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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________________________________
FORM 10–K
_____________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     .
Commission File Number 001-34658
_____________________________________________________________
BWX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_____________________________________________________________
DELAWARE
 
80-0558025
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
800 MAIN STREET, 4TH FLOOR
 
 
LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA
 
24504
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (980) 365-4300
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each Exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_____________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
 
ý
 
Accelerated filer
 
¨
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨
 
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
Emerging growth company
 
¨
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant on the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter (based on the closing sales price on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2018) was approximately $6.2 billion.
The number of shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding at February 21, 2019 was 94,865,907.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 14, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.


Table of Contents

BWX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
INDEX – FORM 10-K
 
PAGE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2018 and 2017
 
 
 
Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
 
 
 

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PAGE
 
 
 
Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
 
 
 
Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
 
 
 
Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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 Statements we make in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Report"), which express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not historical fact, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are subject to various risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those to which we refer under the headings "Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk Factors" in Items 1 and 1A of Part I of this Report. In this Report, unless the context otherwise indicates, "we," "us" and "our" mean BWX Technologies, Inc. ("BWXT" or the "Company") and its consolidated subsidiaries.
PART I
Item 1.
BUSINESS
General
BWX Technologies, Inc. is a specialty manufacturer of nuclear components, a developer of nuclear technologies and a service provider with an operating history of more than 100 years. Our core businesses focus on the design, engineering and manufacture of precision naval nuclear components, reactors and nuclear fuel for the U.S. Government. We also provide special nuclear materials processing, environmental site restoration services, and a variety of products and services to customers in the nuclear power industry, as well as critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. While we provide a wide range of products and services, our business segments are heavily focused on major projects. At any given time, a relatively small number of projects can represent a significant part of our operations.
On June 30, 2015, we completed the spin-off of our former Power Generation business (the "spin-off") into an independent, publicly traded company named Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises, Inc. ("BWE"). We have presented the notes to our consolidated financial statements on the basis of continuing operations, unless otherwise stated.
Business Segments
We operate in three reportable segments: Nuclear Operations Group, Nuclear Services Group and Nuclear Power Group. For financial information regarding each of our segments and financial information regarding geographic areas, see Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report. For further details regarding each segment's facilities, see Item 2, "Properties." In general, we operate in capital-intensive industries and rely on large contracts for a substantial amount of our revenues. We are currently exploring growth strategies across our segments through strategic investments and acquisitions to expand and complement our existing businesses. We would expect to fund these opportunities with cash generated from operations or by raising additional capital through debt, equity or some combination thereof.
Nuclear Operations Group
Through this segment, we engineer, design and manufacture precision naval nuclear components, reactors and nuclear fuel for the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE")/National Nuclear Security Administration's ("NNSA") Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. In addition, we perform development and fabrication activities for missile launch tubes for U.S. Navy submarines.
Our Nuclear Operations Group segment specializes in the design and manufacture of close-tolerance and high-quality equipment for nuclear applications. In addition, we are a leading manufacturer of critical nuclear components, fuels and assemblies for government and limited other uses. We have supplied nuclear components for DOE programs since the 1950s and are the largest domestic supplier of research reactor fuel elements for colleges, universities and national laboratories. We also convert or downblend high-enriched uranium into low-enriched fuel for use in commercial reactors to generate electricity. In addition, we have over 100 years of experience in supplying components for defense applications.
We work closely with the DOE-supported nuclear non-proliferation program. Currently, this program is assisting in the development of a high-density, low-enriched uranium fuel required for high-enriched uranium test reactor conversions. We have also been a leader in the receipt, storage, characterization, dissolution, recovery and purification of a variety of uranium-bearing materials. All phases of uranium downblending and uranium recovery are performed at our Lynchburg, Virginia and Erwin, Tennessee sites.
The demand for nuclear components by the U.S. Government determines a substantial portion of this segment's backlog. We expect that orders for nuclear components will continue to be a significant part of backlog for the foreseeable future. In addition, the U.S. Navy issued its fiscal year 2019 long-range shipbuilding plan in February 2018, which includes recommendations to increase the size of its fleet of ships to include additional submarines and aircraft carriers beyond the

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number disclosed in previous long-range shipbuilding plans. We expect the U.S. Navy's new shipbuilding plan will require us to make additional capital expenditures and investment in personnel to meet this growth in demand.
Nuclear Services Group
Through this segment, we provide various services to the U.S. Government, including special nuclear materials processing, environmental site restoration services and management and operating services for various U.S. Government-owned facilities. These services are provided primarily to the DOE, including the NNSA, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Science and the Office of Environmental Management, and NASA.
This segment's principal operations include:
managing and operating environmental management sites;
managing spent nuclear fuel and transuranic waste for the DOE;
managing and operating nuclear production facilities;
providing critical skills and resources for DOE sites; and
managing and operating space flight hardware and test facilities for NASA.
This segment is also engaged in inspection and maintenance services for the commercial nuclear industry primarily in the U.S. These services include steam generator, heat exchanger and balance of plant inspection and servicing as well as high pressure water lancing, non-destructive examination and the development of customized tooling solutions. This segment also develops technology for a variety of applications, including advanced nuclear power sources, and offers complete advanced nuclear fuel and reactor design and engineering, licensing and manufacturing services for new advanced nuclear reactors.
Our Nuclear Services Group segment's overall activity depends primarily on authorized spending levels of the DOE, including the NNSA, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Science and the Office of Environmental Management, and NASA. We manage and operate complex, high-consequence nuclear and national security operations for the DOE and the NNSA, primarily through our joint ventures, as further discussed under the caption "Joint Ventures" below. In addition, this segment's activities associated with the U.S. commercial nuclear industry depend on the demand and competitiveness of nuclear power in the U.S. and our ability to successfully obtain commercial nuclear contracts.
Nuclear Power Group
Through this segment, we design and manufacture commercial nuclear steam generators, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, reactor components and other auxiliary equipment, including containers for the storage of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level nuclear waste. We have supplied the nuclear industry with more than 1,300 large, heavy components worldwide and we are the only commercial heavy nuclear component manufacturer in North America. This segment is also a leading supplier of nuclear fuel, fuel handling systems, tooling delivery systems and related services for CANDU nuclear power plants. This segment also provides a variety of engineering and in-plant services and is a significant supplier to nuclear power utilities undergoing major refurbishment and plant life extension projects. Our in-depth knowledge comes from over 50 years of experience in the design, manufacturing, commissioning and service of nuclear power generation equipment. Additionally, this segment is a leading global manufacturer and supplier of critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals.
The Nuclear Power Group segment specializes in performing full scope, prototype design work coupled with manufacturing integration. This segment's capabilities include:
steam generation and separation equipment design and development;
thermal-hydraulic design of reactor plant components;
commercial nuclear fuel manufacturing and design;
nuclear fuel handling system design, manufacturing, delivery, installation and commissioning;
containers for the storage of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste;
structural and thermal-hydraulic design and vibration analysis for heat exchangers;
structural component design for precision manufacturing;

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materials expertise in high-strength, low-alloy steels and nickel-based materials;
material procurement of tubing, forgings and weld wire;
metallographic and chemical analysis; and
manufacture and supply critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for research, diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
Our Nuclear Power Group segment's overall activity primarily depends on the demand and competitiveness of nuclear energy. A significant portion of our Nuclear Power Group segment's operations depend on the timing of maintenance outages, principally in the Canadian market, and the cyclical nature of capital expenditures and major refurbishments for nuclear utility customers, which could cause variability in our financial results.
Acquisitions
Sotera Health's Nordion Medical Isotope Business
On July 30, 2018, our subsidiary BWXT ITG Canada, Inc. acquired Sotera Health's Nordion medical isotope business (the "MI business"). The MI business is a leading global manufacturer and supplier of critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for research, diagnostic and therapeutic uses. Its customers include radiopharmaceutical companies, hospitals and radiopharmacies. Its primary operations are located in Kanata, Ontario, Canada and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This acquisition added approximately 150 highly trained and experienced personnel, two specialized production centers and a uniquely licensed infrastructure. In addition to the growing portfolio of radioisotope products we acquired, the MI business will be the platform from which we plan to launch our Molybdenum-99 product line and a number of future radioisotope-based imaging and therapeutic products. This business is reported as part of our Nuclear Power Group segment.
BWXT Nuclear Energy Canada Inc.
On December 16, 2016, our subsidiary BWXT Canada Ltd. acquired the outstanding stock of the GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada Inc. ("GEH-C") joint venture, which was renamed BWXT Nuclear Energy Canada Inc. ("NEC"). NEC is a leading supplier of nuclear fuel, fuel handling systems, tooling delivery systems and replacement components for CANDU reactors and has approximately 350 employees. NEC operates two facilities licensed by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission ("CNSC") to fabricate natural uranium fuel in Peterborough and Toronto, Ontario, Canada as well as a third facility in Arnprior, Ontario, Canada. The acquisition of NEC expanded our existing commercial nuclear products and services portfolio, allowing us to leverage our technology-based competencies in offering new products and services related to plant life extensions as well as the ongoing maintenance of nuclear power generation equipment. NEC is reported within our Nuclear Power Group segment.
See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for additional information on the acquisitions of the MI business and NEC.
Contracts
We execute our contracts through a variety of methods, including fixed-price incentive fee, cost-plus, target price cost incentive, cost-reimbursable, fixed-price or some combination of these methods. We generally recognize our contract revenues and related costs on an over time basis. Accordingly, we review contract price and cost estimates regularly as the work progresses and reflect adjustments in profit proportionate to the percentage of completion in the period when we revise those estimates. To the extent that these adjustments result in a reduction or an elimination of previously reported profits with respect to a project, we would recognize a charge against current earnings, which could be material.
We have contracts that extend beyond one year. Most of our long-term contracts have provisions for progress payments. We attempt to cover anticipated increases in labor, material and service costs of our long-term contracts either through an estimate of such changes, which is reflected in the original price, or through risk-sharing mechanisms, such as escalation or price adjustments for items such as labor and commodity prices.
In the event of a contract deferral or cancellation, we generally would be entitled to recover costs incurred, settlement expenses and profit on work completed prior to deferral or termination. Significant or numerous cancellations could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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For further specification, see "Risk Factors Related to Our Business – We are subject to risks associated with contractual pricing in our industries, including the risk that, if our actual costs exceed the costs we estimate on our fixed-price contracts, our profitability will decline and we may suffer losses" as outlined in Item 1A of this Report.
Nuclear Operations Group
The majority of the revenue generated by this segment is from long-term contracts with the DOE/NNSA's Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. Unless otherwise specified in a contract, allowable and allocable costs are billed to contracts with the U.S. Government in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (the "FAR") and the related U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards ("CAS"). Examples of costs that may be incurred by us and not billable to the U.S. Government in accordance with the requirements of the FAR and CAS regulations include, but are not limited to, unallowable employee compensation and benefit costs, lobbying costs, interest, certain legal costs and charitable donations.
Most of our contracts in this segment are fixed-price incentive fee contracts that provide for reimbursement of allowable costs incurred plus a fee and generally require that we use our best efforts to accomplish the scope of the work within some specified time and stated dollar limitation. Fees can be established in terms of dollar value or percentage of costs. Award and incentive fees are determined and earned based on customer evaluation of our performance against negotiated criteria, primarily related to cost, and are intended to provide motivation for excellence in contract performance. Incentive fees that are based on cost provide for an initially negotiated fee to be adjusted later, typically using a formula to measure performance against the associated criteria, based on the relationship of total allowable costs to total target costs. Award and incentive fees represent variable consideration that we include in revenue when there is sufficient evidence to determine that the variable consideration is not constrained.
Certain of our U.S. Government contracts span one or more base years and multiple option years. The U.S. Government generally has the right not to exercise option periods and may not exercise an option period for various reasons including, but not limited to, annual funding determinations. In addition, contracts between the U.S. Government and its prime contractors usually contain standard provisions for termination at the convenience of the U.S. Government or the prime contractor. As a U.S. Government contractor, we are subject to federal regulations under which our right to receive future awards of new federal contracts would be unilaterally suspended or barred if we were convicted of a crime or indicted based on allegations of a violation of specific federal statutes. In addition, some of our contracts with the U.S. Government require us to provide advance notice in connection with any contemplated sale or shut down of the relevant facility. In each of those situations, the U.S. Government has an exclusive right to negotiate a mutually acceptable purchase of the facility.
Nuclear Services Group
This segment's principal operations include the management and operation of nuclear production facilities, environmental management sites and the management of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic waste for the DOE. These activities are primarily accomplished through our participation in joint ventures with other contractors as further discussed under the caption "Joint Ventures" below.
The contracts for the management and operation of U.S. Government facilities are awarded through a complex and protracted procurement process. These contracts are generally structured as five-year contracts with options for up to five additional years, which are exercisable by the customer, or include provisions whereby the contract durations can be extended as a result of the achievement of certain performance metrics. These are generally cost-reimbursement contracts that include an award fee that is primarily based on annual performance, with monthly provisional fee payments and annual true-up payments. Depending on the type of contract, the contractor may be required to supply working capital, which is reimbursed by the U.S. Government through regular invoicing.
This segment also serves the commercial nuclear industry primarily through the use of fixed-price contracts that are awarded following a competitive bid process. Fixed-price contracts entail more risk to us because the price has been pre-determined and is generally not subject to adjustment, regardless of costs incurred, unless authorized by the customer.
Nuclear Power Group
Contracts in this segment are usually awarded through a competitive bid process. Factors that customers may consider include price, plant or equipment availability, technical capabilities of equipment and personnel, efficiency, safety record and reputation. Certain of these contracts are fixed-price contracts in which the specified scope of work is agreed to for a pre-determined price that is generally not subject to adjustment, regardless of costs incurred by the contractor, unless changes in scope are authorized by the customer. Fixed-price contracts entail more risk to us because they require us to predetermine both

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the quantities of work to be performed and the costs associated with executing the work. Remaining contracts are primarily time-and-materials contracts, which result in us recovering costs incurred in accordance with the contract plus a fee.
Our arrangements with customers may require us to provide letters of credit, bid and performance bonds or guarantees to secure bids or performance under contracts, which may involve significant amounts for contract security.
Backlog
Backlog represents the dollar amount of revenue we expect to recognize in the future from contracts awarded and in progress. Not all of our expected revenue from a contract award is recorded in backlog for a variety of reasons, including that some projects are awarded and completed within the same fiscal quarter.
Our backlog at December 31, 2018 is equal to our remaining performance obligations under contracts that meet the criteria in Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Topic Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as discussed in Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report. It is possible that our methodology for determining backlog may not be comparable to methods used by other companies.
We are subject to the budgetary and appropriations cycle of the U.S. Government as it relates to our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Services Group segments. Backlog may not be indicative of future operating results, and projects in our backlog may be cancelled, modified or otherwise altered by customers.
Our backlog at December 31, 2018 and 2017 was as follows:
 
 
December 31,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
 
 
(In approximate millions)
Nuclear Operations Group
 
$
2,637

 
76
%
 
$
3,305

 
83
%
Nuclear Services Group
 
38

 
1
%
 
29

 
1
%
Nuclear Power Group
 
804

 
23
%
 
637

 
16
%
Total Backlog
 
$
3,479

 
100
%
 
$
3,971

 
100
%
We do not include the value of our unconsolidated joint venture contracts in backlog. These unconsolidated joint ventures are included in our Nuclear Services Group segment. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for financial information on our equity method investments.
Of the December 31, 2018 backlog, we expect to recognize revenues as follows:
 
 
2019
 
2020
 
Thereafter
 
Total
 
 
(In approximate millions)
Nuclear Operations Group
 
$
980

 
$
836

 
$
821

 
$
2,637

Nuclear Services Group
 
33

 
3

 
2

 
38

Nuclear Power Group
 
240

 
146

 
418

 
804

Total Backlog
 
$
1,253

 
$
985

 
$
1,241

 
$
3,479

As of December 31, 2018, Nuclear Operations Group backlog with the U.S. Government was $2,125.1 million, $200.9 million of which had not yet been funded.
As of December 31, 2018, Nuclear Services Group backlog with the U.S. Government was $25.9 million, all of which was fully funded.
As of December 31, 2018, Nuclear Power Group had no backlog with the U.S. Government.
Major new awards from the U.S. Government are typically received following Congressional approval of the budget for the Government's next fiscal year, which starts October 1, and may not be awarded to us before the end of the calendar year. Due to the fact that most contracts awarded by the U.S. Government are subject to these annual funding approvals, the total values of the underlying programs are significantly larger. In April 2016, we were awarded a component and fuel contract, along with a three-year downblending contract by the U.S. Government with a combined value in excess of $3.0 billion, inclusive of unexercised options.

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As of December 31, 2018, the U.S. Government had awarded us approximately $2.8 billion of the April 2016 award. The value of unexercised options excluded from backlog as of December 31, 2018 was approximately $0.2 billion, the majority of which is expected to be exercised in 2019, subject to annual Congressional appropriations.
Competition
The competitive environments in which each segment operates are described below.
Nuclear Operations Group. We have specialized technical capabilities that have allowed us to be a valued supplier of nuclear components and fuel for the U.S. Government's naval nuclear fleet since the 1950s. Because of the technical and regulatory standards required to meet U.S. Government contracting requirements for nuclear components and the barriers to entry present in this type of environment, competition in this segment is limited. The primary bases of limited competition for this segment are price, high capital investment, technical capabilities, high regulatory licensing costs and quality of products and services. In addition, a significant portion of the designs, processing and final product are classified by the U.S. Government, requiring applicable personnel to obtain and maintain U.S. Government security clearances.
Nuclear Services Group. Through this segment, we are engaged in the management and operation of U.S. Government facilities and the delivery of environmental remediation services (decontamination and decommissioning) associated with U.S. Government-owned nuclear facilities. Many of our government contracts are bid as a joint venture with one or more companies, in which we have a majority or a minority position. The performance of the prime or lead contractor can impact our reputation and our future competitive position with respect to that particular project and customer. Our primary competitors in the delivery of goods and services to the U.S. Government and the operation of U.S. Government facilities include, but are not limited to, Bechtel National, Inc., AECOM, Fluor Corporation, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Northrop Grumman Corporation, Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc., Honeywell International, Inc. and Leidos, Inc. The primary bases of competition for this segment are experience, past performance, availability of key personnel and technical capabilities.
The Nuclear Services Group segment is also engaged in the commercial nuclear industry primarily in the U.S. This portion of the segment competes with a number of companies specializing in commercial nuclear engineering and maintenance services including Framatome, Westinghouse Electric Corporation and other third-tier service suppliers. The primary bases of competition for this segment are price, technical capabilities, quality, timeliness of performance, breadth of products and services and willingness to accept project risks.
Nuclear Power Group. Our Nuclear Power Group segment supplies commercial nuclear steam generators, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, reactor components and other auxiliary equipment. This segment also provides specialized engineering and maintenance services, including services for plant outages, and is a leading supplier of nuclear fuel, fuel handling systems, tooling delivery systems and replacement components for CANDU reactors. This segment competes with a number of companies specializing in nuclear capabilities including, but not limited to, Framatome, Cameco Corporation, Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction, E.S. Fox Limited, AECON Group Inc., Bechtel National, Inc., Westinghouse Electric Corporation and SNC-Lavalin Group, Inc. The primary bases of competition for this segment are price, technical capabilities, quality, timeliness of performance, breadth of products and services and willingness to accept project risks.
Joint Ventures
We share in the ownership of a variety of entities with third parties, primarily through corporations, limited liability companies and partnerships, which we refer to as "joint ventures." Through several joint venture arrangements, our Nuclear Services Group segment primarily manages and operates nuclear facilities and associated plant infrastructure, constructs large capital facilities, provides safeguards and security for inventory and assets, supports and conducts research and development for advanced energy technology and manages environmental programs for the DOE, the NNSA and NASA. We generally account for our investments in joint ventures under the equity method of accounting. Certain of our Nuclear Services Group segment unconsolidated joint ventures are described below.
Los Alamos Legacy Cleanup Contract. Newport News Nuclear BWXT – Los Alamos, LLC, a limited liability company formed in 2017 with Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., a subsidiary of Huntington Ingalls Industries' Technical Solutions division, and BWXT Technical Services Group, Inc. ("BWXT TSG"), was awarded a contract to perform environmental monitoring and remediation, waste management and disposition, and decontamination and decommissioning at the Los Alamos National Laboratory site and surrounding private and government-owned lands.

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, a limited liability company formed in 2006 with the University of California, Bechtel National, Inc., URS Corporation (an AECOM company) and BWXT Government Group, Inc., manages and operates Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory located in Livermore, California. The laboratory serves as a national resource in science and engineering, focused on national security, energy, the environment and bioscience, with special responsibility for nuclear devices.
Savannah River Liquid Waste Disposition Program. In July 2009, Savannah River Remediation LLC, a limited liability company formed by URS Corporation (an AECOM company), Bechtel National, Inc., CH2M Hill Constructors, Inc. and BWXT TSG, became the liquid waste contractor for the DOE's Savannah River Site located in Aiken, South Carolina. The objective of this program is to achieve closure of the Savannah River Site liquid waste tanks in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement, utilizing the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Saltstone Facility. In October 2017, Savannah River EcoManagement, LLC, a limited liability formed by BWXT TSG, Bechtel National, Inc. and Honeywell International, Inc., was awarded the liquid waste contract for the DOE's Savannah River Site. Following this contract award, a protest was filed by the incumbent which was upheld. Revised proposals were submitted in April 2018, and final award by the DOE is still pending.
Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant D&D. Fluor-BWXT Portsmouth LLC is a limited liability company formed by Fluor Federal Services, Inc. and BWXT TSG to provide nuclear operations, decontamination and decommissioning services at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Portsmouth, Ohio.
West Valley Demonstration Project Phase I Decommissioning and Facility Disposition. CH2M Hill-BWXT West Valley, LLC is a limited liability company formed by CH2M Hill Constructors, Inc., BWXT TSG and Environmental Chemical Corporation. Services provided include project management and support services, site operations, maintenance, utilities, high-level waste canister relocation, facility disposition, waste tank farm management, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission ("NRC") licensed disposal area management, waste management and nuclear materials disposition, and safeguards and security.
Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Nuclear Waste Partnership, LLC is a limited liability company formed by URS Corporation (an AECOM company), BWXT TSG and Areva Federal Services, LLC as the major subcontractor that manages and operates the DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico.
Synergy Achieving Consolidated Operations & Maintenance (SACOM). Syncom Space Services, LLC is a limited liability company formed by PAE Applied Technologies, LLC and BWXT Nuclear Operations Group, Inc. to provide facility operations and maintenance services for institutional and technical facilities, and perform test and manufacturing support services at two NASA facilities – the Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi and the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation and Remediation Project. Four Rivers Nuclear Partnership, LLC is a limited liability company formed by BWXT TSG, CH2M Hill Constructors, Inc. and Fluor Federal Services, Inc. to provide nuclear operations, deactivation and remediation services at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky.
Customers
We provide our products and services to a diverse customer base, including the U.S. Government, utilities and other power producers. Our largest customer during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 was the U.S. Government; U.S. Government contracts represented approximately 79%, 81% and 87% of our total consolidated revenues, respectively. No individual non-U.S. Government customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenues in the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 or 2016.
The U.S. Government is the primary customer of our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Services Group segments. Revenues from U.S. Government contracts comprised 99% of revenues in our Nuclear Operations Group segment for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. Revenues from U.S. Government contracts comprised 90%, 83% and 76% of revenues in our Nuclear Services Group segment for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

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Raw Materials and Suppliers
Our operations use raw materials, such as carbon and alloy steels in various forms and components and accessories for assembly, which are available from numerous sources. We generally purchase these raw materials and components as needed for individual contracts. Although shortages of some raw materials have existed occasionally, no serious shortage exists at the present time.
Our Nuclear Operations Group segment relies on several single-source suppliers for materials used in its products. We believe these suppliers are reliable, and we and the U.S. Government expend significant effort to monitor and maintain the supplier base for our Nuclear Operations Group segment. Our Nuclear Services Group and Nuclear Power Group segments do not depend on single sources of supply for materials used in their products. We have limited supply options for certain raw materials used in our Nuclear Power Group segment, however we believe the suppliers of these materials are reliable.
Employees
At December 31, 2018, we employed approximately 6,250 persons worldwide. Approximately 1,500 of our employees were members of labor unions at December 31, 2018. Many of our operations are subject to union contracts, which we customarily renew periodically. We consider our relationships with our employees to be satisfactory.
Patents and Technology Licenses
We currently hold a large number of U.S. and foreign patents and have patent applications pending. We acquire patents and technology licenses and grant licenses to others when we consider it advantageous for us to do so. Although in the aggregate our patents and technology licenses are important to us, we do not regard any single patent or license or group of related patents or licenses as critical or essential to our business as a whole. In general, we depend on our technological capabilities and the application of know-how, rather than patents and technology licenses, in the conduct of our various businesses.
Research and Development Activities
Our research and development activities are related to the development and improvement of new and existing products and equipment, as well as conceptual and engineering evaluation for translation into practical applications. We charge the costs of research and development unrelated to specific contracts as incurred. Excluding customer-sponsored research and development, the majority of our activities in this area for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 related to the development of technologies in the area of medical and industrial radioisotopes. During the year ended December 31, 2016, substantially all of these costs were related to our mPower program for the development of our BWXT mPower™ reactor and the associated power plant. Contractual arrangements for customer-sponsored research and development can vary on a case-by-case basis and include contracts, cooperative agreements and grants.
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for further information on research and development.
Hazard Risks and Insurance
Our operations present risks of injury to or death of people, loss of or damage to property and damage to the environment. We have created loss control systems and processes to assist us in the identification and treatment of the hazard risks presented by our operations, and we endeavor to make sure these systems are effective.
As loss control measures will not always be successful, we seek to establish various means of funding losses and transferring financial liability related to incidents or occurrences. We primarily seek to do this through contractual protections, including waivers of consequential damages, indemnities, caps on liability, liquidated damages provisions and access to the insurance of other parties. We also procure insurance, operate our own captive insurance company and/or establish funded or unfunded reserves. However, none of these methods will eliminate all risks.
Depending on competitive conditions, the nature of the work, industry custom and other factors, we may not be successful in obtaining adequate contractual protection from our customers and other parties against losses and liabilities arising out of or related to the performance of our work. The scope of the protection may be limited, may be subject to conditions and may not be supported by adequate insurance or other means of financing. In addition, we may have difficulty enforcing our contractual rights with others following a material loss.

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Similarly, insurance for certain potential losses or liabilities may not be available or may only be available at a cost or on terms we consider not to be economical. Insurers frequently react to market losses by ceasing to write or severely limiting coverage for certain exposures. Risks that we have frequently found difficult to cost-effectively insure against include, but are not limited to, property losses from wind, flood and earthquake events, nuclear hazards and war, pollution liability, liabilities related to occupational health exposures (including asbestos), liability related to our executives, professional liability/errors and omissions coverage, the failure, misuse or unavailability of our information technology systems, the failure of security measures designed to protect our information technology systems from security breaches and liability related to risk of loss of our work in progress. In cases where we purchase insurance, we are subject to the credit worthiness of the relevant insurer(s), the available limits of the coverage, our retention under the relevant policy, exclusions in the policy and gaps in coverage.
Our operations in designing, engineering, manufacturing, constructing and servicing nuclear power equipment and components for our commercial nuclear utility customers subject us to various risks, including, without limitation, damage to our customers' property and third-party claims for personal injury, environmental liability, death and property damage. To protect against liability for damage to a customer's property, we endeavor to obtain waivers of liability and subrogation from the customer and its insurer. We also attempt to cap our overall liability in our contracts. To protect against liability from claims brought by third parties, we seek to be insured under the utility customer's nuclear liability policies and have the benefit of the indemnity and limitation of any applicable liability provision of the Price-Anderson Act. The Price-Anderson Act limits the public liability of U.S. manufacturers and operators of licensed nuclear facilities and other parties who may be liable in respect of, and indemnifies them against, all claims in excess of a certain amount. This amount is determined by the sum of commercially available liability insurance plus certain retrospective premium assessments payable by operators of commercial nuclear reactors. For those sites where we provide environmental remediation services, we seek the same protection from our customers as we do for our other nuclear activities. The Price-Anderson Act, as amended, includes a sunset provision and requires renewal each time that it expires. Contracts that were entered into during a period of time that the Price-Anderson Act was in full force and effect continue to receive the benefit of the Price-Anderson Act's nuclear indemnity. The Price-Anderson Act is set to expire on December 31, 2025. We also provide nuclear fabrication and other services to the nuclear power industry in Canada. Canada's Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act ("NLCA") generally conforms to international conventions and is conceptually similar to the Price-Anderson Act in the U.S. Accordingly, indemnification protections and the possibility of exclusions under Canada's NLCA are similar to those under the Price-Anderson Act in the U.S.
We supply commercial nuclear equipment and services to certain customers in countries other than the U.S. and Canada that are party to international treaties and in countries that are not signatory to international treaties but have their own nuclear liability laws that, in general, have regulations in place whereby nuclear operators are solely liable for nuclear damage claims, which would exclude nuclear suppliers from any such exposure. BWXT does retain some level of risk in the event of future changes to the legal landscape in these countries regarding international third-party nuclear liability.
In 2008, the U.S. ratified the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage ("CSC") with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The CSC is an international treaty developed to create a global legal framework for allocating responsibility and assuring prompt and equitable compensation in the unlikely event of certain nuclear incidents. The ratification by the U.S. authorizes the Secretary of Energy to issue regulations establishing a retrospective risk pooling program whereby, in the event that the U.S. must make a contribution to the CSC international fund, U.S. nuclear suppliers, including BWXT, would pay the full cost of this contribution by the U.S.
Although we do not own or operate any nuclear reactors, we have some coverage under commercially available nuclear liability and property insurance for our facilities that are currently licensed to possess special nuclear materials. Substantially all of our Nuclear Operations Group segment contracts involving nuclear materials are covered by and subject to the nuclear indemnity provisions of either the Price-Anderson Act or Public Law 85-804, which, among other things, authorizes the DOE to indemnify certain contractors when such acts would facilitate national defense. However, to the extent the value of the nuclear materials in our care, custody or control exceeds the commercially available limits of our insurance, we potentially have underinsured risk of loss for such nuclear material.
Our Nuclear Services Group segment participates in the management and operation of various U.S. Government facilities. This participation is customarily accomplished through the participation in joint ventures with other contractors for any given facility. These activities involve, among other things, handling nuclear devices and their components. Insurable liabilities arising from these sites are rarely protected by our or our partners' corporate insurance programs. Instead, we rely on government contractual agreements and insurance purchased specifically for a site. The U.S. Government has historically fulfilled its contractual agreement to reimburse its contractors for covered claims, and we expect it to continue this process during our participation in the administration of these facilities. However, in most of these situations in which the U.S. Government is contractually obligated to pay, the payment obligation is subject to the availability of authorized government

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funds. The reimbursement obligation of the U.S. Government is also conditional, and provisions of the relevant contract or applicable law may preclude reimbursement.
Our wholly owned captive insurance subsidiary provides primary workers' compensation, employer's liability, commercial general liability and automotive liability insurance to support our operations. We may also have business reasons in the future to have our insurance subsidiary accept other risks that we cannot or do not wish to transfer to outside insurance companies. These risks may be considerable in any given year or cumulatively. Our insurance subsidiary does not provide insurance to unrelated parties. Claims as a result of our operations could adversely impact the ability of our insurance subsidiary to respond to all claims presented.
Additionally, upon the February 22, 2006 effectiveness of the settlement relating to the Chapter 11 proceedings involving several of our former subsidiaries, most of our subsidiaries contributed substantial insurance rights to the asbestos personal injury trust, including rights to (1) certain pre-1979 primary and excess insurance coverages and (2) certain of our 1979-1986 excess insurance coverage. These insurance rights provided coverage for, among other things, asbestos and other personal injury claims, subject to the terms and conditions of the policies. The contribution of these insurance rights was made in exchange for the agreement on the part of the representatives of the asbestos claimants, including the representative of future claimants, to the entry of a permanent injunction, pursuant to Section 524(g) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, to channel to the asbestos trust all asbestos-related general liability claims against our subsidiaries and former subsidiaries arising out of, resulting from or attributable to their operations, and the implementation of related releases and indemnification provisions protecting those subsidiaries and their affiliates from future liability for such claims. Although we are not aware of any significant, unresolved claims against our subsidiaries and former subsidiaries that are not subject to the channeling injunction and that relate to the periods during which such excess insurance coverage related, with the contribution of these insurance rights to the asbestos personal injury trust, it is possible that we could have underinsured or uninsured exposure for non-derivative asbestos claims or other personal injury or other claims that would have been insured under these coverages had the insurance rights not been contributed to the asbestos personal injury trust. In conjunction with the spin-off, claims and liabilities associated with the asbestos personal injury, property damage and indirect property damage claims mentioned above have been expressly assumed by BWE pursuant to the master separation agreement between us and BWE.
Governmental Regulations and Environmental Matters
Governmental Regulations
Many aspects of our operations and properties are affected by political developments and are subject to both domestic and foreign governmental regulations, including those relating to:
possessing and processing special nuclear materials;
workplace health and safety;
constructing and equipping electric power facilities;
currency conversions and repatriation;
taxation of earnings; and
protecting the environment.
We are required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain certain permits, licenses and certificates with respect to our operations. The kinds of permits, licenses and certificates required in our operations depend upon a number of factors.
We cannot determine the extent to which new legislation, new regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations may affect our future operations.
Environmental
Our operations and properties are subject to a wide variety of increasingly complex and stringent federal, foreign, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including those governing discharges into the air and water, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by hazardous substances and the health and safety of employees. Sanctions for non-compliance may include revocation of permits, corrective action orders, administrative or civil penalties and criminal prosecution. Some environmental laws provide for strict, joint and several liability for remediation of spills and other releases of hazardous substances, as well as damage to natural resources. In addition,

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companies may be subject to claims alleging personal injury or property damage as a result of alleged exposure to hazardous substances. Such laws and regulations may also expose us to liability for the conduct of or conditions caused by others or for our acts that were in compliance with all applicable laws at the time such acts were performed.
These laws and regulations include the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended ("CERCLA"), the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and similar laws that provide for responses to, and liability for, releases of hazardous substances into the environment. These laws and regulations also include similar foreign, state or local counterparts to these federal laws, which regulate air emissions, water discharges, hazardous substances and waste and require public disclosure related to the use of various hazardous substances. Our operations are also governed by laws and regulations relating to workplace safety and worker health, including the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act and regulations promulgated thereunder.
We are currently in the process of investigating and remediating some of our current and former operating sites. Although we have recorded reserves in connection with certain of these environmental matters, due to the uncertainties associated with environmental remediation, there can be no assurance that the actual costs resulting from these remediation matters will not exceed the recorded reserves.
Our compliance with federal, foreign, state and local environmental control and protection regulations resulted in pre-tax charges of approximately $14.7 million, $14.1 million and $14.2 million in the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. In addition, compliance with existing environmental regulations necessitated capital expenditures of $1.7 million, $0.9 million and $1.3 million in the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We expect to spend another $13.1 million on such capital expenditures over the next five years. We cannot predict all of the environmental requirements or circumstances that will exist in the future, but we anticipate that environmental control and protection standards will become increasingly stringent and costly. Based on our experience to date, we do not currently anticipate any material adverse effect on our business or consolidated financial condition as a result of future compliance with existing environmental laws and regulations. However, future events, such as changes in existing laws and regulations or their interpretation, more vigorous enforcement policies of regulatory agencies or stricter or different interpretations of existing laws and regulations, may require additional expenditures by us, which may be material. Accordingly, we can provide no assurance that we will not incur significant environmental compliance costs in the future.
We have been identified as a potentially responsible party at various cleanup sites under CERCLA. CERCLA and other environmental laws can impose liability for the entire cost of cleanup on any of the potentially responsible parties, regardless of fault or the lawfulness of the original conduct. Generally, however, where there are multiple responsible parties, a final allocation of costs is made based on the amount and type of wastes disposed of by each party and the number of financially viable parties, although this may not be the case with respect to any particular site. We have not been determined to be a major contributor of wastes to any of these sites. On the basis of our relative contribution of waste to each site, we expect our share of the ultimate liability for the various sites will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows in any given year.
Environmental remediation projects have been and continue to be undertaken at certain of our current and former plant sites. In 2002, Congress directed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ("Army Corps") to clean up radioactive waste at the Shallow Land Disposal Area located in Parks Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (the "SLDA"), consistent with the Memorandum of Understanding between the NRC and the Army Corps for Coordination on Cleanup and Decommissioning of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Sites with NRC-Licensed Facilities, dated July 5, 2001 (the "MOU"). From 1961 to 1970, the SLDA was operated by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation ("NUMEC") pursuant to Atomic Energy Commission ("AEC") License SNM-145. The AEC was the predecessor to the NRC. The SLDA was used for the disposal of waste from NUMEC's nuclear fuels fabrication facility in Apollo, Pennsylvania. Both radioactive and non-radioactive waste was disposed in a series of trenches at the SLDA. NUMEC, a former subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield Company ("ARCO") was acquired by BWXT in November 1971. Shortly after the Army Corps' contractor commenced cleanup operations in 2011, the Army Corps ceased excavation activities because the contractor deviated from accepted field procedures, and the excavated material was found to be complex and beyond the Army Corps' characterization and management procedures. The MOU was modified in late 2014 to add the DOE and the NNSA as parties to deal with "special nuclear materials." In December 2014, the Army Corps issued a Proposed Record of Decision Amendment, which reflects a revised cost estimate of $350 million, in addition to the $62 million expended through September 2014, to implement the selected remedy. In October 2018, the Army Corps confirmed award of the previously protested remediation contract as amended to the original contractor, which is expected to develop work plans for the project in 2019 and to commence cleanup operations thereafter, subject to available funding. The federal legislation directing the Army Corps to clean up the SLDA also directs the Army Corps to seek to recover response costs from appropriate responsible parties in accordance with CERCLA. In connection with BWXT's acquisition of NUMEC from ARCO in November 1971, ARCO assumed and agreed to indemnify

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and hold harmless BWXT with respect to claims and liabilities arising as a result of transactions or operations of NUMEC prior to the acquisition date. Although this ARCO indemnity would cover claims by the Army Corps to seek recovery from BWXT for SLDA cleanup costs, no assurance can be given that this indemnity will be available or sufficient in the event such claims are asserted. For a description of legal proceedings related to the SLDA, see "Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies" to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
We perform significant amounts of work for the U.S. Government under both prime contracts and subcontracts and operate certain facilities that are licensed to possess and process special nuclear materials. As a result of these activities, we are subject to continuing reviews by governmental agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the "EPA") and the NRC. We are also involved in manufacturing activities at licensed facilities in Canada that are also subject to continuing reviews by governmental agencies in Canada, including the CNSC.
The NRC's decommissioning regulations require our Nuclear Operations Group segment to provide financial assurance that it will be able to pay the expected cost of decommissioning its licensed facilities at the end of their service lives. We provided financial assurance totaling $56.2 million during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 with surety bonds for the ultimate decommissioning of these licensed facilities. These two facilities have provisions in their government contracts pursuant to which substantially all of our decommissioning costs and financial assurance obligations are covered by the DOE, including the costs to complete the decommissioning projects underway at the facility in Erwin, Tennessee. These surety bonds are to cover decommissioning required pursuant to work not subject to this DOE obligation.
In Canada, the CNSC's decommissioning regulations require our Nuclear Power Group segment to provide financial assurance that it will be able to pay the expected cost of decommissioning its CNSC-licensed facilities at the end of their service lives. We provided financial assurance totaling $45.1 million and $41.7 million during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, with letters of credit and surety bonds for the ultimate decommissioning of these licensed facilities.
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had total environmental accruals, including provisions for the facilities discussed above, of $104.9 million and $93.3 million, respectively. Of our total environmental accruals at December 31, 2018 and 2017, $18.5 million and $13.5 million, respectively, were included in current liabilities. Inherent in the estimates of these accruals are our expectations regarding the levels of contamination, decommissioning costs and recoverability from other parties, which may vary significantly as decommissioning activities progress. Accordingly, changes in estimates could result in material adjustments to our operating results, and the ultimate loss may differ materially from the amounts we have provided for in our consolidated financial statements.
Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
We are including the following discussion to inform our existing and potential security holders generally of some of the risks and uncertainties that can affect our company and to take advantage of the "safe harbor" protection for forward-looking statements that applicable federal securities law affords.
From time to time, our management or persons acting on our behalf make forward-looking statements to inform existing and potential security holders about our Company. Statements and assumptions regarding expectations and projections of specific projects, our future backlog, revenues, income and capital spending, strategic investments, acquisitions or divestitures, return of capital activities or margin improvement initiatives are examples of forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are generally accompanied by words such as "estimate," "project," "predict," "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "plan," "seek," "goal," "could," "intend," "may," "should" or other words that convey the uncertainty of future events or outcomes. In addition, sometimes we will specifically describe a statement as being a forward-looking statement and refer to this cautionary statement.
In addition, various statements in this Report, including those that express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. Those forward-looking statements appear in Item 1 – "Business" and Item 3 – "Legal Proceedings" in Part I of this Report, in Item 7 – "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and in the notes to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report and elsewhere in this Report.
We have based our forward-looking statements on information currently available to us and our current expectations, estimates and projections about our industries and our Company. We caution that these statements are not guarantees of future performance, and you should not rely unduly on them as they involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that we cannot predict. In addition, we have based many of these forward-looking statements on assumptions about future events that may

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prove to be inaccurate. While our management considers these statements and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently subject to numerous factors, including potentially the risk factors described in the section labeled Item 1A, "Risk Factors" of this Report, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, our actual results may differ materially from the future performance that we have expressed or forecast in our forward-looking statements.
We have discussed many of these factors in more detail elsewhere in this Report. These factors are not necessarily all the factors that could affect us. Unpredictable or unanticipated factors we have not discussed in this Report could also have material adverse effects on actual results of matters that are the subject of our forward-looking statements. We do not intend to update or review any forward-looking statement or our description of important factors, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable laws.
Available Information
Our website address is www.bwxt.com. We make available through the Investors section of this website under "SEC Filings," free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, our proxy statement, statements of beneficial ownership of securities on Forms 3, 4 and 5 and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file those materials with, or furnish those materials to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. We have also posted on our website our: Corporate Governance Principles; Code of Business Conduct; Code of Ethics for our Chief Executive Officer and Senior Financial Officers; Board of Directors Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures; Amended & Restated By-laws; and charters for the Audit & Finance, Governance, Compensation and Safety & Security Committees of our Board of Directors.
Item 1A.
RISK FACTORS
Risk Factors Related to Our Business
We rely on U.S. Government contracts for a substantial percentage of our revenue, and some of those contracts are subject to continued appropriations by Congress and may be terminated or delayed if future funding is not made available. In addition, the U.S. Government may not renew or may seek to modify or terminate our existing contracts.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, U.S. Government contracts comprised approximately 79% of our total consolidated revenues. Government contracts are subject to various uncertainties, restrictions and regulations, including oversight audits, which could result in withholding or delaying payments to us, and termination or modification at the U.S. Government's convenience. In addition, some of our large, multi-year contracts with the U.S. Government are subject to annual funding determinations and the continuing availability of Congressional appropriations. Although multi-year operations may be planned in connection with major procurements, Congress generally appropriates funds on a fiscal-year basis even though a program may continue for several years. Consequently, programs often are only partially funded initially and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations. When the U.S. Government does not complete its budget process before the end of its fiscal year on September 30, government operations typically are funded through a continuing resolution that authorizes agencies of the U.S. Government to continue to operate, but does not authorize new spending initiatives. When the U.S. Government operates under a continuing resolution or there are other disruptions in the funding process, delays can occur in the procurement of products and services. As a result, we are subject to ongoing uncertainties associated with U.S. Government budget restraints and other factors affecting government funding. The reduction or termination of funding, or changes in the timing of funding, for a U.S. Government program in which we provide products or services would result in a reduction or loss of anticipated future revenues attributable to that program and could have a negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Services Group segments depend on U.S. Government funding, particularly funding levels at the DOE. Significant changes in the level of funding (for example, the annual budget of the DOE) or specifically mandated levels for individual programs that are important to our business could have an unfavorable impact on us. Any reduction in the level of U.S. Government funding, particularly at the DOE, may result in, among other things, a reduction in the number and scope of projects put out for bid by the U.S. Government or the curtailment of existing U.S. Government programs, either of which may result in a reduction in the number of contract award opportunities available to us, a reduction of activities at DOE sites and an increase in costs, including the costs of obtaining contract awards.
The U.S. Government typically can terminate or modify any of its contracts with us either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the terms of the applicable contract. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and have an adverse effect on our ability to compete for future contracts and orders. If any of our contracts reflected in backlog are terminated by the U.S. Government, our backlog would be reduced by the expected value of the remaining work

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under such contracts. In addition, on those contracts for which we are teamed with others and are not the prime contractor, the U.S. Government could terminate a prime contract under which we are a subcontractor, irrespective of the quality of our products and services as a subcontractor. Furthermore, certain of our U.S. Government contracts span one or more base years and multiple option years. The U.S. Government generally has the right not to exercise option periods and may not exercise an option period for various reasons.
We also have several significant contracts with the U.S. Government that are subject to periodic renewal and rebidding through a competitive process. If the U.S. Government fails to renew these contracts or modifies key terms, our results of operations and cash flows would be adversely affected.
As a result of these and other factors, the termination of one or more of our significant government contracts, our suspension from government contract work, the failure of the U.S. Government to renew our existing contracts or the disallowance of the payment of our contract costs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Federal budget sequestration and other delays or reductions in government spending could adversely impact government spending for the products and services we provide.
In August 2011, Congress enacted the Budget Control Act, which committed the U.S. Government to significantly reducing the federal deficit over ten years. The Budget Control Act established reductions in discretionary spending through 2021. If these spending reductions were not met, it called for substantial automatic spending cuts, or sequestration, split between defense and non-defense programs scheduled to start in March 2013 and continue over a nine-year period.
Federal government spending reductions, including through sequestration, could adversely impact U.S. Government programs for which we provide products or services. Additionally, while we believe many of our programs are well aligned with national defense and other strategic priorities, government spending on these programs can be subject to negative publicity, political factors and public scrutiny. The outcome of efforts underway regarding sequestration is uncertain, and it is possible that spending cuts may be applied to U.S. Government programs across the board, regardless of how programs align with those priorities. There are many variables in how budget reductions could be implemented that will determine its specific impact; however, reductions in federal government spending and sequestration, as currently provided for under the Budget Control Act, could adversely impact programs in which we provide products or services. In addition, these cuts could adversely affect the viability of the suppliers and subcontractors under our programs. We may also be required to maintain operations of our joint ventures if the U.S. Government can no longer meet its debt obligations.
Demand for our products and services is vulnerable to economic downturns, the competitiveness of alternative energy sources and industry conditions.
Demand for our products and services has been, and we expect that demand will continue to be, subject to significant fluctuations due to a variety of factors beyond our control, including economic and industry conditions. These factors include, but are not limited to inflation, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, the demand for and competitiveness of nuclear power with other energy sources, the cyclical nature of the power generation industry, low business and consumer confidence, high unemployment and energy conservation measures and decisions of utilities that operate nuclear power plants.
Unfavorable economic conditions may lead customers to delay, curtail or cancel proposed or existing projects, which may decrease the overall demand for our products and services and adversely affect our results of operations.
Our customers may also find it more difficult to raise capital in the future due to limitations on the availability of credit, increases in interest rates and other factors affecting the federal, municipal and corporate credit markets. Additionally, our customers may demand more favorable pricing terms and find it increasingly difficult to timely pay invoices for our products and services, which would impact our future cash flows and liquidity. Inflation or significant changes in interest rates could reduce the demand for our products and services. Any inability to timely collect our invoices may lead to an increase in our accounts receivables and potentially to increased write-offs of uncollectible invoices. If the economy weakens, or customer spending declines, then our backlog, revenues, net income and overall financial condition could deteriorate.
Our future business prospects in Canada are dependent upon the continued operation of Canadian nuclear plants and refurbishment of the majority of the plants in Ontario to extend their operating lives. Unfavorable economic conditions, competition from other forms of power generation, increased competition for refurbishment contracts, changes in government policy or operational or project execution issues may lead nuclear plant operators in Canada to cease operations or delay, curtail

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or cancel proposed or existing life-extension projects, which may decrease the overall demand for our products and services in Canada and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our backlog is subject to unexpected adjustments and cancellations and may not be a reliable indicator of future revenues or earnings.
There can be no assurance that the revenues projected in our backlog will be realized or, if realized, will result in profits. Because of project cancellations or changes in project scope and schedule, we cannot predict with certainty when or if backlog will be performed. In addition, even where a project proceeds as scheduled, it is possible that contracted parties may default and fail to pay amounts owed to us or poor project performance could increase the cost associated with a project. Delays, suspensions, cancellations, payment defaults, scope changes and poor project execution could materially reduce or eliminate the revenues and profits that we actually realize from projects in backlog.
Reductions in our backlog due to cancellation or modification by a customer or for other reasons may adversely affect, potentially to a material extent, the revenues and earnings we actually receive from contracts included in our backlog. Many of the contracts in our backlog provide for cancellation fees in the event customers cancel projects. These cancellation fees usually provide for reimbursement of our out-of-pocket costs, revenues for work performed prior to cancellation and a varying percentage of the profits we would have realized had the contract been completed. However, we typically have no contractual right upon cancellation to the total revenues reflected in our backlog. Projects may remain in our backlog for extended periods of time. If we experience significant project terminations, suspensions or scope adjustments to contracts reflected in our backlog, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely impacted.
We are subject to risks associated with contractual pricing in our industries, including the risk that, if our actual costs exceed the costs we estimate on our fixed-price contracts, our profitability will decline and we may suffer losses.
We are engaged in highly competitive industries and we have priced a number of our projects on a fixed-price basis. Our actual costs could exceed our projections. We attempt to cover the increased costs of anticipated changes in labor, material and service costs of long-term contracts, either through estimates of cost increases, which are reflected in the original contract price, or through price escalation clauses. Despite these attempts, the cost and gross profit we realize on a fixed-price contract could vary materially from the estimated amounts because of supplier, contractor and subcontractor performance, execution issues, changes in job conditions, variations in labor and equipment productivity and increases in the cost of labor and raw materials, particularly steel, over the term of the contract.
These variations and the risks generally inherent in our industries may result in actual revenues or costs being different from those we originally estimated and may result in reduced profitability or losses on projects. Some of these risks include:
difficulties encountered on our large-scale projects related to the procurement of materials or due to schedule disruptions, equipment performance failures, unforeseen site conditions, rejection clauses in customer contracts or other factors that may result in additional costs to us, reductions in revenue, claims or disputes;
our inability to obtain compensation for additional work we perform or expenses we incur as a result of our customers providing deficient design, engineering information, equipment or materials;
requirements to pay liquidated damages upon our failure to meet schedule or performance requirements of our contracts; and
difficulties in engaging third-party subcontractors, equipment manufacturers or materials suppliers or failures by third-party subcontractors, equipment manufacturers or materials suppliers to perform could result in project delays and cause us to incur additional costs.
If we fail to comply with government procurement laws and regulations, we could lose business and be liable for various penalties or sanctions.
We must comply with laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration, and performance of U.S. Government contracts. These laws and regulations include the FAR, Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations, the Truth in Negotiations Act, CAS, and laws, regulations, and orders restricting the use and dissemination of classified information under the U.S. export control laws and the export of certain products and technical information. Certain government contracts provide audit rights by government agencies, including with respect to performance, costs, internal controls and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In complying with these laws and regulations, we may incur significant costs, and non-compliance may result in the imposition of fines and penalties, including contractual damages. If we fail to comply with these

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laws and regulations or if a government audit, review, or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil penalties, criminal penalties, or administrative sanctions, including suspension or debarment from contracting with the U.S. Government. Our reputation could suffer harm if allegations of impropriety were made or found against us, which could adversely affect our operating performance and may result in additional expenses and possible loss of revenue.
Changes in our effective tax rate and tax positions may vary.
We are subject to income taxes primarily in the U.S. and Canada. A change in tax laws, treaties or regulations, or their interpretation, in any jurisdiction in which we operate could significantly impact our provision for income taxes, which could have a material impact on our earnings, cash flows from operations and value of our deferred tax assets or liabilities.
In addition, significant judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain, and we are regularly subject to audit by tax authorities. Although we believe that our tax estimates and tax positions are reasonable, they could be materially affected by many factors including the final outcome of tax audits and related litigation, the introduction of new tax accounting standards, legislation, regulations and related interpretations, the realizability of deferred tax assets and changes in uncertain tax positions. A significant increase in our tax rate could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and liquidity. A significant decrease in our tax rate could have a material adverse effect on our financial results in the implementation year due to the need to revalue our deferred tax assets to adjust for the lower future tax savings expected with the new tax rate and other potential charges. For example, on December 22, 2017, H.R. 1, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, was enacted, which reduced future tax rates resulting in a reduction in the value of our deferred tax assets.
Our business could be negatively impacted by security threats, including physical and cybersecurity threats, and other disruptions.
We face various security threats, including cyber threats, threats to the physical security of our facilities and infrastructure (including those that we manage and operate for our customers), and threats from terrorist acts, as well as the potential for business disruptions associated with these threats. Although we utilize a combination of tailored and industry standard security measures and technology to monitor and mitigate these threats, we cannot guarantee that these measures and technology will be sufficient to prevent security threats from materializing.
We have been, and will likely continue to be, subject to cyber-based attacks and other attempts to threaten our information technology systems, including attempts to gain unauthorized access to our proprietary and sensitive information and attacks from computer hackers, viruses, malicious code, internal threats and other security problems. As a U.S. Government contractor, we may be prone to a greater number of those threats than companies in other industries. These threats range from attacks common to most industries to more advanced and persistent threats from highly-organized adversaries targeting us because we are a U.S. Government contractor. From time to time, we experience system interruptions and delays; however, prior cyber-based attacks directed at us have not had a material adverse impact on our results of operations. Due to the evolving nature of these security threats, the impact of any future incident cannot be predicted. If we are unable to protect our proprietary and sensitive information, our customers could question the adequacy of our threat mitigation and detection processes and procedures, which could negatively impact our reputation and present and future business.
The costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. Occurrence of any of these events could adversely affect our internal operations, the services we provide to customers, the value of our investment in research and development efforts and other intellectual property, our future financial results, our reputation or our stock price.
In addition, we maintain, replace and/or upgrade current financial, human resources and other information technology systems. These activities subject us to inherent costs and risks associated with replacing and updating these systems, including potential disruption of our internal control structure, substantial capital expenditures, demands on management time and other risks of delays or difficulties in transitioning to new systems or of integrating new systems into our current systems. Our systems implementations and upgrades may not result in productivity improvements at the levels anticipated, or at all. In addition, the implementation of new technology systems may cause disruptions in our business operations. Such disruptions and any other information technology system disruptions, and our ability to mitigate those disruptions, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

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We rely on intellectual property law and confidentiality agreements to protect our intellectual property. We also rely on intellectual property we license from third parties. Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights, our infringement of third party intellectual property or our inability to obtain or renew licenses to use intellectual property of third parties, could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary information and other intellectual property. Our intellectual property could be stolen, challenged, invalidated, circumvented or rendered unenforceable. In addition, effective intellectual property protection may be limited or unavailable in some foreign countries where we operate.
Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights may result in the loss of valuable technologies or adversely affect our competitive business position. We rely significantly on proprietary technology, information, processes and know-how that are not subject to patent or copyright protection. We seek to protect this information through trade secret or confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, subcontractors or other parties, as well as through other security measures. These agreements and security measures may be inadequate to deter or prevent misappropriation of our confidential information. In the event of an infringement of our intellectual property rights, a breach of a confidentiality agreement or divulgence of proprietary information, we may not have adequate legal remedies to protect our intellectual property. In addition, third parties may allege that we have infringed their intellectual property rights, which could result in litigation. Litigation to protect, defend or determine the scope of intellectual property rights, even if ultimately successful, could be costly and could divert management's attention away from other aspects of our business. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by competitors.
In some instances, we have augmented our technology base by licensing the proprietary intellectual property of third parties. In the future, we may not be able to obtain necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
We recognize a large portion of our revenue on an over time basis which could result in volatility in our results of operations.
We generally recognize revenues and profits under our long-term contracts on an over time basis. Accordingly, we review contract price and cost estimates regularly as the work progresses and reflect adjustments proportionate to our progress made towards completion in income in the period when we revise those estimates. To the extent these adjustments result in a reduction or an elimination of previously reported profits with respect to a project, we would recognize a charge against current earnings, which could be material. Our current estimates of our contract costs and the profitability of our long-term projects, although reasonably reliable when made, could change as a result of the uncertainties associated with these types of contracts, and if adjustments to overall contract costs are significant, the reductions or reversals of previously recorded revenue and profits could be material in future periods.
We are involved in a number of legal proceedings. We cannot predict the outcome of litigation and other contingencies with certainty.
Our business may be adversely affected by the outcome of legal proceedings, disputes and other contingencies that cannot be predicted with certainty. As required by GAAP, we estimate loss contingencies and establish reserves based on our assessment of contingencies where liability is deemed probable and reasonably estimable in light of the facts and circumstances known to us at a particular point in time. Subsequent developments in legal proceedings may affect our assessment and estimates of the loss contingency recorded as a liability or as a reserve against assets in our financial statements. For a description of current legal proceedings, see "Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies" to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
Maintaining adequate bonding and letter of credit capacity is necessary for us to successfully bid on and win various contracts.
In line with industry practice, we are often required to post standby letters of credit and surety bonds to support contractual obligations to customers as well as other obligations. These letters of credit and bonds generally indemnify customers should we fail to perform our obligations under the applicable contracts. If a letter of credit or bond is required for a particular project and we are unable to obtain it due to insufficient liquidity or other reasons, we will not be able to pursue that project. We utilize bonding facilities, but, as is typically the case, the issuance of bonds under each of those facilities is at the surety's sole discretion. In addition, we have capacity limits under our credit facility for letters of credit. Moreover, due to events that affect the insurance and bonding and credit markets generally, bonding and letters of credit may be more difficult to obtain in the future or may only be available at significant additional cost. There can be no assurance that letters of credit or

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bonds will continue to be available to us on reasonable terms. Our inability to obtain adequate letters of credit and bonding and, as a result, to bid on new work could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. As of December 31, 2018, we had $63.5 million in letters of credit and $67.5 million in surety bonds outstanding.
Our debt exposes us to certain risks.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had $777.4 million in aggregate principal amount of debt outstanding. The terms of our credit facility and indenture impose various restrictions and covenants on us that could have adverse consequences, including:
limiting our ability to react to changing economic, regulatory and industry conditions;
limiting our ability to compete and our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry;
exposing us to the risk of higher interest rates on borrowings under our credit facility, which are subject to variable rates of interest;
limiting our ability to invest in joint ventures or acquire other companies;
limiting our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders or repurchase shares of our common stock; and
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds.
Our failure to comply with these restrictions and covenants could adversely affect our liquidity and operations.
In addition, the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") and the Canadian Dollar Offered Rate ("CDOR") are used as interest rate benchmarks for establishing the variable rates of interest under our credit facility. LIBOR has been the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms and other pressures may in the future cause LIBOR, or CDOR, to cease to exist or to perform differently than in the past. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted, but could result in new interest rate benchmarks being used for our credit facility, which could result in an increase in our variable rates of interest and interest expense.
Our business strategy includes acquisitions and strategic investments to support our growth, which can create certain risks and uncertainties.
We intend to pursue growth through the acquisition of, or strategic investments in, businesses or assets that we believe will enable us to strengthen our existing businesses and expand into adjacent industries. We may be unable to execute this growth strategy if we cannot identify suitable businesses or assets, reach agreement on potential strategic acquisitions on acceptable terms or for other reasons. Business acquisitions involve certain risks, including:
difficulties relating to the assimilation of personnel, services and systems of an acquired business and the assimilation of marketing and other operational capabilities;
challenges resulting from unanticipated changes in customer relationships after the acquisition;
additional financial and accounting challenges and complexities in areas such as tax planning, treasury management, forecasting, financial reporting and internal controls;
assumption of liabilities of an acquired business, including liabilities that were unknown at the time the acquisition transaction was negotiated;
diversion of management's attention from day-to-day operations;
failure to realize anticipated benefits, such as cost savings and revenue enhancements;
potentially substantial transaction costs associated with business combinations; and
potential impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets resulting from the overpayment for an acquisition.
Acquisitions may be funded by the issuance of additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on attractive terms. Our ability to secure such financing will depend in part on prevailing capital market conditions, as well as conditions in our business and operating results. Moreover, to the extent an acquisition transaction financed by non-equity consideration results in goodwill, it will reduce our tangible net worth, which might have an adverse effect on potential credit and bonding capacity.

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Additionally, an acquisition may bring us into businesses we have not previously conducted and expose us to additional business risks that are different than those we have historically experienced.
Our business strategy also includes development and commercialization of new technologies to support our growth, which requires significant investment and involves various risks and uncertainties. These new technologies may not achieve desired commercial or financial results.
Our future growth will depend on our ability to continue to innovate by developing and commercializing new product and service offerings. Investments in new technologies involve varying degrees of uncertainties and risk. Commercial success depends on many factors, including the levels of innovation, the development costs and the availability of capital resources to fund those costs, the levels of competition from others developing similar or other competing technologies, our ability to obtain or maintain government permits or certifications, the effectiveness of production, distribution and marketing efforts, market acceptance and the costs to customers to deploy and provide support for the new technologies. We may not achieve significant revenue from new product and service investments for a number of years, if at all. Additionally, there can be no assurance that the current technologies that our businesses rely upon will remain competitive, or that competing technologies will not disrupt our business. Moreover, new products and services may not be profitable, and, even if they are profitable, our operating margins from new products and services may not be as high as the margins we have experienced historically. Lastly, new technologies may not be patentable and, as a result, we may face increased competition.
Among our opportunities involving new technologies, we are developing new medical isotope technology. The costs to develop and commercialize this technology require a substantial amount of investment over a period of years, and commercialization of this technology also requires authorizations from government agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), Health Canada and the CNSC. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in addressing all of the technological challenges to developing and commercializing this technology or in obtaining the required authorizations from the FDA, Health Canada or the CNSC. In addition, commercialization of the medical radioisotope technology could subject us to product liability claims. The potential also exists for competitors to emerge with alternative technologies. We can provide no assurance that those competitors will not develop and commercialize similar or superior technologies sooner than we can or at a significant cost or price advantage.
Our operations are subject to operating risks, which could expose us to potentially significant professional liability, product liability, warranty and other claims. Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover all of our significant risks or our insurers may deny coverage of material losses we incur, which could adversely affect our profitability and overall financial condition.
We operate large manufacturing facilities and perform services in large commercial power plants where accidents or system failures can have significant consequences. Risks inherent in our operations include:
accidents resulting in injury or the loss of life or property;
environmental or toxic tort claims, including delayed manifestation claims for personal injury or loss of life;
pollution or other environmental mishaps;
adverse weather conditions;
mechanical or design failures;
property losses;
business interruption due to political action in foreign countries or other reasons; and
labor stoppages.
Any accident or failure at a site where we have provided products or services could result in significant professional liability, product liability, warranty and other claims against us, regardless of whether our products or services caused the incident. We have been, and in the future we may be, named as defendants in lawsuits asserting large claims as a result of litigation arising from events such as those listed above.
We endeavor to identify and obtain in established markets insurance agreements to cover significant risks and liabilities. Insurance against some of the risks inherent in our operations is either unavailable or available only at rates or on terms that we consider uneconomical. Also, catastrophic events customarily result in decreased coverage limits, more limited coverage, additional exclusions in coverage, increased premium costs and increased deductibles and self-insured retentions. Risks that we

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have frequently found difficult to cost-effectively insure against include, but are not limited to, business interruption, property losses from wind, flood and earthquake events, nuclear hazards and war, pollution liability, liabilities related to occupational health exposures (including asbestos), professional liability/errors and omissions coverage, the failure, misuse or unavailability of our information systems, the failure of security measures designed to protect our information systems from security breaches, and liability related to risk of loss of our work in progress and customer-owned materials in our care, custody and control. Depending on competitive conditions and other factors, we endeavor to obtain contractual protection against certain uninsured risks from our customers. When obtained, such contractual indemnification protection may not be as broad as we desire or may not be supported by adequate insurance maintained by the customer. Such insurance or contractual indemnity protection may not be sufficient or effective under all circumstances or against all hazards to which we may be subject. A successful claim for which we are not insured or for which we are underinsured could have a material adverse effect on us. Additionally, disputes with insurance carriers over coverage may affect the timing of cash flows and, if litigation with the carrier becomes necessary, an outcome unfavorable to us may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are also involved in management and operating activities for the U.S. Government. These activities involve, among other things, handling nuclear devices and their components for the U.S. Government. Most insurable liabilities arising from these sites are not protected in our corporate insurance program. Instead, we rely on government contractual agreements, some insurance purchased specifically for the sites and certain specialized self-insurance programs funded by the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government has historically fulfilled its contractual agreement to reimburse for insurable claims, and we expect it to continue this process. However, it should be noted that, in most situations, the U.S. Government is contractually obligated to pay subject to the availability of authorized government funds. The reimbursement obligation of the U.S. Government is also conditional, and provisions of the relevant contract or applicable law may preclude reimbursement.
We have a captive insurance company subsidiary that provides us with various insurance coverages. Claims, as a result of our operations, could adversely impact the ability of our captive insurance company subsidiary to respond to all claims presented.
Additionally, upon the February 22, 2006 effectiveness of the settlement relating to the Chapter 11 proceedings involving several of our former subsidiaries, most of our subsidiaries contributed substantial insurance rights providing coverage for, among other things, asbestos and other personal injury claims, to an asbestos personal injury trust. With the contribution of these insurance rights to the asbestos personal injury trust, we may have underinsured or uninsured exposure for non-derivative asbestos claims or other personal injury or other claims that would have been insured under these coverages had the insurance rights not been contributed to the asbestos personal injury trust. In conjunction with the spin-off, claims and liabilities associated with the asbestos personal injury, property damage and indirect property damage claims mentioned above have been expressly assumed by BWE pursuant to the master separation agreement between us and BWE.
Our nuclear operations subject us to various environmental, regulatory, financial and other risks.
Our operations in designing, engineering, manufacturing, supplying, constructing and maintaining nuclear fuel and nuclear power equipment and components subject us to various risks, including:
potential liabilities relating to harmful effects on the environment and human health resulting from nuclear operations and the storage, handling and disposal of radioactive materials;
unplanned expenditures relating to maintenance, operation, security, defects, upgrades and repairs required by the NRC and other government agencies;
limitations on the amounts and types of insurance commercially available to cover losses that might arise in connection with nuclear operations; and
potential liabilities arising out of a nuclear, radiological or criticality incident, whether or not it is within our control.
Our nuclear operations are subject to various safety-related requirements imposed by the U.S. Government, the DOE and the NRC. In the event of non-compliance, these agencies might increase regulatory oversight, impose fines or shut down our operations, depending upon the assessment of the severity of the situation. Revised security and safety requirements promulgated by these agencies could necessitate substantial capital and other expenditures. In addition, we must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. Government contract laws and regulations affect how we do business with our customers and, in some instances, impose added costs on our business. A violation of specific laws and regulations could result in the imposition of fines and penalties or the termination of our contracts or debarment from bidding on contracts.

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Limitations or modifications to indemnification regulations of the U.S. or foreign countries could adversely affect our business.
The Price-Anderson Act partially indemnifies the nuclear industry against liability arising from nuclear incidents in the U.S., while ensuring compensation for the general public. The Price-Anderson Act comprehensively regulates the manufacture, use and storage of radioactive materials, while promoting the nuclear industry by offering broad indemnification to commercial nuclear power plant operators and DOE contractors. Because we provide nuclear fabrication and other services to the DOE relating to its nuclear devices, facilities and other programs and the nuclear power industry in the ongoing maintenance and modifications of its nuclear power plants, including the manufacture of equipment and other components for use in such nuclear power plants, we may be entitled to some of the indemnification protections under the Price-Anderson Act against liability arising from nuclear incidents in the U.S. The indemnification authority under the Price-Anderson Act was extended through December 2025 by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. We also provide nuclear fabrication and other services to the nuclear power industry in Canada and other countries. Canada's NLCA generally conforms to international conventions and is conceptually similar to the Price-Anderson Act in the U.S. Accordingly, indemnification protections and the possibility of exclusions under Canada's NLCA are similar to those under the Price-Anderson Act in the U.S.
The Price-Anderson Act and Canada's NLCA indemnification provisions may not apply to all liabilities that we might incur while performing services as a contractor for the DOE and the nuclear power industry. If an incident or evacuation is not covered under the Price-Anderson Act's or Canada's NLCA's indemnification provisions, we could be held liable for damages, regardless of fault, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In connection with the international transportation of toxic, hazardous and radioactive materials, it is possible for a claim to be asserted that may not fall within the indemnification provided by the Price-Anderson Act or Canada's NLCA. If such indemnification authority is not applicable in the future, our business could be adversely affected if the owners and operators of nuclear power plants fail to retain our services in the absence of commercially adequate insurance and indemnification.
Moreover, because we manufacture nuclear components for the U.S. Government's defense program, we may be entitled to some of the indemnification protections afforded by Public Law 85-804 for certain of our nuclear operations risks. Public Law 85-804 authorizes certain agencies of the U.S. Government, such as the DOE and the U.S. Department of Defense, to indemnify their contractors against unusually hazardous or nuclear risks when such action would facilitate the national defense. However, because the indemnification protections afforded by Public Law 85-804 are granted on a discretionary basis, situations could arise where the U.S. Government elects not to offer such protections. In such situations, our business could be adversely affected by either our inability to obtain commercially adequate insurance or indemnification or our refusal to pursue such operations in the absence of such protections.
Our operations involve the handling, transportation and disposal of radioactive and hazardous materials, and environmental laws and regulations and civil liability for contamination of the environment or related personal injuries may result in increases in our operating costs and capital expenditures and decreases in our earnings and cash flows.
Our operations involve the handling, transportation and disposal of radioactive and hazardous materials, including nuclear devices and their components. Failure to properly handle these materials could pose a health risk to humans or wildlife and could cause personal injury and property damage (including environmental contamination). If an accident were to occur, its severity could be significantly affected by the volume of the materials and the speed of corrective action taken by emergency response personnel, as well as other factors beyond our control, such as weather and wind conditions. Actions taken in response to an accident could result in significant costs.
Governmental requirements relating to the protection of the environment, including solid waste management, air quality, water quality, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear manufacturing and processing facilities and cleanup of contaminated sites, have had a substantial impact on our operations. These requirements are complex and subject to frequent change. In some cases, they can impose liability for the entire cost of cleanup on any responsible party without regard to negligence or fault and impose liability on us for the conduct of others or conditions others have caused, or for our acts that complied with all applicable requirements when we performed them. Our compliance with amended, new or more stringent requirements, stricter interpretations of existing requirements or the future discovery of contamination may require us to make material expenditures or subject us to liabilities that we currently do not anticipate. Such expenditures and liabilities may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, some of our operations and the operations of predecessor owners of some of our properties have exposed us to civil claims by third parties for liability resulting from alleged contamination of the environment or personal injuries caused by releases of hazardous substances into the environment. See Item 1, "Business - Governmental Regulations and Environmental Matters."

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In our contracts, we seek to protect ourselves from liability associated with accidents, but there can be no assurance that such contractual limitations on liability will be effective in all cases or that our or our customers' insurance will cover all the liabilities we have assumed under those contracts. The costs of defending against a claim arising out of a nuclear incident or precautionary evacuation, and any damages awarded as a result of such a claim, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We maintain insurance coverage as part of our overall risk management strategy and due to requirements to maintain specific coverage in our financing agreements and in many of our contracts. These policies do not protect us against all liabilities associated with accidents or for unrelated claims. In addition, comparable insurance may not continue to be available to us in the future at acceptable prices, or at all.
We are subject to domestic and international laws and regulations, violations of which may adversely affect our future operations.
Many aspects of our operations and properties are affected by political developments and are subject to both domestic and foreign governmental regulations, including those relating to:
constructing and manufacturing nuclear components;
currency conversions and repatriation;
environmental protection legislation;
export control;
taxation of earnings;
transactions in or with certain foreign countries or officials, such as those designated by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury; and
use of local employees and suppliers.
Failure by us, our sales representatives, or consultants to comply with these laws and regulations could result in administrative, civil, or criminal liabilities and could, in the extreme case, result in suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of our export privileges, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In addition, a portion of the demand for our products and services is from electric power generating companies and other customers. The demand for power generation products and services can be influenced by state and federal governmental legislation setting requirements for utilities related to operations, emissions and environmental impacts. The legislative process is unpredictable and includes a platform that continuously seeks to increase the restrictions on power producers.
We cannot determine the extent to which our future operations and earnings may be affected by new legislation, new regulations or changes in existing regulations.
Our business requires us to obtain, and to comply with, national, state and local government permits and approvals.
Our business is required to obtain, and to comply with, national, state and local government permits and approvals. Any of these permits or approvals may be subject to denial, revocation or modification under various circumstances. Failure to obtain or comply with the conditions of permits or approvals may adversely affect our operations by temporarily suspending our activities or curtailing our work and may subject us to penalties and other sanctions. Although existing licenses are routinely renewed by various regulators, renewal could be denied or jeopardized by various factors, including:
failure to provide adequate financial assurance for decommissioning or closure;
failure to comply with environmental and safety laws and regulations or permit conditions;
local community, political or other opposition;
executive action; and
legislative action.

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As a result of our acquisition of the MI business in 2018, we are also subject to regulatory oversight by the FDA and Health Canada. The commercialization of our medical radioisotope technology will require the review and approval of these and other government agencies. Any delay or denial of such approvals could have a material adverse effect on our MI business.
In addition, if new legislation or regulations are enacted or implemented, or if existing laws or regulations are amended or are interpreted or enforced differently, we may be required to obtain additional operating permits or approvals. Our inability to obtain, and to comply with, the permits and approvals required for our business could have a material adverse effect on us.
Employee, agent or partner misconduct or our overall failure to comply with laws, regulations or government contracts could weaken our ability to win contracts, lead to the suspension of our operations and result in reduced revenues and profits.
Misconduct, fraud, or other improper activities by one or more of our employees, agents or partners as well as our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, could have a significant negative impact on our business and reputation. Such misconduct could include the failure to comply with government procurement regulations, regulations regarding the protection of classified and other information, regulations regarding the pricing of labor and other costs in government contracts, regulations on lobbying or similar activities, regulations pertaining to the internal controls over financial reporting and various other applicable laws or regulations. For example, we regularly provide services that may be highly sensitive or that are related to critical national security matters; if a security breach were to occur, our ability to procure future government contracts could be severely limited. The precautions we take to prevent and detect these activities may not be effective, and we could face unknown risks or losses.
We are routinely audited and reviewed by the U.S. Government and its agencies. These agencies review our performance under our contracts, our cost structure and our compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards, as well as the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal control systems and policies. Systems that are subject to review include our purchasing systems, billing systems, property management and control systems, cost estimating systems, compensation systems and management information systems. Any costs found to be improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed or must be refunded if already reimbursed. If an audit or review uncovers improper or illegal activities, we could be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines, loss of security clearance and suspension or debarment from contracting with the U.S. Government. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us.
We conduct a portion of our operations through joint venture entities, over which we may have limited ability to influence.
We currently have equity interests in several joint ventures and may enter into additional joint venture arrangements in the future. Our influence over some of these entities may be limited. Even in those joint ventures over which we do exercise significant influence, we are often required to consider the interests of our joint venture partners in connection with major decisions concerning the operations of the joint ventures. In any case, differences in views among the joint venture participants may result in delayed decisions or disputes. We also cannot control the actions of our joint venture participants. We sometimes have joint and several liabilities with our joint venture partners under the applicable contracts for joint venture projects and we cannot be certain that our partners will be able to satisfy any potential liability that could arise. These factors could potentially harm the business and operations of a joint venture and, in turn, our business and operations.
Operating through joint ventures in which we are minority holders results in us having limited control over many decisions made with respect to projects and internal controls relating to projects. These joint ventures may not be subject to the same requirements regarding internal controls and internal control over financial reporting that we follow. As a result, internal control problems may arise with respect to the joint ventures that could adversely affect our ability to respond to requests or contractual obligations to customers or to meet the internal control requirements to which we are otherwise subject.
In addition, our arrangements involving joint ventures may restrict us from gaining access to the cash flows or assets of these entities. In some cases, our joint ventures have governmentally imposed restrictions on their abilities to transfer funds to us.
If our co-venturers fail to perform their contractual obligations on a project or if we fail to coordinate effectively with our co-venturers, we could be exposed to legal liability, loss of reputation and reduced profit on the project.
We often perform projects jointly with third parties. For example, we enter into contractual arrangements to bid for and perform jointly on large projects. Success on these joint projects depends in part on whether our co-venturers fulfill their

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contractual obligations satisfactorily. If any one or more of these third parties fail to perform their contractual obligations satisfactorily, we may be required to make additional investments and provide added services in order to compensate for that failure. If we are unable to adequately address any such performance issues, then our customer may exercise its right to terminate a joint project, exposing us to legal liability, loss of reputation and reduced profit.
Our collaborative arrangements also involve risks that participating parties may disagree on business decisions and strategies. These disagreements could result in delays, additional costs and risks of litigation. Our inability to successfully maintain existing collaborative relationships or enter into new collaborative arrangements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The loss of the services of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract, assimilate and retain trained personnel in the future, could disrupt our operations and result in loss of revenues.
Our success depends on the continued active participation of our executive officers and key operating personnel. The unexpected loss of the services of any one of these persons could adversely affect our operations.
Our operations require the services of employees having the technical training and experience necessary to obtain the proper operational results. Certain of our operations also require personnel who are eligible to obtain and maintain U.S. Government security clearances. As such, our operations depend, to a considerable extent, on the continuing availability of such employees and personnel. Additionally, the process of obtaining the requisite security clearances for some of our personnel can be subject to delays and other factors beyond our control. If we should suffer any material loss of personnel to competitors, retirement or other reasons, or experience difficulties employing additional or replacement personnel with the requisite level of training, experience and qualifications to adequately operate our business, our operations could be adversely affected.
While we believe our wage rates are competitive and our relationships with our employees are satisfactory, a significant increase in the wages paid by other employers could result in a reduction in our workforce, increases in wage rates, or both.
Negotiations with labor unions and possible work stoppages and other labor problems could divert management's attention and disrupt operations. In addition, new collective bargaining agreements or amendments to agreements could increase our labor costs and operating expenses.
A significant number of our employees are members of labor unions. If we are unable to negotiate acceptable new contracts with our unions from time to time, we could experience strikes or other work stoppages by the affected employees. If any such strikes or other work stoppages were to occur, we could experience a significant disruption of operations. In addition, negotiations with unions could divert management attention. New union contracts could result in increased operating costs, as a result of higher wages or benefit expenses, for both union and nonunion employees. If nonunion employees were to unionize, we would experience higher ongoing labor costs.
Pension and medical expenses associated with our retirement benefit plans may fluctuate significantly depending on changes in actuarial assumptions, future market performance of plan assets, future trends in health care costs and legislative or other regulatory actions.
A substantial portion of our current and retired employee population is covered by pension and postretirement benefit plans, the costs and funding requirements of which depend on our various assumptions, including estimates of rates of return on benefit-related assets, discount rates for future payment obligations, rates of future cost growth, mortality assumptions and trends for future costs. Service accruals for salaried participants ceased as of December 31, 2015. Variances from these estimates could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, our policy to recognize these variances annually through mark to market accounting could result in volatility in our results of operations, which could be material. As of December 31, 2018, our defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit plans were underfunded by approximately $(196.7) million. A substantial portion of our postretirement benefit plan costs are recoverable on our U.S. Government contracts. See Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for additional information regarding our pension and postretirement benefit plan obligations.
Our internal controls over financial reporting may not be sufficient to achieve all stated goals and objectives.
Our internal controls and procedures were developed through a process in which our management applied its judgment in assessing the costs and benefits of such controls and procedures, which, by their nature, can provide only reasonable assurance regarding the control objectives. The design of any system of internal controls and procedures is based in part upon various

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assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and we cannot provide assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions, regardless of how remote.
We rely on single-source suppliers, which could, under certain circumstances, adversely affect our revenues and operating results.
We rely on several single-source suppliers for materials used in our products in our Nuclear Operations Group segment. If the supply of a single-sourced material is delayed or ceases, we may not be able to produce the related product in a timely manner or in sufficient quantities, if at all, which could adversely affect our revenues and operating results. In addition, a single-source supplier of a key component could potentially exert significant bargaining power over price, quality, warranty claims or other terms relating to the single-sourced materials, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA") generally prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to non-U.S. officials. Our training program and policies mandate compliance with the FCPA. We operate in some parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree, and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. If we are found to be liable for violations of the FCPA (either due to our own acts or our inadvertence, or due to the acts or inadvertence of others, including employees of our joint ventures), we could suffer from civil and criminal penalties or other sanctions.
We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors.
Some of our competitors or potential competitors have greater financial or other resources than we have and in some cases are government-supported. Our operations may be adversely affected if our current competitors or new market entrants introduce new products or services with better features, technology, performance, prices or other characteristics than those of our products and services. Furthermore, we operate in industries where capital investment is critical. We may not be able to obtain as much purchasing and borrowing leverage and access to capital for investment as other public companies, which may impair our ability to compete against competitors or potential competitors.
Our international operations may be subject to political, economic and other uncertainties not generally encountered in our domestic operations.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, our revenues from international operations comprised approximately 20% of our total consolidated revenues. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and subjects us to political, economic and regulatory risks that are not generally encountered in our U.S. operations. These include:
renegotiation or nullification of our existing contracts;
changing political conditions and changing laws and policies affecting trade and investment; and
changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
In addition, we rely on some international suppliers for some of the materials used in our products. Disruptions or changes to the economics of supply arrangements due to international market risks could have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our international operations sometimes face the additional risks of fluctuating currency values, hard currency shortages and controls of foreign currency exchange.
See Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for additional information about our operations in different geographic areas.
Natural disasters or other events beyond our control could adversely impact our business.
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods, tornados, or other events could adversely impact demand for or supply of our products. In addition, natural disasters could also cause disruption to our facilities, systems or projects, which could interrupt operational processes and performance on our contracts and adversely impact our ability to

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manufacture our products and provide services and support to our customers, which could have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
War, other armed conflicts or terrorist attacks could have a material adverse effect on our business.
War, terrorist attacks and unrest have caused and may continue to cause instability in the world's financial and commercial markets and have significantly increased political and economic instability in some of the geographic areas in which we operate. Threats of war or other armed conflict may cause further disruption to financial and commercial markets. In addition, continued unrest could lead to acts of terrorism in the U.S. or elsewhere, and acts of terrorism could be directed against companies such as ours. Also, acts of terrorism and threats of armed conflicts in or around various areas in which we operate could limit or disrupt our markets and operations, including disruptions from evacuation of personnel, cancellation of contracts or the loss of personnel or assets. Armed conflicts, terrorism and their effects on us or our markets may significantly affect our business and results of operations in the future.
Risks Relating to the Spin-Off of Our Former Power Generation Business
Potential indemnification liabilities relating to the spin-off could materially adversely affect us.
In connection with the spin-off, we entered into agreements with BWE to provide for, among other things, the principal corporate transactions required to effect the planned spin-off, certain conditions to the spin-off and provisions governing the relationship between us and BWE with respect to and resulting from the spin-off. Among other things, these agreements provided for indemnification obligations designed to make us financially responsible for substantially all liabilities that may exist relating to our business activities, whether incurred prior to or after the spin-off. If we are required to indemnify BWE, we may be subject to substantial liabilities.
BWE agreed to indemnify us for certain liabilities in connection with the spin-off. However, there can be no assurance that the indemnity will be sufficient to insure us against the full amount of such liabilities, or that BWE will be able to satisfy its indemnification obligations.
In connection with the spin-off, BWE agreed to indemnify us for certain liabilities. However, third parties could seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that BWE will agree to retain, and there can be no assurance that the indemnity from BWE will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, or that BWE will be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations. Moreover, even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from BWE any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses.
The BWE spin-off could result in substantial tax liability.
Upon completion of the spin-off, we received an opinion of counsel substantially to the effect that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the spin-off will qualify under Section 355 of the Code and certain transactions related to the spin-off will qualify under Sections 355 and/or 368 of the Code. The opinion relied on, among other things, various assumptions and representations as to factual matters made by us and BWE, which, if inaccurate or incomplete in any material respect, could jeopardize the conclusions reached by such counsel in its opinion. The opinion is not binding on the IRS or the courts, and there can be no assurance that the IRS or the courts will not challenge the conclusions stated in the opinion or that any such challenge would not prevail.
We are not aware of any facts or circumstances that would cause the assumptions or representations that were relied on in the opinion to be inaccurate or incomplete in any material respect. If, notwithstanding receipt of the opinion, the spin-off were subsequently determined not to qualify under Section 355 of the Code, each U.S. holder of our common stock who received shares of BWE common stock in the spin-off would generally be treated as receiving a taxable distribution of property in an amount equal to the fair market value of the shares of BWE common stock received. That distribution would be taxable to each such stockholder as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. For each such stockholder, any amount that exceeded our earnings and profits would be treated first as a non-taxable return of capital to the extent of such stockholder's tax basis in its shares of our common stock with any remaining amount being taxed as a capital gain. In addition, if certain related preparatory transactions were to fail to qualify for tax-free treatment, they would be treated as taxable sales and/or distributions to the Company.
We entered into a tax sharing agreement with BWE in connection with the spin-off. Pursuant to this agreement, we agreed with BWE on the allocation of spin-off related tax liabilities and the indemnification provisions relating to these liabilities. If we are liable for taxes under the tax sharing agreement, that liability could have a material adverse effect on us.

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Additionally, there can be no assurance that any indemnities from BWE will be sufficient to protect us against any potential tax liabilities.
Risks Relating to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Provisions in our corporate documents and Delaware law could delay or prevent a change in control of our company, even if that change may be considered beneficial by some stockholders.
The existence of some provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company that a stockholder may consider favorable. These include provisions:
providing that our Board of Directors fixes the number of members of the board;
providing for the division of our Board of Directors into three classes with staggered terms;
limiting who may call special meetings of stockholders;
prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring stockholder action to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders;
establishing advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to our Board of Directors or for proposing matters that can be acted on by stockholders at stockholder meetings;
establishing supermajority vote requirements for certain amendments to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws;
limiting the right of stockholders to remove directors;
authorizing a large number of shares of common stock that are not yet issued, which would allow our Board of Directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, thereby protecting the continuity of our management, or which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of persons seeking to obtain control of us; and
authorizing the issuance of "blank check" preferred stock, which could be issued by our Board of Directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt.
In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by our Board of Directors, including discouraging takeover attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for shares of our common stock.
We believe these provisions protect our stockholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our Board of Directors and by providing our Board of Directors with more time to assess any acquisition proposal, and are not intended to make our company immune from takeovers. However, these provisions apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our Board of Directors determines is not in the best interests of our company and our stockholders.
We may issue preferred stock that could dilute the voting power or reduce the value of our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of our stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designation, powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional and other special rights, including preferences over our common stock respecting dividends and distributions, as our Board of Directors generally may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could dilute the voting power or reduce the value of our common stock. For example, we could grant holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of our directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we could assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the common stock.
Item 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

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Item 2.
PROPERTIES
The following table provides the segment name, location and general use of each of our principal properties at December 31, 2018 that we own or lease:
Business Segment and Location
 
Principal Use
 
Owned/Leased
(Lease Expiration)
Nuclear Operations Group
 
 
 
 
Lynchburg, Virginia
 
Manufacturing facility (1) (5)
 
Owned
Barberton, Ohio
 
Manufacturing facility
 
Owned
Euclid, Ohio
 
Manufacturing facility
 
Owned / Leased (2)
Mount Vernon, Indiana
 
Manufacturing facility
 
Owned
Erwin, Tennessee
 
Manufacturing facility (3) (5)
 
Owned
Nuclear Services Group
 
 
 
 
Lynchburg, Virginia
 
Administrative office
 
Leased (2019)
Lynchburg, Virginia
 
Engineering office
 
Leased (2019)
Nuclear Power Group
 
 
 
 
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada
 
Manufacturing facility
 
Owned
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
 
Manufacturing facility (4) (5)
 
Leased (2036)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
 
Manufacturing facility (4) (5)
 
Leased (2036)
Arnprior, Ontario, Canada
 
Manufacturing facility
 
Leased (2022)
Kanata, Ontario, Canada
 
Manufacturing facility (4) (5)
 
Leased (2038)
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
 
Manufacturing facility (4) (5)
 
Leased (2031)
Corporate
 
 
 
 
Lynchburg, Virginia
 
Administrative office
 
Leased (2019)
Charlotte, North Carolina
 
Administrative office
 
Leased (2022)
Washington, District of Columbia
 
Administrative office
 
Owned
(1)
This facility is our Nuclear Operations Group segment's primary manufacturing plant and is the nation's largest commercial high-enriched uranium processing facility. The site is also the largest commercial International Atomic Energy Agency certified facility in the U.S.
(2)
We acquired these facilities through a bond/lease transaction facilitated by the Cleveland Cuyahoga County Port Authority (the "Port"), whereby we acquired a ground parcel and the Port issued bonds, the proceeds of which were used to acquire, improve and equip the facilities, including the acquisition of the larger facility and a 40-year prepaid ground lease for the smaller facility. We are leasing the facilities from the Port with an expiration date of 2019.
(3)
Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. ("NFS") operates this facility, which manufactures fuel for naval nuclear reactors and converts Cold War-era government stockpiles of high-enriched uranium into material suitable for further processing into commercial nuclear reactor fuel. NFS is the sole provider of nuclear fuel for the U.S. Navy.
(4)
These facilities are licensed by the CNSC in order to allow us to fabricate natural uranium fuel and produce medical radioisotopes.
(5)
This site is subject to review by either the NRC or the CNSC for licensee performance. The performance reviews determine the safe and secure conduct of operations of the facility.
We consider each of our significant properties to be suitable and adequate for its intended use. For further details regarding our properties, see Item 1, "Business."
Item 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information set forth under the heading "Investigations and Litigation" in Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report is incorporated by reference into this Item 3.
Item 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
None.

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PART II
Item 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol BWXT. As of February 21, 2019, there were approximately 1,873 record holders of our common stock.
Since November 2012, we have periodically announced that our Board of Directors has authorized share repurchase programs. The following table provides information on our purchases of equity securities during the quarter ended December 31, 2018. Any shares purchased that were not part of a publicly announced plan or program are related to repurchases of common stock pursuant to the provisions of employee benefit plans that permit the repurchase of shares to satisfy statutory tax withholding obligations.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
 
Total number
of shares
purchased (1)
 
Average price paid per share
 
Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs
 
Approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs (in millions) (2)
October 1, 2018 – October 31, 2018
 

 

 

 
$
87.5

November 1, 2018 – November 30, 2018
 
2,081,647

 
$
43.80

 
2,051,043

 
$
247.7

December 1, 2018 – December 31, 2018
 
1,472,891

 
$
42.35

 
1,472,891

 
$
185.3

Total
 
3,554,538

 
$
43.20

 
3,523,934

 
 
(1)
Includes 30,604 shares repurchased during November pursuant to the provisions of employee benefit plans that permit the repurchase of shares to satisfy statutory tax withholding obligations.
(2)
On February 27, 2017, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized us to repurchase an indeterminate number of shares of our common stock at an aggregate market value of up to $150 million during a three-year period that became fully utilized in November 2018. On November 6, 2018, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized us to repurchase an indeterminate number of shares of our common stock at an aggregate market value of up to $250 million during a three-year period that expires on November 6, 2021. The November 2018 authorization was in addition to the share repurchase amount authorized in February 2017.

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The following graph provides a comparison of our cumulative total shareholder return over five years to the return of the S&P 500 Composite Index ("S&P 500 Index") and the return of the S&P Aerospace and Defense Select Index ("S&P A&D Select Index"). The following graph shall not be deemed to be "soliciting material" or "filed" with the SEC or be subject to Regulation 14A or 14C (other than as provided in Item 201 of Regulation S-K) or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that BWXT specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.
396866863_ctsrgraph18.jpg
(1)
Assumes initial investment of $100 on December 31, 2013 and reinvestment of dividends. The value of the BWE shares distributed in the spin-off is reflected in the cumulative total return as a reinvested dividend.

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Item 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
Statement of Income Data (1)(2):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
1,799,889

 
$
1,687,738

 
$
1,550,573

 
$
1,415,529

 
$
1,450,610

Income from Continuing Operations before Provision for Income Taxes and Noncontrolling Interest
 
$
280,145

 
$
295,780

 
$
257,268

 
$
221,065

 
$
32,135

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from Continuing Operations, Net of Tax
 
$
226,958

 
$
147,844

 
$
183,057

 
$
140,774

 
$
38,740

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations, Net of Tax
 

 

 

 
(9,309
)
 
(9,352
)
Net Income Attributable to BWX Technologies, Inc.
 
$
226,958

 
$
147,844

 
$
183,057

 
$
131,465

 
$
29,388

Basic Earnings per Common Share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from Continuing Operations
 
$
2.29

 
$
1.49

 
$
1.79

 
$
1.32

 
$
0.36

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations
 

 

 

 
(0.09
)
 
(0.09
)
Net Income Attributable to BWX Technologies, Inc.
 
$
2.29

 
$
1.49

 
$
1.79

 
$
1.23

 
$
0.27

Diluted Earnings per Common Share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from Continuing Operations
 
$
2.27

 
$
1.47

 
$
1.76

 
$
1.31

 
$
0.36

Income (Loss) from Discontinued Operations
 

 

 

 
(0.09
)
 
(0.09
)
Net Income Attributable to BWX Technologies, Inc.
 
$
2.27

 
$
1.47

 
$
1.76

 
$
1.22

 
$
0.27

Dividends Declared Per Share
 
$
0.64

 
$
0.42

 
$
0.36

 
$
0.32

 
0.40

Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Assets (2)(3)(4)
 
$
1,655,096

 
$
1,712,339

 
$
1,579,815

 
$
1,375,398

 
$
2,847,015

Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt
 
$
14,227

 
$
27,870

 
$
27,370

 
$
15,000

 
$
15,000

Long-Term Debt (4)
 
$
753,617

 
$
481,059

 
$
497,724

 
$
278,259

 
$
275,079

(1)
Statement of income data prior to December 31, 2015 has been restated to reflect the June 30, 2015 spin-off, which is presented as income (loss) from discontinued operations.
(2)
On January 1, 2018, we adopted FASB Topic Revenue from Contracts with Customers. As a result, the information presented for years ending prior to December 31, 2018 may not be comparable.
(3)
Total assets presented for years prior to December 31, 2015 include the historical assets of our former Power Generation business.
(4)
On January 1, 2016, we adopted an update to FASB Topic Interest – Imputation of Interest, which resulted in the retrospective reclassification of unamortized debt issuance costs related to the Company's Credit Agreement from other non-current assets to a reduction in long-term debt of $6.7 million and $9.9 million as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
We immediately recognize actuarial gains (losses) for our pension and postretirement benefit plans into earnings primarily in the fourth quarter each year as a component of net periodic benefit cost. The effect of this adjustment for 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014 on pre-tax income was $(32.6) million, $(11.1) million, $(21.3) million, $(54.7) million and $(141.5) million, respectively.

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In the year ended December 31, 2018, we recognized $13.5 million of benefit in our provision for income taxes related to the remeasurement of our deferred tax assets as a result of accelerating additional contributions to certain of our domestic pension plans for inclusion in our 2017 U.S. tax return.
In the year ended December 31, 2017, we recognized $53.0 million of expense in our provision for income taxes related to significant changes to existing U.S. tax laws.
In the year ended December 31, 2016, we recorded a gain of approximately $13.6 million related to the deconsolidation of Generation mPower LLC ("GmP") and we recorded a $30.0 million loss contingency pursuant to the terms of the mPower Framework Agreement. We also recorded a gain of approximately $9.3 million related to the release from performance guarantees for various projects executed by our former Power Generation business. In addition, we reversed a $16.1 million loss contingency resulting from a favorable ruling in a lawsuit involving commercial nuclear contracts.
In the year ended December 31, 2015, we incurred $26.0 million of charges related to the spin-off. We also incurred $16.6 million of charges related to restructuring activities. In addition, we recorded income related to litigation proceeds of $94.8 million, including pre- and post-judgment interest totaling $29.1 million.
In the year ended December 31, 2014, we incurred $0.2 million of charges related to the spin-off. We also incurred $20.9 million of charges related to restructuring activities. In addition, we recorded a gain in other income of $14.2 million for the receipt and related fair value adjustment of the Centrus Energy Corp. common stock and notes that we received in the bankruptcy settlement in exchange for our investment in USEC Inc.
Item 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Statements we make in the following discussion, which express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not historical fact, are forward-looking statements that are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, could differ materially from those we express in the following discussion as a result of a variety of factors, including the risks and uncertainties we have referred to under the headings "Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk Factors" in Items 1 and 1A of Part I of this Report.
GENERAL
We are a leading supplier of nuclear components and fuel to the U.S. Government; provide technical, management and site services to support governments in the operation of complex facilities and environmental remediation activities; supply precision manufactured components, nuclear fuel and services for the commercial nuclear power industry; supply critical medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals; and develop nuclear technologies for a variety of applications, including medical radioisotopes, advanced nuclear power sources and advanced nuclear reactors. In general, we operate in capital-intensive industries and rely on large contracts for a substantial amount of our revenues. We operate in three reportable segments: Nuclear Operations Group, Nuclear Services Group and Nuclear Power Group. We are currently exploring growth strategies across our segments through strategic investments and acquisitions to expand and complement our existing businesses. We would expect to fund these opportunities with cash generated from operations or by raising additional capital through debt, equity or some combination thereof.
Outlook
Nuclear Operations Group
We expect the backlog of our Nuclear Operations Group segment of approximately $2,637 million at December 31, 2018 to produce revenues of approximately $980 million in 2019, not including any change orders or new contracts that may be awarded during the year.
The revenues of our Nuclear Operations Group segment are largely a function of defense spending by the U.S. Government. As a supplier of major nuclear components for certain U.S. Government programs, we are a significant participant in the defense industry and have not been negatively impacted by sequestration or federal budget reductions to date. We believe many of our programs are well-aligned with national defense and other strategic priorities as we supply high-end equipment for submarines and aircraft carriers for the U.S. Navy. However, it is possible that reductions in federal government spending and sequestration could have an adverse impact on the operating results and cash flows of our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Services Group segments in the future.

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We expect that orders for nuclear components will continue to be a significant part of backlog for the foreseeable future. In addition, the U.S. Navy issued its fiscal year 2019 long-range shipbuilding plan in February 2018, which includes recommendations to increase the size of its fleet of ships to include additional submarines and aircraft carriers beyond the number disclosed in previous long-range shipbuilding plans. We expect the U.S. Navy's new shipbuilding plan will require us to make additional capital expenditures and investment in personnel to meet this growth in demand.
Nuclear Services Group
A significant portion of this segment's operations are conducted through joint ventures, which typically earn fees, and we account for them following the equity method of accounting. See Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for financial information on our equity method investments. As a result, this segment reports minimal backlog and revenues.
Given our specialized capabilities of full life-cycle management of special materials, facilities and technologies, we believe our Nuclear Services Group segment is well-positioned to participate in the continuing cleanup, operation and management of critical government-owned nuclear sites, laboratories and manufacturing complexes maintained by the DOE, NASA and other federal agencies. Additionally, the Nuclear Services Group segment supports the commercial nuclear industry in the U.S., which depends on the timing of maintenance outages for nuclear utility customers, which could cause variability in our financial results.
Nuclear Power Group
We expect the backlog of our Nuclear Power Group segment of approximately $804 million at December 31, 2018 to produce revenues of approximately $240 million in 2019, not including any change orders or new contracts that may be awarded during the year. The revenues in this segment primarily depend on the demand and competitiveness of nuclear energy. The activity of this segment depends on the timing of maintenance and refueling outages, the cyclical nature of capital expenditures and major refurbishment and life extension projects, as well as the demand for nuclear fuel and fuel handling equipment primarily in the Canadian market, which could cause variability in our financial results.
Our acquisition of the MI business in July 2018 expanded our Nuclear Power Group segment's offerings to include medical radioisotope products. The MI business will be the platform from which we plan to launch our Molybdenum-99 product line and a number of future radioisotope-based imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic products.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Our financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP"). Preparing financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. These estimates and assumptions are affected by management's application of accounting policies. We believe the following are our most critical accounting policies that we apply in the preparation of our financial statements. These policies require our most difficult, subjective and complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain.
Contracts and Revenue Recognition. We determine the appropriate accounting method for each of our long-term contracts before work on the project begins. We generally recognize contract revenues and related costs over time for individual performance obligations based on a cost-to-cost method in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Topic Revenue from Contracts with Customers. We recognize estimated contract revenue and resulting income based on the measurement of the extent of progress toward completion as a percentage of the total project. Certain costs may be excluded from the cost-to-cost method of measuring progress, such as significant costs for uninstalled materials, if such costs do not depict our performance in transferring control of goods or services to the customer. We review contract price and cost estimates periodically as the work progresses and reflect adjustments proportionate to the percentage-of-completion in income in the period when those estimates are revised. Certain of our contracts recognize revenue at a point in time, and revenue on these contracts is recognized when control transfers to the customer. The majority of our revenue that is recognized at a point in time is related to parts and certain medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in our Nuclear Power Group segment. For all contracts, if a current estimate of total contract cost indicates a loss on a contract, the projected loss is recognized in full when determined. It is possible that current estimates could materially change for various reasons, including, but not limited to, fluctuations in forecasted labor productivity or steel and other raw material prices. We routinely review estimates related to our contracts, and revisions to profitability are reflected in the quarterly and annual earnings we report. In the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, we recognized net favorable changes in estimates related to long-term contracts that increased operating income by approximately $46.3 million, $35.2 million and $31.4 million, respectively.

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Although we continually strive to improve our ability to estimate our contract costs and profitability, adjustments to overall contract costs due to unforeseen events could be significant in future periods. We recognize contract change orders or changes in scope of work in contract revenues, to the extent of costs incurred, when we believe collection is probable and can be reasonably estimated. We recognize income from claims when formally agreed with the customer. We regularly assess the collectibility of contract revenues and receivables from customers.
Property, Plant and Equipment. We carry our property, plant and equipment at depreciated cost, reduced by provisions to recognize economic impairment when we determine impairment has occurred. Property, plant and equipment amounts are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset, or asset group, may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. The amount of the impairment loss to be recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis. Our estimates of cash flow may differ from actual cash flow due to, among other things, technological changes, economic conditions or changes in operating performance. Any changes in such factors may negatively affect our business segments and result in future asset impairments.
We depreciate our property, plant and equipment using the straight-line method over estimated economic useful lives of eight to 40 years for buildings and three to 14 years for machinery and equipment. We expense the costs of maintenance, repairs and renewals that do not materially prolong the useful life of an asset as we incur them.
Investments in Unconsolidated Affiliates. We use the equity method of accounting for affiliates in which our investment ownership ranges from 20% to 50% unless significant economic or governance considerations indicate that we are unable to exert significant influence, in which case the cost method is used. The equity method is also used for affiliates in which our investment ownership is greater than 50% but we do not have a controlling interest. Currently, all of our material investments in affiliates that are not included in our consolidated results are recorded using the equity method. Affiliates in which our investment ownership is less than 20% and where we are unable to exert significant influence are carried at cost.
Pension Plans and Postretirement Benefits. We utilize actuarial and other assumptions in calculating the cost and benefit obligations of our pension and postretirement benefits. The assumptions utilized in the determination of our benefit cost and obligations include assumptions regarding discount rates, expected returns on plan assets, mortality and health care cost trends. The assumptions utilized represent our best estimates based on historical experience and other factors.
We calculate the majority of our pension costs under both financial accounting standards ("FAS") in accordance with GAAP and CAS in accordance with the FAR. We have prepared our consolidated financial statements and segment reporting disclosures utilizing pension costs calculated under FAS. Pension costs calculated under CAS are utilized as the basis for recovery of pension costs on our U.S. Government contracts. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, our CAS pension costs attributed to U.S. Government contracts totaled $44.0 million, $56.1 million and $49.6 million, respectively. As a result, the amount of recoverable CAS pension costs recognized as revenue on an annual basis may differ from the amounts noted above. See further discussion of our accounting for contracts and revenue recognition above and in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
Actual experience that differs from these assumptions or future changes in assumptions will affect our recognized benefit obligations and related costs. We immediately recognize net actuarial gains and losses into earnings in the fourth quarter as a component of net periodic benefit cost. Net actuarial gains and losses occur when actual experience differs from any of the various assumptions used to value our pension and postretirement benefit plans or when assumptions, which are revisited annually through our update of our actuarial valuations, change due to current market conditions or underlying demographic changes. The primary factors contributing to net actuarial gains and losses are changes in the discount rate used to value the obligations as of the measurement date each year, the difference between the actual return on plan assets and the expected return on plan assets and changes in health care cost trends. The effect of changes in the discount rate and expected rate of return on plan assets assumptions in combination with the actual return on plan assets can result in significant changes in our estimated pension and postretirement benefit cost and our consolidated financial condition.

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The following sensitivity analysis shows the impact of a 25 basis point change in the assumed discount rate, return on assets and health care cost trend rate on our FAS pension and postretirement benefit plan obligations and expense for the year ended December 31, 2018:
 
 
.25% Increase
 
.25% Decrease
 
 
(In millions)
Pension Plans
 
 
Discount Rate:
 
 
 
 
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost (1)
 
$
1.3

 
$
(1.6
)
Effect on projected benefit obligation
 
$
(33.8
)
 
$
35.6

Return on Assets:
 
 
 
 
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost
 
$
(2.9
)
 
$
2.9

Postretirement Plans
 
 
 
 
Discount Rate:
 
 
 
 
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost (1)
 
$
0.1

 
$
(0.1
)
Effect on projected benefit obligation
 
$
(1.7
)
 
$
1.7

Return on Assets:
 
 
 
 
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost
 
$
0.1

 
$
(0.1
)
Health Care Cost Trend Rate:
 
 
 
 
Effect on ongoing net periodic benefit cost
 
$
0.1

 
$
(0.1
)
Effect on projected benefit obligation
 
$
1.5

 
$
(1.3
)
(1)
Excludes effect of annual mark to market adjustment.
Loss Contingencies. We accrue liabilities for loss contingencies when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss is reasonably estimable. We provide disclosure when there is a reasonable possibility that the ultimate loss will exceed the recorded provision or if such probable loss is not reasonably estimable. Due to the nature of our business, we are, from time to time, involved in litigation, disputes or claims related to our business activities, as discussed in Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report. Our losses are typically resolved over long periods of time and are often difficult to estimate due to the possibility of multiple actions by third parties. Therefore, it is possible that future earnings could be affected by changes in our estimates related to these matters.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets. Each year, we evaluate goodwill at each reporting unit to assess recoverability, and impairments, if any, are recognized in earnings. We perform a qualitative analysis when we believe that there is sufficient excess fair value over carrying value based on our most recent quantitative assessment, adjusted for relevant facts and circumstances that could affect fair value. Deterioration in macroeconomic, industry and market conditions, cost factors, overall financial performance, share price decline or entity and reporting unit specific events could cause us to believe a qualitative test is no longer appropriate.
When we determine that it is appropriate to test goodwill for impairment utilizing a quantitative test, the first step of the test compares the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. We utilize both the income and market valuation approaches to provide inputs into the estimate of the fair value of our reporting units, which would be considered by market participants.
Under the income valuation approach, we employ a discounted cash flow model to estimate the fair value of each reporting unit. This model requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions regarding future revenues, costs, margins, capital expenditures, changes in working capital, terminal year growth rate and cost of capital. Our cash flow models are based on our forecasted results for the applicable reporting units. Actual results could differ materially from our projections. Some assumptions, such as future revenues, costs and changes in working capital are company driven and could be affected by a loss of one or more significant contracts or customers, failure to control costs on certain contracts, a decline in U.S. Government funding or a decline in demand based on changing economic or regulatory conditions. Changes in external market conditions may affect certain other assumptions, such as the cost of capital. Market conditions can be volatile and are outside of our control.
Under the market valuation approach, we employ the guideline publicly traded company method, which indicates the fair value of the equity of each reporting unit by comparing it to publicly traded companies in similar lines of business. After identifying and selecting guideline companies, we analyze their business and financial profiles for relative similarity. Factors

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such as size, growth, risk and profitability are analyzed and compared to each of our reporting units. Assumptions include the selection of our peer companies and use of market multiples, which could deteriorate or increase based on the profitability of our competitors and performance of their stock, which is often dependent on the performance of the stock market and general economy as a whole.
Adverse changes in these assumptions utilized within the first step of our impairment test could cause a reduction or elimination of excess fair value over carrying value, resulting in potential recognition of impairment. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test is performed to measure the amount of the impairment loss, if any. The second step compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill.
We completed our annual review of goodwill for each of our reporting units for the year ended December 31, 2018, which indicated that we had no impairment of goodwill. The fair value of our reporting units was substantially in excess of carrying value.
Each year, we evaluate indefinite-lived intangible assets to assess recoverability, and impairments, if any, are recognized in earnings. We perform a qualitative assessment when testing indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment to determine whether events or circumstances that could affect the significant inputs used in determining fair value have occurred that indicate that it is more likely than not that the indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. Deterioration in macroeconomic, industry and market conditions, cost factors or overall financial performance could cause us to believe a qualitative test is no longer appropriate. When quantitative assessments are performed, we primarily utilize income-based valuation approaches. Under the income-based valuation approach, we employ a relief from royalty method of valuation. This method requires significant assumptions, including assumed royalty rate, future revenues and cost of capital. Assumptions related to operating performance, such as future revenues, could be affected by loss of a customer contract, a decline in U.S. Government funding or a decline in demand based on changing economic or regulatory conditions. Changes in external market conditions may affect certain other assumptions, such as the cost of capital. Market conditions can be volatile and are outside of our control.
Adverse changes in these assumptions utilized within our indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test could cause a reduction or elimination of excess fair value over carrying value, resulting in potential recognition of impairment.
We have completed our annual review of our indefinite-lived intangible assets for the year ended December 31, 2018, which indicated that we had no impairment. The fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets was substantially in excess of carrying value.
Asset Retirement Obligations and Environmental Cleanup Costs. We accrue for future decommissioning of our nuclear facilities that will permit the release of these facilities to unrestricted use at the end of each facility's life, which is a requirement of our licenses from the NRC and the CNSC. In accordance with the FASB Topic Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations, we record the fair value of a liability for an asset retirement obligation in the period in which it is incurred. In estimating fair value, we use present value of cash flows expected to be incurred in settling our obligations. To the extent possible, we perform a marketplace assessment of the cost and timing of performing the retirement activities. We apply a credit-adjusted risk-free interest rate to our expected cash flows in our determination of fair value. When we initially record such a liability, we capitalize a cost by increasing the carrying amount of the related long-lived asset. Over time, the liability is accreted to its present value each period, and the capitalized cost is depreciated over the useful life of the related asset. Upon settlement of a liability, we will settle the obligation for its recorded amount or incur a gain or loss. This topic applies to environmental liabilities associated with assets that we currently operate and are obligated to remove from service. For environmental liabilities associated with assets that we no longer operate, we have accrued amounts based on the estimated costs of cleanup activities, net of the anticipated effect of any applicable cost-sharing arrangements. We adjust the estimated costs as further information develops or circumstances change. An exception to this accounting treatment relates to the work we perform for two facilities for which the U.S. Government is obligated to pay substantially all the decommissioning costs.
Income Taxes. Income tax expense for federal, foreign, state and local income taxes are calculated on pre-tax income based on current tax law and includes the cumulative effect of any changes in tax rates from those used previously in determining deferred tax assets and liabilities. We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. We assess deferred taxes and the adequacy of the valuation allowance on a quarterly basis. In the ordinary course of business, there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying our income tax positions. We assess our income tax positions and record tax benefits for all years subject to examination based upon management's evaluation of the facts, circumstances and information available at the reporting date. For those tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, we have recorded the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income

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tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit has been recognized in the financial statements. We record interest and penalties (net of any applicable tax benefit) related to income taxes as a component of provision for income taxes on our consolidated statements of income.
We would be subject to withholding taxes if we were to distribute earnings from certain foreign subsidiaries, and these unrecognized deferred income tax liabilities would be payable upon distribution of these earnings. We consider the earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries to be permanently reinvested.
Business Combinations. We account for acquisitions in accordance with FASB Topic Business Combinations. This topic broadens the fair value measurements and recognition of assets acquired, liabilities assumed and interests transferred as a result of business combinations. It also provides disclosure requirements to assist users of the financial statements in evaluating the nature and financial effects of business combinations. We evaluate the nature of each business purchased to determine the type and value of the intangible assets acquired. Amounts paid in excess of the fair value of the identified assets, including intangible assets, are recognized as goodwill.
See Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for further discussion of recently adopted accounting standards.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS – YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
Selected financial highlights are presented in the table below:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(In thousands)
REVENUES:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nuclear Operations Group
 
$
1,319,170

 
$
1,271,861

 
$
1,269,272

Nuclear Services Group
 
122,438

 
137,249

 
128,021

Nuclear Power Group
 
365,911

 
285,831

 
161,572

Adjustments and Eliminations
 
(7,630
)
 
(7,203
)
 
(8,292
)
 
 
$
1,799,889

 
$
1,687,738

 
$
1,550,573

OPERATING INCOME:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nuclear Operations Group
 
$
271,405

 
$
267,930

 
$
247,957

Nuclear Services Group
 
20,374

 
22,083

 
11,169

Nuclear Power Group
 
52,270

 
36,548

 
39,269

Other
 
(18,074
)
 
(10,688
)
 
(6,398
)
 
 
$
325,975

 
$
315,873

 
$
291,997

Unallocated Corporate
 
(20,998
)
 
(23,650
)
 
(27,571
)
mPower Framework Agreement
 

 

 
(30,000
)
Total Operating Income
 
$
304,977

 
$
292,223

 
$
234,426

Consolidated Results of Operations
Year Ended December 31, 2018 vs. 2017
Consolidated revenues increased 6.6%, or $112.2 million, to $1,799.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $1,687.7 million for the corresponding period of 2017, due to increases in revenues from our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Power Group segments totaling $47.3 million and $80.1 million, respectively. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in revenues in our Nuclear Services Group segment of $14.8 million.
Consolidated operating income increased $12.8 million to $305.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $292.2 million for the corresponding period of 2017. Operating income in our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Power Group segments improved by $3.5 million and $15.7 million, respectively. Unallocated Corporate expenses also decreased by $2.7 million when compared to the corresponding period of 2017. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in the operating income of our Nuclear Services Group and Other segments of $1.7 million and $7.4 million, respectively. Operating income in our Nuclear Services Group segment decreased primarily due to the settlement of a contract dispute of $7.9 million that was recorded in 2017.

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Year Ended December 31, 2017 vs. 2016
Consolidated revenues increased 8.8%, or $137.2 million, to $1,687.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $1,550.6 million for the corresponding period of 2016, due to increases in revenues from our Nuclear Operations Group, Nuclear Services Group and Nuclear Power Group segments totaling $2.6 million, $9.2 million and $124.3 million, respectively. Nuclear Services Group segment revenues include $7.9 million of fee income associated with the settlement of a contract dispute related to task order work that was completed in 2013. In addition, our Nuclear Power Group segment includes an increase in revenues of $92.8 million associated with the acquisition of NEC that occurred in the fourth quarter of 2016.
Consolidated operating income increased $57.8 million to $292.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $234.4 million for the corresponding period of 2016. Operating income improved in our Nuclear Operations Group and Nuclear Services Group segments by $20.0 million and $10.9 million, respectively, and unallocated corporate expenses decreased $3.9 million. The Nuclear Services Group segment operating income includes $7.9 million attributable to the settlement of the contract dispute noted above. We also experienced an increase in operating income due to the recognition of a $30.0 million charge related to the mPower Framework Agreement, which we entered into in the year ended December 31, 2016. These increases were offset by lower operating income in our Nuclear Power Group segment of $2.7 million due to the reversal of a $15.0 million loss contingency during the year ended December 31, 2016 that resulted from a favorable ruling in a lawsuit involving commercial nuclear contracts.
Nuclear Operations Group
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
$ Change
 
 
(In thousands)
Revenues
 
$
1,319,170

 
$
1,271,861

 
$
47,309

 
$
1,271,861

 
$
1,269,272

 
$
2,589

Operating Income
 
$
271,405

 
$
267,930

 
$
3,475

 
$
267,930

 
$
247,957

 
$
19,973

% of Revenues
 
20.6%

 
21.1%

 
 
 
21.1%

 
19.5%

 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018 vs. 2017
Revenues increased by 3.7%, or $47.3 million, to $1,319.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $1,271.9 million for the corresponding period of 2017. This increase was attributable to increased activity in the manufacturing of nuclear components for U.S. Government programs, as well as our naval nuclear fuel and downblending operations. In addition, revenues increased due to the beneficial impact from net favorable changes in estimates related to certain long-term contracts in both our nuclear components manufacturing and nuclear fuel and downblending operations when compared to the same period in the prior year. These favorable changes included the benefit of changes in contract cost estimates from increased future volume assumptions in nuclear component manufacturing.
Operating income increased $3.5 million to $271.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $267.9 million for the corresponding period of 2017. The increase in operating income was primarily due to the increases in revenues and net favorable changes in estimates noted above. These increases in operating income were partially offset by a decrease due to contract adjustments resulting from rework issues related to the manufacture of non-nuclear components, which totaled $29.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2018.
Year Ended December 31, 2017 vs. 2016
Revenues increased by 0.2%, or $2.6 million, to $1,271.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $1,269.3 million for the corresponding period of 2016. The increase was primarily attributable to increased activity in our naval nuclear fuel and downblending operations.
Operating income increased $20.0 million to $267.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $248.0 million for the corresponding period of 2016. The increase was primarily driven by net favorable changes in estimates related to certain long-term contracts accounted for on the percentage-of-completion basis.

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Nuclear Services Group
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
$ Change
 
 
(In thousands)
Revenues
 
$
122,438

 
$
137,249

 
$
(14,811
)
 
$
137,249

 
$
128,021

 
$
9,228

Operating Income
 
$
20,374

 
$
22,083

 
$
(1,709
)
 
$
22,083

 
$
11,169

 
$
10,914

% of Revenues
 
16.6%

 
16.1%

 
 
 
16.1%

 
8.7%

 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018 vs. 2017
Revenues decreased by 10.8%, or $14.8 million, to $122.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $137.2 million for the corresponding period of 2017. The decrease was primarily attributable to the settlement of a contract dispute in the prior year, which resulted in the recovery of $7.9 million of fee income. In addition, we performed fewer commercial nuclear maintenance outages in the U.S. when compared to the same period in the prior year, which resulted in a decrease of $7.3 million. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in revenues attributable to task order work related to a new joint venture site in New Mexico and an increase in design and engineering revenues in support of NASA's nuclear space programs.
Operating income decreased $1.7 million to $20.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $22.1 million for the corresponding period of 2017. The decrease was primarily attributable to the settlement of the contract dispute of $7.9 million noted above in addition to lower income associated with performing fewer commercial nuclear maintenance outages in the U.S. when compared to the same period in the prior year. These decreases were partially offset by improved operational performance at several of our sites as well as $2.7 million of lower selling, general and administrative expenses related primarily to a decrease in business development activities caused by the timing of proposal activities.
Year Ended December 31, 2017 vs. 2016
Revenues increased by 7.2%, or $9.2 million, to $137.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $128.0 million for the corresponding period of 2016. This increase was primarily attributable to the settlement of a contract dispute related to task order work that ended in 2013, which resulted in the recovery of $7.9 million of fee income. In addition, we experienced higher activity at our Naval Reactor decommissioning and decontamination project of $7.8 million. These increases were partially offset by fewer maintenance outages in the commercial U.S. nuclear utility market and a reduction in activity related to advanced fuel and reactor engineering, licensing and manufacturing services for new advanced nuclear reactors of $4.4 million.
Operating income increased $10.9 million to $22.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $11.2 million for the corresponding period of 2016. This was primarily attributable to the settlement of the contract dispute of $7.9 million noted above in addition to lower selling, general and administrative expenses of $5.5 million, primarily related to a decrease in business development activities caused by the timing of proposal activities. These increases were partially offset by the transition of two joint venture projects in 2016 and 2017 that resulted in lower fee income of $4.0 million.
Nuclear Power Group
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
$ Change
 
 
(In thousands)
Revenues
 
$
365,911

 
$
285,831

 
$
80,080

 
$
285,831

 
$
161,572

 
$
124,259

Operating Income
 
$
52,270

 
$
36,548

 
$
15,722

 
$
36,548

 
$
39,269

 
$
(2,721
)
% of Revenues
 
14.3%

 
12.8%

 
 
 
12.8%

 
24.3%

 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018 vs. 2017
Revenues increased by 28.0%, or $80.1 million, to $365.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $285.8 million for the corresponding period of 2017. The increase was attributable to higher levels of in-plant inspection, maintenance and modification services, as well as refurbishment work totaling $33.3 million. In addition, we experienced higher volume related to the fabrication of nuclear fuel totaling $15.6 million as well as an increase in revenues in our nuclear

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components business of $7.6 million primarily as a result of an increase in design and manufacturing work associated with the China steam generator project. Our newly acquired MI business also resulted in an increase in revenues of $19.5 million.
Operating income increased $15.7 million to $52.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $36.5 million for the corresponding period of 2017, primarily attributable to the increase in revenues noted above.
Year Ended December 31, 2017 vs. 2016
Revenues increased by 76.9%, or $124.3 million, to $285.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $161.6 million for the corresponding period of 2016. This increase was primarily attributable to the acquisition of NEC in the fourth quarter ended December 31, 2016, which produced an increase in revenues of $92.8 million compared to the prior year. Revenues in our nuclear components business increased $51.7 million primarily due to design and manufacturing work associated with major life extension and refurbishment projects for the Canadian nuclear market, which included the fabrication of replacement steam generators, reactor components and containers for the storage of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste. In addition, this segment also experienced an increase in activity associated with the China steam generator project. These increases were partially offset by a lower volume of outage projects when compared to the same period of the prior year, resulting in a decrease in revenues of $20.3 million for our legacy services business in Canada.
Operating income decreased $2.7 million to $36.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $39.3 million for the corresponding period of 2016, primarily attributable to the reversal of a $15.0 million loss contingency during the year ended December 31, 2016 that resulted from a favorable ruling in a lawsuit involving commercial nuclear contracts. Higher selling, general and administrative expenses related to the addition of NEC into our existing business also reduced operating income by $9.3 million when compared to the corresponding period of 2016. The decline in volume of outage projects for our legacy services business in Canada, noted above, also contributed to the decrease in operating income. These decreases were partially offset by increases in revenues from the acquisition of NEC and higher volume of activity associated with our legacy components business, which combined to increase operating income by $32.1 million.
Other
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
$ Change
 
 
(In thousands)
Operating Income
 
$
(18,074
)
 
$
(10,688
)
 
$
(7,386
)
 
$
(10,688
)
 
$
(6,398
)
 
$
(4,290
)
Year Ended December 31, 2018 vs. 2017
Operating income decreased $7.4 million to a loss of $18.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to a loss of $10.7 million for the corresponding period of 2017, primarily due to an increase in research and development activities related to our medical and industrial radioisotope capabilities.
Year Ended December 31, 2017 vs. 2016
Operating income decreased $4.3 million to a loss of $10.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to a loss of $6.4 million for the corresponding period of 2016, primarily due to an increase in research and development activities related to our medical and industrial radioisotope capabilities.
Unallocated Corporate
Unallocated corporate expenses decreased $2.7 million to $21.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $23.7 million for the corresponding period of 2017. This decrease was primarily due to lower levels of incentive compensation, which was partially offset by an increase in legal and consulting costs associated with due diligence activities. Included in unallocated corporate expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 were $2.6 million associated with an executive reorganization which resulted in the acceleration of previously granted equity awards and other expenses.
Unallocated corporate expenses decreased $3.9 million to $23.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $27.6 million for the corresponding period of 2016, primarily due to lower levels of stock-based compensation and lower healthcare claims. Unallocated corporate expenses for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 include $2.6 million and

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$3.5 million associated with executive reorganizations, respectively, which resulted in the acceleration of previously granted equity awards and other expenses.
mPower Framework Agreement
On March 2, 2016, as a result of entering into a framework agreement with Bechtel Power Corporation ("Bechtel"), BWXT Modular Reactors, LLC and BDC NexGen Power, LLC, our partner in GmP, for the potential restructuring and restart of our mPower small modular reactor program (the "Framework Agreement"), we deconsolidated GmP from our financial statements as of the date of the Framework Agreement. We recorded a gain of approximately $13.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2016 related to the deconsolidation of GmP as a component of Other – net on our consolidated statement of income. In the year ended December 31, 2016, we also recognized a $30.0 million loss contingency as a result of the Framework Agreement, which was ultimately paid to Bechtel in the first quarter of 2017 following the receipt of Bechtel's notice that the mPower program would not be restarted.
Other Income Statement Items
During the year ended December 31, 2018, other income (expense) decreased approximately $28.4 million to a loss of $24.8 million compared to a gain of $3.6 million for the corresponding period of 2017. We experienced an increase in interest expense of $12.9 million associated with higher levels of long term debt when compared to the prior year, which includes $2.4 million of expense related to the recognition of prior deferred debt issuance costs associated with the Former Credit Facility. These items were partially offset by $4.7 million of gains related to derivative instruments not designated as hedges. Other income and expense includes mark to market adjustments due to our immediate recognition of net actuarial gains (losses) for our pension and postretirement benefit plans, which totaled $(32.6) million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $(11.1) million in the corresponding period of 2017.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, other income (expense) decreased approximately $19.2 million to a gain of $3.6 million compared to a gain of $22.8 million for the corresponding period of 2016 due primarily to changes in the mark to market adjustments noted above. In addition, during the year ended December 31, 2016, we recorded a gain of $13.6 million related to the deconsolidation of GmP and we were also released from substantially all outstanding performance guarantees for various projects executed by our former Power Generation business prior to the spin-off, which resulted in a gain of $9.3 million. Other income and expense includes mark to market adjustments due to our immediate recognition of net actuarial gains (losses) for our pension and postretirement benefit plans, which totaled $(11.1) million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $(21.3) million in the corresponding period of 2016.
Provision for Income Taxes
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(In thousands)
Income before Provision for Income Taxes
 
$
280,145

 
$
295,780

 
$
257,268

Provision for Income Taxes
 
$
52,840

 
$
147,415

 
$
73,656

Effective Tax Rate
 
18.9%

 
49.8%

 
28.6%

On December 22, 2017, H.R. 1, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Act") was enacted, making significant changes to existing U.S. tax laws that impact BWXT, including, but not limited to, a reduction to the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, the taxation of global intangible low-taxed income ("GILTI") and additional deduction limitations related to executive compensation. We recognized the income tax effects of the Act within our consolidated financial statements in accordance with FASB Topic Income Taxes. Our Canadian operations continue to be subject to tax at a local statutory rate of approximately 25%.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, our provision for income taxes decreased $94.6 million to $52.8 million, while income before provision for income taxes decreased $15.6 million to $280.1 million. Our effective tax rate was approximately 18.9% for 2018, as compared to 49.8% for 2017. Our effective tax rate for 2018 was lower than the 2018 U.S. corporate income tax rate of 21% primarily due to remeasurement adjustments to our deferred tax assets as a result of accelerating additional contributions made in August 2018 to certain of our domestic pension plans for inclusion in our 2017 U.S. tax return.
For the year ended December 31, 2017, our provision for income taxes increased $73.8 million to $147.4 million, while income before provision for income taxes increased $38.5 million to $295.8 million. Our effective tax rate was approximately

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49.8% for 2017, as compared to 28.6% for 2016. Our effective tax rate for 2017 was higher than the 2017 U.S. corporate income tax rate of 35% primarily due to $53.0 million in income tax expense, which consisted of (i) $49.5 million incurred in relation to the revaluation of our U.S. net deferred tax assets required due to the reduction of the U.S. federal tax rate from 35% to 21% for tax years starting on or after January 1, 2018; (ii) $2.0 million incurred in relation to the transitional toll-charge on undistributed foreign earnings and profits; and (iii) $1.5 million incurred in relation to the elimination of the performance-based criteria under I.R.C. §162(m) for our covered executives and the corresponding write off of certain deferred tax assets previously deductible under the performance-based criteria of I.R.C. §162(m).
See Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Report for further information on income taxes.
EFFECTS OF INFLATION AND CHANGING PRICES
Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP, using historical U.S. dollar accounting ("historical cost"). Statements based on historical cost, however, do not adequately reflect the cumulative effect of increasing costs and changes in the purchasing power of the U.S. dollar, especially during times of significant and continued inflation.
In order to minimize the negative impact of inflation on our operations, we attempt to cover the increased cost of anticipated changes in labor, material and service costs, either through an estimate of those changes, which we reflect in the original price, or through price escalation clauses in our contracts. However, there can be no assurance we will be able to cover all changes in cost using this strategy.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our overall liquidity position, which we generally define as our unrestricted cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments plus amounts available for borrowings under our credit facility, decreased by approximately $160.4 million to $370.0 million at December 31, 2018 compared to $530.4 million at December 31, 2017, due to lower levels of cash on hand resulting primarily from repurchases of common shares and increases in pension contributions and dividends paid to common shareholders during the year ended December 31, 2018 when compared to 2017. We experienced net cash generated from operations in each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. Typically, the fourth quarter has been the period of highest cash flows from operating activities because of the timing of payments received from the U.S. Government on accounts receivable retainages and cash dividends received from our joint ventures.
On May 24, 2018, we and certain of our subsidiaries entered into a credit agreement (the "New Credit Facility") with Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, and the other lenders party thereto. We also issued senior notes pursuant to an indenture among the Company, certain of our subsidiaries, as guarantors, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. In connection with the closing of the New Credit Facility and the issuance of the notes, we concurrently repaid all outstanding debt obligations and terminated our credit agreement dated as of May 11, 2015, as amended, among the Company, certain of our subsidiaries, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, and the other lenders party thereto (the "Former Credit Facility"). The Former Credit Facility consisted of (1) a $400.0 million revolving credit facility, (2) a $300.0 million term loan facility, (3) a $137.5 million (U.S. dollar equivalent) Canadian dollar term loan facility, and (4) a $112.5 million term loan facility.
Credit Facility
The New Credit Facility includes a $500.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility (the "New Revolving Credit Facility"), a $50.0 million U.S. dollar senior secured term loan A made available to the Company (the "New USD Term Loan") and a $250.0 million (U.S. dollar equivalent) Canadian dollar senior secured term loan A made available to BWXT Canada Ltd. (the "New CAD Term Loan"). All obligations under the New Credit Facility are scheduled to mature on May 24, 2023. The proceeds of loans under the New Credit Facility are available for working capital needs and other general corporate purposes.
The New Credit Facility allows for additional parties to become lenders and, subject to certain conditions, for the increase of the commitments under the New Credit Facility, subject to an aggregate maximum for all additional commitments of (1) the greater of (a) $250 million and (b) 65% of EBITDA, as defined in the New Credit Facility, for the last four full fiscal quarters, plus (2) all voluntary prepayments of term loans, plus (3) additional amounts provided the Company is in compliance with a pro forma first lien leverage ratio test of less than or equal to 2.50 to 1.00.
The Company's obligations under the New Credit Facility are guaranteed, subject to certain exceptions, by substantially all of the Company's present and future wholly owned domestic restricted subsidiaries. The obligations of BWXT Canada Ltd.

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under the New Credit Facility are guaranteed, subject to certain exceptions, by substantially all of the Company's present and future wholly owned Canadian and domestic restricted subsidiaries.
The New Credit Facility is secured by first-priority liens on certain assets owned by the Company (other than its subsidiaries comprising its Nuclear Operations Group segment and a portion of its Nuclear Services Group segment); provided that (1) the Company's domestic obligations are only secured by assets and property of the domestic loan parties and (2) the obligations of BWXT Canada Ltd. and the Canadian guarantors are secured by assets and property of the Canadian guarantors and the domestic loan parties.
The New Credit Facility requires interest payments on revolving loans on a periodic basis until maturity. We began making quarterly amortization payments on the New USD Term Loan and the New CAD Term Loan in amounts equal to 1.25% of the initial aggregate principal amount of each term loan in the third quarter of 2018. We may prepay all loans under the New Credit Facility at any time without premium or penalty (other than customary Eurocurrency breakage costs), subject to notice requirements.
The New Credit Facility includes financial covenants that are tested on a quarterly basis, based on the rolling four-quarter period that ends on the last day of each fiscal quarter. The maximum permitted leverage ratio is 4.00 to 1.00, which may be increased to 4.50 to 1.00 for up to four consecutive fiscal quarters after a material acquisition. The minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio is 3.00 to 1.00. In addition, the New Credit Facility contains various restrictive covenants, including with respect to debt, liens, investments, mergers, acquisitions, dividends, equity repurchases and asset sales. As of December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with all covenants set forth in the New Credit Facility.
Outstanding loans under the New Credit Facility will bear interest at our option at either (1) the Eurocurrency rate plus a margin ranging from 1.25% to 2.00% per year or (2) the base rate or Canadian index rate, as applicable (described in the New Credit Facility as the highest of (a) with respect to the base rate only, the federal funds rate plus 0.50%, (b) the one-month Eurocurrency rate plus 1.0% and (c) the administrative agent's prime rate or the Canadian prime rate, as applicable), plus, in each case, a margin ranging from 0.25% to 1.00% per year. We are charged a commitment fee on the unused portion of the New Revolving Credit Facility, and that fee ranges from 0.150% to 0.275% per year. Additionally, we are charged a letter of credit fee of between 1.25% and 2.00% per year with respect to the amount of each financial letter of credit issued under the New Credit Facility, and a letter of credit fee of between 0.75% and 1.20% per year with respect to the amount of each performance letter of credit issued under the New Credit Facility. The applicable margin for loans, the commitment fee and the letter of credit fees set forth above will vary quarterly based on our leverage ratio. Based on the leverage ratio applicable at December 31, 2018, the margin for Eurocurrency rate and base rate or Canadian index rate loans was 1.375% and 0.375%, respectively, the letter of credit fee for financial letters of credit and performance letters of credit was 1.375% and 0.825%, respectively, and the commitment fee for the unused portion of the New Revolving Credit Facility was 0.175%.
As of December 31, 2018, borrowings outstanding totaled $277.4 million and $100.0 million under our term loans and revolving line of credit, respectively, and letters of credit issued under the New Credit Facility totaled $63.5 million. As a result, we had $336.5 million available for borrowings or to meet letter of credit requirements as of December 31, 2018. As of December 31, 2018, the weighted-average interest rate on outstanding borrowings under our New Credit Facility was 3.72%.
The New Credit Facility generally includes customary events of default for a secured credit facility, some of which allow for an opportunity to cure. Under the New Credit Facility, (1) if an event of default relating to bankruptcy or other insolvency events occurs, all related obligations will immediately become due and payable; (2) if any other event of default exists, the lenders will be permitted to accelerate the maturity of the related obligations outstanding; and (3) if any event of default exists, the lenders will be permitted to terminate their commitments thereunder and exercise other rights and remedies, including the commencement of foreclosure or other actions against the collateral.
If any default occurs under the New Credit Facility, or if we are unable to make any of the representations and warranties in the New Credit Facility, we will be unable to borrow funds or have letters of credit issued under the New Credit Facility.
Senior Notes
The Company issued $400.0 million aggregate principal amount of its 5.375% senior notes due 2026 (the "Senior Notes") pursuant to an indenture dated May 24, 2018 (the "Indenture"), among the Company, the guarantors and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The Senior Notes are guaranteed by each of the Company's present and future direct and indirect wholly owned domestic subsidiaries that is a guarantor under the New Credit Facility.

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Interest on the Senior Notes is payable semi-annually in cash in arrears on January 15 and July 15 of each year, which commenced on July 15, 2018, at a rate of 5.375% per annum. The Senior Notes will mature on July 15, 2026.
The Company may redeem the Senior Notes, in whole or in part, at any time on or after July 15, 2021 at established redemption prices. At any time prior to July 15, 2021, the Company may also redeem up to 40% of the Senior Notes with net cash proceeds of certain equity offerings at a redemption price equal to 105.375% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date. In addition, at any time prior to July 15, 2021, the Company may redeem the Senior Notes, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Senior Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the redemption date plus an applicable "make-whole" premium.
The Indenture contains customary events of default, including, among other things, payment default, failure to comply with covenants or agreements contained in the Indenture or the Senior Notes and certain provisions related to bankruptcy events. The Indenture also contains customary negative covenants. As of December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with all covenants and agreements set forth in the Indenture and the Senior Notes.
Other Arrangements
We have posted surety bonds to support regulatory and contractual obligations for certain decommissioning responsibilities, projects and legal matters. We utilize bonding facilities to support such obligations, but the issuance of bonds under those facilities is typically at the surety's discretion. Although there can be no assurance that we will maintain our surety bonding capacity, we believe our current capacity is adequate to support our existing requirements for the next twelve months. In addition, these bonds generally indemnify the beneficiaries should we fail to perform our obligations under the applicable agreements. We, and certain of our subsidiaries, have jointly executed general agreements of indemnity in favor of surety underwriters relating to surety bonds those underwriters issue. As of December 31, 2018, bonds issued and outstanding under these arrangements totaled approximately $67.5 million.
OTHER
Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Investments
In the aggregate, our cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and cash equivalents and investments decreased by approximately $178.0 million to $47.4 million at December 31, 2018 from $225.4 million at December 31, 2017, primarily due to the items discussed below. Our domestic and foreign cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and cash equivalents and investments as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 were as follows:
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(In thousands)
Domestic
 
$
37,108

 
$
211,935

Foreign
 
10,279

 
13,443

Total
 
$
47,387

 
$
225,378

Our working capital decreased by $179.9 million to $165.1 million at December 31, 2018 from $345.0 million at December 31, 2017, primarily attributable to decreases in cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable – trade which totaled $233.3 million. These decreases were partially offset by changes in net contracts in progress and advance billings due to the timing of project cash flows of $45.5 million.
Our net cash provided by operating activities decreased by $52.7 million to $169.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to cash provided by operating activities of $222.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily attributable to an increase in pension contributions made during the year ended December 31, 2018 of $101.4 million when compared to the prior year, which was partially offset by the changes in working capital noted above.
Our net cash used in investing activities increased by $237.0 million to $326.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to cash used in investing activities of $89.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily attributable to our acquisition of the MI business for $213.0 million and an increase in purchases of property, plant and equipment of $12.5 million.

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Our net cash used in financing activities decreased by $51.9 million to $9.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to cash used in financing activities of $61.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease in net cash used in financing activities was primarily attributable to an increase in net borrowings of $310.2 million as a result of issuing the Senior Notes and closing of the New Credit Facility. The increase in net borrowings was partially offset by an increase in repurchases of common shares of $214.8 million as well as an increase in dividends paid to common shareholders of $21.8 million.
At December 31, 2018, we had restricted cash and cash equivalents totaling $6.5 million, $2.7 million of which was held for future decommissioning of facilities (which is included in other assets on our consolidated balance sheets) and $3.8 million of which was held to meet reinsurance reserve requirements of our captive insurer.
At December 31, 2018, we had short-term and long-term investments with a fair value of $11.0 million. Our investment portfolio consists primarily of U.S. Government and agency securities, corporate bonds and equities, mutual funds and asset-backed securities.
Based on our liquidity position, we believe we have sufficient cash and letter of credit and borrowing capacity to fund our operating requirements for at least the next 12 months.
CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS
Our cash requirements as of December 31, 2018 under current contractual obligations were as follows:
 
 
Total
 
Less than
1 Year
 
1-3
Years
 
3-5
Years
 
After
5 Years
 
 
(In thousands)
Long-term debt principal
 
$
777,427

 
$
14,227

 
$
28,454

 
$
334,746

 
$
400,000

Interest payments
 
$
212,055

 
$
31,524

 
$
60,854

 
$
55,177

 
$
64,500

Lease payments
 
$
13,232

 
$
5,650

 
$
4,624

 
$
1,727

 
$
1,231

We expect cash requirements totaling approximately $5.5 million for contributions to our pension plans in 2019. In addition, we anticipate cash requirements totaling approximately $1.6 million for contributions to our other postretirement benefit plans in 2019.
Our contingent commitments under letters of credit and surety bonds currently outstanding expire as follows:
Total
 
Less than
1 Year
 
1-3
Years
 
3-5
Years
 
Thereafter
(In thousands)
$ 131,040
 
$ 117,873
 
$ 5,075
 
$ 759
 
$ 7,333
Item 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our exposure to market risk from changes in interest rates relates primarily to our debt instruments. Our borrowings include both fixed and variable interest rate debt. At December 31, 2018, we had (i) $377.4 million in outstanding borrowings and $336.5 million available under the New Credit Facility and (ii) an aggregate principal amount of $400.0 million of Senior Notes due 2026. See Item 7 – "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources" for additional information on our debt instruments.
We also have exposure from changes in interest rates related to our cash equivalents and our investment portfolio, which consists primarily of U.S. Government and agency securities, corporate bonds and equities, mutual funds and asset-backed securities. We are averse to principal loss and seek to ensure the safety and preservation of our invested funds by limiting default risk, market risk and reinvestment risk.
We have operations in foreign locations, and, as a result, our financial results could be significantly affected by factors such as changes in foreign currency exchange ("FX") rates or weak economic conditions in those foreign markets. In order to manage the operational risks associated with FX rate fluctuations, we attempt to hedge those risks with FX derivative instruments. Historically, we have hedged those risks with FX forward contracts. At December 31, 2018, the fair values of our outstanding derivative instruments were not significant. We do not enter into speculative derivative positions.

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Interest Rate Sensitivity
The following tables provide information about our financial instruments that are sensitive to changes in interest rates. The tables present principal cash flows and related weighted-average interest rates by expected maturity dates.
 
 
Principal Amount by Expected Maturity
(In thousands)
At December 31, 2018:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fair Value at
 
 
Years Ending December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Thereafter
 
Total
 
2018
Investments
 
$
3,587

 

 

 

 

 
$
7,230

 
$
10,817

 
$
10,979

Average Interest Rate
 
1.53%

 

 

 

 

 
2.28%

 
 
 
 
Fixed Interest Rate Debt
 

 

 

 

 

 
$
400,000

 
$
400,000

 
$
384,940

Average Interest Rate
 

 

 

 

 

 
5.38%

 
 
 
 
Variable Interest Rate Debt
 
$
14,227

 
$
14,227

 
$
14,227

 
$
14,227

 
$
320,519

 
$

 
$
377,427

 
$
376,843

Average Interest Rate
 
3.63%

 
3.52%

 
3.50%

 
3.54%

 
3.68%

 

 
 
 
 
 
At December 31, 2017:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fair Value at
 
 
Years Ending December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
Thereafter
 
Total
 
2017
Investments
 
$
2,935

 

 

 

 

 
$
6,973

 
$
9,908

 
$
12,235

Average Interest Rate
 
1.54%

 

 

 

 

 
2.55%

 
 
 
 
Long-term Debt
 
$
27,870

 
$
27,870

 
$
457,391

 

 

 

 
$
513,131

 
$
511,055

Average Interest Rate
 
3.33%

 
3.63%

 
3.70%

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
Exchange Rate Sensitivity
The following table provides information about our FX forward contracts outstanding at December 31, 2018 and presents such information in U.S. dollar equivalents. The table presents notional amounts and related weighted-average FX rates by expected (contractual) maturity dates and constitutes a forward-looking statement. These notional amounts generally are used to calculate the contractual payments to be exchanged under the contract. The average contractual FX rates are expressed using market convention, which is dependent on the currencies being bought and sold under the forward contract.
Forward Contracts to Purchase Foreign Currencies in U.S. Dollars (in thousands)
 
 
Year Ending
 
Fair Value at
 
Average Contractual
Foreign Currency
 
December 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
 
Exchange Rate
Canadian dollar
 
$
53,584

 
$
(231
)
 
1.3567

Canadian dollar (selling Euro)
 
$

 
$
(83
)
 
N/A

U.S. dollar (selling Canadian dollar)
 
$
12,744

 
$
700

 
1.2866

Euro (selling Canadian dollar)
 
$
16,327

 
$
555

 
1.5400

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ending
 
Fair Value at
 
Average Contractual
Foreign Currency
 
December 31, 2020
 
December 31, 2018
 
Exchange Rate
Canadian dollar
 
$
3,523

 
$
(223
)
 
1.2641

U.S. dollar (selling Canadian dollar)
 
$
3,499

 
$
194

 
1.2776

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ending
 
Fair Value at
 
Average Contractual
Foreign Currency
 
December 31, 2021
 
December 31, 2018
 
Exchange Rate
Canadian dollar
 
$
3,514

 
$
(208
)
 
1.2608


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Item 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of BWX Technologies, Inc.:
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of BWX Technologies, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 25, 2019 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/S/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Charlotte, North Carolina
February 25, 2019

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2009.

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BWX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

ASSETS
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(In thousands)
Current Assets:
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
29,871

 
$
203,404

Restricted cash and cash equivalents
 
3,834

 
7,105

Investments
 
3,597

 
2,934

Accounts receivable – trade, net
 
129,459

 
189,217

Accounts receivable – other
 
13,374

 
19,365

Contracts in progress
 
318,454

 
420,628

Other current assets
 
43,859

 
30,437

Total Current Assets
 
542,448

 
873,090

Property, Plant and Equipment
 
1,132,392

 
1,013,141

Less accumulated depreciation
 
693,153

 
664,512

Net Property, Plant and Equipment
 
439,239

 
348,629

Investments
 
7,382

 
9,301

Goodwill
 
274,082

 
218,331

Deferred Income Taxes
 
63,908

 
86,740

Investments in Unconsolidated Affiliates
 
63,746

 
43,266

Intangible Assets
 
228,676

 
110,405

Other Assets
 
35,615

 
22,577

TOTAL
 
$
1,655,096

 
$
1,712,339

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

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BWX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(In thousands, except share
and per share amounts)
Current Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Current maturities of long-term debt
 
$
14,227

 
$
27,870

Accounts payable
 
114,751

 
93,421

Accrued employee benefits
 
77,386

 
82,477

Accrued liabilities – other
 
62,163

 
64,738

Advance billings on contracts
 
98,477

 
246,192

Accrued warranty expense
 
10,344

 
13,428

Total Current Liabilities
 
377,348

 
528,126

Long-Term Debt
 
753,617

 
481,059

Accumulated Postretirement Benefit Obligation
 
19,236

 
21,368

Environmental Liabilities
 
86,372

 
79,786

Pension Liability
 
173,469

 
296,444

Other Liabilities
 
9,353

 
19,799

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 10)
 

 

Stockholders' Equity:
 
 
 
 
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share, authorized 325,000,000 shares; issued 125,871,866 and 125,381,591 shares at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
 
1,259

 
1,254

Preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share, authorized 75,000,000 shares; no shares issued
 

 

Capital in excess of par value
 
115,725

 
98,843

Retained earnings
 
1,166,762

 
990,652

Treasury stock at cost, 30,625,074 and 25,964,088 shares at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
 
(1,037,795
)
 
(814,809
)
Accumulated other comprehensive income
 
(10,289
)
 
9,454

Stockholders' Equity – BWX Technologies, Inc.
 
235,662

 
285,394

Noncontrolling interest
 
39

 
363

Total Stockholders' Equity
 
235,701

 
285,757

TOTAL
 
$
1,655,096

 
$
1,712,339

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


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BWX TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Revenues
 
$
1,799,889

 
$
1,687,738

 
$
1,550,573

Costs and Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of operations
 
1,295,876

 
1,191,983

 
1,086,339

Research and development costs
 
15,223

 
7,190

 
6,407

Losses (gains) on asset disposals and impairments, net
 
64

 
(194
)
 
(43
)
Selling, general and administrative expenses
 
214,092