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Section 1: 10-K (10-K)

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Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
Form 10-K
 
(Mark One)
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the transition period from                          to                         
Commission file number 001-33508
 
 
Limelight Networks, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Delaware
 
20-1677033
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
222 South Mill Avenue, 8th Floor
Tempe, AZ 85281
(Address of principal executive offices, including Zip Code)
(602) 850-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 par value
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes  o    No  þ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  o    No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  þ    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  þ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer  þ
Non-accelerated filer  o
Smaller Reporting Company  o
Emerging Growth Company  o
 
 
 
              
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  o  No  þ
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $484.2 million based on the last reported sale price of the common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 29, 2018, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share, as of January 25, 2019: 114,245,715 shares.


DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Registrant’s 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.
 


Table of Contents

LIMELIGHT NETWORKS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
PART I
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.
Form 10-K Summary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. All statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by the words “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “estimate,” or “continue,” and similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events, as well as trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These statements include, among other things:
our beliefs regarding delivery traffic growth trends and demands for digital content and edge services;
our expectations regarding revenue, costs, expenses, gross margin, non-GAAP earnings per share, Adjusted EBITDA and capital expenditures;
our plans regarding investing in our content delivery network, as well as other products and technologies;
our beliefs regarding the growth of, and competition within, the content delivery industry;
our beliefs regarding the growth of our business and how that impacts our liquidity and capital resources requirements;
our expectations regarding headcount;
the impact of certain new accounting standards and guidance as well as the time and cost of continued compliance with existing rules and standards;
our plans with respect to investments in marketable securities;
our expectations and strategies regarding acquisitions;
our expectations regarding litigation and other pending or potential disputes;
our estimations regarding taxes and belief regarding our tax reserves;
our beliefs regarding the use of Non-GAAP financial measures;
our approach to identifying, attracting and keeping new and existing customers, as well as our expectations regarding customer turnover;
the sufficiency of our sources of funding;
our belief regarding our interest rate risk;
our beliefs regarding inflation risks;
our beliefs regarding expense and productivity of and competition for our sales force; and
our beliefs regarding the significance of our large customers.
These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described under the caption “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and those discussed in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
In addition, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements contained herein are based on our current expectations and assumptions and on information available as of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
Unless expressly indicated or the context requires otherwise, the terms "Limelight," "we," "us," and "our" in this document refer to Limelight Networks, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and, where appropriate, its wholly owned subsidiaries. All information is presented in thousands, except per share amounts, customer count and where specifically noted.




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PART I
Item 1.        Business     
Overview
Limelight provides digital content delivery, online video delivery, cloud security, edge computing, and cloud storage services. Limelight’s edge services platform includes a globally distributed, high-performance private network, intelligent software, and support services.
The services we provide help our customers optimize and deliver digital content to a wide variety of digital devices. These services provide advanced features to enable digital workflows for live and on-demand video publishing, online gaming, content distribution to any device, and website and web application acceleration. Limelight services incorporate content and application security, file management, video transformation, distributed storage functionality, and the analytics and reporting associated with them. These services leverage our high capacity, high speed private global network, which offers distributed computing resources and extensive connectivity to last-mile broadband network providers, making it well suited to the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) and edge compute workloads where rapid response times are needed.
We derive revenue primarily from the sale of content delivery, video delivery, cloud security, and edge cloud and origin storage services . We also generate revenue through the sale of professional services and other infrastructure services, such as transit and rack space services. In addition, we also maintain relationships with resellers that purchase our services for resale to their end customers.
We provide our services to customers that we believe view internet, mobile, social, and other digital initiatives as critical to their success, including traditional and emerging media companies operating in the television, music, radio, newspaper, magazine, movie, gaming, software, and social media industries, as well as to enterprises, technology companies, and government entities conducting business online. Our offerings enable our customers to deliver a high-quality online experience and thereby improve brand perception, drive revenue, and enhance customer relationships.
We are a Delaware corporation formed in 2001. Our principal executive offices are located at 222 South Mill Avenue, 8th Floor, Tempe, Arizona, 85281, and our main telephone number is (602) 850-5000. We began development of our infrastructure in 2001 and began generating meaningful revenue in 2002. We began international operations in 2004. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 649 active customers and had a presence in approximately 50 countries throughout the world.
We are registered as a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act). Accordingly, we file or furnish with the SEC annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, including all exhibits and all amendments to such reports as required by the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations of the SEC (Periodic Reports). The SEC maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, such as Limelight Networks, Inc., that file electronically with the SEC. The address of this website is www.sec.gov. You can also contact the SEC by calling 1-800-SEC-0330.
Our internet website address is www.limelight.com. We make available, free of charge, on or through our internet website our Periodic Reports and amendments to those Periodic Reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with the SEC. We are not, however, including the information contained on our website, or information that may be accessed through links on our website, as part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this annual report on Form 10-K.
Trends Driving Internet Growth
We have identified several trends that point to an internet of the future in which there is a need for global delivery of the highest quality digital experience:
Shift to over the top (OTT) consumption for online video. Online video viewership continues to grow, as does the range of devices being used to consume that content. OTT distribution is typically included in major content rights offerings and the range of content available is increasing to incorporate additional and complementary content for distribution online. In our September 2018 State of Online Video consumer report, we found that global consumers watch approximately 6 hours and 45 minutes of online video per week on average, with Millennials far exceeding 8 hours. Viewing habits are shifting as well. There is an increasing use of a multitude of devices to watch online video both inside and outside the home, ranging from computers and tablets to smartphones and streaming devices, and specific video content is now being produced for these devices. Many top-tier content owners have either

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already launched their content direct-to-consumer (e.g., HBO, CBS, Showtime) or have announced plans to do so. In addition, content owners continue to join forces with media companies (e.g., Sony, Hulu, AT&T) to launch OTT subscription streaming services enabling consumers to bundle together channels for a fraction of the cost of a cable subscription. As consumption of video content shifts to internet-based delivery, we believe this will put an increasing strain on the internet, placing additional pressure on content distributors and service providers to take steps to protect the quality of the end-user experience as this increasing segment of traffic competes with other internet activities, such as browsing websites and downloading digital content.
Broadcast Quality Online Video. Online video is rapidly growing towards becoming a primary method by which users consume video content, whether it’s via their personal computers, smartphones, tablets, smart televisions, or other connected devices. Yet, consumers continue to expect the same quality experience online as they would have in viewing broadcast television. This puts a significant burden on publishers to produce not just compelling content, but also to deliver it in a way that meets changing consumer expectations. To keep up, organizations have been forced to increase quality to provide a “broadcast-like” experience. For example, several large-scale online video providers are already streaming video in 4K resolution. In most cases, this requires four times the bandwidth of a traditional high definition stream. We believe that as more content is made available in 4K resolution (coupled with increasing sales of 4K-ready devices like televisions and computer monitors), more consumers will want to consume the higher-quality content, resulting in increased strain on internet architecture and infrastructure.
Growth of digital downloads. Consumers are becoming more accustomed to making purchases of movies, music, games, and applications digitally from a variety of retailers with the growing availability of higher bandwidth connections to connected devices. As a result, consumers accept larger download sizes. For example, releases of popular games have topped 50 gigabytes (GBs) in size. As digital purchases of massive files increase, we believe this will cause more strain on the internet’s infrastructure. We believe this will result in additional pressure on organizations and service providers to take steps to avoid congestion, latency, lengthening download times, and increasingly interrupted downloads, all of which we believe would undermine an organization’s ability to deliver the best possible digital experience.
Applications and Websites. Organizations are responding to consumer demand for their services to be available online and on their mobile devices by building more interactive and engaging digital experiences. While striving to retain consumers and increase share of wallet through modern design and user experience paradigms, the underlying complexity and range of back-end services modern applications and websites rely on is increasing along with their reliance on imagery and multimedia content to engage consumers. We believe that maintaining application and website performance will be critical for organizations, and that their success and longevity will depend on their ability to deliver the level of performance that users expect. This high performance delivery will become harder as demand for services increases and drives up bandwidth consumption in mobile and fixed networks.
The Internet of Things. Connected devices communicate with each other and with server-based resources via the internet. Although it is unclear as to how much bandwidth this “background communication” will consume, as more devices become connected and begin communicating with each other and other resources, this traffic will compete with other internet traffic such as streaming video and digital downloads. We believe IoT may complicate an organization’s ability to utilize the internet to deliver high quality digital experiences.
Trends Illustrating Consumer Demand for Digital Content    
The internet is key for today’s digital business. We believe there are a number of trends that illustrate a demand for digital content, contribute to the overall usage of the internet, increase potential congestion, and highlight the need for a private, global network to meet the level of performance that users expect. We believe these trends are:
The continued growth of online video. Consumers are demanding and consuming video, music, and other forms of rich media over the internet. According to Cisco's Visual Networking Index annual report, internet video will account for 82% of consumer internet traffic by 2022. Based on this trend, we expect broadcasters and OTT content distributors will continue to expand their online programming to meet this growing demand and businesses will continue to incorporate video into their digital marketing efforts as a way to further differentiate their message from competitors and generate new opportunities for engagement.
Mobile First. We believe that mobile will continue to be increasingly important as a primary method users employ to interact with online content. Mobile devices enable consumers to remain connected and engaged with an organization’s content when they are away from their primary computers or TVs and it’s clear that consumers are employing these devices more often to do so. However, in order for those consumers to remain engaged, the

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experience must be optimized across devices. An organization’s online content, services and video library has to be accessible regardless of device and provide the same engagement and interaction with those users.
The continued migration of information technology (IT) services into the cloud. Enterprises may seek to decrease infrastructure expenditures by moving to a “cloud-based” model in which application delivery and storage are available on-demand and paid for on an as-needed basis. We anticipate that the core cloud computing market will continue to grow at a rapid pace as the cloud increasingly becomes a mainstream IT strategy embraced by corporate enterprises and government agencies. The core cloud market includes platform-as-a-service (PaaS) and infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) offerings such as content delivery networks (CDN), as well as the cloud-delivered software used to build and manage a cloud environment.
Increasing use of Edge Computing. While traditional cloud computing architectures offer the ability to centralize the aggregation and processing of data for applications, this centralization introduces latencies that can be problematic for real-time applications that require instant response. To address these limitations, edge computing is being increasingly utilized to process real-time data for applications such as online gaming, safety and security, and IoT inspection and monitoring to solve these issues in a scalable manner. We expect to see continued interest in the creation of platforms that enable applications to be distributed, managed and scaled as so-called “micro-services” and further split down into individual functional elements that are then scaled on demand within edge services platforms.
Increasing user expectations for digital experience performance. Applications and websites are becoming increasingly complex, while user expectations of performance are becoming more demanding. We anticipate that these demanding consumer expectations will drive a continued need for website and web application acceleration and security services. The combination of performance expectation coupled with multi-device delivery creates a considerable challenge for most organizations.
Increasing need for scalable storage. The amount of data created each year has grown rapidly, and we believe this rapid growth in data production will create demand for flexible and scalable storage mechanisms to support growing libraries of digital content. We anticipate the need for cloud storage to increase because of the growing demand for video and other types of digital content.
Global broadband speed increase. With each passing year, the average broadband connection speed is increasing around the world. The continued increase in speed is illustrative of consumer desire to access multimedia content (e.g. online video, game downloads, interactive web applications) through the internet and how integral rich, digital experiences have become the way people conduct their lives on a daily basis.
Requirements for delivering effective digital experiences
We believe the challenges of delivering digital content, particularly related to rich media, dynamic content, and applications over the internet to a wide variety of mobile and connected devices, have created a new set of technical, management, and economic requirements for organizations. We believe those requirements include the following:
Ability to scale capacity to handle rapidly accelerating demand. Online businesses must scale delivery of their web presence smoothly as the quantity of their site visitors or audience increases to avoid delays for users. When a large number of users simultaneously access a particular digital content asset such as a video, the operator must be able to meet that surge in demand without making users wait. Rapidly accelerating demand can be related to a single event such as a breaking news story or seasonal shopping or can be spread across an entire library of content, such as when a social media website surges in popularity. The continued increase in video and other rich media consumption and the growing size of digital content objects contributes to concerns that internet bandwidth may be supply constrained in the future.
Security. Maintaining effective security is a challenge for any enterprise that operates online. Denial of service attacks, data breaches, viruses, piracy, and other threats can impact companies in many ways, including compromising personal and sensitive information, loss of customer trust and loyalty, loss of revenue, and negative publicity and brand reputation. Businesses require services that employ a number of software and network features to mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to content and network-related attacks against web properties, digital content, and applications. There continues to be an increasing number of high-profile security incidents that raise the awareness and strategic importance of online security.
Conditional access to content. Consumers increasingly expect the ability to consume any form of media content online. To meet this expectation, traditional media companies are making their enormous libraries of content, such

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as television shows and movies, available for viewing online. Content distributors often have regulations with respect to where they can display or store their content due to industry requirements or geographic location. Accordingly, companies require powerful features that enable them to control where content is stored, for how long, and in what regions it can be delivered and viewed.
Ability to easily publish and deliver online video. As consumer demand for online video grows, businesses and organizations are adopting video into their marketing messages. However, there are a host of complexities involved in developing and implementing a “video publishing workflow.” Businesses require intuitive tools that enable them to manage their video portfolio and quickly and efficiently publish and deliver their video content at scale with quality performance. Additionally, many businesses require video content to be converted automatically for playback on any mobile device with the opportunity to integrate advertisements.
Multi-device delivery. With the increasing popularity of smartphones and tablets, businesses and organizations must ensure that their content, whether dynamic web pages or video, can display properly in mobile formats. However, adding this requirement to existing content publishing workflows can greatly complicate internal processes that may result in delays for making content available to end-users. Additionally, because many mobile devices have separate requirements, businesses will require features for automatically delivering correctly formatted content.
Reliability and Consistency. Throughout the path data must traverse to reach a user, problems with the underlying infrastructure supporting the internet can occur. For example, servers can crash or network connections can fail. Network, data center, or service provider outages can mean frustrated users, lost audiences, and missed revenue opportunities. Businesses require a massively redundant network they can depend on to ensure the reliable and consistent delivery of their digital experiences.
Our Services
We believe our powerful edge services platform with its global private IP network, intelligent software, and service and support addresses the trends driving internet growth and the requirements for delivering effective digital experiences. Our primary services include the following:
Content delivery. Limelight operates one of the world’s largest private networks with the capacity, coverage, and performance to deliver websites, mobile applications, videos, music, software, games, and APIs quickly, reliably, and securely. We have developed and optimized our own software stack to deliver maximum performance over any connection type with a fully integrated suite of software services.
Video delivery. Limelight's live, on-demand video delivery services and online video platform help organizations manage, publish, syndicate, analyze, and monetize video content. Limelight simplifies the process of delivering video to any devices and makes it easy to integrate advertising into online video content.
Cloud security. Limelight's cloud security services offer a layered defense against malicious app and website attacks and unauthorized content access. DDoS attack protection defends against denial of service attacks, and Web Application Firewall protection guards against attacks that are intended to compromise the back-end services of applications and web sites, in order to deface, disable or steal data. TLS/SSL capabilities encrypt data so it cannot be intercepted in transit, and multiple content security methods are available so only authorized users have access to content.
Edge Cloud. Limelight’s edge cloud provides a fast, scalable, and secure infrastructure for low-latency IoT and edge compute applications. It reduces latencies and enables real time and highly interactive applications by moving processing power from a central point to the network edge.
Origin Storage. Limelight offers scalable, redundant, geographically diverse cloud storage with the flexibility and automation to support any content delivery workflow. Limelight simplifies and automates the process of ingesting and managing content while delivering fast performance and high availability.
Limelight Global Network
Our global network provides highly available, highly redundant storage, bandwidth, and computing resources in support of our services and solutions. This architecture, managed by our proprietary software, automatically responds to network and data center outages and disruptions. All of our delivery locations are interconnected via our global network and are connected to multiple internet backbone and broadband internet service provider (ISP) networks. This global network has three main features:

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Densely configured, high-capacity. Our global private network includes a fiber backbone that connects our delivery Points-of-Presence (PoPs) and enables content to bypass the congested public internet as it is distributed to the end-user. Each Limelight PoP has a high density of fast servers that enable high cache-hit efficiency, providing faster delivery performance.
Global Scalability. Limelight's global network infrastructure includes PoPs in more than 40 metropolitan locations in every region of the world. This allows us to cache and deliver content from locations close to where it is being requested. Limelight's network is also directly interconnected with more than 900 major ISPs and last-mile network providers, shortening the distance and number of hops that content needs to take.
Intelligent software to manage the network. We have developed proprietary software that manages our global network. This software manages, among other things, the delivery of digital content, the retrieval of dynamic content, storage and retrieval of objects, activity logging, and information reporting.
Sales, Service and Marketing
Our sales and service professionals are located in four offices in the United States with an additional eight office locations in EMEA and Asia Pacific. We target media, high tech, software, gaming, enterprise, and other organizations for which the delivery of digital content is critical to the success of their business.
Our sales and service organization includes employees in telesales and field sales, professional services, account management, and solutions engineering. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 141 employees in our sales organization. Our ability to achieve revenue growth in the future will depend in large part on whether we successfully recruit, train, and retain sufficient sales, technical, and global services personnel, and how well we establish and maintain our distribution and reseller relationships. We believe that the complexity of our services will continue to require highly trained global sales and services personnel.
To support our sales efforts and promote the Limelight brand, we conduct marketing programs. Our marketing strategies include an active public relations campaign, advertisements, events and trade shows, digital marketing activities, strategic alliances, and on-going customer communication programs. As of December 31, 2018, we had 28 employees in our global marketing organization.
Customers
Our customers operate in the media, entertainment, gaming, software, enterprise, retail and other sectors. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 649 active customers worldwide, including many widely recognized names in the fields of online video, digital music, news media, games, rich media applications, and software delivery.
For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, we had one customer, Amazon, who accounted for approximately 30% and 17%, respectively, of our total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2016, we had no customer who accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue. In the past, the customers that comprise our top 20 customers have continually changed, and our large customers may not continue to be as significant going forward as they have been in the past.
From time to time we have discontinued service to customers for non-payment. Although we did not receive continuing revenue from these former customers, these changes provided for a stronger mix of customers across our base, decreased our days sales outstanding, and allowed us to recoup network capacity to help meet future growth needs. We continue to focus on acquiring and retaining high quality customers across all market segments.
Competition
We operate in the digital content delivery market, which is rapidly evolving and highly competitive. We expect this competitive environment to continue.
The principal methods of competition in this market include scale, performance, service, ease of use, product features, and price. We primarily face competition from Akamai, CenturyLink, Amazon, CDNetworks, Fastly, StackPath, and Verizon Digital Media Services.
Product feature competition is intense, requiring continuous investment in innovation. We believe our future success will depend on our ability to continue to innovate and enhance the performance, integration, and functionality of our existing suite of services and of our global network, and on our ability to add additional services and functionality to meet the market’s increasing expectations regarding digital content delivery and consumer engagement.

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We believe our combination of cloud-based software and infrastructure/bandwidth associated with our physical global network solves multiple challenges for customers by removing the need to install, manage, or provision software and hardware to satisfy the requirements for storing and delivering digital content. In addition, the market for digital content delivery can sometimes require multiple vendors to provide customers with a complete set of tools and services to manage and deliver all of their digital content to all audiences as part of a global digital presence. We also believe that in those situations where multiple vendors are required, Limelight offers one of the few CDNs with the scale, performance, and reach required to deliver digital content to global audiences.
Research and Development
Our research and development organization is responsible for the design, development, testing, and certification of the software, hardware, and network architecture of our global network and support of our content delivery and other Limelight solutions. As of December 31, 2018, we had 174 employees and employee equivalents in our research and development group. Our research and development personnel are primarily located in Boston, Massachusetts; Grand Rapids, Michigan; Seattle, Washington; Lviv, Ukraine, and at our headquarters in Tempe, Arizona. Our engineering efforts support product development across all of our service areas, as well as innovation related to the global network itself. We test our services to ensure scalability in times of peak demand. We use internally developed and third-party software to monitor and to improve the performance of our network in the major internet consumer markets around the world where we provide services for our customers. Our research and development expenses were $24,075, $25,342, and $24,335 in 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively, including stock-based compensation expense of $2,720, $2,322, and $2,104 in 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
Intellectual Property
Our success depends in part upon our ability to protect our core technology and other intellectual capital. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks, domain registrations, and contractual protections.
As of December 31, 2018, we had received 128 patents in the United States, expiring between 2023 and 2036, and we had 1 U.S. patent application pending. We do not have any issued patents in foreign countries. We do not know whether any of our patent applications will result in the issuance of a patent or whether the examination process will require us to narrow our claims. Any patents that may be issued to us may be contested, circumvented, found unenforceable or invalidated, and we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing them. Therefore, we cannot predict the exact effect of having a patent with certainty.
As of December 31, 2018, we had received four trademarks in the United States. Our name, Limelight Networks, has been filed for multiple classes in the United States, Australia, Canada, the European Union, India, Japan, South Korea and Singapore. We have 23 non United States trademarks registered. There is a risk that pending trademark applications may not issue, and that those trademarks that have issued may be challenged by others who believe they have superior rights to the marks.
We generally control access to and use of our proprietary software and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including physical and electronic security, contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners, and domestic and foreign copyright laws.
Despite our efforts to protect our trade secrets and proprietary rights and other intellectual property rights by following sound business practices, licenses, and confidentiality agreements, there is risk that unauthorized parties may still copy or otherwise obtain and use our software and technology. In addition, we have been expanding our international operations, and effective patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret protection may not be available or may be limited in foreign countries. Further, expansion of our business with additional employees, locations, and legal jurisdictions may create greater risk that our trade secrets and proprietary rights will be harmed. If we fail to effectively protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our business could be harmed.
Third parties could claim that our products or technologies infringe their proprietary rights. The digital content delivery market is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents, trademarks, and copyrights and by frequent litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We expect that infringement claims may further increase as the number of products, services, and competitors in our market increases. Further, continued success in this market may provide an impetus to those who might use intellectual property litigation as a weapon against us. We have been the target of intellectual property infringement claims in the past and may be the target of such claims by third parties in the future.

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We were party to patent litigation with Akamai Technologies, Inc. from 2006 through 2018, when the parties agreed to settle all outstanding legal disputes between the parties. More information about the cases are described in further detail under Note 10 “Contingencies - Legal Matters" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K.
Employees
As of December 31, 2018, we had 563 employees and employee equivalents. Of these, 386 are based in the Americas, 129 are based in EMEA and 48 are based in Asia Pacific. None of our employees are represented by a labor union, and we have not experienced any work stoppages to date. We consider the relationships with our employees to be positive.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
Our executive officers and their ages and positions as of January 25, 2019 are as follows:
Name
Age
Position
Robert A. Lento
57
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
Sajid Malhotra
55
Chief Financial Officer
Michael D. DiSanto
46
Chief Administrative and Legal Officer and Secretary
Kurt Silverman
62
Senior Vice President, Development & Delivery
Tom Marth
54
Senior Vice President, Sales
Robert A. Lento has served as our Chief Executive Officer since November 2012 and has served as a member of our board of directors since January 2013. Prior to joining us, Mr. Lento was a senior sales executive at Convergys Corporation, a provider of customer management services, from July 1998 to May 2012, most recently serving as President - Information Management Division from September 2007 to May 2012. Prior to that, from 1997 to 1998, Mr. Lento served as President of LAN Systems for Donnelly Enterprise Solutions, Inc., a provider of information management solutions. From 1989 to 1996, Mr. Lento served in leadership positions at ENTEX Information Services, Inc., a provider of computing infrastructure services. Mr. Lento received a B.S. in Management from the State University of New York.
Sajid Malhotra has served as our Chief Financial Officer since April 2016. Mr. Malhotra has also served as our Interim Chief Financial Officer from December 2015 to April 2016, Chief Strategy Officer from June 2015 to December 2015 and was our Senior Vice President, Strategy, Facilities, Investor Relations and Procurement from March 2014 to June 2015. Prior to joining us, from September 2012 to March 2013, Mr. Malhotra was an independent consultant focused on strategic and financial consulting, communication, and value creation. Prior to that, from 2006 to 2012, Mr. Malhotra was the Senior Vice President of Strategy, Marketing and Mergers and Acquisitions for Convergys Corporation. Prior to joining Convergys, Mr. Malhotra held several senior executive positions with NCR Corporation and AT&T. Mr. Malhotra earned his bachelor’s degree in computer science and a master’s degree of business administration in finance from PACE University in New York.
Michael D. DiSanto has served as our Senior Vice President, Chief Administrative and Legal Officer and Secretary since April 2015. Prior to joining us, Mr. DiSanto was a partner at the law firm Bingham McCutchen LLP from 2013 to 2014.  From 2010 to 2013, Mr. DiSanto was a partner at the law firm Dinsmore & Shohl LLP. From 2008 to 2010, Mr. DiSanto was a partner at the law firm Reed Smith. Mr. DiSanto received a B.A. from Vanderbilt University and his J.D. from Santa Clara University School of Law.
Kurt Silverman has served as our Senior Vice President, Development & Delivery since September 2013. Prior to joining Limelight, Mr. Silverman was CEO and President of Slashsoft Corp., a strategic technology consulting firm for large scale real-time systems from May 2012 until September 2013. Prior to that, Mr. Silverman served as SVP of Development and Delivery for Convergys Information Management Group from August 2011 to May 2012. Prior to that, Mr. Silverman held multiple executive management positions, including most recently as Global CTO and SVP Large Global Accounts at Comverse Networks, Inc., CTO and SVP R&D at CSG International, CTO & VP at Lucent/Bell Labs, and VP Development at Kenan Systems Corporation. Mr. Silverman received both a B.S. and M.S from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Tom Marth has served as our Senior Vice President of Sales since January 2019.  Prior to joining Limelight, Mr. Marth was Regional Vice President at Workday from 2012 to 2017, where he led six sales teams across 15 states. Prior to that he was Group Vice President at Oracle where he took on increasing responsibility for more than 15 years. In addition, Tom has held sales roles at companies including FASCOR and Xerox. He earned a B.S. in Business Administration from Miami University.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7, and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below may not be the only ones we face. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. All information is presented in thousands, except per share amounts, customer count, head count and where specifically noted.
Risks Related to Our Business
We currently face competition from established competitors and may face competition from others in the future.
We compete in markets that are intensely competitive, rapidly changing and characterized by frequently declining prices. In these markets, vendors offer a wide range of alternate solutions. We have experienced and expect to continue to experience increased competition on price, features, functionality, integration and other factors. Several of our current competitors, as well as a number of our potential competitors, have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, broader customer relationships and industry alliances, and substantially greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. As a consequence of the competitive dynamics in our markets, we have experienced reductions in our prices, and an increased requirement for product advancement and innovation in order to remain competitive, which in turn have adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect our revenue, gross margin and operating results.
Our primary competitors for our content delivery service offering of our include Akamai, CenturyLink, Amazon, Fastly, CDNetworks, StackPath, and Verizon Digital Media Services. In addition, a number of companies have recently entered or are currently attempting to enter our market, either directly or indirectly, as a result of the growth in the content delivery market. These new entrants include companies that have built internal content delivery networks to solely deliver their own traffic, rather than relying solely, largely or in part on content delivery specialists, such as us. Some of these new entrants may become significant competitors in the future. Given the relative ease by which customers typically can switch among content delivery service providers, differentiated offerings or pricing by competitors could lead to a rapid loss of customers. Some of our current or potential competitors may bundle their offerings with other services, software or hardware in a manner that may discourage content providers from purchasing the services that we offer. In addition, we face different market characteristics and competition with local content delivery service providers as we expand internationally. Many of these international competitors are very well positioned within their local markets. Increased competition could result in price reductions and revenue shortfalls, loss of customers and loss of market share, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face different competitors for our other service offerings. However, the competitive landscape is different from content delivery in this area in that the process of changing vendors can be more costly and complicated for the customer, which could make it difficult for us to attract new customers and increase our market share.
Several of our competitors have greater financial and sales resources than we do. Many have been offering similar services in the markets in which we compete longer than we have. We may not be able to successfully compete against these or new competitors. If we are unable to increase our customer base and increase our market share, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.
Any unplanned interruption or degradation in the functioning or availability of our network or services, or attacks on or disruptions to our internal information technology systems, could lead to increased costs, a significant decline in our revenue and harm to our reputation.
Our business is dependent on providing our customers with fast, efficient, and reliable distribution of content delivery and digital asset management services over the internet every minute of every day. Many of our customers depend primarily or exclusively on our services to operate their businesses. Consequently, any disruption, or substantial and extensive degradation, of our services could have a material impact on our customers’ businesses. Our network or services could be disrupted by numerous events, including natural disasters, failure or refusal of our third-party network providers to provide the necessary capacity or access, failure of our software or global network infrastructure and power losses. In addition, we deploy our servers in third-party co-location facilities, and these third-party co-location providers could experience system outages or other disruptions that could constrain our ability to deliver our services. We may also experience disruptions caused by software viruses, unauthorized hacking of our systems, security breaches or other cyberattacks by unauthorized users. Any hacking of

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our systems or other cyberattacks could lead to the unauthorized release of confidential information that could damage our customers’ business and reputation, as well as our own. The economic costs to us to eliminate or alleviate cyber or other security problems, viruses, worms, malicious software programs, and other security vulnerabilities could be significant, and our efforts to address these problems may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays, cessation of service, and loss of existing or potential customers. In addition, our release of a security-related solution may increase our visibility as a security-focused company and make us a more attractive target for attacks on our infrastructure intended to steal information about our technology, financial data, or customer information or take other actions that would be damaging to our customers and us.
We could experience a significant, unplanned disruption, or substantial and extensive degradation of our services, or our network may fail in the future. Despite our significant infrastructure investments, we may have insufficient communications and server capacity to address these or other disruptions, which could result in interruptions in our services. Any widespread interruption or substantial and extensive degradation in the functioning of our services for any reason would reduce our revenue and could harm our business and results of operations. If such a widespread interruption occurred, or if we failed to deliver content to users as expected during a high-profile media event, game release or other well-publicized circumstance, our reputation could be damaged severely. Moreover, any disruptions, significant degradation, cybersecurity threats, security breaches, or attacks on our internal information technology systems could undermine confidence in our services and cause us to lose customers or make it more difficult to attract new ones, either of which could harm our business and results of operations.
We have a history of losses and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
We incur significant expenses in developing our technology, and maintaining and expanding our network. We also incur significant share-based compensation expense and have incurred (and may in the future incur) significant costs associated with litigation.  Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability for the foreseeable future.
We also may not achieve sufficient revenue to achieve or maintain profitability and thus may continue to incur losses in the future for a number of reasons, including, among others:
slowing demand for our services;
increasing competition and competitive pricing pressures;
any inability to provide our services in a cost-effective manner;
the incurrence of unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays; and
other risks described in this report.
If we fail to achieve and maintain profitability, the price of our common stock could decline, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.
If we are unable to sell our services at acceptable prices relative to our costs, our revenue and gross margins will decrease and our business and financial results will suffer.
Prices for content delivery services have fallen in recent years and are likely to fall further in the future. We have invested significant amounts in purchasing capital equipment as part of our effort to increase the capacity of our global content delivery network. Our investments in our infrastructure are based upon our assumptions regarding future demand, as well as prices that we will be able to charge for our services. These assumptions may prove to be wrong. If the price that we are able to charge customers to deliver their content falls to a greater extent than we anticipate, if we over-estimate future demand for our services, or if our costs to deliver our services do not fall commensurate with any future price declines, we may not be able to achieve acceptable rates of return on our infrastructure investments, and our gross profit and results of operations may suffer dramatically.
As we further expand our global network and services, and as we refresh our network equipment, we are dependent on significant future growth in demand for our services to justify additional capital expenditures. If we fail to generate significant additional demand for our services, our results of operations will suffer, and we may fail to achieve planned or expected financial results. There are numerous factors that could, alone or in combination with other factors, impede our ability to increase revenue, moderate expenses or maintain gross margins, including:
continued price declines arising from significant competition;
increasing settlement fees for certain peering relationships;
failure to increase sales of our services;

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increases in electricity, bandwidth and rack space costs or other operating expenses, and failure to achieve decreases in these costs and expenses relative to decreases in the prices we can charge for our services and products;
failure of our current and planned services and software to operate as expected;
loss of any significant customers or loss of existing customers at a rate greater than our increase in new customers or our sales to existing customers;
failure to increase sales of our services to current customers as a result of their ability to reduce their monthly usage of our services to their minimum monthly contractual commitment;
failure of a significant number of customers to pay our fees on a timely basis or at all or to continue to purchase our services in accordance with their contractual commitments; and
inability to attract high quality customers to purchase and implement our current and planned services.
A significant portion of our revenue is derived collectively from our video delivery services, cloud security, edge cloud, and origin storage services. These services tend to have higher gross margins than our content delivery services. We may not be able to achieve the growth rates in revenue from such services that we or our investors expect or have experienced in the past. If we are unable to achieve the growth rates in revenue that we expect for these service offerings, our revenue and operating results could be significantly and negatively affected.
Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.
Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations. As of December 31, 2018, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of $186,100 and $126,400, respectively, due to prior period losses. In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” can be subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its NOLs to offset future taxable income. Our existing NOLs may be subject to limitations arising from past ownership changes. Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code.  In addition, under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Tax Act), the amount of post 2017 NOLs that we are permitted to deduct in any taxable year is limited to 80% of our taxable income in such year, where taxable income is determined without regard to the NOL deduction itself. In addition, the Tax Act generally eliminates the ability to carry back any NOL to prior taxable years, while allowing post 2017 unused NOLs to be carried forward indefinitely. There is a risk that due to changes under the Tax Act, regulatory changes, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. For these reasons, we may not be able to realize a tax benefit from the use of our NOLs, whether or not we attain profitability.
Our involvement in litigation may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operations.
We have been involved in multiple intellectual property lawsuits in the past (see discussion of such lawsuits in Note 10 "Contingencies - Legal Matters" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K). We are from time to time party to other lawsuits. The outcome of all litigation is inherently unpredictable. The expenses of defending these lawsuits, particularly fees paid to our lawyers and expert consultants, have been significant to date. If the cost of prosecuting or defending current or future lawsuits continues to be significant, it may continue to adversely affect our operating results during the pendency of such lawsuits. Lawsuits also require a diversion of management and technical personnel time and attention away from other activities to pursue the defense or prosecution of such matters. In addition, adverse rulings in such lawsuits either alone or cumulatively may have an adverse impact on our revenue, expenses, market share, reputation, liquidity and financial condition.
If we are required to seek funding, such funding may not be available on acceptable terms or at all.
We may need to obtain funding due to a number of factors, including a shortfall in revenue, increased expenses, increased investment in capital equipment, the acquisition of significant businesses or technologies, or adverse judgments or settlements in connection with future, unforeseen litigation. We believe that our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities classified as current plus cash from operations will be sufficient to fund our operations and proposed capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months. However, we may need or desire funding before such time. If we do need to obtain funding, it may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we are unable to obtain sufficient funding, our business would be harmed. Even if we were able to find outside funding sources, we might be required to issue securities in a transaction that could be highly dilutive to our investors or we may be required to issue securities with greater rights than the securities we have outstanding today. We might also be required to take other actions that could lessen the value of our common stock, including borrowing money on terms that are not favorable to us. If we are unable to generate or raise capital that is sufficient to fund our operations, we may be required to curtail operations, reduce our capabilities or cease operations in certain jurisdictions or completely.

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We may have difficulty scaling and adapting our existing architecture to accommodate increased traffic and technology advances or changing business requirements. This could lead to the loss of customers and cause us to incur unexpected expenses to make network improvements.
Our services and solutions are highly complex and are designed to be deployed in and across numerous large and complex networks. Our global network infrastructure has to perform well and be reliable for us to be successful. We will need to continue to invest in infrastructure and customer support to account for the continued growth in traffic (and the increased complexity of that traffic) delivered via content delivery networks such as ours. We have spent and expect to continue to spend substantial amounts on the purchase and lease of equipment and data centers and the upgrade of our technology and network infrastructure to handle increased traffic over our network, implement changes to our network architecture and integrate existing solutions and to roll out new solutions and services. This expansion is expensive and complex and could result in inefficiencies, operational failures or defects in our network and related software. If we do not implement such changes or expand successfully, or if we experience inefficiencies and operational failures, the quality of our solutions and services and user experience could decline. From time to time, we have needed to correct errors and defects in our software or in other aspects of our network. In the future, there may be additional errors and defects that may harm our ability to deliver our services, including errors and defects originating with third party networks or software on which we rely. These occurrences could damage our reputation and lead to the loss of current and potential customers, which would harm our operating results and financial condition. We must continuously upgrade our infrastructure in order to keep pace with our customers’ evolving demands. Cost increases or the failure to accommodate increased traffic or these evolving business demands without disruption could harm our operating results and financial condition.
If we are unable to develop new services and enhancements to existing services or fail to predict and respond to emerging technological trends and customers’ changing needs, our operating results and market share may suffer.
The market for our services is characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, and new product and service introductions. Our operating results depend on our ability to understand user preferences or predict industry changes. Our operating results also depend on our ability to modify our solutions and services on a timely basis or develop and introduce new services into existing and emerging markets. The process of developing new technologies is complex and uncertain. We must commit significant resources to developing new services or enhancements to our existing services before knowing whether our investments will result in services the market will accept. Furthermore, we may not successfully execute our technology initiatives because of errors in planning or timing, technical hurdles that we fail to overcome in a timely fashion, misunderstandings about market demand or a lack of appropriate resources. As prices for content delivery services fall, we will increasingly rely on new product offerings and other service offerings to maintain or increase our gross margins. Failures in execution, delays in bringing new or improved products or services to market, failure to effectively integrate service offerings, or market acceptance of new services we introduce could result in competitors providing those solutions before we do, which could lead to loss of market share, revenue and earnings.
We depend on a limited number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenue in any fiscal period, and the loss of, or a significant shortfall in demand from, these customers could significantly harm our results of operations.
During any given fiscal period, a relatively small number of customers typically account for a significant percentage of our revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2018, sales to our top 20 customers accounted for approximately 71% of our total revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we had one customer, Amazon, who represented approximately 30% of our total revenue.
In the past, the customers that comprised our top 20 customers have continually changed, and we also have experienced significant fluctuations in our individual customers’ usage of, or decreased usage of, our services. As a consequence, we may not be able to adjust our expenses in the short term to address the unanticipated loss of a large customer during any particular period. As such, we may experience significant, unanticipated fluctuations in our operating results that may cause us to not meet our expectations or those of stock market analysts, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Rapidly evolving technologies or new business models could cause demand for our services to decline or could cause these services to become obsolete.
Customers, potential customers or third parties may develop technological or business model innovations that address digital delivery requirements in a manner that is, or is perceived to be, equivalent or superior to our service offerings. This is particularly true as our customers increase their operations and begin expending greater resources on delivering their content using third party solutions. If we fail to offer content delivery, video content management and other related services that are competitive to in-sourced solutions, we may lose additional customers or fail to attract customers that may consider pursuing this in-sourced approach, and our business and financial results would suffer.

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If competitors introduce new products or services that compete with or surpass the quality or the price or performance of our services, we may be unable to renew our agreements with existing customers or attract new customers at the prices and levels that allow us to generate attractive rates of return on our investment. We may not anticipate such developments and may be unable to adequately compete with these potential solutions. In addition, our customers’ business models may change in ways that we do not anticipate, and these changes could reduce or eliminate our customers’ needs for our services. If this occurred, we could lose customers or potential customers, and our business and financial results would suffer.
As a result of these or similar potential developments, it is possible that competitive dynamics in our market may require us to reduce our prices faster than we anticipate, which could harm our revenue, gross margin and operating results.
Failure to effectively enhance our sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our services.
Increasing our customer base and achieving broader market acceptance of our services will depend to a significant extent on our ability to enhance our sales and marketing operations. We have a concentration of our sales force at our headquarters in Tempe, Arizona, but we also have a widely deployed field sales force. We have aligned our sales resources to improve our sales productivity and efficiency and to bring our sales personnel closer to our current and potential customers. Adjustments to our sales force have been and will continue to be expensive and could cause some near-term productivity impairments. As a result, we may not be successful in improving the productivity and efficiency of our sales force, which could cause our results of operations to suffer.
We believe that there is significant competition for both inside and direct sales personnel with the sales skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve significant growth in revenue in the future will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training and retaining sufficient numbers of inside and direct sales personnel. New hires require significant training and, in most cases, take a significant period of time before they achieve full productivity. Our recent hires and planned hires may not become as productive as we would like, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the future in the markets where we do business. Our business will be seriously harmed if our sales force productivity efforts do not generate a corresponding significant increase in revenue.
Many of our significant current and potential customers are pursuing emerging or unproven business models, which, if unsuccessful, or ineffective at monetizing delivery of their content, could lead to a substantial decline in demand for our content delivery and other services.
Because the proliferation of broadband internet connections and the subsequent monetization of content libraries for distribution to internet users are relatively recent phenomena, many of our customers’ business models that center on the delivery of rich media and other content to users remain unproven. Some of our customers will not be successful in selling advertising, subscriptions, or otherwise monetizing the content we deliver on their behalf and consequently may not be successful in creating a profitable business model. This will result in some of our customers discontinuing their internet or web-based business operations and discontinuing use of our services and solutions. Further, any deterioration and related uncertainty in the global financial markets and economy could result in, among other things, reductions in available capital and liquidity from banks and other providers of credit, fluctuations in equity and currency values worldwide, and concerns that portions of the worldwide economy may be in a prolonged recessionary period. Any one or more of these occurrences could materially adversely impact our customers’ access to capital or willingness to spend capital on our services or, in some cases, ultimately cause the customer to file for protection from creditors under applicable insolvency or bankruptcy laws or simply go out of business. This uncertainty may also impact our customers’ levels of cash liquidity, which could affect their ability or willingness to timely pay for services that they will order or have already ordered from us. From time to time we discontinue service to customers for non-payment of services. We expect further customers may discontinue operations or not be willing or able to pay for services that they have ordered from us. Further loss of customers may adversely affect our financial results.
If we are unable to attract new customers or to retain our existing customers, our revenue could be lower than expected and our operating results may suffer.
To increase our revenue, we must add new customers and sell additional services to existing customers and encourage existing customers to increase their usage levels. If our existing and prospective customers do not perceive our services to be of sufficiently high value and quality, we may not be able to retain our current customers or attract new customers. We sell our services pursuant to service agreements that generally include some form of financial minimum commitment. Our customers have no obligation to renew their contracts for our services after the expiration of their initial commitment, and these service agreements may not be renewed at the same or higher level of service, if at all. Moreover, under some circumstances, some of our customers have the right to cancel their service agreements prior to the expiration of the terms of their agreements. Aside from minimum financial commitments, customers are not obligated to use our services for any particular type or amount of traffic. These facts, in addition to the changing competitive landscape in our market, means that we cannot accurately predict

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future customer renewal rates or usage rates. Our customers’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including:
their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our services;
the quality and reliability of our content delivery network;
the prices of our services;
the prices of services offered by our competitors;
discontinuation by our customers of their internet or web-based content distribution business;
mergers and acquisitions affecting our customer base; and
reductions in our customers’ spending levels.
If our customers do not renew their service agreements with us, or if they renew on less favorable terms, our revenue may decline and our business may suffer. Similarly, our customer agreements often provide for minimum commitments that are often significantly below our customers’ historical usage levels. Consequently, even if we have agreements with our customers to use our services, these customers could significantly curtail their usage without incurring any penalties under our agreements. In this event, our revenue would be lower than expected and our operating results could suffer.
It also is an important component of our growth strategy to market our services and solutions to particular industries or market segments. As an organization, we may not have significant experience in selling our services into certain of these markets. Our ability to successfully sell our services into these markets to a meaningful extent remains unproven. If we are unsuccessful in such efforts, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.
Rapid increase in the use of mobile and alternative devices to access the internet present significant development and deployment challenges.
The number of people who access the internet through devices other than PCs, including mobile devices, game consoles and television set-top devices, has increased dramatically in the past few years. The capabilities of these devices are advancing dramatically and the increasing need to provide a high-quality video experience will present us and other providers with significant challenges. If we are unable to deliver our service offerings to a substantial number of alternative device users and at a high quality, or if we are slow to develop services and technologies that are more compatible with these devices, we may fail to capture a significant share of an increasingly important portion of the market. Such a failure could limit our ability to compete effectively in an industry that is rapidly growing and changing, which, in turn, could cause our business, financial condition and results of operations to suffer.
We need to defend our intellectual property and processes against patent or copyright infringement claims, which may cause us to incur substantial costs and threaten our ability to do business.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors and non-practicing entities, may hold or obtain patents or other proprietary rights that would prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use or sell our services or develop new services, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may receive inquiries from holders of patents inquiring whether we infringe their proprietary rights. Companies holding internet-related patents or other intellectual property rights are increasingly bringing suits alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise asserting their rights and seeking licenses. Any litigation or claims, whether or not valid, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources from the defense of such claims. In addition, many of our agreements with customers require us to defend and indemnify those customers for third-party intellectual property infringement claims against them, which could result in significant additional costs and diversion of resources. If we are determined to have infringed upon a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may also be required to do one or more of the following:
cease selling, incorporating or using products or services that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
pay substantial damages;
obtain a license from the holder of the infringed intellectual property right, which license may or may not be available on reasonable terms or at all; or
redesign products or services.
If we are forced to litigate any claims or to take any of these other actions, our business may be seriously harmed.
Our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights from unauthorized use or infringement by third parties.
We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. We have applied for patent protection in the United States and a number of foreign countries.

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These legal protections afford only limited protection and laws in foreign jurisdictions may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the United States. Monitoring infringement of our intellectual property rights is difficult, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights. Developments and changes in patent law, such as changes in interpretations of the joint infringement standard, could restrict how we enforce certain patents we hold. We also cannot be certain that any pending or future patent applications will be granted, that any future patent will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that rights granted under any patent that may be issued will provide competitive advantages to us.
Our results of operations may fluctuate in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Our results of operations may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. If our results of operations fall below the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. In addition to the effects of other risks discussed in this section, fluctuations in our results of operations may be due to a number of factors, including, among others:
our ability to increase sales to existing customers and attract new customers to our content delivery and other services;
the addition or loss of large customers, or significant variation in their use of our content delivery and other services;
costs associated with current or future intellectual property lawsuits and other lawsuits;
service outages or third party security breaches to our platform or to one or more of our customers’ platforms;
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure and the adequacy of available funds to meet those requirements;
the timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors;
the occurrence of significant events in a particular period that result in an increase in the use of our content delivery and other services, such as a major media event or a customer’s online release of a new or updated video game or operating system;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;
the timing of recognizing revenue;
limitations of the capacity of our global network and related systems;
the timing of costs related to the development or acquisition of technologies, services or businesses;
the potential write-down or write-off of intangible or other long-lived assets;
general economic, industry and market conditions (such as fluctuations experienced in the stock and credit markets during times of deteriorated global economic conditions) and those conditions specific to internet usage;
limitations on usage imposed by our customers in order to limit their online expenses; and
war, threat of war or terrorist actions, including cyber terrorism targeted at us, our customers, or both, and inadequate cybersecurity.
We believe that our revenue and results of operations may vary significantly in the future and that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. You should not rely on the results of one period as an indication of future performance.
We generate our revenue primarily from the sale of content delivery services, and the failure of the market for these services to expand as we expect or the reduction in spending on those services by our current or potential customers would seriously harm our business.
While we offer our customers a number of services and solutions, we generate the majority of our revenue from charging our customers for the content delivered on their behalf through our global network. We are subject to an elevated risk of reduced demand for these services. Furthermore, if the market for delivery of rich media content in particular does not continue to grow as we expect or grows more slowly, then we may fail to achieve a return on the significant investment we are making to prepare for this growth. Our success, therefore, depends on the continued and increasing reliance on the internet for delivery of media content and our ability to cost-effectively deliver these services. Many different factors may have a general tendency to limit or reduce the number of users relying on the internet for media content, the amount of content consumed by our customers’ users, or the number of providers making this content available on-line, including, among others:
a general decline in internet usage;
third party restrictions on on-line content (including copyright restrictions, digital rights management and restrictions in certain geographic regions);
system impairments or outages, including those caused by hacking or cyberattacks; and

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a significant increase in the quality or fidelity of off-line media content beyond that available online to the point where users prefer the off-line experience.
The influence of any of these or other factors may cause our current or potential customers to reduce their spending on content delivery services, which would seriously harm our operating results and financial condition.
We could incur charges due to impairment of goodwill and long-lived assets.
As of December 31, 2018, we had a goodwill balance of approximately $76,407, which is subject to periodic testing for impairment. Our long-lived assets also are subject to periodic testing for impairment. A significant amount of judgment is involved in the periodic testing. Failure to achieve sufficient levels of cash flow could result in impairment charges for goodwill or fixed asset impairment for long-lived assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our reported results of operations. Our goodwill impairment analysis also includes a comparison of the aggregate estimated fair value of our reporting unit to our total market capitalization. If our stock trades below our book value, a significant and sustained decline in our stock price and market capitalization could result in goodwill impairment charges. During times of financial market volatility, significant judgment will be used to determine the underlying cause of the decline and whether stock price declines are short-term in nature or indicative of an event or change in circumstances. Impairment charges, if any, resulting from the periodic testing are non-cash.
Our operations are dependent in part upon communications capacity provided by third party telecommunications providers. A material disruption of the communications capacity could harm our results of operations, reputation and customer relations.
We enter into arrangements for private line capacity for our backbone from third party providers. Our contracts for private line capacity generally have terms of three to four years. The communications capacity may become unavailable for a variety of reasons, such as physical interruption, technical difficulties, contractual disputes, or the financial health of our third party providers. Also, industry consolidation among communications providers could result in fewer viable market alternatives, which could have an impact on our costs of providing services. Alternative providers are currently available; however, it could be time consuming and expensive to promptly identify and obtain alternative third party connectivity. Additionally, as we grow, we anticipate requiring greater private line capacity than we currently have in place. If we are unable to obtain such capacity from third party providers on terms commercially acceptable to us or at all, our business and financial results would suffer. Similarly, if we are unable to timely deploy enough network capacity to meet the needs of our customer base or effectively manage the demand for our services, our reputation and relationships with our customers would be harmed, which, in turn, could harm or business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face risks associated with international operations that could harm our business.
We have operations in numerous foreign countries and may continue to expand our sales and support organizations internationally. As part of our business strategy, we intend to expand our international network infrastructure. Expansion could require us to make significant expenditures, including the hiring of local employees or resources, in advance of generating any revenue. As a consequence, we may fail to achieve profitable operations that will compensate our investment in international locations. We are subject to a number of risks associated with international business activities that may increase our costs, lengthen our sales cycle and require significant management attention. These risks include:
increased expenses associated with sales and marketing, deploying services and maintaining our infrastructure in foreign countries;
competition from local content delivery service providers, many of which are very well positioned within their local markets;
challenges caused by distance, language and cultural differences;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements preventing or limiting us from operating our global network or resulting in unanticipated costs and delays;
interpretations of laws or regulations that would subject us to regulatory supervision or, in the alternative, require us to exit a country, which could have a negative impact on the quality of our services or our results of operations;
longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
corporate and personal liability for violations of local laws and regulations;
currency exchange rate fluctuations and repatriation of funds;
potentially adverse tax consequences;
credit risk and higher levels of payment fraud; and
foreign exchange controls that might prevent us from repatriating cash earned in countries outside the United States.

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International operations are subject to significant additional risks not generally faced in our domestic operations, including, but not limited to, risks relating to legal systems that may not adequately protect contract and intellectual property rights, policies and taxation, the physical infrastructure of the country, as well as risks relating to potential political turmoil and currency exchange controls.  There can be no assurance that these international risks will not materially adversely affect our business. For example, our operations include software development and quality assurance activities in Ukraine, which has experienced social unrest in recent years.  Should there be significant productivity losses, or if we become unable to conduct operations in Ukraine in the future, and our contingency plans are unsuccessful in addressing the related risks, our business could be adversely affected.
Our business depends on continued and unimpeded access to third party controlled end-user access networks.
Our content delivery services depend on our ability to access certain end-user access networks in order to complete the delivery of rich media and other on-line content to end-users. Some operators of these networks may take measures that could degrade, disrupt or increase the cost of our or our customers’ access to certain of these end-user access networks. Such measures may include restricting or prohibiting the use of their networks to support or facilitate our services, or charging increased fees to us, our customers or end-users in connection with our services. In 2015, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released network neutrality and open internet rules that reclassified broadband internet access services as a telecommunications service subject to some elements of common carrier regulation. Among other things, the FCC order prohibited blocking or discriminating against lawful services and applications and prohibited "paid prioritization," or providing faster speeds or other benefits in return for compensation. In 2017, the FCC overturned these rules. As a result, we or our customers could experience increased cost or slower data on these third-party networks.  If we or our customers experience increased cost in delivering content to end users, or otherwise, or if end users perceive a degradation of quality, our business and that of our customers may be significantly harmed. This or other types of interference could result in a loss of existing customers, increased costs and impairment of our ability to attract new customers, thereby harming our revenue and growth.
In addition, the performance of our infrastructure depends in part on the direct connection of our global network to a large number of end-user access networks, known as peering, which we achieve through mutually beneficial cooperation with these networks. In some instances, network operators charge us for the peering connections. If, in the future, a significant percentage of these network operators elected to no longer peer with our network or peer with our network on less favorable economic terms, then the performance of our infrastructure could be diminished, our costs could increase and our business could suffer.
If our ability to deliver media files in popular proprietary content formats was restricted or became cost-prohibitive, demand for our content delivery services could decline, we could lose customers and our financial results could suffer.
Our business depends on our ability to deliver media content in all major formats. If our legal right or technical ability to store and deliver content in one or more popular proprietary content formats, such as HTTP Live Streaming was limited, our ability to serve our customers in these formats would be impaired and the demand for our content delivery and other services would decline by customers using these formats. Owners of propriety content formats may be able to block, restrict or impose fees or other costs on our use of such formats, which could lead to additional expenses for us and for our customers, or which could prevent our delivery of this type of content altogether. Such interference could result in a loss of existing customers, increased costs and impairment of our ability to attract new customers, which would harm our revenue, operating results and growth.
We use certain “open-source” software, the use of which could result in our having to distribute our proprietary software, including our source code, to third parties on unfavorable terms, which could materially affect our business.
Certain of our service offerings use software that is subject to open-source licenses. Open-source code is software that is freely accessible, usable and modifiable. Certain open-source code is governed by license agreements, the terms of which could require users of such open-source code to make any derivative works of such open-source code available to others on unfavorable terms or at no cost. Because we use open-source code, we may be required to take remedial action to protect our proprietary software. Such action could include replacing certain source code used in our software, discontinuing certain of our products or features or taking other actions that could divert resources away from our development efforts.
In addition, the terms relating to disclosure of derivative works in many open-source licenses are unclear. We periodically review our compliance with the open-source licenses we use and do not believe we will be required to make our proprietary software freely available. Nevertheless, if a court interprets one or more such open-source licenses in a manner that is unfavorable to us, we could be required to make some components of our software available at no cost, which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

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If we are unable to retain our key employees and hire qualified sales and technical personnel, our ability to compete could be harmed.
Our future success depends upon the continued services of our executive officers and other key technology, sales, marketing and support personnel who have critical industry experience and relationships that they rely on in implementing our business plan. There is increasing competition for talented individuals with the specialized knowledge to deliver our services and this competition affects both our ability to retain key employees and hire new ones. Historically, we have experienced a significant amount of employee turnover, especially with respect to our sales personnel. As a result, a significant number of our sales personnel are relatively new and may need time to become fully productive. The loss of the services of any of our key employees could disrupt our operations, delay the development and introduction of our services, and negatively impact our ability to sell our services.
We are subject to the effects of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, which could affect our operating results.
The financial condition and results of operations of our operating foreign subsidiaries are reported in the relevant local currency and are then translated into U.S. dollars at the applicable currency exchange rate for inclusion in our consolidated U.S. dollar financial statements. Also, although a large portion of our customer and vendor agreements are denominated in U.S. dollars, we may be exposed to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates with respect to customer agreements with certain of our international customers. Exchange rates between these currencies and U.S. dollars in recent years have fluctuated significantly and may do so in the future. In addition to currency translation risk, we incur currency transaction risk whenever one of our operating subsidiaries enters into a transaction using a different currency than the relevant local currency. Given the volatility of exchange rates, we may be unable to manage our currency transaction risks effectively. Currency fluctuations could have a material adverse effect on our future international sales and, consequently, on our financial condition and results of operations.
As part of our business strategy, we may acquire businesses or technologies and may have difficulty integrating these operations.
We have completed a number of business acquisitions and may seek to acquire businesses or technologies that are complementary to our business in the future. Acquisitions are often complex and involve a number of risks to our business, including, among others;
the difficulty of integrating the operations, services, solutions and personnel of the acquired companies;
the potential disruption of our ongoing business;
the potential distraction of management;
the possibility that our business culture and the business culture of the acquired companies will not be compatible;
the difficulty of incorporating or integrating acquired technology and rights with or into our other services and solutions;
expenses related to the acquisition and to the integration of the acquired companies;
the impairment of relationships with employees and customers as a result of any integration of new personnel;
employee turnover from the acquired companies or from our current operations as we integrate businesses;
risks related to the businesses of acquired companies that may continue to impact the businesses following the merger; and
potential unknown liabilities associated with acquired companies.
Any inability to integrate services, solutions, operations or personnel in an efficient and timely manner could harm our results of operations.
If we are not successful in completing acquisitions that we may pursue in the future, we may be required to reevaluate our business strategy, and we may incur substantial expenses and devote significant management time and resources without a productive result. In addition, future acquisitions will require the use of our available cash or dilutive issuances of securities. Future acquisitions or attempted acquisitions could also harm our ability to achieve profitability.
Internet-related and other laws relating to taxation issues, privacy, data security, and consumer protection and liability for content distributed over our network could harm our business.
Laws and regulations that apply to communications and commerce conducted over the internet are becoming more prevalent, both in the United States and internationally, and may impose additional burdens on companies conducting business on-line or providing internet-related services such as ours. Increased regulation could negatively affect our business directly, as well as the businesses of our customers, which could reduce their demand for our services. For example, tax authorities abroad may impose taxes on the internet-related revenue we generate based on where our internationally deployed servers are located. In addition, domestic and international taxation laws are subject to change. Our services, or the businesses of our customers,

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may become subject to increased taxation, which could harm our financial results either directly or by forcing our customers to scale back their operations and use of our services in order to maintain their operations. Also, the Communications Act of 1934, as amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (the Act), and the regulations promulgated by the FCC under Title II of the Act, may impose obligations on the internet and those participants involved in internet-related businesses. In addition, the laws relating to the liability of private network operators for information carried on, processed by or disseminated through their networks are unsettled, both in the United States and abroad. Network operators have been sued in the past, sometimes successfully, based on the content of material disseminated through their networks. We may become subject to legal claims such as defamation, invasion of privacy and copyright infringement in connection with content stored on or distributed through our network. In addition, our reputation could suffer as a result of our perceived association with the type of content that some of our customers deliver. If we need to take costly measures to reduce our exposure to the risks posed by laws and regulations that apply to communications and commerce conducted over the internet, or are required to defend ourselves against related claims, our financial results could be negatively affected.
Several other federal laws also could expose us to liability and impose significant additional costs on us. For example, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act has provisions that limit, but do not eliminate, our liability for the delivery of customer content that infringe copyrights or other rights, so long as we comply with certain statutory requirements. In addition, the Children’s On-line Privacy Protection Act restricts the ability of on-line services to collect information from minors and the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act of 1998 requires on-line service providers to report evidence of violations of federal child pornography laws under certain circumstances. Also, there are emerging regulation and industry standards regarding the collection and use of personal information and protecting the security of data on networks. Compliance with these laws, regulations and standards is complex and any failure on our part to comply with these regulations may subject us to additional liabilities.
Privacy concerns could lead to regulatory and other limitations on our business, including our ability to use “cookies” and video player “cookies” that are crucial to our ability to provide services to our customers.
Our ability to compile data for customers depends on the use of “cookies” and video player “cookies” to identify certain on-line behavior that allows our customers to measure a website or video’s effectiveness. A cookie is a small file of information stored on a user’s computer that allows us to recognize that user’s browser or video player when the user makes a request for a web page or to play a video. Government authorities inside the United States concerned with the privacy of internet users have suggested the enactment of legislation that would regulate cookies and/or require certain disclosures regarding cookies. Bills aimed at regulating the collection, use and/or storage of personal data from internet users are currently pending in United States Congress and many state legislatures. Attempts at such regulation may be drafted in such a way as to limit or otherwise regulate the collection of certain technology like cookies, thereby creating restrictions that could reduce our ability to use them. In addition, the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Commerce have conducted hearings regarding user profiling, the collection of non-personally identifiable information and on-line privacy.
Our foreign operations may also be adversely affected by regulatory action outside the United States. These regulations, which can be enforced by private parties or governmental entities, are constantly evolving and can be subject to significant change. For example, the European Union has enacted an electronic communications directive that imposes certain restrictions on the use of cookies, requires certain disclosures with respect to cookie usages and also places restrictions on the sending of unsolicited communications. Each European Union member country was required to enact legislation to comply with the provisions of the electronic communications directive. Germany has also enacted additional laws limiting the use of user profiling, and other countries, both in and out of the European Union, may impose similar limitations.
Internet users may directly limit or eliminate the placement of cookies on their computers by using third-party software that blocks cookies, or by disabling or restricting the cookie functions of their internet browser software and in their video player software. Internet browser software upgrades also may result in limitations on the use of cookies. Technologies like the Platform for Privacy Preferences Project may limit collection of cookies. Plaintiffs’ attorneys also have organized class action suits against companies related to the use of cookies and several companies, including companies in the internet advertising industry, have had claims brought against them before the Federal Trade Commission regarding the collection and use of internet user information. We may be subject to such suits in the future, which could limit or eliminate our ability to collect such information. If our ability to use cookies were substantially restricted due to the foregoing, or for any other reason, we would have to generate and use other technology or methods that allow the gathering of user data in order to provide services to customers. This change in technology or methods could require significant re-engineering time and resources, and may not be complete in time to avoid negative consequences to our business. In addition, alternative technology or methods might not be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If the use of cookies is prohibited and we are not able to efficiently and cost effectively create new technology, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected. In addition, any compromise of security that results in the release of internet users’ and/or our customers’ data could seriously limit the adoption of our service offerings as well as harm our reputation and brand, expose us

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to liability and subject us to reporting obligations under various state laws, which could have an adverse effect on our business. The risk that these types of events could seriously harm our business is likely to increase as the amount of data stored for customers on our servers and the number of countries where we operate has been increasing, and we may need to expend significant resources to protect against security breaches, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Also, a number of new privacy laws and/or proposals pending could affect our business. For example, the European Commission has enacted the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which became effective in May 2018. GDPR superseded prior EU data protection legislation, imposes more stringent EU data protection requirements, and provides for greater penalties for noncompliance. Additionally, in October 2015, the European Court of Justice invalidated the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor framework that had been in place since 2000, which allowed companies to meet certain European legal requirements for the transfer of personal data from the European Economic Area to the United States. Although U.S. and EU authorities reached a political agreement regarding a new potential means for legitimizing personal data transfers from the European Economic Area to the United States, the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, there continue to be concerns about whether the EU-US Privacy Shield will face additional challenges (similar to the fate of the Safe Harbor framework). We expect that for the immediate future, we will continue to face uncertainty as to whether our efforts to comply with our obligations under European privacy laws will be sufficient. If we are investigated by a European data protection authority, we may face fines and other penalties. Any such investigation or charges by European data protection authorities could have a negative effect on our existing business and on our ability to attract and retain new customers. These existing and proposed laws and regulations can be costly to comply with, could expose us to significant penalties for non-compliance, can delay or impede the development or adoption of our products and services, reduce the overall demand for our services, result in negative publicity, increase our operating costs, require significant management time and attention, slow the pace at which we close (or prevent us from closing) sales transactions, and subject us to claims or other remedies, including fines or demands that we modify or cease existing business practices.
Our business requires the continued development of effective business support systems to support our customer growth and related services.
The growth of our business depends on our ability to continue to develop effective business support systems. This is a complicated undertaking requiring significant resources and expertise. Business support systems are needed for:
implementing customer orders for services;
delivering these services; and
timely and accurate billing for these services.
Because our business plan provides for continued growth in the number of customers that we serve and services offered, there is a need to continue to develop our business support systems on a schedule sufficient to meet proposed service roll-out dates. The failure to continue to develop effective business support systems could harm our ability to implement our business plans and meet our financial goals and objectives.
We have incurred, and will continue to incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to compliance initiatives.
As a public company, we have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant expenses, including accounting, legal and other professional fees, insurance premiums, investor relations costs, and costs associated with compensating our independent directors. In addition, rules implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq Global Select Market impose additional requirements on public companies, including requiring changes in corporate governance practices. For example, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Global Select Market require that we satisfy certain corporate governance requirements relating to independent directors, audit committees, distribution of annual and interim reports, stockholder meetings, stockholder approvals, solicitation of proxies, conflicts of interest, stockholder voting rights and codes of conduct. Our management and other personnel need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, these rules and regulations make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance.
If the accounting estimates we make, and the assumptions on which we rely, in preparing our financial statements prove inaccurate, our actual results may be adversely affected.
Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments about, among other things, taxes, revenue recognition, share-based compensation costs, contingent obligations and doubtful accounts. These

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estimates and judgments affect the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, the amounts of charges accrued by us, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances and at the time they are made. If our estimates or the assumptions underlying them are not correct, we may need to accrue additional charges or reduce the value of assets that could adversely affect our results of operations, investors may lose confidence in our ability to manage our business and our stock price could decline.
If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls or fail to implement our controls and procedures with respect to acquired or merged operations, our ability to produce accurate financial statements could be impaired, which could adversely affect our operating results, our ability to operate our business and investors’ views of us.
We must ensure that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis. We are required to spend considerable effort on establishing and maintaining our internal controls, which is costly and time-consuming and needs to be re-evaluated frequently.
We have operated as a public company since June 2007, and we will continue to incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses as we comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as new rules implemented from time to time by the SEC and the Nasdaq Global Select Market. These rules impose various requirements on public companies, including requiring changes in corporate governance practices, increased reporting of compensation arrangements and other requirements. Our management and other personnel will continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, new rules and regulations will likely increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that we include in our annual report our assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our audited financial statements as of the end of each fiscal year. Furthermore, our independent registered public accounting firm, Ernst & Young LLP (EY), is required to report on whether it believes we maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of the end of the year. Our continued compliance with Section 404 will require that we incur substantial expense and expend significant management time on compliance related issues, including our efforts in implementing controls and procedures related to acquired or merged operations. We currently do not have an internal audit group and use an international accounting firm to assist us with our assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. In future years, if we fail to timely complete this assessment, or if EY cannot timely attest, there may be a loss of public confidence in our internal controls, the market price of our stock could decline, and we could be subject to regulatory sanctions or investigations by the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. In addition, any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to timely meet our regulatory reporting obligations.
Changes in financial accounting standards or practices may cause adverse, unexpected financial reporting fluctuations and affect our reported results of operations.
A change in accounting standards or practices can have a significant effect on our operating results and may affect our reporting of transactions completed before the change is effective. New accounting pronouncements and varying interpretations of existing accounting pronouncements have occurred and may occur in the future. Changes to existing rules or the questioning of current practices may adversely affect our reported financial results or the way we conduct our business.
Divestiture of our businesses or product lines, including those that we have acquired or will acquire, may materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, or may result in impairment charges that may adversely affect our results of operations.
Divestitures involve risks, including difficulties in the separation of operations, services, products and personnel, the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns, the disruption of our business, the potential loss of key employees and the retention of uncertain contingent liabilities related to the divested business, any of which could result in a material adverse effect to our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Divestitures of previously acquired businesses may result in significant asset impairment charges, including those related to goodwill and other intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Future impairment may result from, among other things, deterioration in the performance of the acquired business or product line, adverse market conditions and changes in the competitive landscape, adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations, including changes that restrict the activities of the acquired business or product line, changes in accounting rules and regulations, and a variety of other circumstances. The amount of any impairment is recorded as a charge to the statement of operations. We may never realize the full value of our goodwill and intangible assets, and any determination requiring the write-off of a significant portion of these

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assets may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in managing these or any other significant risks that we encounter in divesting a business or product line.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The trading price of our common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be, volatile.
The trading prices of our common stock and the securities of technology companies generally have been highly volatile. Factors affecting the trading price of our common stock will include:
variations in our operating results;
announcements of technological innovations, new services or service enhancements, strategic alliances or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;
commencement or resolution of, our involvement in and uncertainties arising from litigation;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
changes in the estimates of our operating results or changes in recommendations by any securities analysts that elect to follow our common stock;
if we or our stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock (including shares issued upon the exercise of options and warrants);
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
the gain or loss of significant customers;
market conditions in our industry, the industries of our customers and the economy as a whole; and
adoption or modification of regulations, policies, procedures or programs applicable to our business.
In addition, if the market for technology stocks or the stock market in general experiences loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, operating results or financial condition. The trading price of our common stock might also decline in reaction to events or speculation of events that affect other companies in our industry even if these events do not directly affect us.  
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they issue an adverse or misleading opinion or report, our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If any of the analysts who cover us issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding our stock, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Future equity issuances or a sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock may cause the price of our common stock to decline.
Because we may need to raise additional capital in the future to continue to expand our business and our research and development activities, among other things, we may conduct additional equity offerings. If we or our stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock (including shares issued upon the exercise of options and warrants) in the public market, the market price of our common stock could fall. For example, in November 2017 and March 2018, investment entities affiliated with Goldman, Sachs & Co. sold 15,000,000 and 15,272,493 shares of our commons stock, respectively, in two registered public offering. A decline in the market price of our common stock could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company and may affect the trading price of our common stock.
Provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders. These provisions:
establish that members of the board of directors may be removed only for cause upon the affirmative vote of stockholders owning a majority of our capital stock;

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authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt;
limit who may call special meetings of stockholders;
prohibit stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders;
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings;
provide for a board of directors with staggered terms; and
provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by a resolution of our board of directors.
In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which imposes certain restrictions relating to transactions with major stockholders, may discourage, delay or prevent a third party from acquiring us.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.        Properties
Our global corporate headquarters is located in approximately 32,000 square feet of leased office space in Tempe, Arizona. We also lease space for a data center and warehouse in Phoenix, Arizona. We lease offices in several other locations in the United States and Canada, including in or near Lexington, Kentucky; Boston, Massachusetts; Grand Rapids, Michigan; New York, New York; Seattle, Washington; and Toronto, Canada. We also lease offices in Europe and Asia in or near London, England; Paris, France; Tel Aviv, Israel; Mumbai and Delhi, India; Lviv, Ukraine; Tokyo, Japan; Seoul, Korea; and Singapore. We believe our facilities are sufficient to meet our needs for the foreseeable future and, if needed, additional space will be available at a reasonable cost.
Item 3.        Legal Proceedings
For a description of our material pending legal proceedings, please refer to Note 10 “Contingencies - Legal Matters" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 4.        Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LLNW”.
Holders
As of January 25, 2019, there were 241 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends
We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on shares of our common stock or other securities and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all future earnings, if any, for use in the operation of our business.
Issuers Purchases of Equity Securities
None
STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock between December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2018, with the cumulative total return of (i) the Nasdaq Composite Index and (ii) the S&P Information Technology Sector Index, over the same period. This graph assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2013 in our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index and the S&P Information Technology Sector Index, and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any. The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock.

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396581862_chart-a91537be2934592da5ca01.jpg
This graph assumes an investment on December 31, 2013 of $100 in our common stock (based on the closing sale price of our common stock), and in each of such indices (including the reinvestment of all dividends). Measurement points are to the last trading day for each respective period. The performance shown is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

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Item 6.        Selected Financial Data
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes and with “Management Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial data included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K. On August 1, 2016, we entered into a settlement and license agreement with Akamai with respect to the ‘703 and certain other related patents, which settled all asserted and unasserted claims with respect to the licensed patents. The terms of the agreement require us to pay $54,000 over twelve equal quarterly installments, which began on August 1, 2016. We took a charge in the year ended December 31, 2016 for the full, undiscounted amount of $54,000, per our accounting policy. On January 1, 2018, we adopted Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. We recorded a net decrease to opening accumulated deficit of $1,496 as of January 1, 2018 due to the cumulative impact of adopting Topic 606, with the impact primarily related to the costs to obtain a customer contract ($1,129), specifically commissions and upfront incentive payments, and from the recognition of revenue from customers with contracts that contain minimum commitments billed ratably over the contract term ($367). On April 9, 2018, we entered into a definitive settlement and patent license agreement with Akamai in a separate matter where the parties agreed to (i) license certain patents to the other party, (ii) a covenant not to sue for three years for certain patents related to the licensed patents, and (iii) settle all outstanding legal disputes between the parties. The terms of the agreement also required Akamai to pay to Limelight a total of $14,900, over five equal quarterly installments. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded $14,900 of settlement and patent license income related to this agreement. All information is presented in thousands, except per share amounts, customer count and where specifically noted.

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Limelight Networks, Inc.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenue
$
195,670

 
$
184,360

 
$
168,234

 
$
170,912

 
$
162,259

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

Cost of services (1)
85,920

 
78,423

 
78,857

 
84,818

 
82,176

Depreciation — network
16,277

 
18,138

 
18,032

 
17,975

 
16,673

Total cost of revenue
102,197

 
96,561

 
96,889

 
102,793

 
98,849

Gross profit
93,473

 
87,799

 
71,345

 
68,119

 
63,410

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

General and administrative (1)
32,372

 
32,053

 
30,042

 
25,027

 
28,176

Sales and marketing (1)
39,553

 
36,098

 
32,945

 
37,868

 
37,458

Research and development (1)
24,075

 
25,342

 
24,335

 
28,016

 
20,965

Depreciation and amortization
2,313

 
2,376

 
2,452

 
2,929

 
3,529

Provision for litigation

 

 
54,000

 

 

Total operating expenses
98,313

 
95,869

 
143,774

 
93,840

 
90,128

Operating loss
(4,840
)
 
(8,070
)
 
(72,429
)
 
(25,721
)
 
(26,718
)
Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

Interest expense
(86
)
 
(80
)
 
(918
)
 
(29
)
 
(32
)
Interest income
670

 
494

 
123

 
317

 
276

Settlement and patent license income
14,900

 

 

 

 

Other, net
(264
)
 
452

 
(98
)
 
1,748

 
1,821

Total other income (expense)
15,220

 
866

 
(893
)
 
2,036

 
2,065

Income (loss) from continuing operations before
   income taxes
10,380

 
(7,204
)
 
(73,322
)
 
(23,685
)
 
(24,653
)
Income tax expense
538

 
426

 
603

 
267

 
203

Income (loss) from continuing operations
9,842

 
(7,630
)
 
(73,925
)
 
(23,952
)
 
(24,856
)
Discontinued operations:

 

 

 

 

Income from discontinued operations, net of income taxes

 

 

 

 
265

Net income (loss)
$
9,842

 
$
(7,630
)
 
$
(73,925
)
 
$
(23,952
)
 
$
(24,591
)
Net income (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 

 

 

  Basic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Continuing operations
$
0.09

 
$
(0.07
)
 
$
(0.71
)
 
$
(0.24
)
 
$
(0.25
)
  Discontinued operations

 

 

 

 

Total
$
0.09

 
$
(0.07
)
 
$
(0.71
)
 
$
(0.24
)
 
$
(0.25
)
  Diluted
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Continuing operations
$
0.08

 
$
(0.07
)
 
$
(0.71
)
 
$
(0.24
)
 
$
(0.25
)
  Discontinued operations

 

 

 

 

Total
$
0.08

 
$
(0.07
)
 
$
(0.71
)
 
$
(0.24
)
 
$
(0.25
)
Weighted average shares used in per share
   calculation:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
112,114

 
108,814

 
104,350

 
100,105

 
98,365

Diluted
120,010

 
108,814

 
104,350

 
100,105

 
98,365



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(1)Includes share-based compensation as follows:
 
Limelight Networks, Inc.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Cost of services
$
1,815

 
$
1,450

 
$
1,493

 
$
2,047

 
$
1,956

General and administrative
8,458

 
6,502

 
7,070

 
5,398

 
4,741

Sales and marketing
2,837

 
2,470

 
2,792

 
2,657

 
2,317

Research and development
2,720

 
2,322

 
2,104

 
2,236

 
1,477

Total
$
15,830

 
$
12,744

 
$
13,459

 
$
12,338

 
$
10,491

 
Limelight Networks, Inc.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents and marketable
  securities, current
$
50,466

 
$
49,316

 
$
66,187

 
$
73,002

 
$
93,084

Non-current marketable securities
40

 
40

 
40

 
40

 
40

Working capital
58,273

 
44,607

 
56,643

 
86,080

 
100,218

Property and equipment, net
27,378

 
28,991

 
30,352

 
36,143

 
32,636

Total assets
198,925

 
196,448

 
208,129

 
225,627

 
241,341

Provision for litigation
9,000

 
18,000

 
18,000

 

 

Provision for litigation, less current portion

 
9,000

 
27,000

 

 

Long-term debt, less current portion

 

 

 
1,436

 
135

Total stockholders’ equity
165,151

 
144,145

 
137,568

 
198,097

 
212,163





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Item 7.        Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This annual report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements as to industry trends, our future expectations, operations, financial condition and prospects, business strategies and other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts. These statements are often identified by the use of words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “estimate,” or “continue,” and similar expressions or variations. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” set forth in Part I, Item 1A and in the "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" preceding Part I of this annual report on Form 10-K. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements. Prior period information has been modified to conform to current year presentation. All information is presented in thousands, except per share amounts, customer count and where specifically noted.
Overview
We were founded in 2001 as a provider of content delivery network services to deliver digital content over the internet. We began development of our infrastructure in 2001 and began generating meaningful revenue in 2002. Today, we are a leading provider of digital content delivery, video, cloud security, and edge computing services, empowering customers to provide exceptional digital experiences. Our edge compute services platform includes a unique combination of global private infrastructure, intelligent software, and expert support services that enable current and future workflows. Our mission is to securely manage and globally deliver digital content, building customer satisfaction through exceptional reliability and performance.
Our delivery services represent approximately 80% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. We also generate revenue through the sale of professional services and other infrastructure services, such as transit and rack space services.
We operate in markets that are highly competitive. We have experienced and expect to continue to experience increased competition in price, features, functionality, integration and other factors leading to customer churn and customers operating their own network. Competition and technology advancements have resulted in declining average selling prices in the industry. We believe continued increases in content delivery traffic growth rates, driven by increased migration of applications and data to the cloud, continued growth rates of mobile device usage, and increased consumption of rich media content and larger file sizes, are all important trends that will continue to outpace declining average selling prices in the industry.
For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, Amazon, accounted for approximately 30% and 17%, respectively, of our total revenue. For the years ended December 31, 2016, we had no customer who accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue.
In addition to these revenue-related trends, our profitability is impacted by trends in our costs of services and operating expenses. We continuously work with our vendors to optimize our data center footprint. We continuously renegotiate our infrastructure contracts in order to scale our operations based on traffic levels and lower bandwidth costs per unit. Our operating expenses are largely driven by payroll and related employee costs. Our headcount increased from 533 at December 31, 2017, to 563 as of December 31, 2018.
On August 1, 2016, we entered into a settlement and license agreement with Akamai with respect to the ‘703 and certain other related patents. The agreement settles all asserted and unasserted claims with respect to the licensed patents. The terms of the agreement require us to pay $54,000 over twelve equal quarterly installments beginning on August 1, 2016. As of December 31, 2018, there remained $9,000 due to Akamai under the terms of the settlement and license agreement.

On April 9, 2018, we entered into a definitive settlement and patent license agreement with Akamai in a separate matter where the parties agreed to (i) license certain patents to the other party, (ii) a covenant not to sue for three years for certain patents related to the licensed patents, and (iii) settle all outstanding legal disputes between the parties. The terms of the agreement also require Akamai to pay to Limelight a total of $14,900, over five equal quarterly installments. As of December 31, 2018, there remained $5,960 due from Akamai.
 

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Please see our discussion in Note 10 "Contingencies - Legal Matters" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K for more information on this and other lawsuits.
Based on current conditions, we expect 2019 revenue to be between $215,000 and $225,000. We expect GAAP earnings per share of between break-even and $0.10. We expect non-GAAP earnings per share of between $0.10 and $0.20 per share, and adjusted EBITDA of between $30,000 and $40,000. In addition, we expect capital expenditures to be between $20,000 and $24,000 for the full year.
The following table summarizes our revenue, costs and expenses for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016 (in thousands of dollars and as a percentage of total revenue).

Year Ended December 31,

2018

2017

2016
Revenue
$
195,670


100.0
 %

$
184,360


100.0
 %

$
168,234


100.0
 %
Cost of revenue
102,197


52.2
 %

96,561


52.4
 %

96,889


57.6
 %
Gross profit
93,473


47.8
 %

87,799


47.6
 %

71,345


42.4
 %
Operating expenses
98,313

 
50.2
 %
 
95,869

 
52.0
 %
 
89,774

 
53.4
 %
Provision for litigation

 
 %
 

 
 %
 
54,000

 
32.1
 %
Operating loss
(4,840
)

(2.5
)%

(8,070
)

(4.4
)%

(72,429
)

(43.1
)%
Settlement and patent license income
14,900

 
7.6
 %
 

 
 %
 

 
 %
Total other income (expense)
320


0.2
 %

866


0.5
 %

(893
)

(0.5
)%
Income (loss) before income taxes
10,380


5.3
 %

(7,204
)

(3.9
)%

(73,322
)

(43.6
)%
Income tax expense
538


0.3
 %

426


0.2
 %

603


0.4
 %
Net income (loss)
$
9,842


5.0
 %

$
(7,630
)

(4.1
)%

$
(73,925
)

(43.9
)%












Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
To evaluate our business, we consider and use non-generally accepted accounting principles (Non-GAAP) net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as supplemental measures of operating performance. These measures include the same adjustments that management takes into account when it reviews and assesses operating performance on a period-to-period basis. We consider Non-GAAP net income (loss) to be an important indicator of overall business performance. We define Non-GAAP net income (loss) to be U.S. GAAP net income (loss), adjusted to exclude the settlement and patent license income, provision for litigation, share-based compensation, litigation expenses and amortization of intangible assets. We believe that EBITDA provides a useful metric to investors to compare us with other companies within our industry and across industries. We define EBITDA as U.S. GAAP net income (loss), adjusted to exclude depreciation and amortization, interest expense, interest and other (income) expense and income tax expense. We define Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA adjusted to exclude the settlement and patent license income, provision for litigation, share-based compensation and litigation expenses. We use Adjusted EBITDA as a supplemental measure to review and assess operating performance. Our management uses these Non-GAAP financial measures because, collectively, they provide valuable information on the performance of our on-going operations, excluding non-cash charges, taxes and non-core activities (including interest payments related to financing activities). These measures also enable our management to compare the results of our on-going operations from period to period, and allow management to review the performance of our on-going operations against our peer companies and against other companies in our industry and adjacent industries. We believe these measures also provide similar insights to investors, and enable investors to review our results of operations “through the eyes of management.”
Furthermore, our management uses these Non-GAAP financial measures to assist them in making decisions regarding our strategic priorities and areas for future investment and focus.
In our January 30, 2019, earnings press release, as furnished on Form 8-K, we included Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA. The terms Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not defined under U.S. GAAP, and are not measures of operating income, operating performance or liquidity presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA have limitations as analytical tools, and when assessing our operating performance, Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation, or as a substitute for net income (loss) or other consolidated income statement data prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations include, but are not limited to:

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EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect our cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
these measures do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
Non-GAAP net income (loss) and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the cash requirements necessary for litigation costs, including provision for litigation and litigation expenses;
these measures do not reflect the interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments, on our debt that we may incur;
these measures do not reflect income taxes or the cash requirements for any tax payments;
although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will be replaced sometime in the future, and EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements;
while share-based compensation is a component of operating expense, the impact on our financial statements compared to other companies can vary significantly due to such factors as the assumed life of the options and the assumed volatility of our common stock; and
other companies may calculate Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA differently than we do, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our U.S. GAAP results and using Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA, and Adjusted EBITDA only as supplemental support for management’s analysis of business performance. Non-GAAP net income (loss), EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are calculated as follows for the periods presented.
Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In accordance with the requirements of Item 10(e) of Regulation S-K, we are presenting the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures and reconciling the unaudited Non-GAAP financial metrics to the comparable U.S. GAAP measures.
Reconciliation of U.S. GAAP Net Income (Loss) to Non-GAAP Net Income
(Unaudited)

Year Ended December 31,

2018

2017

2016
U.S. GAAP net income (loss)
$
9,842


$
(7,630
)

$
(73,925
)
Settlement and patent license income
(14,900
)
 

 

Provision for litigation




54,000

Share-based compensation
15,830


12,744


13,459

Litigation expenses
2,907


5,518


7,284

Amortization of intangible assets




14

Non-GAAP net income
$
13,679


$
10,632


$
832


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Reconciliation of U.S. GAAP Net Income (Loss) to EBITDA to Adjusted EBITDA
(Unaudited)

Year Ended December 31,

2018

2017

2016
U.S. GAAP net income (loss)
$
9,842


$
(7,630
)

$
(73,925
)
Depreciation and amortization
18,590


20,514


20,484

Interest expense
86


80


918

Interest and other (income) expense
(406
)

(946
)

(25
)
Income tax expense
538


426


603

EBITDA
$
28,650


$
12,444


$
(51,945
)
Settlement and patent license income
(14,900
)
 

 

Provision for litigation




54,000

Share-based compensation
15,830


12,744


13,459

Litigation expenses
2,907


5,518


7,284

Adjusted EBITDA
$
32,487


$
30,706


$
22,798

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments, assumptions, and estimates that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements describes the significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements. The accounting policies described below are significantly affected by critical accounting estimates. Such accounting policies require significant judgments, assumptions, and estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements, and actual results could differ materially from the amounts reported based on these policies.
Revenue Recognition
    Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.
    Our customers generally execute contracts with terms of one year or longer, which are referred to as recurring revenue contracts or long-term contracts. These contracts generally allow the customer access to our network and commit the customer to a minimum monthly level of usage with additional charges applicable for actual usage above the monthly minimum commitment, or are entirely usage based. We define usage as customer data sent or received using our content delivery service, or content that is hosted or cached by us at the request or direction of our customers. For contracts that contain minimum monthly commitments, we recognize revenue equal to the greater of the minimum monthly committed amount or actual usage, if actual usage exceeds the monthly committed amount.
For contracts that contain minimum commitments over the contractual term (greater than monthly), we evaluate the amount of variable consideration by using either the expected value method or the most likely amount method. Generally, we we believe the expected value method represents the most appropriate estimate of the amount of variable consideration. We include estimates of variable consideration in revenue only when we have a high degree of confidence that revenue will not be reversed in a subsequent reporting period. These customers have entered into contracts with contract terms generally from one to four years. We recognized revenue of approximately $8,300 during the year ended December 31, 2018, related to these types of contracts with our customers.
As of December 31, 2018, we have approximately $6,500 of fixed consideration related to remaining unsatisfied performance obligations. We expect to recognize approximately 80% of the remaining unsatisfied performance obligations in 2019, approximately 20% in 2020 with an immaterial amount thereafter.
We may charge the customer an installation fee when services are first activated. We do not charge installation fees for contract renewals. Installation fees are not distinct within the context of the overall contractual commitment with the customer to perform our content delivery service and are therefore recognized initially as deferred revenue and recognized as revenue ratably over the estimated life of the customer.

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We also derive revenue from services and events sold as discrete, non-recurring events or based solely on usage. For these services, we recognize revenue when control of promised goods or services is transferred to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.
Costs associated with obtaining a customer contract were previously expensed in the period they were incurred. Effective January 1, 2018, these payments have been capitalized on our consolidated balance sheets and amortized over the expected life of the customer.
At the inception of a customer contract for service, we make an assessment as to that customer’s ability to pay for the services provided. If we subsequently determine that collection from the customer is not probable, we record an allowance for doubtful accounts and bad debt expense or deferred revenue for that customer’s unpaid invoices and cease recognizing revenue for continued services provided until it is probable that revenue will not be reversed in a subsequent reporting period. Our standard payment terms vary by the type and location of our customer.
Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations
Certain of our revenue arrangements include multiple promises to our customers. Revenue arrangements with multiple promises are accounted for as separate performance obligations if each promise is distinct. Such arrangements may include a combination of some or all of the following: content delivery services, video content management services, performance services for website and web application acceleration and security, professional services, cloud storage, edge computing services, and sale of equipment.
Judgment may be required in determining whether products or services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately or as one combined performance obligation. Revenue is recognized over the period in which the performance obligations are satisfied, which is generally over the contract term. We have determined that generally most of our products and services do not constitute an individual service offering to our customers, as our promise to the customer is to provide a complete edge services platform, and therefore have concluded that it represents a single performance obligation. We have determined that professional services and hardware sales represent separate performance obligations from that of our edge services platform.
Consideration is allocated to the performance obligations using the relative standalone selling price method. Generally, arrangements with performance obligations are provided over the same contract period, and therefore, revenue is recognized over the same period.
We determine standalone selling price by evaluating the overall pricing objectives and market conditions. Consideration included our discounting practices, the size and volume of our transactions, the area where services are sold, price lists, historical sales and contract prices.
Deferred Revenue
Deferred revenue represents amounts billed to customers for which revenue has not been recognized. Deferred revenue primarily consists of the unearned portion of monthly billed service fees and prepayments made by customers for services to be rendered in future periods.
Accounts Receivable and Related Reserves
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amounts and do not bear interest. We record reserves as a reduction of our accounts receivable balance for service credits and for doubtful accounts. Estimates are used in determining both of these reserves. The allowance for doubtful accounts charges are included as a component of general and administrative expenses.
Our allowance for doubtful accounts is based upon a calculation that uses our aging of accounts receivable and applies a reserve percentage to the specific age of the receivable to estimate the allowance for doubtful accounts. The reserve percentages are determined based on our historical write-off experience. These estimates could change significantly if our customers’ financial condition changes or if the economy in general deteriorates. In the event such conditions become known, we specifically identify balances for necessary reserves.
Our reserve for future service credits relates to service credits that are expected to be issued to customers during the ordinary course of business. These credits typically relate to customer disputes and billing adjustments and are estimated at the time the revenue is recognized and recorded as a reduction of revenues. Estimates for service credits are based on an analysis of credits issued in previous periods.

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Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
We have recorded goodwill and other intangible assets as a result of past business acquisitions. Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price paid for an acquisition exceeds the estimated fair value of the net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired. In each of our acquisitions, the objective of the acquisition was to expand our product offerings and customer base and to achieve synergies related to cross selling opportunities, all of which contributed to the recognition of goodwill.
We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill might be impaired. We concluded that we have one reporting unit and assigned the entire balance of goodwill to this reporting unit. The estimated fair value of the reporting unit is determined using our market capitalization as of our annual impairment assessment date or more frequently if circumstances indicate the goodwill might be impaired. Items that could reasonably be expected to negatively affect key assumptions used in estimating fair value include but are not limited to:
sustained decline in our stock price due to a decline in our financial performance due to the loss of key customers, loss of key personnel, emergence of new technologies or new competitors and/or unfavorable outcomes of intellectual property disputes;
decline in overall market or economic conditions leading to a decline in our stock price; and
decline in observed control premiums paid in business combinations involving comparable companies.
The estimated fair value of the reporting unit is determined using a market approach. Our market capitalization is adjusted for a control premium based on the estimated average and median control premiums of transactions involving companies comparable to us. As of the annual impairment testing date of October 31, 2018, we determined that goodwill was not impaired. We noted that the estimated fair value of our reporting unit exceeded carrying value by approximately $443,083 or 271%, using the market capitalization plus an estimated control premium of 33% on the annual impairment testing date. There were no indicators of impairment subsequent to the annual impairment testing date.
As of December 31, 2018, we have no other unamortized intangible assets. However, in prior years, our other intangible assets represented existing technologies and customer relationship intangibles. Other intangible assets are amortized over their respective estimated lives, ranging from less than one year to six years. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate intangibles or other long-lived assets may be impaired, we evaluate the recoverability and estimated useful lives of such assets. Amortization of other intangible assets is included in depreciation and amortization in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Impairment and Useful Lives of Long-Lived Assets
We review our long-lived assets, such as fixed assets and amortizable intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. Events that would trigger an impairment review include a change in the use of the asset or forecasted negative cash flows related to the asset. When such events occur, we compare the carrying amount of the asset to the undiscounted expected future cash flows related to the asset. If this comparison indicates that impairment is present, the amount of the impairment is calculated as the difference between the carrying amount and the fair value of the asset. If a readily determinable market price does not exist, fair value is estimated using discounted expected cash flows attributable to the asset. The estimates required to apply this accounting policy include forecasted usage of the long-lived assets, the useful lives of these assets, and expected future cash flows. Changes in these estimates could materially impact results from operations.
Contingencies
We record contingent liabilities resulting from asserted and unasserted claims when it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount of the loss is reasonably estimable. We disclose contingent liabilities when there is a reasonable possibility that the ultimate loss will exceed the recorded liability. Additionally, estimating the loss, or range of loss, associated with a contingency requires analysis of multiple factors, and changes in law or other developments may ultimately cause our judgments to change. Therefore, actual losses in any future period are inherently uncertain and may be materially different from our estimate.
Deferred Taxes and Tax Reserves
Our provision for income taxes is comprised of a current and a deferred portion. The current income tax provision is calculated as the estimated taxes payable or refundable on tax returns for the current year. The deferred income tax provision is calculated for the estimated future tax effects attributable to temporary differences and carryforwards using expected tax rates in effect during the years in which the differences are expected to reverse or the carryforwards are expected to be realized.

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We currently have net deferred tax assets consisting of net operating loss carryforwards, tax credit carryforwards and deductible temporary differences. Management periodically weighs the positive and negative evidence to determine if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. Forming a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not required is difficult when there is negative evidence such as cumulative losses in recent years. As a result of our recent cumulative losses, we have recorded a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In the event we were to determine that we would be able to realize our deferred income tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, we would make an adjustment to the valuation allowance which would reduce the provision for income taxes in the period of such realization.
We have recorded certain tax reserves to address potential exposures involving our income tax and sales and use tax positions. These potential tax liabilities result from the varying application of statutes, rules, regulations and interpretations by different taxing jurisdictions. Our estimate of the value of our tax reserves contain assumptions based on past experiences and judgments about the interpretation of statutes, rules and regulations by taxing jurisdictions. It is possible that the costs of the ultimate tax liability or benefit from these matters may be materially more or less than the amount that we estimated.
Uncertainty in income taxes is recognized in our financial statements under guidance that prescribes a two-step process to determine the amount of tax benefit to be recognized. First, the tax position must be evaluated to determine the likelihood that it will be sustained upon external examination. If the tax position is deemed more-likely-than-not to be sustained, the tax position is then assessed to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The amount of the benefit that may be recognized is the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Our unrecognized tax benefit from uncertain tax positions decreased by $17 from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. We anticipate that our unrecognized tax benefits may increase or decrease within twelve months of the reporting date, as audits or reviews are initiated or settled and as a result of settling potential tax liabilities in certain foreign jurisdictions. It is not currently reasonably possible to estimate the range of change. We recognize interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in our tax provision.
Our effective tax rate is influenced by the recognition of tax positions pursuant to the more likely than not standard that such positions will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authority. In addition, other factors such as changes in tax laws, rulings by taxing authorities and court decisions, and significant changes in our operations through acquisitions or divestitures can have a material impact on the effective tax rate. Differences between our estimated and actual effective income tax rates and related liabilities are recorded in the period they become known.
We conduct business in various foreign countries. As a multinational corporation, we are subject to taxation in multiple locations, and the calculation of our foreign tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in various taxing jurisdictions. If we ultimately determine that the payment of these liabilities will be unnecessary, we reverse the liability and recognize a tax benefit during the period in which we determine the liability no longer applies. Conversely, we record additional tax charges in a period in which we determine that a recorded tax liability is less than we expect the ultimate assessment to be.
The application of tax laws and regulations is subject to legal and factual interpretation, judgment and uncertainty. Tax laws and regulations themselves are subject to change as a result of changes in fiscal policy, changes in legislation, the evolution of regulations and court rulings. Therefore, the actual liability for United States or foreign taxes may be materially different from our estimates, which could result in the need to record additional tax liabilities or potentially reverse previously recorded tax liabilities.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Tax Act) significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax law, by among other things, reducing the corporate income tax rate to 21% for tax years beginning in 2018, implementing a modified territorial system that includes a one-time transition tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries and creating new taxes on certain foreign sourced earnings. Also on December 22, 2017, The Securities and Exchange Commission staff issued Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) 118 to provide guidance for companies that are not able to complete their accounting for the income tax effects of the Tax Act in the period of enactment. SAB 118 provides for a measurement period of up to one year from the date of enactment. During the measurement period, companies need to reflect adjustments to any provisional amounts if it obtains, prepares or analyzes additional information about facts and circumstances that existed as of the enactment date that, if known, would have affected the income tax effects initially reported as provisional amounts.
At December 31, 2018, we have completed our analysis of the Tax Act.
Income tax expense for the year ending December 31, 2017 included a provisional amount of $41 tax benefit related to the re-measurement of a deferred tax liability on a long-lived asset. The remaining impact from the re-measurement of our net U.S. deferred tax asset at the lower 21% rate was offset by the valuation allowance. During 2018, this amount was finalized and no additional adjustment was required to be made.

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The one-time transition tax is based on our total post-1986 earnings and profits (E&P) that we previously deferred from U.S. income taxes. We recorded a provisional amount for our one-time transition tax liability for all of our foreign subsidiaries. The transition tax that we calculated resulted in an immaterial amount of additional federal taxable income. The additional taxable income from the transition tax was offset by net operating losses and did not result in cash taxes payable. No additional income taxes have been provided for any remaining undistributed foreign earnings not subject to the transition tax, or any additional outside basis differences inherent in these entities, as these amounts continue to be indefinitely reinvested in foreign operations. Determining the amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability related to any remaining undistributed earnings not subject to the transition tax and additional outside basis difference in these entities (i.e. basis difference in excess of that subject to the one-time transition tax) is not practicable.
The Tax Act contains several base broadening provisions that became effective on January 1, 2018 that did not have a material impact on future earnings due to our net operating loss (NOL) and valuation allowance position. Also effective for 2018 is a new Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income inclusion (GILTI). The GILTI did not have a material impact on our 2018 earnings due to our NOL and valuation allowance position.
Share-Based Compensation
We account for our share-based compensation awards using the fair-value method. The grant date fair value was determined using the Black-Scholes-Merton pricing model. The Black-Scholes-Merton valuation calculation requires us to make key assumptions such as future stock price volatility, expected terms, risk-free rates, and dividend yield. Our expected volatility is derived from our volatility rate as a publicly traded company. The expected term is based on our historical experience. The risk-free interest factor is based on the United States Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of the grant for zero coupon United States Treasury notes with maturities of approximately equal to each grant’s expected term. We have never paid cash dividends and do not currently intend to pay cash dividends, and therefore, we have assumed a 0% dividend yield.
We develop an estimate of the number of share-based awards that will be forfeited due to employee turnover. We will continue to use judgment in evaluating the expected term, volatility, and forfeiture rate related to our own share-based awards on a prospective basis, and in incorporating these factors into the model. If our actual experience differs significantly from the assumptions used to compute our share-based compensation cost, or if different assumptions had been used, we may have recorded too much or too little share-based compensation cost.
We apply the straight-line attribution method to recognize compensation costs associated with awards that are not subject to graded vesting. For awards that are subject to graded vesting and performance based awards, we recognize compensation costs separately for each vesting tranche. We also estimate when and if performance-based awards will be earned. If an award is not considered probable of being earned, no amount of share-based compensation is recognized. If the award is deemed probable of being earned, related compensation expense is recorded over the estimated service period. To the extent our estimates of awards considered probable of being earned changes, the amount of share-based compensation recognized will also change.
Results of Continuing Operations
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
Revenue
We derive revenue primarily from the sale of our digital content delivery, video delivery, cloud security, edge cloud and origin storage services. We also generate revenue through the sale of professional services and other infrastructure services, such as transit and rack space services.
The following table reflects our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to December 31, 2017:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
Increase
 
Percent
 
2018
 
2017
 
(Decrease)
 
Change
Revenue
$
195,670

 
$
184,360

 
$
11,310

 
6.1
%
Our revenue increased during the year ended December 31, 2018, versus 2017 primarily due to an increase in our content delivery revenue, which was driven by increases in volumes with certain of our larger customers. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we experienced an increase in average selling price versus the comparable 2017 period, primarily due to customer and product mix.

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Our active customers worldwide decreased to 649 as of December 31, 2018, compared to 717 as of December 31, 2017. We are continuing our selective approach to accepting profitable business by following a clear process for identifying customers that value quality, performance, availability, and service.
During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, sales to our top 20 customers accounted for approximately 71% and 66%, respectively of our total revenue. The customers that comprised our top 20 customers change from time to time, and our large customers may not continue to be as significant going forward as they have been in the past.
During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, Amazon represented approximately 30% and 17%, respectively, of our total revenue.
Revenue by geography is based on the location of the customer from which the revenue is earned. The following table sets forth revenue by geographic area (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2018

2017
Americas
$
118,462

61
%

$
116,112

63
%
EMEA
38,015

19
%

37,212

20
%
Asia Pacific
39,193

20
%

31,036

17
%
Total revenue
$
195,670

100
%

$
184,360

100
%
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of fees paid to network providers for bandwidth and backbone, costs incurred for non-settlement free peering and connection to internet service providers, and fees paid to data center operators for housing of our network equipment in third party network data centers, also known as co-location costs. Cost of revenue also includes leased warehouse space and utilities, depreciation of network equipment used to deliver our content delivery services, payroll and related costs, and share-based compensation for our network operations and professional services personnel. Other costs include professional fees and outside services, travel and travel-related expenses and royalty expenses.
Cost of revenue was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2018

2017
Bandwidth and co-location fees
$
57,118


29.2
%

$
54,033


29.3
%
Depreciation - network
16,277


8.3
%

18,138


9.8
%
Payroll and related employee costs
15,532


7.9
%

16,651


9.0
%
Share-based compensation
1,815


0.9
%

1,450


0.8
%
Other costs
11,455


5.9
%

6,289


3.4
%
Total cost of revenue
$
102,197


52.2
%

$
96,561


52.4
%
Our cost of revenue increased in aggregate dollars and remained consistent as a percentage of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus 2017 primarily as a result of the following:
Bandwidth expenses, in aggregate dollars, increased due to higher transit costs resulting from increased traffic volumes on our network and expansion into new geographies. As a percentage of total revenue, our bandwidth expenses remained consistent versus the comparable 2017 period due to renegotiated lower rates with our vendors. Our co-location costs remained consistent in aggregate dollars, but slightly decreased as a percentage of total revenue versus the comparable 2017 period due to improved server and operational efficiencies, resulting in additional revenue without corresponding proportional co-location costs.
Depreciation - network decreased due to the lower levels of capital expenditures over the last several years.
Payroll and related employee costs decreased due to lower variable compensation.
Other costs increased primarily due to an increase in international re-seller costs.


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General and Administrative
General and administrative expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2018

2017
Payroll and related employee costs
$
10,614


5.4
%

$
12,521


6.8
%
Professional fees and outside services
4,145


2.1
%

3,213


1.7
%
Share-based compensation
8,458


4.3
%

6,502


3.5
%
Litigation expenses
2,907

 
1.5
%
 
5,518

 
3.0
%
Other costs
6,248


3.2
%

4,299


2.3
%
Total general and administrative
$
32,372


16.5
%

$
32,053


17.4
%
Our general and administrative expense increased in aggregate dollars and decreased as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus 2017. The increase in aggregate dollars was primarily driven by our receipt of a state sales tax refund in 2017. In addition, we incurred an increase in professional fees and increased share-based compensation. The increase in share-based compensation is primarily the result of converting a portion of our annual corporate incentive bonus program to Company stock instead of cash to align the goals of our employee compensation with that of our shareholders. These increases were offset by decreased litigation expenses, due to the settlement of our intellectual property lawsuits and decreased payroll and related employee costs primarily due to lower variable compensation.
We expect our general and administrative expenses for 2019 to remain consistent in aggregate dollars compared to 2018, but to decrease as a percentage of revenue.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2018

2017
Payroll and related employee costs
$
27,717


14.2
%

$
25,064


13.6
%
Share-based compensation
2,837


1.4
%

2,470


1.3
%
Marketing programs
2,169


1.1
%

2,002


1.1
%
Other costs
6,830


3.5
%

6,562


3.6
%
Total sales and marketing
$
39,553


20.2
%

$
36,098


19.6
%
Our sales and marketing expense increased in aggregate dollars and increased as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus 2017. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily as a result of increased payroll and related employee costs, due to increased headcount, partially offset by lower variable compensation.
We expect our sales and marketing expenses for 2019 to increase compared with 2018 as we expand our sales force and marketing efforts.

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Research and Development
Research and development expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2018

2017
Payroll and related employee costs
$
16,710


8.5
%

$
18,647


10.1
%
Share-based compensation
2,720


1.4
%

2,322


1.3
%
Other costs
4,645


2.4
%

4,373


2.4
%
Total research and development
$
24,075


12.3
%

$
25,342


13.7
%
Our research and development expense decreased in aggregate dollars and decreased as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus 2017. The decrease in aggregate dollars was primarily due to a decrease in payroll and related employee costs due to lower variable compensation and lower average salary expense. The increase in share-based compensation is primarily the result of converting a portion of our annual corporate incentive bonus program to Company stock instead of cash to align the goals of our employee compensation with that of our shareholders.
We expect our research and development expenses for 2019 to increase slightly in aggregate dollars compared to 2018, but remain consistent as a percentage of revenue.
Depreciation and Amortization (Operating Expenses)
Depreciation and amortization expense was $2,313, or 1.2% of revenue, for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus $2,376, or 1.3% of revenue for 2017. Depreciation expense consists of depreciation on equipment and furnishings used by general administrative, sales and marketing, and research and development personnel. Amortization expense consists of amortization of intangible assets acquired in business combinations.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $86 for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus $80 for 2017. This increase was due to fees associated with the Fourth Amendment (Fourth Amendment) to the Loan and Security Agreement (the Credit Agreement) with Silicon Valley Bank (SVB) originally entered into in November 2015. See Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our Credit Agreement.
Interest Income
Interest income was $670 for the year ended December 31, 2018 versus $494 for 2017. Interest income includes interest earned on invested cash balances and marketable securities.
Settlement and Patent License Income
On April 9, 2018, we entered into a definitive settlement and patent license agreement with Akamai in a separate matter where the parties agreed to (i) license certain patents to the other party, (ii) a covenant not to sue for three years for certain patents related to the licensed patents, and (iii) settle all outstanding legal disputes between the parties. The terms of the agreement also require Akamai to pay to Limelight a total of $14,900, over five equal quarterly installments. As of December 31, 2018, there remained $5,960 due from Akamai.
Other Income (Expense)
Other expense was $264 for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus other income of $452 for 2017. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, other income consisted primarily of foreign currency transaction gains and losses and the gain on sale of fixed assets.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2018, was $538 versus $426 for 2017. Income tax expense on net income (loss) before taxes was different than the statutory income tax rate primarily due to our providing for a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets in certain jurisdictions, and recording of state and foreign tax expense for the year. The

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effective income tax rate is based primarily upon income or loss for the year, the composition of the income or loss in different countries, and adjustments, if any, for the potential tax consequences, benefits or resolutions for tax audits.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Tax Act) significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax law, by among other things, reducing the corporate income tax rate to 21% for tax years beginning in 2018, implementing a modified territorial system that includes a one-time transition tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries and creating new taxes on certain foreign sourced earnings.
Income tax expense for the year ending December 31, 2017 includes a $41 tax benefit related to the re-measurement of a deferred tax liability on a long-lived asset resulting from the federal corporate rate reduction to 21%. The remaining impact from the re-measurement of our net U.S. deferred tax asset at the lower 21% rate was offset by the valuation allowance. During 2018, this amount was finalized and no additional adjustment was required to be made.
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2017 and 2016
Revenue
The following table reflects our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to December 31, 2016:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
Increase
 
Percent
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Decrease)
 
Change
Revenue
$
184,360

 
$
168,234

 
$
16,126

 
9.6
%
Our revenue increased during the year ended December 31, 2017, versus 2016 primarily due to an increase in our content delivery revenue, which was driven by increases in volumes with certain of our larger customers. The increase in volumes in 2017 was partially offset by a small decrease in our average selling price versus the comparable 2016 period.
Our active customers worldwide decreased to 717 as of December 31, 2017, compared to 851 as of December 31, 2016. We are continuing our selective approach to accepting profitable business by following a clear process for identifying customers that value quality, performance, availability, and service.
During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, sales to our top 20 customers accounted for approximately 66% and 62%, respectively of our total revenue. The customers that comprised our top 20 customers change, and our large customers may not continue to be as significant going forward as they have been in the past.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, Amazon represented 17% of our total revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we had no customer who represented 10% or more of our total revenue.
Revenue by geography is based on the location of the customer from which the revenue is earned. The following table sets forth revenue by geographic area (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2017

2016
Americas
$
116,112

63.0
%

$
100,421

59.7
%
EMEA
37,212

20.2
%

31,326

18.6
%
Asia Pacific
31,036

16.8
%

36,487

21.7
%
Total revenue
$
184,360

100.0
%

$
168,234

100.0
%







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Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2017

2016
Bandwidth and co-location fees
$
54,033


29.3
%

$
56,596


33.6
%
Depreciation - network
18,138


9.8
%

18,032


10.7
%
Payroll and related employee costs
16,651


9.0
%

15,061


9.0
%
Share-based compensation
1,450


0.8
%

1,493


0.9
%
Other costs
6,289


3.4
%

5,707


3.4
%
Total cost of revenue
$
96,561


52.4
%

$
96,889


57.6
%
Our cost of revenue decreased in aggregate dollars and as a percentage of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus 2016 primarily as a result of the following:
Bandwidth and co-location fees decreased primarily due to decreased peering and co-location costs reflecting our continued co-location consolidation efforts and contract negotiations with our vendors. Our peering and co-location costs decreased in both aggregate dollars and as a percentage of total revenue due to improved server and operational efficiencies resulting in additional revenue without corresponding proportional costs.
This decrease was partially off-set by an increase in:
Payroll and related employee costs due to increased operations personnel and higher annual variable compensation; and
Increased other costs primarily due to other cost of sales, travel, fees and licenses and outside labor costs.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2017

2016
Payroll and related employee costs
$
12,521


6.8
%

$
7,845


4.7
%
Professional fees and outside services
3,213


1.7
%

3,289


2.0
%
Share-based compensation
6,502


3.5
%

7,070


4.2
%
Litigation expenses
5,518

 
3.0
%
 
7,284

 
4.3
%
Other costs
4,299


2.3
%

4,554


2.7
%
Total general and administrative
$
32,053


17.4
%

$
30,042


17.9
%
Our general and administrative expense increased in aggregate dollars and decreased as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus 2016. The increase in aggregate dollars was primarily due to increased payroll and related employee costs due to higher headcount, average salaries, and annual variable compensation. These increases were partially off-set by a decrease in litigation expenses related to our intellectual property lawsuits. Other costs decreased as a result of a state sales tax refund received in the second quarter of 2017 which off-set an increase in bad debt.






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Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2017

2016
Payroll and related employee costs
$
25,064


13.6
%

$
22,379


13.3
%
Share-based compensation
2,470


1.3
%

2,792


1.7
%
Marketing programs
2,002


1.1
%

1,416


0.8
%
Other costs
6,562


3.6
%

6,358


3.8
%
Total sales and marketing
$
36,098


19.6
%

$
32,945


19.6
%
Our sales and marketing expense increased in aggregate dollars and remained constant as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus 2016. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily as a result of the following:
increased payroll and related employee costs due to increased headcount and higher variable compensation;
increased marketing spending related to public relations, advertising and trade shows; and
increased other costs which related to our annual sales meeting, off-set by lower fees and licenses.
These increases were partially offset by decreased share-based compensation costs.
Research and Development
Research and development expense was composed of the following (in thousands and as a percentage of total revenue):

Year Ended December 31,

2017

2016
Payroll and related employee costs
$
18,647


10.1
%

$
18,270


10.9
%
Share-based compensation
2,322


1.3
%

2,104


1.3
%
Other costs
4,373


2.4
%

3,961


2.4
%
Total research and development
$
25,342


13.7
%

$
24,335


14.5
%
Our research and development expense increased in aggregate dollars and decreased as a percentage of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus 2016. The increase in aggregate dollars was primarily due to increased payroll and related employee costs due to higher annual variable compensation, partially offset by lower average salaries. Additionally, other costs increased primarily due to an increase in outside labor costs.
Depreciation and Amortization (Operating Expenses)
Depreciation and amortization expense was $2,376, or 1.3% of revenue, for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus $2,452, or 1.5% of revenue for 2016. Depreciation expense consists of depreciation on equipment and furnishings used by general administrative, sales and marketing, and research and development personnel. Amortization expense consists of amortization of intangible assets acquired in business combinations.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $80 for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus $918 for 2016. This decrease was primarily due to a reduction in interest on our line of credit borrowings, capital leases, fees and the amortization of fees associated with our Credit Agreement. See Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this annual report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our Credit Agreement.

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Interest Income
Interest income was $494 for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus $123 for 2016. Interest income includes interest earned on invested cash balances and marketable securities.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) was $452 for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus $(98) for 2016. For the year ended December 31, 2017, other income consisted primarily of the gain on sale of fixed assets and foreign currency transaction gains and losses.
For the year ended December 31, 2016, other income consisted primarily of foreign currency transaction gains and losses, the gain on sale of fixed assets, and the receipt of a state tax refund related to a previously divested business.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2017, was $426 versus $603 for 2016. Income tax expense on the loss before taxes was different than the statutory income tax rate primarily due to our providing for a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets in certain jurisdictions, and recording of state and foreign tax expense for the year. The effective income tax rate is based primarily upon income or loss for the year, the composition of the income or loss in different countries, and adjustments, if any, for the potential tax consequences, benefits or resolutions for tax audits.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Tax Act) significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax law, by among other things, reducing the corporate income tax rate to 21% for tax years beginning in 2018, implementing a modified territorial system that includes a one-time transition tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries and creating new taxes on certain foreign sourced earnings.
Income tax expense for the year ending December 31, 2017 includes a $41 tax benefit related to the re-measurement of a deferred tax liability on a long-lived asset resulting from the federal corporate rate reduction to 21%. The remaining impact from the re-measurement of our net U.S. deferred tax asset at the lower 21% rate was offset by the valuation allowance.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2018, our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities classified as current totaled $50,466. Included in this amount is approximately $4,822 of cash and cash equivalents held outside the United States. Changes in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities are dependent upon changes in, among other things, working capital items such as deferred revenues, accounts payable, accounts receivable, accrued provision for litigation and various accrued expenses, as well as purchases of property and equipment and changes in our capital and financial structure due to debt repurchases and issuances, stock option exercises, sales of equity investments and similar events.
In August 2016, we entered into a settlement and license agreement with Akamai with respect to the ‘703 and certain other related patents. The agreement settles all asserted and unasserted claims with respect to the licensed patents. The terms of the agreement require us to pay $54,000 over twelve equal quarterly installments beginning on August 1, 2016. As of December 31, 2018, there remained $9,000 due to Akamai under the terms of the settlement and license agreement.
On April 9, 2018, we entered into a definitive settlement and patent license agreement with Akamai in a separate matter where the parties agreed to (i) license certain patents to the other party, (ii) a covenant not to sue for three years for certain patents related to the licensed patents, and (iii) settle all outstanding legal disputes between the parties. The terms of the agreement also require Akamai to pay to Limelight a total of $14,900, over five equal quarterly installments. As of December 31, 2018, there remained $5,960 due from Akamai.
We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, and available borrowing capacity will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months. If the assumptions underlying our business plan regarding future revenue and expenses change or if unexpected opportunities or needs arise, we may seek to raise additional cash by selling equity or debt securities.
The major components of changes in cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016 are discussed in the following paragraphs.


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Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $19,722 for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus $5,498 for 2017, an increase of $14,224. Changes in operating assets and liabilities of $(10,375) during the year ended December 31, 2018, versus $(21,425) in 2017 were primarily due to:
accounts receivable decreased $5,438 during the year ended December 31, 2018 as a result of timing of collections as compared to a $5,912 increase in the comparable 2017 period;
prepaid expenses and other current assets increased $2,466 during the year ended December 31, 2018, due to an increase in customer acquisition costs off-set by the amortization of prepaid bandwidth expenses and other prepaid expenses, compared to a $342 increase in the comparable 2017 period;
accounts payable and other current liabilities decreased $4,333 during the year ended December 31, 2018, versus a increase of $4,019 for the comparable 2017 period due to timing of vendor payments and the payment of 2017 variable compensation accruals; and
net payments for provision for litigation decreased by $8,940 as a result of the payments received from Akamai under the settlement and patent license agreement.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $5,498 for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus $6,558 for 2016, a decrease of $1,060. Changes in operating assets and liabilities of $(21,425) during the year ended December 31, 2017, versus $(7,937) in 2016 were primarily due to:
provision for litigation decreased by $18,000 as a result of our settlement agreement payments made to Akamai;
accounts receivable increased $5,912 during the year ended December 31, 2017 as a result of timing of collections as compared to a $760 increase in the comparable 2016 period;
prepaid expenses and other current assets increased $342 during the year ended December 31, 2017, due to an increase in prepaid bandwidth expenses and VAT receivables, compared to a $4,648 decrease in the comparable 2016 period; and
accounts payable and other current liabilities increased $4,019 during the year ended December 31, 2017, versus a decrease of $1,757 for the comparable 2016 period due to increased variable compensation accruals and the timing of vendor payments.
Cash provided by operating activities may not be sufficient to cover new purchases of property and equipment during 2019 and beyond. The timing and amount of future working capital changes and our ability to manage our days sales outstanding will also affect the future amount of cash used in or provided by operating activities.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $12,744 for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus $4,802 for 2017 and $25,373 for the year ended December 31, 2016. Net cash used in investing activities was primarily related to the purchase of marketable securities, and capital expenditures primarily for servers and network equipment associated with the build-out and expansion of our global computing platform, partially offset by cash received from the sale and maturities of marketable securities.
We expect to have ongoing capital expenditure requirements as we continue to invest in and expand our content delivery network. During 2018, we made capital expenditures of $16,113, which represented approximately 8% of our total revenue. We currently expect an increase in capital expenditures in 2019 compared to 2018, as we continue to increase the capacity of our global network and re-fresh our systems.
Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities was $2,420 for the year ended December 31, 2018, versus $1,848 for 2017. Net cash used in financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2018, primarily relates to payments of employee tax withholdings related to the net settlement of vested restricted stock units of $4,793, the repurchase of our common stock of $3,800, offset by cash received from the exercise of stock options and our employee stock purchase plan of $6,173.
Net cash used in financing activities was $1,848 for the year ended December 31, 2017, versus $3,924 for 2016. Net cash used in financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily relates to payments of employee tax withholdings related to the net settlement of vested restricted stock units of $4,496, offset by cash received from the exercise of stock options and our employee stock purchase plan of $2,648.

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Line of Credit
In February 2018, we entered into the Fourth Amendment to the Credit Agreement with SVB originally entered into in November 2015. Under the Fourth Amendment, we increased the maximum principal commitment amount from $10,000 to $20,000. Our borrowing capacity is the lesser of the commitment amount or 80% of eligible accounts receivable. The Fourth Amendment extended the Credit Agreement one year. All outstanding borrowings owed under the Credit Agreement become due and payable no later than the final maturity date of November 2, 2020.
As of December 31, 2018, borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest at the current prime rate minus 0.25%. In the event of default, obligations shall bear interest at a rate per annum which is 3% above the then applicable rate.  As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, we had no outstanding borrowings, and we had availability under the Credit Agreement of approximately $20,000 and $10,000, respectively.
Financial Covenants and Borrowing Limitations
The Credit Agreement requires, and any future credit facilities will likely require, us to comply with specified financial requirements that may limit the amount we can borrow. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default. Our ability to satisfy those covenants depends principally upon our ability to meet or exceed certain financial performance results. Any debt agreements we enter into in the future may further limit our ability to enter into certain types of transactions.
Under the Fourth Amendment, we are required to maintain a minimum liquidity of $10,000 at all times, measured quarterly, with a minimum of $5,000 of the $10,000 in cash at SVB. In addition, we are required to maintain an Adjusted Quick Ratio of at least 1.0 to 1.0. We are also subject to certain customary limitations on our ability to, among other things, incur debt, grant liens, make acquisitions and other investments, make certain restricted payments such as dividends, dispose of assets or undergo a change in control. As of December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with all covenants under the Credit Agreement.
For a more detailed discussion regarding our Credit Agreement, please refer to Note 8 "Line of Credit" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We may be prevented from taking advantage of business opportunities that arise because of the limitations imposed on us by restrictive covenants within the Credit Agreement. These restrictions may also limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions, meet capital needs or otherwise restrict our activities or business plans and adversely affect our ability to finance our operations, enter into acquisitions, execute our business strategy, effectively compete with companies that are not similarly restricted or engage in other business activities that would be in our interest. In the future, we may also incur debt obligations that might subject us to additional and different restrictive covenants that could affect our financial and operational flexibility. We cannot assure you that we will be granted waivers or amendments to the indenture governing the Credit Agreement, or such other debt obligations if for any reason we are unable to comply with our obligations thereunder or that we will be able to refinance our debt on acceptable terms, or at all, should we seek to do so. Any such limitations on borrowing under the Credit Agreement, including payments related to litigation, could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and our ability to continue as a going concern could be impaired.
Capital leases
We occasionally acquire equipment under capital lease agreements. The outstanding balance for capital leases was approximately $1,902 as of December 31, 2015. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we paid $4,236, which represented the outstanding balance for all capital lease obligations at that time. As of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, we had no outstanding capital lease obligations.
Share repurchases
On March 14, 2017, our board of directors authorized a $25,000 share repurchase program. Any shares repurchased under this program will be canceled and returned to authorized but unissued status. This share repurchase program replaced the $9,500 remaining from the previously announced $15,000 share repurchase program. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we purchased and canceled 1,000 shares for $3,800, including commissions and fees. During the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, we did not repurchase any shares under the repurchase programs. As of December 31, 2018, there remained $21,200 under this share repurchase program.


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Contractual Obligations, Contingent Liabilities, and Commercial Commitments
In the normal course of business, we make certain long-term commitments for operating agreements, primarily office facilities, bandwidth, and computer rack space. These commitments expire on various dates ranging from 2019 to 2022. We expect that the growth of our business will require us to continue to add to and increase our long-term commitments in 2019 and beyond. As a result of our growth strategies, we believe that our liquidity and capital resources requirements will grow.
The following table presents our contractual obligations and commercial commitments, as of December 31, 2018 over the next five years and thereafter (in thousands):


Payments Due by Period




Less than





More than


Total

1 year

1-3 years

3-5 years

5 years
Operating Agreements










  Bandwidth

$
19,492


$
16,367


$
3,123


$
2


$

  Co-location

7,419


5,711


1,466


242



  Real estate leases

4,360


2,266


2,039


55



Total operating agreements

31,271


24,344


6,628


299



Settlement agreement

9,000


9,000







Total commitments

$
40,271


$
33,344


$
6,628


$
299


$

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of December 31, 2018, we are not involved in any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of SEC Regulation S-K.
New Accounting Pronouncements
See Item 8 of Part II, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - Recent Accounting Standards.”
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Interest Rate Risk
Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our debt and investment portfolio. In our investment portfolio, we do not use derivative financial instruments. Our investments are primarily with our commercial and investment banks and, by policy, we limit the amount of risk by investing primarily in money market funds, United States Treasury obligations, high quality corporate and municipal obligations, and certificates of deposit. Interest expense on our line of credit under the Fourth Amendment is at the current prime rate minus 0.25%.  In the event of default, obligations shall bear interest at a rate per annum which is 3% above the then applicable rate. An increase in interest rates of 100 basis points would add $10 of interest expense per year, to our financial position or results of operations, for each $1,000 drawn on the line of credit. As of December 31, 2018, there were no outstanding borrowings against the line of credit.
Foreign Currency Risk
We operate in the Americas, EMEA and Asia-Pacific. As a result of our international business activities, our financial results could be affected by factors such as changes in foreign currency exchange rates or economic conditions in foreign markets, and there is no assurance that exchange rate fluctuations will not harm our business in the future. We have foreign currency exchange rate exposure on our results of operations as it relates to revenues and expenses denominated in foreign currencies. A portion of our cost of revenues and operating expenses are denominated in foreign currencies as are our revenues associated with certain international customers. To the extent that the U.S. dollar weakens, similar foreign currency denominated transactions in the future will result in higher revenues and higher cost of revenues and operating expenses, with expenses having the greater impact on our financial results. Similarly, our revenues and expenses will decrease if the U.S. dollar strengthens against these foreign currencies. Although we will continue to monitor our exposure to currency

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fluctuations, and, where appropriate, may use financial hedging techniques in the future to minimize the effect of these fluctuations, we are not currently engaged in any financial hedging transactions. Assuming a 10% weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to our foreign currency denominated revenues and expenses, our net income for the year ended December 31, 2018, would have been lower by approximately $1,563. There are inherent limitations in the sensitivity analysis presented, primarily due to the assumption that foreign exchange rate movements across multiple jurisdictions are similar and would be linear and instantaneous. As a result, the analysis is unable to reflect the potential effects of more complex markets or other changes that could arise, which may positively or negatively affect our results of operations.
Inflation Risk
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. If our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Credit Risk
During any given fiscal period, a relatively small number of customers typically account for a significant percentage of our revenue. For example, in 2018, 2017, and 2016, sales to our top 20 customers accounted for approximately 71%, 66% and 62%, respectively, of our total revenue. During 2018 and 2017, Amazon represented approximately 30% and 17%, respectively, of our total revenue. During 2016, we had no customer who represented 10% or more of our total revenue. In 2019, we anticipate that our top 20 customer concentration levels will remain consistent with 2018. In the past, the customers that comprised our top 20 customers have continually changed, and our large customers may not continue to be as significant going forward as they have been in the past.



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Item 8.        Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
LIMELIGHT NETWORKS, INC.
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Schedule

 
Page

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Limelight Networks, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Limelight Networks, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company at December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated January 31, 2019 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.



/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2006.
Phoenix, Arizona
January 31, 2019





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Limelight Networks, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 
December 31,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
25,383

 
$
20,912

Marketable securities
25,083

 
28,404

Accounts receivable, net
26,041

 
32,381

Income taxes receivable
122

 
98

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
14,789

 
5,397

Total current assets
91,418

 
87,192

Property and equipment, net
27,378

 
28,991

Marketable securities, less current portion
40

 
40

Deferred income taxes
1,462

 
1,506

Goodwill
76,407

 
77,054

Other assets
2,220

 
1,665

Total assets
$
198,925

 
$
196,448

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
9,216

 
$
4,439

Deferred revenue
1,883

 
1,187

Income taxes payable
124

 
452

Provision for litigation
9,000

 
18,000

Other current liabilities
12,922

 
18,507

Total current liabilities
33,145

 
42,585

Deferred income taxes
152

 
144

Deferred revenue, less current portion
42

 
16

Provision for litigation, less current portion

 
9,000

Other long-term liabilities
435

 
558

Total liabilities
33,774

 
52,303

Commitments and contingencies

 

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 7,500 shares authorized; 0 shares issued
  and outstanding

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value; 300,000 shares authorized; 114,246 and 110,824 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
114

 
111

Additional paid-in capital
513,682

 
502,312

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(10,033
)
 
(8,328
)
Accumulated deficit
(338,612
)
 
(349,950
)
Total stockholders’ equity
165,151

 
144,145

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
198,925

 
$
196,448

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

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Limelight Networks, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue
$
195,670

 
$
184,360

 
$
168,234

Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of services (1)
85,920

 
78,423

 
78,857

Depreciation — network
16,277

 
18,138

 
18,032

Total cost of revenue
102,197

 
96,561

 
96,889

Gross profit
93,473

 
87,799

 
71,345

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
General and administrative
32,372

 
32,053

 
30,042

Sales and marketing
39,553

 
36,098

 
32,945

Research and development
24,075

 
25,342

 
24,335

Depreciation and amortization
2,313

 
2,376

 
2,452

Provision for litigation

 

 
54,000

Total operating expenses
98,313

 
95,869

 
143,774

Operating loss
(4,840
)
 
(8,070
)
 
(72,429
)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(86
)
 
(80
)
 
(918