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Section 1: 10-K (10-K)

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
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FORM 10-K

þ   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

☐   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___ to ___
 
Commission File Number 1-12273
 
ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
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Delaware
51-0263969
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
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6901 Professional Parkway East, Suite 200
Sarasota, Florida 34240
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (941) 556-2601
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SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 Par Value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: None
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Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. þ Yes   ☐ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.   ☐ Yes   þ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. þ Yes   ☐ No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§223.405) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). þ Yes   ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  þ Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer   ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☐ Smaller reporting company ☐ Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12-b2 of the Act). ☐ Yes   þ No
Based on the closing sale price on the New York Stock Exchange on June 29, 2018, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was: $27,931,518,465.
Number of shares of registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of February 15, 2019: 103,607,782.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement to be furnished to Stockholders in connection with its Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.




ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

FORM 10-K FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018

Table of Contents

 
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Information About Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”) includes and incorporates by reference “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. In addition, we, or our executive officers on our behalf, may from time to time make forward-looking statements in reports and other documents we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) or in connection with oral statements made to the press, potential investors or others. All statements that are not historical facts are “forward-looking statements.”  Forward-looking statements may be indicated by words or phrases such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plans,” “expects,” “projects,” “should,” “will,” “believes” or “intends” and similar words and phrases. These statements reflect management’s current beliefs and are not guarantees of future performance. They involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in any forward-looking statement.

Examples of forward-looking statements in this report include but are not limited to statements regarding operating results, the success of our operating plans, our expectations regarding our ability to generate cash and reduce debt and associated interest expense, profit and cash flow expectations, the prospects for newly acquired businesses to be integrated and contribute to future growth and our expectations regarding growth through acquisitions. Important assumptions relating to the forward-looking statements include, among others, demand for our products, the cost, timing and success of product upgrades and new product introductions, raw material costs, expected pricing levels, expected outcomes of pending litigation, competitive conditions and general economic conditions. These assumptions could prove inaccurate. Although we believe that the estimates and projections reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may prove to be incorrect. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

general economic conditions;
difficulty making acquisitions and successfully integrating acquired businesses;
any unforeseen liabilities associated with future acquisitions;
limitations on our business imposed by our indebtedness;
unfavorable changes in foreign exchange rates;
failure to effectively mitigate cybersecurity threats;
difficulties associated with exports;
risks and costs associated with our international sales and operations;
rising interest rates;
product liability and insurance risks;
increased warranty exposure;
future competition;
the cyclical nature of some of our markets;
reduction of business with large customers;
risks associated with government contracts;
changes in the supply of, or price for, raw materials, parts and components;
environmental compliance costs and liabilities;
risks and costs associated with asbestos-related litigation;
potential write-offs of our goodwill and other intangible assets;
our ability to successfully develop new products;
failure to protect our intellectual property;
the effect of, or change in, government regulations (including tax);
economic disruption caused by terrorist attacks, health crises or other unforeseen events; and
the factors discussed in Item 1A to this Annual Report under the heading “Risk Factors.”

We believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable. However, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based on current expectations. Further, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we undertake no obligation to publicly update any of them in light of new information or future events.


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PART I
 
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS

All currency amounts are in millions unless specified

Our Business

Roper Technologies, Inc. (“Roper,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us”) is a diversified technology company. We operate businesses that design and develop software (both license and software-as-a-service) and engineered products and solutions for a variety of niche end markets.

We pursue consistent and sustainable growth in earnings and cash flow by emphasizing continuous improvement in the operating performance of our existing businesses and by acquiring other businesses that offer high value-added software, services, engineered products and solutions that we believe are capable of achieving growth and maintaining high margins. We compete in many niche markets and believe we are the market leader or a competitive alternative to the market leader in most of these markets.

We were incorporated on December 17, 1981 under the laws of the State of Delaware.

Market Share, Market Expansion, and Product Development

Leadership with Engineered Content for Niche Markets - We maintain a leading position in many of our markets. We believe our market positions are attributable to the technical sophistication of our products and software, the applications expertise used to create our advanced products and systems, and our distribution and service capabilities. Our operating units grow their businesses through new product development and development of new applications and services to satisfy customer needs. In addition, our operating units grow our customer base by expanding our access to customers and entering adjacent markets.

Diversified End Markets and Geographic Reach - We have a global presence, with sales to customers outside the U.S. totaling $1.5 billion in 2018. Information regarding our international operations is set forth in Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.

Research and Development - We conduct applied research and development to improve the quality and performance of our products and to develop new technologies and products. Our research and development spending was $317 in 2018 as compared to $281 and $195 in 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Our Business Segments

Our operations are reported in four segments based upon common customers, markets, sales channels, technologies and common cost opportunities. The segments are: RF Technology, Medical & Scientific Imaging, Industrial Technology and Energy Systems & Controls. Financial information about our business segments is presented in Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.

RF Technology

Our RF Technology segment provides radio frequency identification (“RFID”) communication technology and software solutions. This segment had net revenues of $2.17 billion for the year ended December 31, 2018, representing 41.8% of our total net revenues.

Comprehensive Application Management Software - We provide 1) enterprise software and information solutions for government contractors, professional services firms and other project-based businesses, 2) comprehensive management software solutions for law and other professional services firms, including business development, calendar/docket matter management, time and billing and case management, and 3) financial and compliance management software and solutions to large complex companies in asset-intensive industries.

Software-as-a-Service - We maintain electronic marketplaces that connect 1) available capacity of trucking units with the available loads of freight to be moved from location to location throughout North America, 2) food suppliers, distributors and vendors, primarily in the perishable food sector and 3) construction industry professionals.

Card Systems/Integrated Security Solutions - We provide software, card systems and integrated security solutions primarily to education and health care markets. We also provide an integrated nutrition management solution used by food service customers.

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Toll and Traffic Systems - We manufacture and sell toll tags and monitoring systems as well as provide transaction and violation processing services for toll and traffic systems to both governmental and private sector entities. In addition, we provide intelligent traffic systems that assist customers in improving traffic flow and infrastructure utilization.

RFID Card Readers - We design, develop and manufacture RFID card readers that support most smart cards worldwide. The readers are used in numerous applications and OEM solutions including secure printing and single sign-on across several vertical markets including healthcare, manufacturing and government.

Metering and Remote Monitoring - We manufacture and sell meter reading, data logging and pressure control products for use primarily in water and gas applications.  We also provide network monitoring, leakage reduction and pressure control services in water and gas distribution networks.

Medical and Scientific Imaging

Our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment offers products and software in medical applications, and high performance digital imaging products. For 2018, this segment had net revenues of $1.52 billion, representing 29.3% of our total net revenues.

Medical Products and Software - We provide diagnostic and laboratory software solutions to healthcare providers and services and technologies to support the diverse and complex needs of alternate site health care providers who deliver services outside of an acute care hospital setting. We provide a cloud-based financial analytics and performance software platform to healthcare providers. We also manufacture and sell patient positioning devices and related software for use in radiation oncology and 3-D measurement technology in computer-assisted surgery, and we supply diagnostic and therapeutic disposable products used in ultrasound imaging for minimally invasive medical procedures. We design and manufacture a non-invasive instrument for portable ultrasound bladder volume measurement and a video laryngoscope designed to enable rapid intubation in difficult situations. 

Digital Imaging Products and Software - We manufacture and sell extremely sensitive, high-performance electron filters, charged couple device (“CCD”) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (“CMOS”) cameras, detectors and related software for a variety of scientific and industrial uses, which require high resolution and/or high speed digital video, including electron microscopy and spectroscopy applications. We sell these products for use within academic, government research, semiconductor, security and other end-user markets such as biological and material science. They are frequently incorporated into products by original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”).
 
Industrial Technology

Our Industrial Technology segment produces primarily water meter and meter reading technology, fluid handling pumps, and materials analysis solutions. For 2018, this segment had net revenues of $900, representing 17.3% of our total net revenues.

Water Meter and Automatic Meter Reading Products and Systems - We manufacture and distribute water meter products serving the residential, commercial and industrial water management markets, and several lines of automatic meter reading products and systems serving these markets.

Fluid Handling Pumps - We manufacture and sell a wide variety of pumps. These pumps vary significantly in complexity and in pumping method employed, which allows for the movement and application of a diverse range of low and high viscosity liquids, high solids content slurries and chemicals. Our pumps are used in end markets such as oil and gas, agricultural, water and wastewater, chemical and general industrial.

Materials Analysis Equipment and Consumables - We manufacture and sell equipment and supply consumables necessary to prepare material samples for testing and analysis. These products are used mostly within the material science, steel, automotive, electronics, mining and research end-user markets.

The Industrial Technology segment companies’ revenues reflect a combination of standard products and specially engineered, application-specific products. Standard products are typically shipped within two weeks of receipt of order. Application-specific products typically ship within 6 to 12 weeks following receipt of order. However, larger project orders and blanket purchase orders for certain OEMs may extend shipment for longer periods.


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Energy Systems & Controls

Our Energy Systems & Controls segment principally produces control systems, testing equipment, valves and sensors. For 2018, this segment had net revenues of $600, representing 11.6% of our total net revenues.

Control Systems - We manufacture control systems and provide related engineering and commissioning services for turbomachinery applications, primarily in energy markets.

Fluid Properties Testing Equipment - We manufacture and sell test equipment to determine physical and elemental properties, such as sulfur and nitrogen content, flash point, viscosity, freeze point and distillation range of liquids and gases primarily for the petroleum industry.

Sensors, Controls and Valves - We manufacture sensors and control equipment including pressure sensors, temperature sensors, measurement instruments and control software for global rubber, plastics and process industries.  We also manufacture and distribute valves, sensors, switches and control products used on engines, compressors, turbines and other powered equipment for the oil and gas, pipeline, power generation, marine engine and general industrial markets. Many of these products are designed for use in hazardous environments.

Non-destructive Inspection and Measurement Instrumentation - We manufacture non-destructive inspection and measurement solutions including measurement probes, robotics, vibration sensors, switches and transmitters. These solutions are applied principally in nuclear energy markets. Many of these products are designed for use in hazardous environments.

The Energy Systems & Controls segment companies’ revenues reflect a combination of standard products and large engineered projects. Standard products generally ship within two weeks of receipt of order, and large engineered projects may have lead times of several months. As such, backlog may fluctuate depending upon the timing of large project awards.

Materials and Suppliers

We believe most materials and supplies we use are readily available from numerous sources and suppliers throughout the world. However, some components and sub-assemblies are currently available from a limited number of suppliers. Some high-performance components for digital imaging products can be in short supply and/or suppliers have occasional difficulty manufacturing such components to our specifications. We regularly investigate and identify alternative sources where possible, and we believe these conditions equally affect our competitors. Supply shortages have not had a material adverse effect on our revenues although delays in shipments have occurred following such supply interruptions.
 
Backlog

Our backlog includes only firm unfilled orders expected to be recognized as revenue within twelve months. Backlog was $1.69 billion at December 31, 2018, and $1.67 billion at December 31, 2017.

Distribution and Sales

Distribution and sales occur through direct sales offices, manufacturers’ representatives and distributors. In addition, our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment also sells through value added resellers (“VARs”) and OEMs.

Environmental Matters and Other Governmental Regulation

Our operations and properties are subject to laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, including those governing air emissions, water discharges, waste management and workplace safety. We use, generate and dispose of hazardous substances and waste in our operations and could be subject to material liabilities relating to the investigation and clean-up of contaminated properties and related claims. We are required to conform our operations and properties to these laws and adapt to regulatory requirements in all countries as these requirements change. In connection with our acquisitions, we may assume significant environmental liabilities, some of which we may not be aware of, or may not be quantifiable, at the time of acquisition. In addition, new laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or the imposition of new requirements could increase our costs or subject us to new or increased liabilities.

Customers

No customer accounted for 10% or more of net revenues for 2018 for any of our segments or for our company as a whole.

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Competition

Generally, our products and solutions face significant competition, usually from a limited number of competitors. We believe that we are a leader in most of our markets, and no single company competes with us over a significant number of product lines. Competitors might be large or small in size, often depending on the size of the niche market we serve. We compete primarily on product quality, performance, innovation, technology, price, applications expertise, system and service flexibility, distribution channel access and customer service capabilities.

Patents and Trademarks

In addition to trade secrets, unpatented know-how, and other intellectual property rights, we own or license the rights under a number of patents, trademarks and copyrights relating to certain of our products and businesses. We also employ various methods, including confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements with individuals and companies we do business with, employees, distributors, representatives and customers to protect our trade secrets and know-how. We believe none of our operating units are substantially dependent on any single patent, trademark, copyright, or other item of intellectual property or group of patents, trademarks or copyrights.

Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we had 15,611 employees, with 10,294 located in the United States. We have 195 employees who are subject to collective bargaining agreements. We have not experienced any work stoppages and consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Available Information

All reports we file electronically with the SEC, including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and our annual proxy statements, as well as any amendments to those reports, are accessible at no cost on our website at www.ropertech.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. These filings are also accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines; the charters of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Nominating and Governance Committee; and our Business Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct are also available on our website. Any amendment to the Business Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct and any waiver applicable to our directors, executive officers or senior financial officers will be posted on our website within the time period required by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”). The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report.

We have included the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer certifications regarding our public disclosure required by Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as Exhibits 31.1 and 31.2 of this report. Additionally, we filed with the NYSE the Chief Executive Officer certification regarding our compliance with the NYSE’s Corporate Governance Listing Standards (the “Listing Standards”) pursuant to Section 303A.12(a) of the Listing Standards. We filed the certification with the NYSE on June 12, 2018 and our Chief Executive Officer indicated that he was not aware of any violations of the Listing Standards by us.

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ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS

Risks Relating to Our Business

Our indebtedness may affect our business and may restrict our operating flexibility.

As of December 31, 2018, we had $4.9 billion in total consolidated indebtedness. In addition, we had $1.6 billion undrawn availability under our senior unsecured credit facility. Subject to restrictions contained in our credit facility, we may incur additional indebtedness in the future, including indebtedness incurred to finance acquisitions.

Our level of indebtedness and the debt servicing costs associated with that indebtedness could have important effects on our operations and business strategy. For example, our indebtedness could:

limit our ability to borrow additional funds;
limit our ability to complete future acquisitions;
limit our ability to pay dividends;
limit our ability to make capital expenditures;
place us at a competitive disadvantage relative to our competitors, some of which have lower debt service obligations and greater financial resources; and
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions.

Our ability to make scheduled principal payments of, to pay interest on, or to refinance our indebtedness and to satisfy our other debt obligations will depend upon our future operating performance, which may be affected by factors beyond our control. In addition, there can be no assurance that future borrowings or equity financing will be available to us on favorable terms for the payment or refinancing of our indebtedness. If we are unable to service our indebtedness, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.

Our credit facility contains covenants requiring us to achieve certain financial and operating results and maintain compliance with specified financial ratios. Our ability to meet the financial covenants or requirements in our credit facility may be affected by events beyond our control, and we may not be able to satisfy such covenants and requirements. A breach of these covenants or our inability to comply with the financial ratios, tests or other restrictions contained in our facility could result in an event of default under this facility. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under our credit facility, and the expiration of any grace periods, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under the facility, together with accrued interest, to be immediately due and payable. If this were to occur, our assets may not be sufficient to fully repay the amounts due under this facility or our other indebtedness.

Unfavorable changes in foreign exchange rates may harm our business.

Several of our operating companies have transactions and balances denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Most of these transactions and balances are denominated in euros, Canadian dollars, British pounds or Danish kroner. Sales by our operating companies whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar represented 17% of our total net revenues for both the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Unfavorable changes in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and those currencies could significantly reduce our reported revenues and earnings.


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We export a significant portion of our products. Difficulties associated with the export of our products could harm our business.

Sales to customers outside the U.S. by our businesses located in the U.S. account for a significant portion of our net revenues. These sales accounted for 11% of our net revenues for both the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. We are subject to risks that could limit our ability to export our products or otherwise reduce the demand for these products in our foreign markets. Such risks include, without limitation, the following:

unfavorable changes in or noncompliance with U.S. and other jurisdictions’ export requirements;
restrictions on the export of technology and related products;
unfavorable changes in or noncompliance with U.S. and other jurisdictions’ export policies to certain countries;
unfavorable changes in the import policies of our foreign markets; and
a general economic downturn in our foreign markets.

The occurrence of any of these events could reduce the foreign demand for our products or could limit our ability to export our products and, therefore, could have a material negative effect on our future sales and earnings.

Economic, political and other risks associated with our international operations could adversely affect our business.

As of and for the year ended December 31, 2018, 20% of our net revenues and 17% of our long-lived assets, excluding goodwill and intangibles, were attributable to operations outside the U.S. We expect our international operations to contribute materially to our business for the foreseeable future. Our international operations are subject to varying degrees of risk inherent in doing business outside the U.S. including, without limitation, the following:

adverse changes in a specific country’s or region’s political or economic conditions, particularly in emerging markets;
oil price volatility;
trade protection measures, tariffs, and import or export requirements;
subsidies or increased access to capital for firms that are currently, or may emerge as, competitors in countries in which we have operations;
partial or total expropriation;
potentially negative consequences from changes in tax laws;
difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations;
differing labor regulations;
differing protection of intellectual property;
differing and unexpected changes in regulatory requirements; and
potentially negative consequences from the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union.

Our growth strategy includes acquisitions. We may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates, complete acquisitions or integrate acquisitions successfully.

Our future growth is likely to depend to some degree on our ability to acquire and successfully integrate new businesses. We intend to seek additional acquisition opportunities, both to expand into new markets and to enhance our position in existing markets. There are no assurances, however, that we will be able to successfully identify suitable candidates, negotiate appropriate terms, obtain financing on acceptable terms, complete proposed acquisitions, successfully integrate acquired businesses or expand into new markets. Once acquired, operations may not achieve anticipated levels of revenues or profitability.

Acquisitions involve risks, including difficulties in the integration of the operations, technologies, services and products of the acquired companies and the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns. Although our management will endeavor to evaluate the risks inherent in any particular transaction, there are no assurances that we will properly ascertain all such risks. In addition, prior acquisitions have resulted, and future acquisitions could result, in the incurrence of substantial additional indebtedness and other expenses. Future acquisitions may also result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities. Difficulties encountered with acquisitions may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.



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Our technology is important to our success and our failure to protect this technology could put us at a competitive disadvantage.

Many of our products rely on proprietary technology; therefore we believe that the development and protection of intellectual property rights through patents, copyrights, trade secrets, trademarks, confidentiality agreements and other contractual provisions are important to the future success of our business. Despite our efforts to protect proprietary rights, unauthorized parties or competitors may copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology. Actions to enforce these rights may result in substantial costs and diversion of resources, and we make no assurances that any such actions will be successful.

Product liability, insurance risks and increased insurance costs could harm our operating results.

Our business exposes us to product liability risks in the design, manufacture and distribution of our products. In addition, certain of our products are used in hazardous environments. We currently have product liability insurance; however, we may not be able to maintain our insurance at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to adequately protect us against losses. We also maintain other insurance policies, including directors’ and officers’ liability insurance. We believe we have adequately accrued estimated losses, principally related to deductible amounts under our insurance policies, with respect to all product liability and other claims, based upon our past experience and available facts. However, a successful product liability or other claim or series of claims brought against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, a significant increase in our insurance costs could have an adverse impact on our operating results.

Our operating results could be adversely affected by a reduction of business with our large customers.

In some of our businesses, we derive a significant amount of revenue from large customers. The loss or reduction of any significant contracts with any of these customers could reduce our revenues and cash flows. Additionally, many of our customers are government entities. In many situations, government entities can unilaterally terminate or modify our existing contracts without cause and without penalty to the government agency.

We face intense competition. If we do not compete effectively, our business may suffer.

We face intense competition from numerous competitors. Our products compete primarily on the basis of product quality, performance, innovation, technology, price, applications expertise, system and service flexibility, distribution channel access and established customer service capabilities. We may not be able to compete effectively on all of these fronts or with all of our competitors. In addition, new competitors may emerge, and product lines may be threatened by new technologies or market trends that reduce the value of these product lines. To remain competitive, we must develop new products, respond to new technologies and enhance our existing products in a timely manner. We anticipate that we may have to adjust prices to stay competitive.

We rely on information and technology for many of our business operations which could fail and cause disruption to our business operations.

Our business operations are dependent upon information technology networks and systems to securely transmit, process and store electronic information and to communicate among our locations around the world and with clients and vendors. A shutdown of, or inability to access, one or more of our facilities, a power outage or a failure of one or more of our information technology, telecommunications or other systems could significantly impair our ability to perform such functions on a timely basis. Computer viruses, cyber-attacks, other external hazards and human error could result in the misappropriation of assets or sensitive information, corruption of data or operational disruption. If sustained or repeated, such a business interruption, system failure, service denial or data loss and damage could result in a deterioration of our ability to perform necessary business functions.

A breach in the security of our software could harm our reputation, result in a loss of current and potential customers, and subject us to material claims, which could materially harm our operating results and financial condition.

If our security measures are breached, an unauthorized party may obtain access to our data or our users’ or customers’ data. In addition, cyber-attacks and similar acts could lead to interruptions and delays in customer processing or a loss or breach of customers’ data. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. The risk that these types of events could seriously harm our business is likely to increase as we expand the number of web-based products and services we offer, and operate in more countries.
Regulatory authorities around the world have adopted and are considering further adoption of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws in the United

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States, Europe and elsewhere are often uncertain and in flux. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data practices. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, this could result in an order requiring that we change our data practices, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Any security breaches for which we are, or are perceived to be, responsible, in whole or in part, could subject us to legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations, which could harm our reputation and result in significant litigation costs and damage awards or settlement amounts. Any imposition of liability, particularly liability that is not covered by insurance or is in excess of insurance coverage, could materially harm our operating results and financial condition. Security breaches also could cause us to lose current and potential customers, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Moreover, we might be required to expend significant financial and other resources to protect further against security breaches or to rectify problems caused by any security breach.

Changes in the supply of, or price for, raw materials, parts and components used in our products could affect our business.

The availability and prices of raw materials, parts and components are subject to curtailment or change due to, among other things, suppliers’ allocations to other purchasers, interruptions in production by suppliers, changes in exchange rates and prevailing price levels. Some high-performance components for digital imaging products may be in short supply and/or suppliers may have occasional difficulty manufacturing these components to meet our specifications. In addition, some of our products are provided by sole source suppliers. Any change in the supply of, or price for, these parts and components, as well as any increases in commodity prices, particularly copper, could affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Environmental compliance costs and liabilities could increase our expenses and adversely affect our financial condition.

Our operations and properties are subject to laws and regulations relating to environmental protection, including air emissions, water discharges, waste management and workplace safety. These laws and regulations can result in the imposition of substantial fines and sanctions for violations and could, in certain instances, require the installation of pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit pollution emissions and/or decrease the likelihood of accidental hazardous substance releases. We must conform our operations and properties to these laws and adapt to regulatory requirements in the countries in which we operate as these requirements change.

We use and generate hazardous substances and wastes in some of our operations and, as a result, could be subject to potentially material liabilities relating to the investigation and clean-up of contaminated properties and to claims alleging personal injury. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, costs relating to compliance with environmental laws and regulations. In connection with our acquisitions, we may assume significant environmental liabilities, some of which we may not be aware of at the time of acquisition. In addition, new laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination or the imposition of new clean-up requirements could require us to incur costs or become the basis for new or increased liabilities that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Some of the industries in which we operate are cyclical, and, accordingly, our business is subject to changes in the economy.

Some of the business areas in which we operate are subject to specific industry and general economic cycles. Certain businesses are subject to industry cycles, including but not limited to, the industrial and energy markets. Accordingly, a downturn in these or other markets in which we participate could materially adversely affect us. If demand changes and we fail to respond accordingly, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected. The business cycles of our different operations may occur contemporaneously. Consequently, the effect of an economic downturn may have a magnified negative effect on our business.

Our goodwill and intangible assets are a significant amount of our total assets, and any write-off of our intangible assets would negatively affect our results of operations.

Our total assets reflect substantial intangible assets, primarily goodwill. At December 31, 2018, goodwill totaled $9.3 billion compared to $7.7 billion of stockholders’ equity, and represented 61% of our total assets of $15.2 billion. The goodwill results from our acquisitions, representing the excess purchase price over the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired. We assess at least annually whether there has been an impairment in the value of our goodwill and indefinite economic life intangible assets. If future operating performance at one or more of our business units were to fall significantly below current levels, if competing or alternative technologies emerge, if interest rates rise or if business valuations decline, we could incur a non-cash charge to operating income. Any determination requiring the write-off of a significant portion of goodwill or unamortized intangible assets would negatively affect our results of operations, the effect of which could be material.


11



We depend on our ability to develop new products, and any failure to develop or market new products could adversely affect our business.

The future success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to design and manufacture new competitive products and to enhance existing products so that we maintain our margin profile. This product development may require substantial internal investment. There can be no assurance that unforeseen problems will not occur with respect to the development, performance or market acceptance of new technologies or products or that we will otherwise be able to successfully develop and market new products. Failure of our products to gain market acceptance or our failure to successfully develop and market new products could reduce our margins, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Any business disruptions due to political instability, armed hostilities, incidents of terrorism or natural disasters could adversely impact our financial performance.

If terrorist activity, armed conflict, political instability or natural disasters occur in the U.S. or other locations, such events may negatively impact our operations, cause general economic conditions to deteriorate or cause demand for our products to decline. A prolonged economic slowdown or recession could reduce the demand for our products, and therefore, negatively affect our future sales and profits. Any of these events could have a significant impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Recent significant changes to our executive leadership team and any future loss of members of such team, and the resulting management transitions, could harm our operating results.

We have recently experienced significant changes to our executive leadership team. Leadership transitions and changes can be inherently difficult to manage and may cause uncertainty or disruption to our business or may increase the likelihood of turnover in key leadership positions. If we cannot effectively manage leadership transitions and changes, it could make it more difficult to successfully operate our business.

ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None


12



ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES

Our corporate offices, consisting of 29,000 square feet of leased space, are located at 6901 Professional Parkway East, Sarasota, Florida. We have 154 principal locations around the world to support our operations, of which 46 are manufacturing, assembly and testing facilities, and the remaining 108 locations provide sales, programming, service and administrative support functions. We consider our facilities to be in good operating condition and adequate for their present use and believe we have sufficient capacity to meet our anticipated operating requirements.

The following table summarizes the size, location and usage of our principal properties as of December 31, 2018 (amounts in thousands of square feet).
 
 
Office
Office & Manufacturing
Segment
Region
Leased
Leased
Owned
 
 
 
 
 
RF Technology
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.
1,611
121
 
Canada
51
 
Europe
87
3
16
 
Asia-Pacific
129
13
Medical & Scientific Imaging
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.
359
268
120
 
Canada
116
 
Europe
79
16
 
Asia-Pacific
34
8
 
Mexico
Industrial Technology
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.
103
260
478
 
Canada
50
 
Europe
34
144
43
 
Asia-Pacific
30
 
Mexico
2
60
Energy Systems & Controls
 
 
 
 
 
U.S.
286
 
Canada
79
 
Europe
40
21
128
 
Asia-Pacific
25
4
33


13



ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Information pertaining to legal proceedings can be found in Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report, and is incorporated by reference herein.

ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

None

14




PART II
 
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock trades on the NYSE under the symbol “ROP”. Based on information available to us and our transfer agent, we believe that as of February 15, 2019 there were 145 record holders of our common stock.

Dividends – We have declared a cash dividend in each quarter since our February 1992 initial public offering and we have annually increased our dividend rate since our initial public offering. In November 2018, our Board of Directors increased the quarterly dividend paid January 23, 2019 to $0.4625 per share from $0.4125 per share, an increase of 12%. This is the twenty-sixth consecutive year in which Roper has increased its dividend. The timing, declaration and payment of future dividends will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our profitability, financial condition, capital needs, future prospects and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities - In 2018, there were no sales of unregistered securities.

Performance Graph - This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or under the Exchange Act.

The following graph compares, for the five year period ended December 31, 2018, the cumulative total stockholder return for our common stock, the Standard and Poor’s 500 Stock Index (the “S&P 500”) and the Standard and Poor’s 500 Industrials Index (the “S&P 500 Industrials”). Measurement points are the last trading day of each of our fiscal years ended December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2013 in our common stock, the S&P 500 and the S&P 500 Industrials and assumes reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

15



 
12/31/2013
 
12/31/2014
 
12/31/2015
 
12/31/2016
 
12/31/2017
 
12/31/2018
Roper Technologies, Inc.
$
100.00

 
$
113.39

 
$
138.48

 
$
134.49

 
$
191.49

 
$
198.22

S&P 500
100.00

 
113.69

 
115.26

 
129.05

 
157.22

 
150.33

S&P 500 Industrials
100.00

 
109.83

 
107.04

 
127.23

 
153.99

 
133.53

396863269_chart-0045428d553252c59dc.jpg
The information set forth in Item 12 under the heading “Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans” is incorporated herein by reference.


16



ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

You should read the table below in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in this Annual Report (amounts in millions, except per share data).
 
As of and for the Years ended December 31,
 
2018 (1)
 
2017 (2)
 
2016 (3)
 
2015 (4)
 
2014 (5)
Operations data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenues
$
5,191.2

 
$
4,607.5

 
$
3,789.9

 
$
3,582.4

 
$
3,549.5

Gross profit
3,279.5

 
2,864.8

 
2,332.4

 
2,164.6

 
2,101.9

Income from operations
1,396.4

 
1,210.2

 
1,054.6

 
1,027.9

 
999.5

Net earnings (6)
944.4

 
971.8

 
658.6

 
696.1

 
646.0

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per share data:
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic earnings per share
$
9.15

 
$
9.51

 
$
6.50

 
$
6.92

 
$
6.47

Diluted earnings per share
$
9.05

 
$
9.39

 
$
6.43

 
$
6.85

 
$
6.40

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends declared per share
$
1.7000

 
$
1.4625

 
$
1.2500

 
$
1.0500

 
$
0.8500

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance sheet data:
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
$
364.4

 
$
671.3

 
$
757.2

 
$
778.5

 
$
610.4

Working capital (7)
(200.4
)
 
(140.4
)
 
(25.0
)
 
126.2

 
284.9

Total assets (9)
15,249.5

 
14,316.4

 
14,324.9

 
10,168.4

 
8,400.2

Current portion of long-term debt (8)
1.5

 
800.9

 
401.0

 
6.8

 
11.1

Long-term debt, net of current portion (9)
4,940.2

 
4,354.6

 
5,808.6

 
3,264.4

 
2,190.3

Stockholders’ equity
7,738.5

 
6,863.6

 
5,788.9

 
5,298.9

 
4,755.4

 
(1) 
Includes results from the acquisitions of Quote Software from January 2, 2018, PlanSwift Software from March 28, 2018, Smartbid from May 8, 2018, PowerPlan, Inc. from June 4, 2018, ConceptShare from June 7, 2018, BillBlast from July 10, 2018 and Avitru from December 31, 2018.
(2) 
Includes results from the acquisitions of Phase Technology from June 21, 2017, Handshake Software, Inc. from August 4, 2017, Workbook Software A/S from September 15, 2017 and Onvia, Inc. from November 17, 2017.
(3) 
Includes results from the acquisitions of CliniSys Group Ltd. from January 7, 2016, PCI Medical Inc. from March 17, 2016, GeneInsight Inc. from April 1, 2016, iSqFt Holdings Inc. (d/b/a ConstructConnect) from October 31, 2016, UNIConnect LC from November 10, 2016 and Deltek, Inc. from December 28, 2016.
(4) 
Includes results from the acquisitions of Strata Decision Technologies LLC from January 21, 2015, SoftWriters Inc. from February 9, 2015, Data Innovations LLC from March 4, 2015, On Center Software LLC from July 20, 2015, RF IDeas Inc. from September 1, 2015, Atlantic Health Partners LLC from September 4, 2015, Aderant Holdings Inc. from October 21, 2015, Atlas Database Software Corp. from October 26, 2015, Black Diamond Advanced Technologies through March 20, 2015 and Abel Pumps through October 2, 2015.
(5) 
Includes results from the acquisitions of Foodlink Holdings Inc. from July 2, 2014, Innovative Product Achievements LLC from August 5, 2014, Strategic Healthcare Programs Holdings LLC from August 14, 2014.
(6) 
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“the Tax Act”) was signed into U.S. law on December 22, 2017, which was prior to the end of the Company’s 2017 reporting period and resulted in a one-time net income tax benefit of $215.4.
(7) 
Net working capital equals current assets, excluding cash, less total current liabilities, excluding debt.
(8) 
At December 31, 2017, there were $799 of senior notes, net of debt issuance costs, due October 1, 2018, and at December 31, 2016, there were $399 of senior notes, net of debt issuance costs, due November 15, 2017, thus requiring classification as short-term debt, included in working capital.
(9) 
Total assets and Long-term debt, net of current portion as of December 31, 2014 have been adjusted by $12.7 due to the retrospective adoption of an accounting standard update which requires that our senior notes be shown net of debt issuance costs.



17



ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

All currency amounts are in millions unless specified

You should read the following discussion in conjunction with “Selected Financial Data” and our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in this Annual Report.
 
Overview

We are a diversified technology company. We operate businesses that design and develop software (both license and software-as-a-service) and engineered products and solutions for a variety of niche end markets.

We pursue consistent and sustainable growth in earnings and cash flow by emphasizing continuous improvement in the operating performance of our existing businesses and by acquiring other carefully selected businesses. Our acquisitions have represented both new strategic platforms and additions to existing businesses.

Application of Critical Accounting Policies

Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). A discussion of our significant accounting policies can also be found in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2018 included in this Annual Report.

GAAP offers acceptable alternative methods for accounting for certain issues affecting our financial results, such as determining inventory cost, depreciating long-lived assets and recognizing revenue. We have not changed the application of acceptable accounting methods or the significant estimates affecting the application of these principles in the last three years in a manner that had a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires the use of estimates, assumptions, judgments and interpretations that can affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and other supplemental disclosures.

The development of accounting estimates is the responsibility of our management. Our management discusses those areas that require significant judgments with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors. The Audit Committee has reviewed all financial disclosures in our annual filings with the SEC. Although we believe the positions we have taken with regard to uncertainties are reasonable, others might reach different conclusions and our positions can change over time as more information becomes available. If an accounting estimate changes, its effects are accounted for prospectively or through a cumulative catch up adjustment.

Our most significant accounting uncertainties are encountered in the areas of accounts receivable collectibility, inventory valuation, future warranty obligations, revenue recognition, income taxes and goodwill and indefinite-lived impairment analyses. These issues affect each of our business segments and are evaluated using a combination of historical experience, current conditions and relatively short-term forecasting.

Accounts receivable collectibility is based on the economic circumstances of customers and credits given to customers after shipment of products, including in certain cases credits for returned products. Accounts receivable are regularly reviewed to determine customers who have not paid within agreed upon terms, whether these amounts are consistent with past experiences, what historical experience has been with amounts deemed uncollectible and the impact that economic conditions might have on collection efforts in general and with specific customers. The returns and other sales credit allowance is an estimate of customer returns, exchanges, discounts or other forms of anticipated concessions and is treated as a reduction in revenue. The returns and other sales credits histories are analyzed to determine likely future rates for such credits. At December 31, 2018, our allowance for doubtful accounts receivable was $17.3 and our allowance for sales returns and sales credits was $5.8, for a total of $23.1, or 3.2% of total gross accounts receivable, as compared to a total of $12.7, or 1.9% of total gross accounts receivable, at December 31, 2017. This percentage is influenced by the risk profile of the underlying receivables, and the timing of write-offs of accounts deemed uncollectible.

We regularly compare inventory quantities on hand against anticipated future usage, which we determine as a function of historical usage or forecasts related to specific items in order to evaluate obsolescence and excessive quantities. When we use historical usage, this information is also qualitatively compared to business trends to evaluate the reasonableness of using historical information as an estimate of future usage. At December 31, 2018, inventory reserves for excess and obsolete inventory were

18



$30.3, or 13.7% of gross inventory cost, as compared to $38.1, or 15.7% of gross inventory cost, at December 31, 2017. The inventory reserve as a percent of gross inventory cost will continue to fluctuate based upon specific identification of reserves needed based upon changes in our business as well as the physical disposal of obsolete inventory.

Most of our product-based revenues are covered by warranty provisions that generally provide for the repair or replacement of qualifying defective items for a specified period after the time of sale, typically 12 to 24 months. Future warranty obligations are evaluated using, among other factors, historical cost experience, product evolution and customer feedback. Our expense for warranty obligations was less than 1% of net revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.

Revenues from our project-based businesses, including toll and traffic systems, control systems and installations of large software application projects, are generally recognized over time using the input method, primarily utilizing the ratio of costs incurred to total estimated costs, as the measure of performance. The Company recognized revenues of $245.9, $249.3 and $241.3 for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, using this method. At December 31, 2018, $241.6 of revenue related to unfinished percentage-of-completion contracts had yet to be recognized.

Income taxes can be affected by estimates of whether and within which jurisdictions future earnings will occur and if, how and when cash is repatriated to the U.S., combined with other aspects of an overall income tax strategy. Additionally, taxing jurisdictions could retroactively disagree with our tax treatment of certain items, and some historical transactions have income tax effects going forward. Accounting rules require these future effects to be evaluated using current laws, rules and regulations, each of which can change at any time and in an unpredictable manner. During 2018, our effective income tax rate was 21.2%, as compared to the 2017 rate of 6.1%. The increase was due primarily to the recognition of a $215.4 net income tax benefit related to the Tax Act in 2017, partially offset by the reduction in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%. We expect the effective tax rate for 2019 to be between 21% and 23%.

We account for goodwill in a purchase business combination as the excess purchase price over the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired. Goodwill, which is not amortized, is tested for impairment on an annual basis in conjunction with our annual forecast process during the fourth quarter (or an interim basis if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value).

When testing goodwill for impairment, we have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we elect to perform a qualitative assessment and determine that an impairment is more likely than not, we are then required to perform the quantitative impairment test; otherwise, no further analysis is required. Under the qualitative assessment, we consider various qualitative factors, including macroeconomic conditions, relevant industry and market trends, cost factors, overall financial performance, other entity-specific events and events affecting the reporting unit that could indicate a potential change in the fair value of our reporting unit or the composition of its carrying values. We also consider the specific future outlook for the reporting unit.

We also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the quantitative impairment test. The quantitative assessment utilizes both an income approach (discounted cash flows) and a market approach (consisting of a comparable company earnings multiples methodology) to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit. To determine the reasonableness of the estimated fair values, we review the assumptions to ensure that neither the income approach nor the market approach provides significantly different valuations. If the estimated fair value exceeds the carrying value, no further work is required and no impairment loss is recognized. If the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value, a non-cash impairment loss is recognized in the amount of that excess.

Key assumptions used in the income and market approaches are updated when the analysis is performed for each reporting unit. Various assumptions are utilized including forecasted operating results, strategic plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows, the weighted-average cost of capital, comparable transactions, market data and earnings multiples. While we use reasonable and timely information to prepare our cash flow and discount rate assumptions, actual future cash flows or market conditions could differ significantly and could result in future non-cash impairment charges related to recorded goodwill balances.

Recently acquired reporting units generally represent a higher inherent risk of impairment, which typically decreases as the businesses are integrated into our enterprise. Negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to our business, actual results significantly below projections, unexpected significant changes or planned changes in the use of the assets, divestitures and market capitalization declines may have a negative effect on the fair value of our reporting units.

Roper has 33 reporting units with individual goodwill amounts ranging from zero to $2.4 billion. In 2018, the Company performed its annual impairment test in the fourth quarter for all reporting units. The Company conducted its analysis qualitatively and

19



assessed whether it was more likely than not that the respective fair value of these reporting units was less than the carrying amount. The Company determined that impairment of goodwill was not likely in 30 of its reporting units and thus was not required to perform a quantitative assessment for these reporting units. For the remaining three reporting units, the Company performed its quantitative assessment and concluded that the fair value of each of these three reporting units was substantially in excess of its carrying value, with no impairment indicated as of October 1, 2018.

Trade names that are determined to have an indefinite useful economic life are not amortized, but separately tested for impairment during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year or on an interim basis if an event occurs that indicates the fair value is more likely than not below the carrying value. We first qualitatively assess whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of the indefinite-lived trade name is less than its carrying amount. If necessary, we conduct a quantitative assessment using the relief-from-royalty method, which we believe to be an acceptable methodology due to its common use by valuation specialists in determining the fair value of intangible assets. This methodology assumes that, in lieu of ownership, a third-party would be willing to pay a royalty in order to exploit the related benefits of these assets. The fair value of each trade name is determined by applying a royalty rate to a projection of net revenues discounted using a risk-adjusted rate of capital. Each royalty rate is determined based on the profitability of the trade name to which it relates and observed market royalty rates. Revenue growth rates are determined after considering current and future economic conditions, recent sales trends, discussions with customers, planned timing of new product launches or other variables. Trade names resulting from recent acquisitions generally represent the highest risk of impairment, which typically decreases as the businesses are integrated into our enterprise and positioned for future sales growth.

The Company performed a quantitative analysis over the fair values of four of its trade names and concluded that the fair value exceeded its carrying value, with no impairment indicated as of October 1, 2018. Of those trade names subjected to our quantitative analysis, one, associated with our lab software business, had a fair value that approximated its carrying value, which was $100.4 as of October 1, 2018. Holding other assumptions constant, for the specific trade name associated with our lab software business, a 50 basis point increase in the discount rate would result in a $6.8 impairment and a 100 basis point decrease in the terminal growth rate would result in an $11.7 impairment.

The assessment of fair value for impairment purposes requires significant judgments to be made by management. Although our forecasts are based on assumptions that are considered reasonable by management and consistent with the plans and estimates management uses to operate the underlying businesses, there is significant judgment in determining the expected results attributable to the businesses and/or reporting units. Changes in estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results. No impairment resulted from the annual reviews performed in 2018.

The most significant identifiable intangible assets with definite useful economic lives recognized from our acquisitions are customer relationships. The fair value for customer relationships is determined as of the acquisition date using the excess earnings method. Under this methodology the fair value is determined based on the estimated future after-tax cash flows arising from the acquired customer relationships over their estimated lives after considering customer attrition and contributory asset charges. When testing customer relationship intangible assets for potential impairment, management considers historical customer attrition rates and projected revenues and profitability related to customers that existed at acquisition. In evaluating the amortizable life for customer relationship intangible assets, management considers historical customer attrition patterns.

We evaluate whether there has been an impairment of identifiable intangible assets with definite useful economic lives, or of the remaining life of such assets, when certain indicators of impairment are present. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost or remaining period of amortization of any asset may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability would be performed. If an evaluation is required, the estimated future gross, undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset would be compared to the asset’s carrying amount to determine if a write-down to fair value or a revision in the remaining amortization period is required.

20



Results of Operations
All currency amounts are in millions unless specified, percentages are net of revenues

Percentages may not sum due to rounding.

The following table sets forth selected information for the years indicated. 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
RF Technology (1)
$
2,168.4

 
$
1,862.1

 
$
1,210.3

Medical & Scientific Imaging (2)
1,522.4

 
1,410.4

 
1,362.8

Industrial Technology
900.0

 
783.7

 
706.6

Energy Systems & Controls (3)
600.4

 
551.3

 
510.2

Total
$
5,191.2

 
$
4,607.5

 
$
3,789.9

 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross margin:
 

 
 

 
 

RF Technology
63.9
 %
 
61.1
 %
 
56.7
 %
Medical & Scientific Imaging
71.4

 
72.0

 
73.2

Industrial Technology
50.9

 
50.6

 
50.6

Energy Systems & Controls
58.2

 
57.4

 
57.1

Total
63.2
 %
 
62.2
 %
 
61.5
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment operating margin:
 

 
 

 
 

RF Technology
28.3
 %
 
25.7
 %
 
30.8
 %
Medical & Scientific Imaging
34.2

 
34.5

 
35.0

Industrial Technology
31.6

 
30.0

 
28.7

Energy Systems & Controls
30.1

 
27.4

 
25.4

Total
30.8
 %
 
29.3
 %
 
31.2
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate administrative expenses
(3.9
)%
 
(3.1
)%
 
(3.4
)%
Income from operations
26.9

 
26.3

 
27.8

Interest expense, net
(3.5
)
 
(3.9
)
 
(2.9
)
Loss on debt extinguishment
(0.3
)
 

 

Other income/(expense)

 
0.1

 
(0.1
)
Earnings before income taxes
23.1

 
22.5

 
24.8

Income taxes
(4.9
)
 
(1.4
)
 
(7.4
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings
18.2
 %
 
21.1
 %
 
17.4
 %

(1)
Includes results from the acquisitions of ConstructConnect from October 31, 2016, Deltek, Inc. from December 28, 2016, Handshake Software, Inc. from August 4, 2017, Workbook Software A/S from September 15, 2017, Onvia, Inc. from November 17, 2017, Quote Software from January 2, 2018, PlanSwift Software from March 28, 2018, Smartbid from May 8, 2018, PowerPlan, Inc. from June 4, 2018, ConceptShare from June 7, 2018, BillBlast from July 10, 2018 and Avitru from December 31, 2018.
(2)
Includes results from the acquisitions of CliniSys from January 7, 2016, PCI Medical from March 17, 2016, GeneInsight from April 1, 2016 and UNIConnect from November 10, 2016.
(3)
Includes results from the acquisition of Phase Technology from June 21, 2017.


21



Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
Net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $5.19 billion as compared to $4.61 billion for the year ended December 31, 2017, an increase of 12.7%. The increase was the result of organic growth of 9.4%, a net effect from acquisitions and divestitures of 2.9%, and foreign exchange benefit of 0.4%.

In our RF Technology segment, net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 increased by $306.3 or 16% over the year ended December 31, 2017. Organic revenues increased by 9% and acquisitions accounted for 7% of our growth. The growth in organic revenues was due primarily to broad-based strength across our software businesses and the non-recurrence of purchase accounting adjustments to acquired deferred revenues in the year ended December 31, 2017 associated with our 2016 Deltek and ConstructConnect acquisitions. Gross margin was 63.9% for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to 61.1% for the year ended December 31, 2017, due primarily to an increased percentage of revenues from our software businesses, which have higher gross margins, including the net reduction of purchase accounting adjustments. Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses as a percentage of revenues in the year ended December 31, 2018 increased to 35.6%, as compared to 35.3% in the year ended December 31, 2017, due primarily to an increased percentage of revenues from our software businesses, which have a higher SG&A structure, including amortization of acquired intangibles. The resulting operating margin was 28.3% in the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to 25.7% in the year ended December 31, 2017.

Our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment reported a $112.0 or 8% increase in net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 over the year ended December 31, 2017, all of which was attributable to organic growth. The growth in organic revenues was due primarily to broad-based growth in our imaging and medical products businesses. Gross margin decreased to 71.4% for the year ended December 31, 2018 from 72.0% for the year ended December 31, 2017, due primarily to growth in our lower margin imaging businesses. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net revenues decreased to 37.2% in the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to 37.5% in the year ended December 31, 2017, due primarily to operating leverage on higher revenues at our imaging businesses. The resulting operating margin was 34.2% in the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to 34.5% in the year ended December 31, 2017.

Net revenues for our Industrial Technology segment increased by $116.3 or 15% for the year ended December 31, 2018 from the year ended December 31, 2017. Organic revenues increased 14% and the foreign exchange benefit was 1%. The growth in organic revenues was broad-based, due primarily to our fluid handling and water meter technology. Gross margin increased to 50.9% in the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to 50.6% in the year ended December 31, 2017, and SG&A expenses as a percentage of net revenues decreased to 19.3% in the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to 20.6% in the year ended December 31, 2017, both of which were due primarily to operating leverage on higher sales volume. The resulting operating margin was 31.6% in the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to 30.0% in the year ended December 31, 2017.

In our Energy Systems & Controls segment, net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 increased by $49.1 or 9% from the year ended December 31, 2017. Organic sales increased by 7% and the foreign exchange benefit was 1%. The growth in organic revenues was due to broad-based growth in our businesses serving energy and industrial end markets. Gross margin increased to 58.2% in the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to 57.4% in the year ended December 31, 2017 and SG&A expenses as a percentage of net revenues decreased to 28.0% in the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to 30.0% in the year ended December 31, 2017, both of which were due to operating leverage on higher sales volume. As a result, operating margin was 30.1% in the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to 27.4% in the year ended December 31, 2017.

Corporate expenses increased by $61.7 to $203.5, or 3.9% of revenues, in 2018 as compared to $141.8, or 3.1% of revenues, in 2017. The increase was due primarily to (i) $35.0 of accelerated vesting associated with the passing of our former executive chairman, (ii) increased equity compensation as a result of increases in our common stock price and (iii) acquisition-related expenses.

Interest expense, net, increased $1.5, or 0.8%, for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was due to higher weighted average interest rates, partially offset by lower weighted average debt balances.

Loss on debt extinguishment of $15.9 for the for the year ended December 31, 2018, incurred in connection with the redemption of the 2019 Notes (as defined below), was composed of the early redemption premium and remaining unamortized deferred financing costs.

Other income, net, of $0.0 for the year ended December 31, 2018 was composed primarily of royalty income, offset entirely by various other immaterial expenses. Other income, net of $5.1 for the year ended December 31, 2017 was composed primarily of a $9.4 gain on sale of a product line in our Energy Systems & Controls segment, offset in part by a $1.8 charge on a minority investment and foreign exchange losses at our non-U.S. based companies.  

22




During 2018, our effective income tax rate was 21.2% as compared to our 2017 rate of 6.1%. The increase was due primarily to the recognition of a $215.4 net income tax benefit related to the Tax Act in 2017, partially offset by the reduction in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%.

Order backlog is equal to our remaining performance obligations expected to be recognized within the next 12 months as discussed in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 
2018
 
2017
 
change
RF Technology
$
1,005.9

 
$
991.4

 
1.5
 %
Medical & Scientific Imaging
468.0

 
467.8

 

Industrial Technology
119.2

 
110.9

 
7.5

Energy Systems & Controls
99.7

 
102.3

 
(2.5
)
Total
$
1,692.8

 
$
1,672.4

 
1.2
 %

Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
Net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017 were $4.61 billion as compared to $3.79 billion for the year ended December 31, 2016, an increase of 21.6%. The increase was the result of contributions from acquisitions of 16.3%, organic growth of 5.3% and no impact from foreign exchange.

In our RF Technology segment, net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017 increased by $651.9 or 54% over the year ended December 31, 2016. Acquisitions accounted for 51% and organic revenues increased by 3%. The increase in organic revenues was due primarily to growth in our software businesses. Gross margin was 61.1% for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to 56.7% for the year ended December 31, 2016, due primarily to an increased percentage of revenues from our software businesses, which have a higher gross margin. Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenues in the year ended December 31, 2017 increased to 35.3%, as compared to 25.9% in the year ended December 31, 2016, due primarily to an increased percentage of revenues from our software businesses, which have a higher SG&A structure, including amortization of acquired intangibles. The resulting operating margin was 25.7% in 2017 as compared to 30.8% in 2016.

Our Medical & Scientific Imaging segment reported a $47.5 or 3% increase in net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017 over the year ended December 31, 2016, all of which was attributable to organic growth. The growth in organic revenues was due primarily to increased sales in our medical products businesses, led by NDI, and our alternate site healthcare businesses. Gross margin decreased to 72.0% for the year ended December 31, 2017 from 73.2% for the year ended December 31, 2016, due primarily to an unfavorable sales mix at both our software and medical products businesses. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net revenues decreased to 37.5% in the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to 38.2% in the year ended December 31, 2016, due primarily to operating leverage on higher sales. The resulting operating margin was 34.5% in the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to 35.0% in the year ended December 31, 2016.

Net revenues for our Industrial Technology segment increased by $77.1 or 11% for the year ended December 31, 2017 from the year ended December 31, 2016, all of which was attributable to organic growth. The growth in organic revenues was broad-based, due primarily to our fluid handling, water meter technology and materials testing businesses. Gross margin was consistent at 50.6% for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net revenues were 20.6% in the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to 21.9% in the year ended December 31, 2016, due primarily to operating leverage on higher sales volume. The resulting operating margin was 30.0% in the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to 28.7% in the year ended December 31, 2016.

In our Energy Systems & Controls segment, net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017 increased by $41.1 or 8% from the year ended December 31, 2016. Organic sales increased by 7% and the benefit from foreign exchange and acquisitions totaled 1%. The growth in organic revenues was due primarily to increased sales in pressure sensors and valves businesses serving energy markets as well as businesses serving industrial end markets. Gross margin increased to 57.4% in the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to 57.1% in the year ended December 31, 2016 and SG&A expenses as a percentage of net revenues decreased to 30.0% in the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to 31.7% in the year ended December 31, 2016, both of which were due to operating leverage on higher sales volume. As a result, operating margin was 27.4% in the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to 25.4% in the year ended December 31, 2016.


23



Corporate expenses increased by $14.3 to $141.8, or 3.1% of revenues, in 2017 as compared to $127.5, or 3.4% of revenues, in 2016. The dollar increase was due primarily to increased incentive compensation and professional services.

Interest expense increased $69.0, or 61.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was due primarily to higher average debt balances to fund acquisitions at the end of 2016.

Other income, net, of $5.1 for the year ended December 31, 2017 was composed primarily of a $9.4 gain on sale of a product line in our Energy Systems & Controls segment, offset in part by a $1.8 charge on a minority investment and foreign exchange losses at our non-U.S. based companies. Other expense of $1.5 for the year ended December 31, 2016 was composed primarily of foreign exchange losses at our non-U.S. based companies, offset in part by royalty income.  

During 2017, our effective income tax rate was 6.1% as compared to our 2016 rate of 30.0%. The decrease was due primarily to the recognition of a $215.4 net income tax benefit related to the Tax Act as well as increased excess tax benefits related to equity compensation in 2017 as compared to 2016.

Order backlog is equal to our remaining performance obligations expected to be recognized within the next 12 months as discussed in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 
2017
 
2016
 
change
RF Technology
$
991.4

 
$
991.2

 
%
Medical & Scientific Imaging
467.8

 
423.6

 
10.4
%
Industrial Technology
110.9

 
65.3

 
69.8
%
Energy Systems & Controls
102.3

 
92.3

 
10.8
%
Total
$
1,672.4

 
$
1,572.4

 
6.4
%
 
Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources
All currency amounts are in millions unless specified

Selected cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are as follows:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Cash provided by/(used in):
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
1,430.1

 
$
1,234.5

 
$
963.8

Investing activities
(1,335.1
)
 
(209.6
)
 
(3,752.9
)
Financing activities
(388.1
)
 
(1,170.0
)
 
2,805.3


Operating activities - The growth in cash provided by operating activities in 2018 and in 2017 was primarily due to increased earnings net of non-cash expenses. In addition, the growth in cash provided by operating activities in 2017 over 2016 was increased in part by income tax payments in the first quarter of 2016 related to the gain on the sale of the Abel Pumps business in the fourth quarter of 2015. 

Investing activities - Cash used in investing activities during 2018 was primarily for business acquisitions, most notably PowerPlan, and to a much lesser extent capital expenditures. Cash used in investing activities during 2017 was primarily for business acquisitions and capital expenditures. Cash used in investing activities during 2016 was primarily for business acquisitions, most notably Deltek.

Financing activities - Cash provided by/(used in) financing activities in all periods presented was primarily debt repayments/borrowings as well as dividends paid to stockholders. Cash used in financing activities during 2018 was primarily from the pay-down of revolving debt borrowings of $405, partially offset by the net issuance of senior notes of $200 and dividends paid to shareholders. Cash used in financing activities during 2017 was primarily from the pay-down of revolving debt borrowings of $660 and the repayment of $400 of senior notes. Cash provided by financing activities during 2016 was primarily from the issuance of $1.2 billion of senior notes and revolving debt borrowings for acquisitions.

Cash and cash equivalents decreased as a result of the effects of foreign currency exchange rate changes during the year ended December 31, 2018 by $13.8 as compared to an increase during the year ended December 31, 2017 of $59.2 and a decrease during the year ended December 31, 2016 of $37.5. The decrease for the year ended December 31, 2018 was due primarily to the weakening

24



of functional currencies of our Canadian and certain European subsidiaries against the U.S. dollar, while the increase for the year ended December 31, 2017 was due primarily to the strengthening of functional currencies of our European subsidiaries against the U.S. dollar. The decrease for the year ended December 31, 2016 was due primarily to the weakening of functional currencies of our European subsidiaries against the U.S. dollar.

Net working capital (current assets, excluding cash, less total current liabilities, excluding debt) was a negative $200 at December 31, 2018 compared to negative $140 at December 31, 2017, due primarily to increased deferred revenue and accrued compensation, partially offset by increased accounts receivable. This deferred revenue increase is due to a higher percentage of revenue from software and subscription-based services.

Total debt excluding unamortized debt issuance costs was $5.0 billion at December 31, 2018 (39.1% of total capital) compared to $5.2 billion at December 31, 2017 (43.0% of total capital). Our decreased total debt at December 31, 2018 compared to December 31, 2017 was due primarily to the pay-down of revolving debt borrowings of $405, the repayment at maturity of $800 of outstanding 2.05% senior unsecured notes and the redemption of $500 of outstanding 6.25% senior unsecured notes, partially offset by the issuance of $700 of 3.65% senior unsecured notes and $800 of 4.20% senior unsecured notes.

On September 23, 2016, we entered into a five-year unsecured credit facility (the “2016 Facility”) with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, and a syndicate of lenders, which replaced our previous unsecured credit facility, dated as of July 27, 2012, as amended as of October 28, 2015 (the “2012 Facility”). The 2016 Facility comprises a five year $2.5 billion revolving credit facility, which includes availability of up to $150 for letters of credit. We may also, subject to compliance with specified conditions, request term loans or additional revolving credit commitments in an aggregate amount not to exceed $500

The 2016 Facility contains various affirmative and negative covenants which, among other things, limit our ability to incur new debt, enter into certain mergers and acquisitions, sell assets and grant liens, make restricted payments (including the payment of dividends on our common stock) and capital expenditures, or change our line of business. We also are subject to financial covenants which require us to limit our consolidated total leverage ratio and to maintain a consolidated interest coverage ratio. The most restrictive covenant is the consolidated total leverage ratio which is limited to 3.5 to 1.

On December 2, 2016, we amended the 2016 Facility to allow the consolidated total leverage ratio be increased, no more than twice during the term of the 2016 Facility, to 4.0 to 1 for a consecutive four quarter fiscal period per increase (or, for any portion of such four quarter fiscal period in which the maximum would be 4.25 to 1 pursuant to the 2016 facility amendment, 4.25 to 1).  In conjunction with the Deltek acquisition (see Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report), we increased the maximum consolidated total leverage ratio covenant to 4.25 to 1 through June 30, 2017 and 4.00 to 1 through December 31, 2017.

At December 31, 2018, we had $4.1 billion of senior unsecured notes and $865 of outstanding revolver borrowings. In addition, we had $3 of other debt in the form of capital leases and several smaller facilities that allow for borrowings or the issuance of letters of credit in foreign locations to support our non-U.S. businesses. We had $79 of outstanding letters of credit at December 31, 2018, of which $37 was covered by our lending group, thereby reducing our revolving credit capacity commensurately.

We may redeem some or all of our senior secured notes at any time or from time to time, at 100% of their principal amount, plus a make-whole premium based on a spread to U.S. Treasury securities.

We were in compliance with all debt covenants related to our credit facility throughout the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.

See Note 8 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information regarding our credit facility and senior notes.

Cash and cash equivalents at our foreign subsidiaries at December 31, 2018 totaled $339 as compared to $592 at December 31, 2017, a decrease of 42.7%. The decrease was due primarily to the repatriation of $472 during the year, partially offset by cash generated from foreign operations. The Company intends to distribute all historical unremitted earnings up to the amount of foreign cash and cash equivalents, as well as all future foreign earnings that can be repatriated without incremental U.S. federal tax cost. Any remaining outside basis differences relating to the Company’s investments in foreign subsidiaries will be indefinitely reinvested. See Note 7 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for additional information regarding income taxes.

Capital expenditures of $49.1, $48.8 and $37.3 were incurred during 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Capitalized software expenditures of $9.5, $10.8 and $2.8 were incurred during 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Capital expenditures and capitalized

25



software expenditures were relatively consistent in 2018 as compared to 2017. The increase in 2017 as compared to 2016 was due primarily to our 2016 acquisitions. In the future, we expect the aggregate of capital expenditures and capitalized software expenditures as a percentage of annual net revenues to be between 1.0% and 1.5%.

Contractual Cash Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments and Contingencies
All currency amounts are in millions

The following tables quantify our contractual cash obligations and commercial commitments at December 31, 2018.
 
 
 
Payments Due in Fiscal Year
  Contractual
Cash Obligations 1
Total
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Thereafter
Total debt
$
4,968.0

 
$
1.5

 
$
601.5

 
$
1,365.0

 
$
500.0

 
$
700.0

 
$
1,800.0

Senior note interest
876.0

 
144.9

 
144.2

 
126.4

 
111.0

 
89.8

 
259.7

Operating leases
304.2

 
60.1

 
53.1

 
44.9

 
35.2

 
28.0

 
82.9

Total
$
6,148.2

 
$
206.5

 
$
798.8

 
$
1,536.3

 
$
646.2

 
$
817.8

 
$
2,142.6


 
 
 
Amounts Expiring in Fiscal Year
Other Commercial
Commitments
Total
Amount
Committed
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Thereafter
Standby letters of credit and bank guarantees
$
78.7

 
$
28.2

 
$
1.7

 
$
39.7

 
$
8.6

 
$
0.1

 
$
0.4


1 We have excluded the liability for uncertain tax positions and certain other tax liabilities as we are not able to reasonably estimate the timing of the payments. See Note 7 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report.

As of December 31, 2018, we had $582.6 of outstanding surety bonds. Certain contracts, primarily those involving public sector customers, require us to provide a surety bond as a guarantee of its performance of contractual obligations.
 
We believe that internally generated cash flows and the remaining availability under our credit facility will be adequate to finance normal operating requirements. Although we maintain an active acquisition program, any future acquisitions will be dependent on numerous factors and it is not feasible to reasonably estimate if or when any such acquisitions will occur and what the impact will be on our activities, financial condition and results of operations. We may also explore alternatives to attract additional capital resources.

We anticipate that our businesses will generate positive cash flows from operating activities, and that these cash flows will permit the reduction of currently outstanding debt in accordance with the repayment schedule. However, the rate at which we can reduce our debt during 2019 (and reduce the associated interest expense) will be affected by, among other things, the financing and operating requirements of any new acquisitions and the financial performance of our existing companies. None of these factors can be predicted with certainty.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

See Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report for information regarding the effect of new accounting pronouncements on our consolidated financial statements.


26



ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to interest rate risks on our outstanding revolving credit borrowings, and to foreign currency exchange risks on our transactions denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We are also exposed to equity market risks pertaining to the traded price of our common stock.

At December 31, 2018, we had $4.1 billion of fixed rate borrowings with interest rates ranging from 2.8% to 4.2%. At December 31, 2018, the prevailing market rates for our long-term notes were between 0.1% and 0.7% higher than the fixed rates on our debt instruments. Our credit facility contains a $2.5 billion variable-rate revolver with $865 of outstanding borrowings at December 31, 2018.

Several of our businesses have transactions and balances denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Most of these transactions or balances are denominated in euros, Canadian dollars, British pounds or Danish kroner. Net revenues recognized by companies whose functional currency was not the U.S. dollar were 17% of our total revenues in 2018 and 68% of these revenues were recognized by companies with a European functional currency. If these currency exchange rates had been 10% different throughout 2018 compared to currency exchange rates actually experienced, the impact on our net earnings would have been approximately 1%.

The trading price of our common stock influences the valuation of stock award grants and the effects these grants have on our results of operations. The stock price also influences the computation of potentially dilutive common stock to determine diluted earnings per share. The stock price also affects our employees’ perceptions of programs that involve our common stock. We believe the quantification of the effects of these changing prices on our future earnings and cash flows is not readily determinable.


27



ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 
Page
Consolidated Financial Statements:
 
 
 
Supplementary Data:
 


28



Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Roper Technologies, Inc.:

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Roper Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of earnings, of comprehensive income, of stockholders’ equity, and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

As described in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting, management has excluded acquisitions completed in 2018 from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 because they were acquired by the Company in a purchase business combination during 2018. We have also excluded acquisitions completed in 2018 from our audit of internal control over financial reporting. These acquisitions are wholly-owned subsidiaries whose aggregate assets and aggregate revenues excluded from management’s assessment and our audit of internal control over financial reporting represent less than 1% and less than 2%, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial

29



statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 


/S/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Tampa, Florida
February 25, 2019

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2002.  


30



ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
December 31, 2018 and 2017
(in millions, except per share data)
 
2018
 
2017
Assets
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
364.4

 
$
671.3

Accounts receivable, net
700.8

 
641.7

Inventories, net
190.8

 
204.9

Income taxes receivable
21.7

 
24.4

Unbilled receivables
169.4

 
143.6

Other current assets
80.0

 
73.5

Current assets held for sale
83.6



Total current assets
1,610.7

 
1,759.4

 
 
 
 
Property, plant and equipment, net
128.7

 
142.5

Goodwill
9,346.8

 
8,820.3

Other intangible assets, net
3,842.1

 
3,475.2

Deferred taxes
52.2

 
30.7

Other assets
101.1

 
88.3

Assets held for sale
167.9



Total assets
$
15,249.5

 
$
14,316.4

 
 
 
 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
 

 
 

Accounts payable
$
165.3

 
$
171.1

Accrued compensation
248.3

 
198.0

Deferred revenue
677.9

 
566.4

Other accrued liabilities
258.0

 
266.6

Income taxes payable
58.3

 
26.4

Current portion of long-term debt, net
1.5

 
800.9

Current liabilities held for sale
38.9



Total current liabilities
1,448.2

 
2,029.4

 
 
 
 
Long-term debt, net of current portion
4,940.2

 
4,354.6

Deferred taxes
931.1

 
829.6

Other liabilities
191.5

 
239.2

Total liabilities
7,511.0

 
7,452.8

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)


 


 
 
 
 
Stockholders’ equity:
 

 
 

Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share; 1.0 shares authorized; none outstanding

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value per share; 350.0 shares authorized; 105.2 shares issued and 103.4 outstanding at December 31, 2018 and 104.4 shares issued and 102.5 outstanding at December 31, 2017
1.1

 
1.0

Additional paid-in capital
1,751.5

 
1,602.9

Retained earnings
6,247.7

 
5,464.6

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(243.3
)
 
(186.2
)
Treasury stock, 1.9 shares at December 31, 2018 and 1.9 shares at December 31, 2017
(18.5
)
 
(18.7
)
Total stockholders’ equity
7,738.5

 
6,863.6

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
15,249.5

 
$
14,316.4


See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

31



ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS
Years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(Dollar and share amounts in millions, except per share data)

 
Years ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net revenues
$
5,191.2

 
$
4,607.5

 
$
3,789.9

Cost of sales
1,911.7

 
1,742.7

 
1,457.5

Gross profit
3,279.5

 
2,864.8

 
2,332.4

Selling, general and administrative expenses
1,883.1

 
1,654.6

 
1,277.8

Income from operations
1,396.4

 
1,210.2

 
1,054.6

Interest expense, net
182.1

 
180.6

 
111.6

Loss on extinguishment of debt
15.9

 

 
0.9

Other income/(expense), net

 
5.1

 
(1.5
)
Earnings before income taxes
1,198.4

 
1,034.7

 
940.6

Income taxes
254.0

 
62.9

 
282.0

 
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings
$
944.4

 
$
971.8

 
$
658.6

 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share:
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
$
9.15

 
$
9.51

 
$
6.50

Diluted
$
9.05

 
$
9.39

 
$
6.43

 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding:
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
103.2

 
102.2

 
101.3

Diluted
104.4

 
103.5

 
102.5

 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

32



ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(in millions)
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net earnings
$
944.4

 
$
971.8

 
$
658.6

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax:
 

 
 

 
 

Foreign currency translation adjustments
(57.1
)
 
138.5

 
(111.9
)
Total other comprehensive income/(loss), net of tax
(57.1
)
 
138.5

 
(111.9
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Comprehensive income
$
887.3

 
$
1,110.3

 
$
546.7

 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

33



ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(in millions, except per share data)
 
Common Stock
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Additional
paid-in
capital
 
Retained
earnings
 
Accumulated other comprehensive earnings
 
Treasury
stock
 
Total stockholders’ equity
Balances at December 31, 2015
100.9

 
$
1.0

 
$
1,419.3

 
$
4,110.5

 
$
(212.8
)
 
$
(19.1
)
 
$
5,298.9

Net earnings

 

 

 
658.6

 

 

 
658.6

Stock option exercises
0.4

 

 
28.0

 

 

 

 
28.0

Treasury stock sold

 

 
3.1

 

 

 
0.2

 
3.3

Currency translation adjustments, net of $2.6 tax

 

 

 

 
(111.9
)
 

 
(111.9
)
Stock based compensation

 

 
77.9

 

 

 

 
77.9

Restricted stock activity
0.4

 

 
(18.0
)
 

 

 

 
(18.0
)
Stock option tax benefit, net of shortfalls

 

 
(8.1
)
 

 

 

 
(8.1
)
Conversion of senior subordinated convertible notes

 

 
(13.1
)
 

 

 

 
(13.1
)
Dividends declared ($1.25 per share)

 

 

 
(126.7
)
 

 

 
(126.7
)
Balances at December 31, 2016
101.7

 
$
1.0

 
$
1,489.1

 
$
4,642.4

 
$
(324.7
)
 
$
(18.9
)
 
$
5,788.9

Net earnings

 

 

 
971.8

 

 

 
971.8

Stock option exercises
0.6

 

 
61.3

 

 

 

 
61.3

Treasury stock sold

 

 
4.0

 

 

 
0.2

 
4.2

Currency translation adjustments, net of $4.9 tax

 

 

 

 
138.5

 

 
138.5

Stock based compensation

 

 
81.3

 

 

 

 
81.3

Restricted stock activity
0.2

 

 
(32.8
)
 

 

 

 
(32.8
)
Dividends declared ($1.4625 per share)

 

 

 
(149.6
)
 

 

 
(149.6
)
Balances at December 31, 2017
102.5

 
$
1.0

 
$
1,602.9

 
$
5,464.6

 
$
(186.2
)
 
$
(18.7
)
 
$
6,863.6

Adoption of ASC 606

 

 

 
14.3

 

 

 
14.3

Net earnings

 

 

 
944.4

 

 

 
944.4

Stock option exercises
0.6

 
0.1

 
58.7

 

 

 

 
58.8

Treasury stock sold

 

 
5.2

 

 

 
0.2

 
5.4

Currency translation adjustments, net of $7.2 tax

 

 

 

 
(57.1
)
 

 
(57.1
)
Stock based compensation

 

 
132.9

 

 

 

 
132.9

Restricted stock activity
0.3

 

 
(48.2
)
 

 

 

 
(48.2
)
Dividends declared ($1.70 per share)

 

 

 
(175.6
)
 

 

 
(175.6
)
Balances at December 31, 2018
103.4

 
$
1.1

 
$
1,751.5

 
$
6,247.7

 
$
(243.3
)
 
$
(18.5
)
 
$
7,738.5


See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

34



ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(in millions)
 
Years ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings
$
944.4

 
$
971.8

 
$
658.6

Adjustments to reconcile net earnings to cash flows from operating activities:
 

 
 

 
 

Depreciation and amortization of property, plant and equipment
49.5

 
49.5

 
37.3

Amortization of intangible assets
317.5

 
295.5

 
203.2

Amortization of deferred financing costs
6.3

 
7.2

 
5.6

Non-cash stock compensation
133.8

 
83.1

 
78.8

Loss on debt extinguishment
15.9




0.9

Gain on sale of assets

 
(9.4
)
 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquired businesses:
 

 
 

 
 

Accounts receivable
(83.5
)
 
(6.7
)
 
(20.7
)
Unbilled receivables
(14.0
)
 
(13.5
)
 
(1.2
)
Inventories
(21.8
)
 
(15.3
)
 
6.3

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities
68.8

 
73.3

 
20.2

Deferred revenue
86.6

 
74.9

 
25.2

Income taxes
(67.6
)
 
(257.0
)
 
(47.6
)
Other, net
(5.8
)
 
(18.9
)
 
(2.8
)
Cash provided by operating activities
1,430.1

 
1,234.5

 
963.8

Cash flows from investing activities:
 

 
 

 
 

Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired
(1,275.8
)
 
(153.7
)
 
(3,721.8
)
Capital expenditures
(49.1
)
 
(48.8
)
 
(37.3
)
Capitalized software expenditures
(9.5
)
 
(10.8
)
 
(2.8
)
Proceeds from sale of assets

 
10.6

 
0.9

Other, net
(0.7
)
 
(6.9
)
 
8.1

Cash used in investing activities
(1,335.1
)
 
(209.6
)
 
(3,752.9
)
Cash flows from financing activities:
 

 
 

 
 

Proceeds from senior notes
1,500.0

 

 
1,200.0

Payment of senior notes
(1,300.0
)
 
(400.0
)
 

Borrowings/(payments) under revolving line of credit, net
(405.0
)
 
(660.0
)
 
1,750.0

Principal payments on convertible notes

 

 
(4.3
)
Debt issuance costs
(13.9
)
 

 
(17.3
)
Redemption premium for debt extinguishment
(15.5
)




Cash dividends to stockholders
(170.1
)
 
(142.8
)
 
(121.1
)
Treasury stock sales
5.4

 
4.2

 
3.3

Proceeds from stock based compensation, net
10.6

 
28.5

 
10.0

Redemption premium on convertible debt

 

 
(14.2
)
Other
0.4

 
0.1

 
(1.1
)
Cash provided by/(used in) financing activities
(388.1
)
 
(1,170.0
)
 
2,805.3

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
(13.8
)
 
59.2

 
(37.5
)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
(306.9
)
 
(85.9
)
 
(21.3
)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year
671.3

 
757.2

 
778.5

Cash and cash equivalents, end of year
$
364.4

 
$
671.3

 
$
757.2

Supplemental disclosures:
 

 
 

 
 

Cash paid for:
 

 
 

 
 

Interest
$
169.0

 
$
175.0

 
$
104.9

Income taxes, net of refunds received
$
321.6

 
$
320.2

 
$
329.6

Noncash investing activities:
 

 
 

 
 

Net assets of businesses acquired:
 

 
 

 
 

Fair value of assets, including goodwill
$
1,505.1

 
$
177.3

 
$
4,433.1

Liabilities assumed
(229.3
)
 
(23.6
)
 
(711.3
)
Cash paid, net of cash acquired
$
1,275.8

 
$
153.7

 
$
3,721.8

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

35



ROPER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(Dollar and share amounts in millions unless specified, except per share data)
(1) Summary of Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation - These financial statements present consolidated information for Roper Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiaries (“Roper,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us”). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.

Nature of the Business - Roper is a diversified technology company.  The Company operates businesses that design and develop software (both license and software-as-a-service) and engineered products and solutions for a variety of niche end markets.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements - The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) establishes changes to accounting principles under GAAP in the form of accounting standards updates (“ASUs”) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification. The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. Any ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are expected to have an immaterial impact on the Company’s results of operations, financial position or cash flows.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASC 606, which created a single, comprehensive revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers. The Company adopted the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), as of January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective transition method for all contracts not substantially completed as of the date of adoption.

We recorded a net increase to opening retained earnings of $14.3 due to the cumulative impact of adopting ASC 606. The impact of adopting ASC 606 was not material to the Company’s results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018.

The cumulative impact of the adoption of ASC 606 to the consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018 was as follows:

 
As reported
 
 
 
Adjusted
 
December 31,
 
Impact of
 
January 1,
 
2017
 
ASC 606 Adoption
 
2018
ASSETS:
 
 
 
 
 
Unbilled receivables
$
143.6

 
$
2.8

 
$
146.4

Other current assets
73.5

 
(1.0
)
 
72.5

Other assets
88.3

 
3.2

 
91.5

 
 
 
 
 
 
LIABILITIES:
 
 
 
 
 
Deferred revenue
566.4

 
(13.5
)
 
552.9

Deferred taxes
829.6

 
4.6

 
834.2

Other liabilities
239.2

 
(0.4
)
 
238.8

 
 
 
 
 
 
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY:
 
 
 
 
 
Retained earnings
5,464.6

 
14.3

 
5,478.9


Deferred Revenue & Unbilled Receivables
Certain of Roper’s businesses sell perpetual and term licenses of their software to customers in conjunction with other products and services, primarily PCS and implementation services. In some cases, under the previous revenue guidance, vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) was unavailable for perpetual and term licenses and associated implementation services, and revenue recognition was deferred until all elements were delivered, all services had been performed, or until fair value could be objectively determined. The revenues associated with these licenses and implementation was generally deferred over the contractual term of the PCS services. Under ASC 606, VSOE is no longer a requirement for a deliverable in a multiple-element software arrangement to be considered a separate performance obligation. The reduction in deferred revenues as well as the increase in unbilled receivables is due primarily to the acceleration of revenue recognition associated with certain perpetual and term licenses and associated implementation services as a result of the adoption of ASC 606.


36



Other Current Assets
The reduction in other current assets is due primarily to the recognition of previously deferred software licensing costs associated with the acceleration of revenue recognition associated with certain perpetual and term software licenses discussed above.

Other Assets
The increase in other assets is due primarily to the acceleration of revenue recognition for which we do not expect to bill customers within the next 12 months as well as deferred commissions previously expensed as incurred associated with our software sales. These deferred commissions are amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of contract performance or a longer period, generally the estimated life of the customer relationship, if renewals are expected and the renewal commission is not commensurate with the initial commission.

Income Taxes
The adoption of ASC 606 resulted in the acceleration of revenue recognition, which generated additional net deferred tax liabilities.

See the Company’s accounting policies below for details.

In March 2016, the FASB issued an update on stock compensation. The ASU simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment awards, including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and statutory tax withholding requirements, as well as classification in the statement of cash flows. This standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company elected to early adopt this standard on a prospective basis in the quarter ended March 31, 2016. The impact of the early adoption resulted in the following:

The Company recorded tax benefits of $15.3 within income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2016 related to the excess tax benefit on share-based awards. Prior to adoption this amount would have been recorded as a reduction of additional paid-in capital. This change adds volatility to the Company’s effective tax rate.
The Company no longer reclassifies the excess tax benefit from operating activities to financing activities in the statement of cash flows. The Company elected to apply this change in presentation prospectively and thus prior periods have not been adjusted.
The Company elected not to change its policy on accounting for forfeitures and continued to estimate the total number of awards for which the requisite service period will not be rendered.
The Company excluded the excess tax benefits from the assumed proceeds available to repurchase shares in the computation of its diluted earnings per share since adoption. This resulted in an increase in diluted weighted average common shares outstanding of 0.279 shares for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Recently Released Accounting Pronouncements

In August 2018, the FASB issued an update which clarifies the accounting for implementation costs in cloud computing arrangements. This update is effective for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is evaluating the impact of the update on its results of operations and financial condition.

In June 2016, the FASB issued an update which amends the measurement of credit losses on financial instruments by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses rather than incurred losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables. This update is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company is evaluating the impact of the update on its results of operations and financial condition.

In February 2016, the FASB issued an update on lease accounting. This update, effective for annual reporting periods after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those annual periods, provides amendments to current lease accounting. These amendments include the recognition of right-of-use lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing other key information about leasing arrangements. We are currently designing and implementing processes, policies, and controls to comply with the update on lease accounting. While we have not yet finalized our assessment, we currently believe the primary impact of adoption will be the recognition of a material right-of-use asset and an offsetting lease liability for our real estate leases. We will adopt this standard as of January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective transition approach with a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of the date of adoption.

Cash and Cash Equivalents - Roper considers highly liquid financial instruments with remaining maturities at acquisition of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Roper had no cash equivalents at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.


37



Contingencies - Management continually assesses the probability of any adverse judgments or outcomes to its potential contingencies. Disclosure of the contingency is made if there is at least a reasonable possibility that a loss or an additional loss may have been incurred. In the assessment of contingencies as of December 31, 2018, management concluded that there were no matters for which there was a reasonable possibility of a material loss.

Earnings per Share - Basic earnings per share were calculated using net earnings and the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the respective year. Diluted earnings per share were calculated using net earnings and the weighted-average number of shares of common stock and potential common stock outstanding during the respective year. Potentially dilutive common stock consisted of stock options and the premium over the conversion price on Roper’s senior subordinated convertible notes based upon the trading price of the Company’s common stock. Effective January 1, 2016, Roper adopted the provisions of an accounting standards update on a prospective basis which increased the number of potentially dilutive stock options as there is no longer a tax benefit in the calculation of dilutive stock options. See the caption “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” elsewhere in this Note for additional information regarding the ASU. The effects of potential common stock were determined using the treasury stock method:
  
Years ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Basic weighted-average shares outstanding
103.2

 
102.2

 
101.3

Effect of potential common stock:
 

 
 

 
 

Common stock awards
1.2

 
1.3

 
1.1

Senior subordinated convertible notes

 

 
0.1

Diluted weighted-average shares outstanding
104.4

 
103.5

 
102.5


As of and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, there were 0.724, 0.478 and 1.144 outstanding stock options, respectively, that were not included in the determination of diluted earnings per share because doing so would have been antidilutive.

Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions - Assets and liabilities of subsidiaries whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar were translated at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date, and revenues and expenses were translated at average exchange rates for the period in which those entities were included in Roper’s financial results. Translation adjustments are reflected as a component of other comprehensive income. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in the consolidated statement of earnings as other income/(expense). Foreign currency transaction gains/(losses) were $0.2, $(1.4) and $(2.9) for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.

Goodwill and Other Intangibles - Roper accounts for goodwill in a purchase business combination as the excess of the cost over the estimated fair value of net assets acquired. Business combinations can also result in other intangible assets being recognized. Amortization of intangible assets, if applicable, occurs over their estimated useful lives. Goodwill, which is not amortized, is tested for impairment on an annual basis (or an interim basis if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value). When testing goodwill for impairment, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the Company elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, then performance of the quantitative impairment test is required. The quantitative process utilizes both an income approach (discounted cash flows) and a market approach (consisting of a comparable public company earnings multiples methodology) to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit. To determine the reasonableness of the estimated fair values, the Company reviews the assumptions to ensure that neither the income approach nor the market approach provides significantly different valuations. If the estimated fair value exceeds the carrying value, no further work is required and no impairment loss is recognized. If the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value, a non-cash impairment loss is recognized in the amount of that excess.
When performing the quantitative assessment, key assumptions used in the income and market methodologies are updated when the analysis is performed for each reporting unit. Various assumptions are utilized including forecasted operating results, strategic plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows, the weighted-average cost of capital, comparable transactions, market data and earnings multiples. The assumptions that have the most significant effect on the fair value calculations are the anticipated future cash flows, discount rates, and the earnings multiples. While the Company uses reasonable and timely information to prepare

38



its cash flow and discount rate assumptions, actual future cash flows or market conditions could differ significantly resulting in future impairment charges related to recorded goodwill balances.

Roper has 33 reporting units with individual goodwill amounts ranging from zero to $2.4 billion. In 2018, the Company performed its annual impairment test in the fourth quarter for all reporting units. The Company conducted its analysis qualitatively and assessed whether it was more likely than not that the respective fair value of these reporting units was less than the carrying amount. The Company determined that impairment of goodwill was not likely in 30 of its reporting units and thus was not required to perform a quantitative analysis for these reporting units. For the remaining three reporting units, the Company performed its quantitative analysis and concluded that the fair value of each of these three reporting units was substantially in excess of its carrying value, with no impairment indicated as of October 1, 2018.

Recently acquired reporting units generally represent a higher inherent risk of impairment, which typically decreases as the businesses are integrated into the enterprise. Negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to its business, actual results significantly below expected results, unexpected significant changes or planned changes in the use of the assets, divestitures and market capitalization declines may have a negative effect on the fair value of Roper’s reporting units.

The following events or circumstances, although not comprehensive, would be considered to determine whether interim testing of goodwill would be required:

a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate;
an adverse action or assessment by a regulator;
unanticipated competition;
a loss of key personnel;
a more-likely-than-not expectation that a reporting unit or a significant portion of a reporting unit will be sold or otherwise disposed of;
the testing for recoverability under the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets of a significant asset group within a reporting unit; and
recognition of a goodwill impairment loss in the financial statements of a subsidiary that is a component of a reporting unit.

Business combinations can also result in other intangible assets being recognized. Amortization of intangible assets, if applicable, occurs over their estimated useful lives. Trade names that are determined to have an indefinite useful economic life are not amortized, but separately tested for impairment during the fourth quarter of the fiscal year or on an interim basis if an event occurs that indicates the fair value is more likely than not below the carrying value. Roper first qualitatively assesses whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of an indefinite-lived trade name is less than its carrying amount. If necessary, Roper conducts a quantitative review using the relief-from-royalty method. This methodology assumes that, in lieu of ownership, a third party would be willing to pay a royalty in order to exploit the related benefits of these assets. The fair value of each trade name is determined by applying a royalty rate to a projection of net revenues discounted using a risk adjusted rate of capital. Each royalty rate is determined based on the profitability of the trade name to which it relates and observed market royalty rates. Revenue growth rates are determined after considering current and future economic conditions, recent sales trends, discussions with customers, planned timing of new product launches or other variables. Trade names resulting from recent acquisitions generally represent the highest risk of impairment, which typically decreases as the businesses are integrated into Roper’s enterprise. The Company performed a quantitative analysis over the fair values of four of its trade names and concluded that the fair value exceeded its carrying value, with no impairment indicated as of October 1, 2018.

The assessment of fair value for impairment purposes requires significant judgments to be made by management. Although forecasts are based on assumptions that are considered reasonable by management and consistent with the plans and estimates management uses to operate the underlying businesses, there is significant judgment in determining the expected results attributable to the reporting units. Changes in estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results. No impairment resulted from the annual testing performed in 2018.

The most significant identifiable intangible assets with definite useful economic lives recognized from our acquisitions are customer relationships. The fair value for customer relationships is determined as of the acquisition date using the excess earnings method. Under this methodology the fair value is determined based on the estimated future after-tax cash flows arising from the acquired customer relationships over their estimated lives after considering customer attrition and contributory asset charges. When testing customer relationship intangible assets for potential impairment, management considers historical customer attrition rates and projected revenues and profitability related to customers that existed at acquisition. In evaluating the amortizable life for customer relationship intangible assets, management considers historical customer attrition patterns.

39



Roper evaluates whether there has been an impairment of identifiable intangible assets with definite useful economic lives, or of the remaining life of such assets, when certain indicators of impairment are present. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost or remaining period of amortization of any asset may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability would be performed. If an evaluation is required, the estimated future gross, undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset would be compared to the asset’s carrying amount to determine if a write-down to fair value or a revision in the remaining amortization period is required.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets - The Company determines whether there has been an impairment of long-lived assets, excluding goodwill and identifiable intangible assets that are determined to have indefinite useful economic lives, when certain indicators of impairment are present. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost or life of any long-lived assets may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability would be performed. If an evaluation is required, the estimated future gross, undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset would be compared to the asset’s carrying amount to determine if a write-down to fair value or revision to remaining life is required. Future adverse changes in market conditions or poor operating results of underlying long-lived assets could result in losses or an inability to recover the carrying value of the long-lived assets that may not be reflected in the assets’ current carrying value, thereby possibly requiring an impairment charge or acceleration of depreciation or amortization expense in the future.

Income Taxes - The Company recognizes in the consolidated financial statements only those tax positions determined to be “more likely than not” of being sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the positions. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are classified as a component of income tax expense.

The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce its deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, both positive and negative, for each respective tax jurisdiction, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of such deferred tax assets will not be realized. Available evidence which is considered in determining the amount of valuation allowance required includes, but is not limited to, the Company’s estimate of future taxable income and any applicable tax-planning strategies.

Certain assets and liabilities have different bases for financial reporting and income tax purposes. Deferred income taxes have been provided for these differences at the enacted tax rates expected to be paid. See Note 7 for information regarding income taxes.

Interest Rate Risk - The Company manages interest rate risk by maintaining a combination of fixed-rate and variable-rate debt, which may include interest rate swaps to convert fixed-rate debt to variable-rate debt, or to convert variable-rate debt to fixed-rate debt. Interest rate swaps are recorded at fair value in the balance sheet as an asset or liability, and the changes in fair values of both the swap and the hedged item are recorded as interest expense in current earnings. There were no interest rate swaps outstanding at December 31, 2018 or December 31, 2017.

Inventories - Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out method. The Company writes down its inventory for estimated obsolescence or excess inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions.

Other Comprehensive Income - Comprehensive income includes net earnings and all other non-owner sources of changes in a company’s net assets.

Product Warranties - The Company sells certain of its products to customers with a product warranty that allows customers to return a defective product during a specified warranty period following the purchase in exchange for a replacement product, repair at no cost to the customer or the issuance of a credit to the customer. The Company accrues its estimated exposure to warranty claims based upon current and historical product sales data, warranty costs incurred and any other related information known to the Company.

Property, Plant and Equipment and Depreciation and Amortization - Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are provided for using principally the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
Buildings
20-30 years
Machinery
8-12 years
Other equipment
3-5 years


40



Research and Development - Research and development (“R&D”) costs include salaries and benefits, rents, supplies, and other costs related to products under development. Research and development costs are expensed in the period incurred and totaled $316.8, $281.1 and $195.4 for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

Revenue Recognition - The Company adopted ASC 606 as of January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not substantially completed as of the date of adoption. The reported results for 2018 reflect the application of ASC 606 guidance, while the reported results for 2017 and 2016 were prepared under the guidance of ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition. The adoption of ASC 606 represents a change in accounting principle that is intended to more closely align revenue recognition with the transfer of control of the Company’s products and services to the customer. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these products and/or services. To achieve this principle, the Company applies the following five steps:

identify the contract with the customer;
identify the performance obligations in the contract;
determine the transaction price;
allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract; and
recognize revenue when or as the Company satisfies a performance obligation.

Disaggregated Revenue - We disaggregate our revenues into two categories: (i) software and related services; and (ii) engineered products and related services. Software and related services revenues are primarily derived from our RF Technology and Medical & Scientific Imaging reportable segments. Engineered products and related services revenues are derived from all of our reportable segments and comprise substantially all of the revenues generated in our Energy Systems & Controls and Industrial Technology reportable segments. See details in the table below.
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2018
 
 
Software and related services
 
$
2,165.9

Engineered products and related services
 
3,025.3

Net revenues
 
$
5,191.2


Software and related services

Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) - SaaS subscriptions and ongoing related support are generally accounted for as a single performance obligation and recognized ratably over the contractual term. In addition, SaaS arrangements may include implementation services which are accounted for as a separate performance obligation and recognized over time, using the input method. Payment is generally required within 30 days of the commencement of the SaaS subscription period, which is primarily offered to customers over a one-year timeframe.

Licensed Software - Performance obligations in our customer contracts may include:

Perpetual or time-based (“term”) software licenses
Post contract support (“PCS”)
Implementation/installation services

Software licenses may be combined with implementation/installation services as a single performance obligation if the implementation/installation significantly modifies or customizes the functionality of the software license.

We recognize revenue over time or at a point in time depending on our evaluation of when the customer obtains control over the promised products or services. For software arrangements that include multiple performance obligations, we allocate revenue to each performance obligation based on estimates of the price that we would charge the customer for each promised product or service if it were sold on a standalone basis.

Payment for software licenses is generally required within 30 to 60 days of the transfer of control. Payment for PCS is generally required within 30 to 60 days of the commencement of the service period, which is primarily offered to customers over a one-year timeframe. Payment terms do not contain a significant financing component. Payment for implementation/installation services that are recognized over time are typically commensurate with milestones defined in the contract, or billable hours incurred.


41



Engineered products and related services

Revenue from product sales is recognized when control transfers to the customer, which is generally when the product is shipped.

Non-project-based installation and repair services are performed by certain of our businesses for which revenue is recognized upon completion.

Payment terms are generally 30 to 60 days from the transfer of control. Payment terms do not contain a significant financing component.

Preventative maintenance service revenues are recognized over time using the input method. If we determine our efforts or inputs are expended evenly throughout the performance period, we generally recognize revenue on a straight-line basis. Payment for preventative maintenance services are typically commensurate with milestones defined in the contract.

We offer customers return rights and other credits subject to certain restrictions. We estimate variable consideration generally based on historical experience to arrive at the transaction price, or the amount to which we ultimately expect to be entitled from the customer.

Revenues from our project-based businesses, including toll and traffic systems and control systems, are generally recognized over time using the input method, primarily utilizing the ratio of costs incurred to total estimated costs, as the measure of performance. For these projects, payment is typically commensurate with certain performance milestones defined in the contract. Retention and down payments are also customary in these contracts. Estimated losses on any projects are recognized as soon as such losses become probable and reasonably estimable. The impact on revenues due to changes in estimates was immaterial for the year ended December 31, 2018. The Company recognized revenues of $245.9, $249.3 and $241.3 for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, using this method.

Accounts receivable, net - Accounts receivable, net includes amounts billed and currently due from customers. The amounts due are stated at their net estimated realizable value. Accounts receivable are stated net of an allowance for doubtful accounts and sales allowances of $23.1 and $12.7 at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Outstanding accounts receivable balances are reviewed periodically, and allowances are provided at such time that management believes it is probable that an account receivable is uncollectible.

Unbilled receivables - Our unbilled receivables include unbilled amounts typically resulting from sales under project-based contracts when the input method of revenue recognition is utilized and revenue recognized exceeds the amount billed to the customer, and right to payment is not solely due to the passage of time. Amounts may not exceed their net realizable value.

Deferred revenues - We record deferred revenues when cash payments are received or due in advance of our performance. Our deferred revenues relate primarily to software and related services. In most cases, we recognize these deferred revenues ratably over time as the SaaS or PCS performance obligation is satisfied. The non-current portion of deferred revenue is included in “Other liabilit