, of all the Securities which are to be redeemed on that date. If any Security to be redeemed is converted into Common Stock or other securities, any money so deposited with the Trustee or a Paying Agent shall be paid to the Company upon Company Request or, if then so segregated and held in trust by the Company, shall be discharged from such trust.

Section 11.06    Securities Payable on Redemption Date. Notice of redemption having been given as aforesaid, the Securities so to be redeemed shall, subject to Section 11.09, on the Redemption Date, become due and payable at the Redemption Price therein specified and from and after such date (unless the Company shall default in the payment of the Redemption Price) such Securities shall cease to bear interest and any rights to convert such Securities shall terminate, subject to, with respect to any redemption that is conditioned upon the satisfaction of any conditions precedent, (i) the delay of such Redemption Date until such time as any or all of such conditions precedent have been satisfied, written notice of any such delay to be promptly provided by the Company to the Trustee or (ii) the rescission of such redemption pursuant to Section 11.09 of this Indenture by the Company if the Company determines that such conditions precedent will not be satisfied. Upon surrender of such Securities for redemption in accordance with the notice and subject to Section 11.09, such Securities shall be paid by the Company at the Redemption Price. Unless otherwise provided with respect to such Securities pursuant to Section 3.01, installments of interest the Stated Maturity of which is on or prior to the Redemption Date shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities registered as such on the relevant Regular Record Dates according to their terms and the provisions of Section 3.07.

 

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If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid, bear interest from the Redemption Date at the rate borne by the Security, or as otherwise provided in such Security.

Section 11.07    Securities Redeemed in Part. Except with respect to Securities of any series in the form of Global Securities, any Security which is to be redeemed only in part shall be surrendered at the office or agency of the Company in the Place of Payment with respect to that series (with, if the Company or the Trustee so requires, due endorsement by, or a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing) and the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to the Holder of such Security without service charge, a new Security or Securities of the same series and Stated Maturity and of like tenor and terms, of any authorized denomination as requested by such Holder in aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for the unredeemed portion of the principal of the Security so surrendered.

Section 11.08    Provisions with Respect to Any Sinking Funds. Unless the form or terms of any series of Securities shall provide otherwise, in lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to such series of Securities in cash, the Company may at its option (1) deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities of such series theretofore acquired by the Company or converted by the Holder thereof into Common Stock or other securities, or (2) receive credit for any Securities of such series (not previously so credited) acquired by the Company (including by way of optional redemption (pursuant to the sinking fund or otherwise but not by way of mandatory sinking fund redemption) or converted by the Holder thereof into Common Stock or other securities and theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, and if it does so then (i) Securities so delivered or credited shall be credited at the applicable sinking fund Redemption Price with respect to Securities of such series, and (ii) on or before the 60th day next preceding each sinking fund Redemption Date with respect to such series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee (A) an Officers’ Certificate specifying the portions of such sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and by delivery or credit of Securities of such series acquired by the Company or converted by the Holder thereof, and (B) such Securities, to the extent not previously surrendered. Such Officers’ Certificate shall also state the basis for such credit and that the Securities for which the Company elects to receive credit have not been previously so credited and were not acquired by the Company through operation of the mandatory sinking fund, if any, provided with respect to such Securities and shall also state that no Event of Default with respect to Securities of such series has occurred and is continuing. All Securities so delivered to the Trustee shall be canceled by the Trustee and no Securities shall be authenticated in lieu thereof.

If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional) with respect to any series of Securities made in cash plus any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payments with respect to Securities of such series made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or a lesser sum if the Company shall so request), unless otherwise provided by the terms of such series of Securities, that cash shall be applied by the Trustee on the sinking fund Redemption Date with respect to Securities of such series next following the date of such payment to the redemption of Securities of such series at the applicable sinking fund Redemption Price with respect to Securities of such series, together with accrued interest, if any, to the date fixed for redemption, with the effect provided in Section 11.06. There shall be selected, in the manner provided in

 

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Section 11.03, for redemption on such sinking fund Redemption Date a sufficient principal amount of Securities of such series to utilize that cash and notice of redemption of the Securities of such series for the sinking fund shall be given in the manner provided in Section 11.04 (and with the effect provided in Section 11.06) for the redemption of Securities in part at the option of the Company. Any sinking fund moneys not so applied or allocated by the Trustee to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment with respect to Securities of such series received by the Trustee and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section 11.08. Any and all sinking fund moneys with respect to Securities of any series held by the Trustee at the Maturity of Securities of such series, and not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series, shall be applied by the Trustee, together with other moneys, if necessary, to be deposited sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the principal of the Securities of such series at Maturity.

On or before each sinking fund Redemption Date provided with respect to Securities of any series, the Company shall pay to the Trustee in cash a sum equal to all accrued interest, if any, to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on such sinking fund Redemption Date pursuant to this Section 11.08.

Section 11.09    Rescission of Redemption. In the event that this Section 11.09 is specified to be applicable to a series of Securities pursuant to Section 3.01 and a Redemption Rescission Event shall occur following any day on which a notice of redemption shall have been given pursuant to Section 11.04 hereof but at or prior to the time and date fixed for redemption as set forth in such notice of redemption, the Company may, at its sole option, at any time prior to the earlier of (i) the close of business on that day which is two Trading Days following such Redemption Rescission Event and (ii) the time and date fixed for redemption as set forth in such notice, rescind the redemption to which such notice of redemption shall have related by making a public announcement of such rescission (the date on which such public announcement shall have been made being hereinafter referred to as the “Rescission Date”). The Company shall be deemed to have made such announcement if it shall issue a release to the Dow Jones News Service, Reuters Information Services or any successor news wire service. From and after the making of such announcement, the Company shall have no obligation to redeem Securities called for redemption pursuant to such notice of redemption or to pay the Redemption Price therefor and all rights of Holders of Securities shall be restored as if such notice of redemption had not been given. As promptly as practicable following the making of such announcement, the Company shall telephonically notify the Trustee and the Paying Agent of such rescission. The Company shall give notice of any such rescission by first-class mail, postage prepaid, mailed as promptly as practicable but in no event later than the close of business on that day which is five Trading Days following the Rescission Date to each Holder of Securities at the close of business on the Rescission Date and to the Trustee and the Paying Agent. Each notice of rescission shall (A) state that the redemption described in the notice of redemption has been rescinded and (B) state that such form must be properly completed and received by the Company no later than the close of business on a date that shall be 15 Trading Days following the date of the mailing of such notice of rescission.

 

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ARTICLE XII

Guarantees

Section 12.01    Guarantees. Any series of Securities may be guaranteed by one or more of the Subsidiaries of the Company or other Persons. The terms and the form of any such Guarantee will be established in the manner contemplated by Section 3.01 for the particular series of Securities. Each Guarantor, as primary obligor and not merely as surety, will fully, irrevocably and unconditionally guarantee, to each Holder of Securities (including each Holder of Securities issued under the Indenture after the date of this Indenture) and to the Trustee and its successors and assigns (i) the full and punctual payment of principal of and interest on the Securities when due, whether at maturity, by acceleration, by redemption or otherwise, and all other monetary obligations of the Company under this Indenture (including obligations to the Trustee) and the Securities and (ii) the full and punctual performance within applicable grace periods of all other obligations of the Company under this Indenture and the Securities.

(a)     Each of the Guarantors further agrees that its obligations hereunder shall be unconditional irrespective of the absence or existence of any action to enforce the same, the recovery of any judgment against the Company or any other Guarantor (except to the extent such judgment is paid) or any waiver or amendment of the provisions of this Indenture or the Securities to the extent that any such action or any similar action would otherwise constitute a legal or equitable discharge or defense of a guarantor (except that each such waiver or amendment shall be effective in accordance with its terms).

(b)     Each of the Guarantors further agrees that each Guarantee constitutes a guarantee of payment, performance and compliance and not merely of collection.

(c)     Each of the Guarantors further agrees to waive presentment to, demand of payment from and protest to the Company or any other Person, and also waives diligence, notice of acceptance of its Guarantee, presentment, demand for payment, notice of protest for nonpayment, the filing of claims with a court in the event of merger or bankruptcy of the Company or any other Person and any right to require a proceeding first against the Company or any other Person. The obligations of the Guarantors shall not be affected by any failure or policy on the part of the Trustee to exercise any right or remedy under this Indenture or the Securities of any series.

(d)     The obligation of each Guarantor to make any payment hereunder may be satisfied by causing the Company or any other Person to make such payment. If any Holder of any Security or the Trustee is required by any court or otherwise to return to the Company or any Guarantor, or any custodian, trustee, liquidator or other similar official acting in relation to any of the Company or any Guarantor, any amount paid by any of them to the Trustee or such Holder, the Guarantee of such Guarantor, to the extent theretofore discharged, shall be reinstated in full force and effect.

(e)     Each Guarantor also agrees to pay any and all reasonable costs and expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees) incurred by the Trustee or any Holder of Securities in enforcing any of their respective rights under its Guarantees.

 

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(f)     Any term or provision of this Indenture to the contrary notwithstanding, the maximum aggregate amount of each of the Guarantees shall not exceed the maximum amount that can be guaranteed by the relevant Guarantor without rendering the relevant Guarantee under this Indenture voidable under applicable law relating to fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer or similar laws affecting the rights of creditors generally.

 

62


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

INVESCO MORTGAGE CAPITAL INC.
By:  

    

  Name:
  Title:
THE BANK OF NEW YORK MELLON, as Trustee
By:  

    

  Name:
  Title:

 

63

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Section 3: EX-4.11 (EX-4.11)

EX-4.11

EXHIBIT 4.11

 

 

 

INVESCO MORTGAGE CAPITAL INC.

and

The Bank of New York Mellon,

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of             ,        

Providing for Issuance of Subordinated Debt Securities in Series

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         Page  

ARTICLE I Definitions and Other Provisions of General Application

     1  

Section 1.01

 

Definitions

     1  

Section 1.02

 

Compliance Certificates and Opinions

     9  

Section 1.03

 

Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee

     10  

Section 1.04

 

Acts of Securityholders

     11  

Section 1.05

 

Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company

     12  

Section 1.06

 

Notices to Securityholders; Waiver

     13  

Section 1.07

 

Conflict with Trust Indenture Act

     13  

Section 1.08

 

Effect of Headings and Table of Contents

     13  

Section 1.09

 

Successors and Assigns

     13  

Section 1.10

 

Separability Clause

     13  

Section 1.11

 

Benefits of Indenture

     14  

Section 1.12

 

Governing Law

     14  

Section 1.13

 

Counterparts

     14  

Section 1.14

 

Judgment Currency

     14  

Section 1.15

 

Legal Holidays

     14  

Section 1.16

 

Agent for Service; Submission to Jurisdiction; Waiver of Immunities and Jury Trial

     14  

Section 1.17

 

Tax Matters

     15  

ARTICLE II Security Forms

     15  

Section 2.01

 

Forms Generally

     15  

Section 2.02

 

Forms of Securities

     16  

Section 2.03

 

Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

     16  

Section 2.04

 

Securities Issuable in the Form of a Global Security

     16  

ARTICLE III The Securities

     18  

Section 3.01

 

General Title; General Limitations; Issuable in Series; Terms of Particular Series

     18  

Section 3.02

 

Denominations

     21  

Section 3.03

 

Execution, Authentication and Delivery and Dating

     21  

Section 3.04

 

Temporary Securities

     23  

Section 3.05

 

Registration, Transfer and Exchange

     23  

Section 3.06

 

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     24  

Section 3.07

 

Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved

     25  

Section 3.08

 

Persons Deemed Owners

     26  

Section 3.09

 

Cancellation

     26  

Section 3.10

 

CUSIP and CINS Numbers

     26  

Section 3.11

 

Computation of Interest

     27  

Section 3.12

 

Delayed Issuance of Securities

     27  

 

i


ARTICLE IV Satisfaction and Discharge; Defeasance

     27  

Section 4.01

 

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

     27  

Section 4.02

 

Application of Trust Money

     28  

Section 4.03

 

Defeasance Upon Deposit of Funds or Government Obligations

     29  

Section 4.04

 

Reinstatement

     31  

ARTICLE V Remedies

     31  

Section 5.01

 

Events of Default

     31  

Section 5.02

 

Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment

     32  

Section 5.03

 

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

     34  

Section 5.04

 

Trustee May File Proofs of Claim

     34  

Section 5.05

 

Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities

     35  

Section 5.06

 

Application of Money Collected

     35  

Section 5.07

 

Limitation on Suits

     36  

Section 5.08

 

Unconditional Right of Securityholders to Receive Principal, Premium and Interest

     36  

Section 5.09

 

Restoration of Rights and Remedies

     37  

Section 5.10

 

Rights and Remedies Cumulative

     37  

Section 5.11

 

Delay or Omission Not Waiver

     37  

Section 5.12

 

Control by Securityholders

     37  

Section 5.13

 

Waiver of Past Defaults

     37  

Section 5.14

 

Undertaking for Costs

     38  

Section 5.15

 

Waiver of Stay or Extension Laws

     38  

ARTICLE VI The Trustee

     38  

Section 6.01

 

Certain Duties and Responsibilities

     38  

Section 6.02

 

Notice of Defaults

     39  

Section 6.03

 

Certain Rights of Trustee

     40  

Section 6.04

 

Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities

     41  

Section 6.05

 

May Hold Securities

     42  

Section 6.06

 

Money Held in Trust

     42  

Section 6.07

 

Compensation and Reimbursement

     42  

Section 6.08

 

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

     43  

Section 6.09

 

Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility

     43  

Section 6.10

 

Resignation and Removal

     43  

Section 6.11

 

Acceptance of Appointment by Successor

     45  

Section 6.12

 

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business

     45  

Section 6.13

 

Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company

     46  

Section 6.14

 

Appointment of Authenticating Agent

     46  

ARTICLE VII Securityholders’ Lists and Reports by Trustee and Company

     47  

Section 7.01

 

Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders

     47  

Section 7.02

 

Preservation of Information; Communications to Securityholders

     48  

Section 7.03

 

Reports by Trustee

     48  

Section 7.04

 

Reports by Company

     48  

 

ii


ARTICLE VIII Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance or Transfer

     49  

Section 8.01

 

Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance or Transfer on Certain Terms

     49  

Section 8.02

 

Successor Person Substituted

     49  

ARTICLE IX Supplemental Indentures

     50  

Section 9.01

 

Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Securityholders

     50  

Section 9.02

 

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

     51  

Section 9.03

 

Subordination Unimpaired

     52  

Section 9.04

 

Execution of Supplemental Indentures

     53  

Section 9.05

 

Effect of Supplemental Indentures

     53  

Section 9.06

 

Conformity with Trust Indenture Act

     53  

Section 9.07

 

Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures

     53  

Section 9.08

 

Notice of Supplemental Indentures

     53  

Section 9.09

 

Revocation and Effect of Consents, Waivers and Actions

     53  

ARTICLE X Covenants

     54  

Section 10.01

 

Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest

     54  

Section 10.02

 

Maintenance of Office or Agency

     54  

Section 10.03

 

Money for Security Payments to Be Held in Trust

     54  

Section 10.04

 

Statement as to Compliance

     56  

Section 10.05

 

Legal Existence

     56  

Section 10.06

 

Waiver of Certain Covenants

     56  

ARTICLE XI Redemption of Securities

     56  

Section 11.01

 

Applicability of Article

     56  

Section 11.02

 

Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee

     57  

Section 11.03

 

Selection of Securities to Be Redeemed

     57  

Section 11.04

 

Notice of Redemption

     57  

Section 11.05

 

Deposit of Redemption Price

     58  

Section 11.06

 

Securities Payable on Redemption Date

     59  

Section 11.07

 

Securities Redeemed in Part

     59  

Section 11.08

 

Provisions with Respect to Any Sinking Funds

     59  

Section 11.09

 

Rescission of Redemption

     60  

ARTICLE XII Subordination of Securities

     61  

Section 12.01

 

Agreement of Subordination

     61  

Section 12.02

 

Payments to Securityholders

     61  

Section 12.03

 

Subrogation of Securities

     63  

Section 12.04

 

Authorization by Securityholders

     64  

Section 12.05

 

Notice to Trustee

     64  

Section 12.06

 

Trustee’s Relation to Senior Indebtedness

     65  

Section 12.07

 

No Impairment of Subordination

     65  

Section 12.08

 

Rights of Trustee

     65  

Section 12.09

 

Applicable to Paying Agents

     65  

ARTICLE XIII Guarantees

     66  

Section 13.01

 

Guarantees

     66  

 

iii


Table Showing Reflection in Indenture of Certain Provisions

of Trust Indenture Act of 1939,

as amended by the Trust Indenture Reform Act of 1990

Reflected in Indenture

 

Trust Indenture Act Section    Indenture Section
§310   (a)(1)    6.09
  (a)(2)    6.09
  (a)(3)    Not Applicable
  (a)(4)    Not Applicable
  (a)(5)    6.09
  (b)    6.08
§311   (a)    6.13(a)
  (b)    6.13(b)
  (b)(2)    7.03(a)
     7.03(b)
§312   (a)    7.01
     7.02(a)
  (b)    7.03(b)
  (c)    7.02(c)
§313   (a)    7.03(a)
  (b)    7.03(b)
  (c)    7.03(a)
     7.03(b)
  (d)    7.03(c)
§314   (a)(1)    7.04
  (a)(2)    7.04
  (a)(3)    7.04
  (a)(4)