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Section 1: 424B5 (FINAL PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT)

Final Prospectus Supplement
Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration No. 333-215229

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each class of

securities to be registered

  Amount to be
registered
  Maximum offering
price per share(1)
  Maximum aggregate
offering price(1)
  Amount of
registration fee

Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share

  5,750,000   22.14   $127,305,000   $15,429.37

 

 

(1)

Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the amount of the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), based on the average of the high and low reported sale prices for the Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc.’s common stock as reported by the New York Stock Exchange on December 13, 2018.


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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To prospectus dated August 4, 2017)

5,000,000 SHARES

 

LOGO

Hannon Armstrong Sustainable

Infrastructure Capital, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc. provides debt and equity capital focused on reducing the impact of, or increasing resiliency to, climate change.

We are offering 5,000,000 shares of our common stock as described in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. All of the shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are being sold by us. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “HASI.”

On December 11, 2018, the last reported sales price for our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $23.25 per share.

We elected and qualified to be taxed as a real estate investment trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes, or REIT, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013. To assist us in qualifying as a REIT, among other purposes, stockholders are generally restricted from owning more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock, the outstanding shares of any class or series of our preferred stock, or the outstanding shares of our capital stock. In addition, our charter contains various restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our shares. See “Description of Securities—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement and page 3 of the accompanying prospectus. You should also read carefully the risk factors described in our Securities and Exchange Commission filings, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, before investing in our common stock.

The underwriters have agreed to purchase our common stock from us at a price of $21.60 per share, which will result in approximately $107.5 million of net proceeds to us after deducting offering expenses. The underwriters propose to offer the shares of common stock from time to time for sale in negotiated transactions or otherwise, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. See “Underwriting.”

We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to 750,000 additional shares of our common stock from us at the price set forth above within 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these shares or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus are truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The shares of common stock sold in this offering will be ready for delivery on or about December 17, 2018.

 

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

 

BofA Merrill Lynch   Baird   J.P. Morgan   Morgan Stanley   UBS Investment Bank   Wells Fargo Securities

Co-Manager

 

Oppenheimer & Co.

 

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is December 12, 2018.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     ii  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

THE OFFERING

     S-4  

RISK FACTORS

     S-6  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-9  

UNDERWRITING

     S-10  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-15  

EXPERTS

     S-16  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-17  

PROSPECTUS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

SUMMARY INFORMATION

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     3  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     8  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     22  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     25  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

     27  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE MARYLAND GENERAL CORPORATION LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     28  

HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE, L.P. PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

     34  

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     37  

BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES

     66  

LEGAL MATTERS

     68  

EXPERTS

     69  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     70  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is the prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into the prospectus. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus, the information in this prospectus supplement shall control. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, that adds to, updates or changes information contained in an earlier filing we made with the SEC shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information in the earlier filing.

You should read this document together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information and Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompany prospectus. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should assume that the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the information we have previously filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this document, is accurate only as of its date or the dates which are specified in those documents, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any sale of shares of our common stock.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights some of the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in shares of our common stock. Before making an investment decision, you should read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including the financial statements and related notes as well as the “Risk Factors” section in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, or our 2017 10-K, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. References in this prospectus supplement to “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc., a Maryland corporation, Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure, L.P., and any of our other subsidiaries. Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure, L.P. is a Delaware limited partnership of which we are the sole general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus supplement as our operating partnership. Unless indicated otherwise, the information in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional 750,000 shares of our common stock.

Company Overview

We provide capital and services focused on reducing climate changing greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon emissions, as well as mitigating the impact of, or increasing resiliency to, climate change. We focus primarily on the energy efficiency, renewable energy and other sustainable infrastructure markets. Our goal is to generate attractive returns for our stockholders by investing capital in assets or projects that generate long-term, recurring and predictable cash flows or cost savings from proven technologies. We also provide services to the various partners and counterparties in the markets where we invest.

We are internally managed, and our management team has extensive relevant industry knowledge and experience, dating back more than 30 years. We have long-standing relationships with the leading energy service companies, or ESCOs, manufacturers, project developers, utilities, owners and operators. Our origination strategy is to use these relationships to generate recurring, programmatic investment and fee generating opportunities. Additionally, we have relationships with the leading banks, investment banks, and institutional investors from which we receive additional investment and fee generating opportunities.

Our investments are focused on three markets:

 

   

Energy efficiency projects: projects, typically undertaken by ESCOs, which reduce a building’s or facility’s energy usage or cost by improving or installing various building components, including heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems or HVAC systems, lighting, energy controls, roofs, windows, building shells, and/or combined heat and power systems;

 

   

Renewable energy projects: projects that deploy cleaner energy sources, such as solar and wind to generate power production; and

 

   

Other sustainable infrastructure: upgraded transmission or distribution systems, water and storm water infrastructure, seismic retrofits and other projects, that improve water or energy efficiency, increase resiliency, positively impact the environment or more efficiently use natural resources.

We make equity investments in renewable energy projects, or portfolios of projects operated by various renewable energy companies. These transactions allow us to participate in the cash flows associated with these projects, typically on a priority basis. We make debt investments in energy efficiency projects, which reduce the amount or cost of energy usage, and may also make debt investments in various projects or portfolios of projects. We are usually assigned the payment stream and other contractual rights, often using our pre-existing master



 

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purchase agreements with the ESCOs. Our investments are generally also secured by the installed improvements or other real estate rights. We also own directly, or through joint ventures over 24,000 acres of land that are leased under long-term agreements to over 50 renewable energy projects, which we have recorded in our financial statements as real estate, and also have rights to payments from land leases for a diversified portfolio of over 50 wind and solar projects, which we have recorded in our financial statements as commercial receivables.

We focus on projects that use proven technology and that often have contractually committed agreements with an investment grade rated off-taker or counterparties. The off-taker or counterparty may be part of the wholesale electric power grid, such as a utility or electric user who has entered into a contractually committed agreement, such as a power purchase agreement, to purchase some, or all of, the power produced by a renewable energy project at a minimum price with potential price escalators for a portion of the project’s estimated life. In the case of distributed (building or facility specific) projects, which we refer to as ‘behind-the-meter’, the off-taker or counterparty may be the building owner or occupant, and we may be secured by the installed improvements or other real estate rights.

While we prefer investments in which we hold a senior or preferred position in a project, as our markets evolve and grow, we are seeing opportunities to invest, and have invested, in mezzanine debt or common equity in projects where we are subordinated to project debt and/or preferred forms of equity. We also generate on-going fees through gain-on-sale securitization transactions, advisory services and asset management.

We completed approximately $553 million and $861 million of transactions during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to approximately $62 million and $751 million during the same periods in 2017. As of September 30, 2018, pursuant to our strategy of holding transactions on our balance sheet, we held approximately $2.1 billion of transactions on our balance sheet, which we refer to as our “Portfolio”. As of September 30, 2018, our Portfolio consisted of over 175 investments and we seek to manage the diversity of our Portfolio by, among other factors, project type, project operator, type of investment, type of technology, transaction size, geography, obligor and maturity.

We believe we have available to us a broad range of financing sources that allow us to use borrowings as part of our financing strategy to increase potential returns to our stockholders. We may finance our investments through the use of non-recourse or recourse debt and equity. We have worked to expand our liquidity and access to the debt and bank loan markets and have entered into transactions with a number of new lenders and insurance companies over the past several years. We may also decide to finance transactions through the use of off-balance sheet securitization structures where we transfer all or a portion of the economics of the transaction, typically using securitization trusts, to institutional investors in exchange for upfront revenues and in some cases, ongoing fees for managing the assets. As a result of increases in short term interest rates without a corresponding increase in long term rates which has resulted in a reduction in the difference in yield between short term interest rates and long-term interest rates known as a flattening of the yield curve, we will likely increase our use of these securitization structures in the short to mid-term. As of September 30, 2018, we managed approximately $3.2 billion in assets in these securitization trusts or vehicles that are not consolidated on our balance sheet. When combined with our Portfolio, as of September 30, 2018, we manage approximately $5.3 billion of assets which we refer to as our managed assets.

We have a large and active pipeline of potential new opportunities that are in various stages of our underwriting process. We refer to potential opportunities as being part of our pipeline if we have determined that the project fits within our investment strategy and exhibits the appropriate risk/reward characteristics through an initial credit analysis, including a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the opportunity, as well as research on the market and sponsor. Our pipeline of transactions that could potentially close in the next 12 months consists of opportunities in which we will be the lead originator as well as projects in which we may participate



 

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with other institutional investors. As of September 30, 2018, our pipeline consisted of more than $2.5 billion in new debt and equity opportunities. There can, however, be no assurance that any or all of the transactions in our pipeline will be completed in the next 12 months, or at all, or with regard to any specific terms of such pipeline transactions.

As part of our investment process, we calculate the estimated metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions, or carbon emissions avoided by our investments. In this calculation, which we refer to as CarbonCount®, we apply emissions factor data from the U.S. Government or the International Energy Agency to an estimate of a project’s energy production or savings to compute an estimate of metric tons of carbon emissions avoided. In addition to carbon emissions, investments are also screened for other environmental benefits such as water use reduction.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

5,000,000 shares (plus up to an additional 750,000 shares of our common stock that we may issue and sell upon the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares).

 

Common stock and OP units to be outstanding upon completion of this offering

61,800,793 shares and 277,586 limited partnership units in our operating partnership, or OP units.(1)

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $107.5 million, or approximately $123.7 million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, after deducting offering expenses. We intend to contribute the net proceeds of this offering to our operating partnership which in turn will use such proceeds to acquire our target assets and for general corporate purposes. Prior to the full investment of such net proceeds, we intend to invest such net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities which are consistent with our intention to qualify for taxation as a REIT. See “Use of Proceeds.” For further information about our objectives and strategies, please see “Business—Investment Strategy,” included in our 2017 10-K, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

Dividend policy

We have and intend to continue to make regular quarterly distributions to holders of our common stock. U.S. federal income tax law generally requires that a REIT distribute annually at least 90% of its REIT taxable income, without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gains, and that it pay tax at regular corporate rates to the extent that it annually distributes less than 100% of its REIT taxable income. Our current policy is to pay quarterly distributions, which on an annual basis will equal or exceed substantially all of our REIT taxable income. Any distributions we make will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon, among other things, our actual results of operations. These results and our ability to pay distributions will be affected by various factors, including the net interest and other income from our portfolio, our operating expenses and any other expenditures.

 

New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, symbol

“HASI”

 

Ownership and transfer restrictions

To assist us in complying with the limitations on the concentration of ownership of a REIT imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986,

 

(1) 

Based on 56,800,793 shares of common stock outstanding as of December 12, 2018, and excludes (1) 750,000 shares of our common stock that we may issue and sell upon the full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, (2) shares of our restricted common stock which we may grant in the future under our 2013 equity incentive plan, and (3) OP units held directly or indirectly by us.



 

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as amended, or the Internal Revenue Code, among other purposes, our charter generally prohibits, among other prohibitions, any stockholder from beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock, the outstanding shares of any class or series of our preferred stock or the outstanding shares of our capital stock of all classes and series. See “Description of Securities—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully read the information contained under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and page 12 of the accompanying prospectus, and the risks set forth under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” included in our 2017 10-K and our other filings under the Exchange Act for risks that you should consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

 

Regulatory

We have elected to qualify, and operate our business so as to qualify, to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013.

 

  We also intend to continue to operate our business in a manner that will permit us to maintain our exception from registration as an investment company under the 1940 Act.

Our Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 1906 Towne Centre Blvd, Suite 370, Annapolis, Maryland 21401. Our telephone number is (410) 571-9860. Our website is www.hannonarmstrong.com. The information on our website is not intended to form a part of or be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

Recent Developments

On December 11, 2018, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.33 per share of our common stock, payable on January 10, 2019, to stockholders of record on December 26, 2018. Based upon the closing price of our common stock of $23.21 per share on December 10, 2018, the dividend represents an annualized yield of 5.7%. Investors in this offering will receive this dividend.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risk factors described in the section “Risk Factors” contained in our 2017 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference, together with all of the other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Any of these risks described could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, tax status or ability to make distributions to our stockholders. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business operations. If this were to happen, the price of our common stock could decline significantly and you could lose a part or all of your investment.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

We make forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that are subject to risks and uncertainties. For these statements, we claim the protections of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in such Sections. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. When we use the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “may” or similar expressions, we intend to identify forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. Investors are cautioned against placing undue reliance on such statements. Actual results may differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements are contained in our 2017 10-K that was filed with the SEC, and include risks discussed in other periodic reports that we file with the SEC. Statements regarding the following subjects, among others, may be forward-looking:

 

   

the use of proceeds from this offering;

 

   

our expected returns and performance of our investments;

 

   

the state of government legislation, regulation and policies that support or enhance the economic feasibility of sustainable infrastructure projects, including energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and the general market demands for such projects;

 

   

market trends in our industry, energy markets, commodity prices, interest rates, the debt and lending markets or the general economy;

 

   

our business and investment strategy;

 

   

availability of opportunities to invest in projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions or mitigate the impact of climate change including energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and our ability to complete potential new opportunities in our pipeline;

 

   

our relationships with originators, investors, market intermediaries and professional advisers;

 

   

competition from other providers of capital;

 

   

our or any other companies’ projected operating results;

 

   

actions and initiatives of the federal, state and local governments and changes to federal, state and local government policies, regulations, tax laws and rates and the execution and impact of these actions, initiatives and policies;

 

   

the state of the U.S. economy generally or in specific geographic regions, states or municipalities; economic trends and economic recoveries;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain financing arrangements on favorable terms, including securitizations;

 

   

general volatility of the securities markets in which we participate;

 

   

changes in the value of our assets, our portfolio of assets and our investment and underwriting process;

 

   

rates of default or decreased recovery rates on our assets;

 

   

interest rate and maturity mismatches between our assets and any borrowings used to fund such assets;

 

   

changes in interest rates, including the flattening of the yield curve, and the market value of our assets and target assets;

 

   

changes in commodity prices, including continued low natural gas prices;

 

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effects of hedging instruments on our assets or liabilities;

 

   

the degree to which our hedging strategies may or may not protect us from risks, such as an interest rate volatility;

 

   

impact of and changes in accounting guidance and similar matters;

 

   

our ability to maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

   

our ability to maintain our exception from registration under the 1940 Act;

 

   

availability of and our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;

 

   

estimates relating to our ability to generate sufficient cash in the future to operate our business and to make distributions to our stockholders; and

 

   

our understanding of our competition.

Forward-looking statements are based on beliefs, assumptions and expectations as of the date of this prospectus supplement or the date of the documents incorporated by reference herein. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time, and it is not possible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

The risks included here are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein may include additional factors that could adversely affect our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors, nor can it assess the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $107.5 million, or approximately $123.7 million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, after deducting offering expenses.

We intend to contribute the net proceeds of this offering to our operating partnership which in turn will use such proceeds to acquire our target assets and for general corporate purposes. Prior to the full investment of such net proceeds, we intend to invest such net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities which are consistent with our intention to qualify for taxation as a REIT. For further information about our objectives and strategies, please see “Business—Investment Strategy,” included in our 2017 10-K, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, UBS Securities LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC are acting as representatives of each of the underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in an underwriting agreement among the underwriters and us, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, at the price of $21.60 per share, the number of shares of common stock set forth opposite its name below.

 

Underwriter

   Number of
Shares
 

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith
                 Incorporated

     791,750  

Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated

     791,650  

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

     791,650  

Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC

     791,650  

UBS Securities LLC

     791,650  

Wells Fargo Securities, LLC

     791,650  

Oppenheimer & Co. Inc.

     250,000  
  

 

 

 

Total

     5,000,000  
  

 

 

 

The underwriters may offer the shares of common stock from time to time for sale in one or more transactions on the NYSE, in the over-the-counter market, through negotiated transactions or otherwise at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. The underwriters may effect such transactions by selling shares of common stock to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or purchasers of shares of common stock for whom they may act as agents or to whom they may sell as principal.

The difference between the price at which the underwriters purchase shares and the price at which underwriters resell such shares may be deemed underwriting compensation.

The underwriters are offering the shares, subject to prior sale, when, as and if issued to and accepted by them, subject to approval of legal matters by their counsel, including the validity of the shares, and other conditions contained in the underwriting agreement, such as the receipt by the underwriters of officer’s certificates and legal opinions. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, the underwriters have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase all of the shares sold under the underwriting agreement if any of these shares are purchased. If an underwriter defaults, the underwriting agreement provides that the purchase commitments of the nondefaulting underwriters may be increased or the underwriting agreement may be terminated.

We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

The estimated expenses of the offering, exclusive of underwriting discounts and commissions, are approximately $550,000 and are payable by us.

 

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Option to Purchase Additional Shares

We have granted an option to the underwriters, exercisable for 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to 750,000 additional shares at the price per share set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. If the underwriters exercise this option, each will be obligated, subject to conditions contained in the underwriting agreement, to purchase a number of additional shares proportionate to that underwriter’s initial amount reflected in the above table.

 

No Sales of Similar Securities

We, our executive officers and directors have agreed not to sell or transfer any common stock or securities convertible into, exchangeable for, exercisable for, or repayable with common stock, for 45 days after the date of the underwriting agreement among the underwriters and us without first obtaining the written consent of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, UBS Securities LLC and Wells Fago Securities, LLC. Specifically, we and these other persons have agreed, with certain limited exceptions, not to directly or indirectly:

 

   

offer, pledge, sell or contract to sell any common stock, provided that offers and sales of common stock under our “at the market” program shall be limited for 30 days rather than 45 days,

 

   

sell any option or contract to purchase any common stock,

 

   

purchase any option or contract to sell any common stock,

 

   

grant any option, right or warrant for the sale of any common stock,

 

   

lend or otherwise dispose of or transfer any common stock,

 

   

request or demand that we file a registration statement related to the common stock, or

 

   

enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers, in whole or in part, the economic consequence of ownership of any common stock whether any such swap or transaction is to be settled by delivery of shares or other securities, in cash or otherwise.

This lock-up provision applies to common stock and to securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for or repayable with common stock. It also applies to common stock owned now or acquired later by the person executing the agreement or for which the person executing the agreement later acquires the power of disposition.

However, with respect to our directors and executive officers, the restrictions described above shall not apply to (i) bona fide gifts or transfers to family members or trusts for the direct or indirect benefit of the director or executive officer or his or her family members or bona fide gifts for charities, provided in each case that the transferee agrees in writing to be bound by the terms of the lock-up agreement, and (ii) for shares sold in certain instances based on withholding taxes for vesting of restricted stock. Further, with respect to certain of our executive officers, the restrictions described above shall not apply to certain sales and gifts made pursuant to their previously established 10b5-1 plans.

Listing

The shares are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “HASI.”

Price Stabilization, Short Positions and Penalty Bids

Until the distribution of the shares is completed, SEC rules may limit underwriters and selling group members from bidding for and purchasing our common stock. However, the representatives may engage in transactions that stabilize the price of the common stock, such as bids or purchases to peg, fix or maintain that price.

 

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In connection with the offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell our common stock in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, purchases on the open market to cover positions created by short sales and stabilizing transactions. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of shares than they are required to purchase in the offering. “Covered” short sales are sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares described above. The underwriters may close out any covered short position by either exercising their option to purchase additional shares or purchasing shares in the open market. In determining the source of shares to close out the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the option granted to them. “Naked” short sales are sales in excess of such option. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of our common stock in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of various bids for or purchases of shares of common stock made by the underwriters in the open market prior to the completion of this offering.

The underwriters may also impose a penalty bid. This occurs when a particular underwriter repays to the underwriters a portion of the underwriting discount received by it because the representatives have repurchased shares sold by or for the account of such underwriter in stabilizing or short covering transactions.

Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriters’ purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. The underwriters may conduct these transactions on the NYSE, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. In addition, neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation that the representatives will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.

Electronic Distribution

In connection with the offering, certain of the underwriters or securities dealers may distribute prospectuses by electronic means, such as e-mail.

Conflict of Interest

In the past, certain of the underwriters and their affiliates have provided traditional commercial lending to us in one off financings in the ordinary course of business. Some of the underwriters and their affiliates may in the future engage in investment banking and other commercial dealings in the ordinary course of business with us or our affiliates. Accordingly, they have received, or may in the future receive, customary fees and commissions for these transactions. We have in the past, and may continue in the future, to purchase assets held by affiliates of one or more of the underwriters. Bank of America, N.A., an affiliate of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner and Smith Incorporated, is the lender under our existing credit facility.

In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the underwriters and their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. The underwriters and their affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

 

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Notice to Prospective Investors in the Dubai International Financial Centre

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Offered Securities Rules of the Dubai Financial Services Authority, or DFSA. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Offered Securities Rules of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus nor taken steps to verify the information set forth herein and has no responsibility for the prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The shares to which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the shares offered should conduct their own due diligence on the shares. If you do not understand the contents of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus you should consult an authorized financial advisor.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Australia

No placement document, prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document has been lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, or ASIC, in relation to the offering.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act 2001, or the Corporations Act, and does not purport to include the information required for a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act.

Any offer in Australia of the shares may only be made to persons, or the Exempt Investors, who are “sophisticated investors” (within the meaning of section 708(8) of the Corporations Act), “professional investors” (within the meaning of section 708(11) of the Corporations Act) or otherwise pursuant to one or more exemptions contained in section 708 of the Corporations Act so that it is lawful to offer the shares without disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act.

The shares applied for by Exempt Investors in Australia must not be offered for sale in Australia in the period of 12 months after the date of allotment under the offering, except in circumstances where disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act would not be required pursuant to an exemption under section 708 of the Corporations Act or otherwise or where the offer is pursuant to a disclosure document which complies with Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act. Any person acquiring shares must observe such Australian on-sale restrictions.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain general information only and do not take account of the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. It does not contain any securities recommendations or financial product advice. Before making an investment decision, investors need to consider whether the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is appropriate to their needs, objectives and circumstances, and, if necessary, seek expert advice on those matters.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong

The shares have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than (a) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong and any rules made under that Ordinance; or (b) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of that Ordinance. No advertisement, invitation or document relating to the shares has been or may be issued or has been or may be in the possession of any

 

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person for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to shares which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made under that Ordinance.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada

The shares may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the shares must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 (or, in the case of securities issued or guaranteed by the government of a non-Canadian jurisdiction, section 3A.4) of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Clifford Chance US LLP. In addition, the description of U.S. federal income tax consequences contained in the section of the accompanying prospectus entitled “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” is based on the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP. Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for the underwriters by Ropes & Gray LLP.

 

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EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc. appearing in our 2017 10-K have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC in connection with this offering. In addition, we file annual, quarterly, current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are also available to the public at the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Our reference to the SEC’s Internet site is intended to be an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. If a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts or other documents filed or incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the filed copy of the contract or document.

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus supplement the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. Information incorporated by reference is part of this prospectus supplement. Later information filed with the SEC will update and supersede this information.

 

Document

  

Period

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (File No. 001-35877)

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (File No. 001-35877)

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (File No. 001-35877)

Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 001-35877)

  

Quarter ended September 30, 2018

Quarter ended June 30, 2018

Quarter ended March 31, 2018

Year ended December 31, 2017

Document

  

Filed

Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A (only with respect to

information contained in such Definitive Proxy Statement that is

incorporated by reference into Part III of our Annual Report on Form

10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017) (File No. 001-35877)

  

April 12, 2018

Document

  

Filed

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

  

December 12, 2018

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

  

November 28, 2018

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

  

November 01, 2018

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

  

June 01, 2018

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

  

April 11, 2018

Document

  

Filed

Registration Statement on Form 8-A (containing the description of

shares of our common stock) (File No. 001-35877)

  

April 15, 2013

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement additional documents that we may file (but not those that we furnish) with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from the date of this prospectus supplement until we have sold all of the securities to which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate or the offering is otherwise terminated.

All of the documents that are incorporated by reference are available at the website maintained by the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. In addition, if you request, either orally or in writing, we will provide you with a copy of any or all documents that are incorporated by reference. Such documents will be provided to you free of charge, but will not contain any exhibits, unless those exhibits are incorporated by reference into the document. Requests should be addressed to us at 1906 Towne Centre Blvd, Suite 370, Annapolis, Maryland 21401, Attention: Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc., Investor Relations, or contact our offices at (410) 571-9860.

 

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PROSPECTUS

HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL, INC.

Common Stock,

Preferred Stock,

Depositary Shares,

Debt Securities

Warrants

and

Rights

 

 

We may offer from time to time, in one or more series or classes, separately or together, and in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more supplements to this prospectus, the following securities:

 

   

shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share;

 

   

shares of our preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share;

 

   

depositary shares representing entitlement to all rights and preferences of fractions of shares of our preferred stock of a specified class or series and represented by depositary receipts;

 

   

debt securities;

 

   

warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities; or

 

   

rights to purchase our common stock or preferred stock.

We refer to the common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants and rights, collectively, as the “securities” in this prospectus.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to these securities and the general manner in which they may be offered. The specific terms of any securities to be offered, and the specific manner in which they may be offered, will be described in a supplement to this prospectus.

The applicable prospectus supplement will also contain information, where applicable, about certain U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by such prospectus supplement. It is important that you read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer the securities directly, through agents, or to or through underwriters. The prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the plan of distribution and set forth the names of any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 9 for more information on this topic. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “HASI.” On July 31, 2017, the closing sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $23.25 per share.

 

 

Investing in these securities involves risks. You should carefully read the risk factors described in our Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, filings, including those described under “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K as supplemented by the Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2016 and in our subsequently filed periodic reports incorporated by reference herein, before investing in our securities.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is August 4, 2017.


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CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

SUMMARY INFORMATION

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     3  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     4  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     8  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     22  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     25  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

     27  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE MARYLAND GENERAL CORPORATION LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     28  

HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE, L.P. PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

     34  

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     37  

BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES

     66  

LEGAL MATTERS

     68  

EXPERTS

     69  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     70  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell any combination of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants and rights. You should rely only on the information provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. We are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale of these securities is not permitted. You should not assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate as of any date other than their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read carefully the entirety of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before making an investment decision.

In this prospectus, unless otherwise specified or the context requires otherwise, we use the terms “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” to refer to Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc., together with its subsidiaries.

 

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SUMMARY INFORMATION

We are an internally managed real estate investment trust, or REIT, that makes debt and equity investments in sustainable infrastructure, including energy efficiency and renewable energy, that provide cleaner energy sources, positively impact the environment or make more efficient use of natural resources.

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013.

Our principal executive offices are located at 1906 Towne Centre Blvd, Suite 370, Annapolis, Maryland 21401. Our telephone number is (410) 571-9860. Our website is www.hannonarmstrong.com. The information on our website is not intended to form a part of or be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risk factors described in the section captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K as supplemented by the Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2016, or collectively our 2016 10-K, and in subsequent periodic reports which we file with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before purchasing any shares of our common stock. Any of these risks described could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, tax status or ability to make distributions to our stockholders. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business operations. If this were to happen, the price of our securities could decline significantly and you could lose a part or all of your investment. Each of the risks described could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, or ability to make distributions to our stockholders. In such case, you could lose all or a portion of your original investment. See “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 70 of this prospectus.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

We make forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this document within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. For these statements, we claim the protections of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in such Sections. Forward-looking statements are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. When we use the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “continue,” “intend,” “should,” “may” or similar expressions, we intend to identify forward-looking statements. Statements regarding the following subjects, among others, may be forward-looking:

 

   

our expected returns and performance of our investments;

 

   

the state of government legislation, regulation and policies that support or enhance the economic feasibility of sustainable infrastructure projects, including energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and the general market demands for such projects;

 

   

market trends in our industry, energy markets, commodity prices, interest rates, the debt and lending markets or the general economy;

 

   

our business and investment strategy;

 

   

availability of opportunities to invest in sustainable infrastructure projects, including energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and our ability to complete potential new opportunities in our pipeline;

 

   

our relationships with originators, investors, market intermediaries and professional advisers;

 

   

competition from other providers of capital;

 

   

our or any other companies’ projected operating results;

 

   

actions and initiatives of the federal, state and local governments and changes to federal, state and local government policies, regulations, tax laws and rates and the execution and impact of these actions, initiatives and policies;

 

   

the state of the U.S. economy generally or in specific geographic regions, states or municipalities; economic trends and economic recoveries;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain financing arrangements on favorable terms, including securitizations;

 

   

general volatility of the securities markets in which we participate;

 

   

changes in the value of our assets, our portfolio of assets and our investment and underwriting process;

 

   

rates of default or decreased recovery rates on our assets;

 

   

interest rate and maturity mismatches between our assets and any borrowings used to fund such assets;

 

   

changes in interest rates and the market value of our assets and target assets;

 

   

changes in commodity prices;

 

   

effects of hedging instruments on our assets or liabilities;

 

   

the degree to which our hedging strategies may or may not protect us from interest rate volatility;

 

   

impact of and changes in accounting guidance and similar matters;

 

   

our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT;

 

   

our ability to maintain our exception from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;

 

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availability of qualified personnel;

 

   

estimates relating to our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in the future; and

 

   

our understanding of our competition.

The risks included here are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus may include additional factors that could adversely affect our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors, nor can it assess the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results.

We do not undertake or accept any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement to reflect any change in our expectations or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.

The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein reflect our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements are not predictions of future events. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations are subject to risks and uncertainties and can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. Some of these factors are included in our 2016 10-K and in subsequent periodic reports that we file with the SEC, each of which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time, and it is not possible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us. Such new risks and uncertainties may be included in the documents that we file pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus which will be considered to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should carefully consider these risks before you make an investment decision with respect to our common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants or rights.

For more information regarding risks that may cause our actual results to differ materially from any forward-looking statements, see “Risk Factors” in our 2016 10-K and in the other documents that we file pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus, which will be considered to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges for the periods indicated. The ratio of earnings to fixed charges was computed by dividing earnings by our fixed charges. For purposes of calculating this ratio, “earnings” include net income/(loss) plus the sum of fixed charges and distributions received from equity investments. “Fixed charges” consists of investment interest expense, other interest expenses and the estimated interest component of rental expense. This ratio is calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

Hannon Armstrong Capital, LLC, a Maryland limited liability company, the entity that operated our historical business prior to the consummation of our initial public offering on April 23, 2013, or our IPO, and which we refer to as the “Predecessor,” became our subsidiary upon consummation of our IPO. To the extent any of the financial data included in the below table is as of a date or from a period prior to the consummation of our IPO, such financial data is that of the Predecessor. The financial data for the Predecessor for such periods do not reflect the material changes to the business as a result of the capital raised in the IPO including the broadened types of projects undertaken, the enhanced financial structuring flexibility and the ability to retain a larger share of the economics from the origination activities. Accordingly, the financial data for the Predecessor is not necessarily indicative of our financial position following the completion of the IPO.

 

    For the six
months ended
June 30,

2017
    For the fiscal
year ended
December 31,
2016
    For the fiscal
year ended
December 31,
2015
    For the fiscal
year ended
December 31,
2014
    For the fiscal
year ended
December 31,
2013
    For the three
months ended
December 31,
2012
    For the fiscal year
ended September 30,
2012
 

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges(1)

    2.6       2.4       2.3       1.6       *       1.8       2.9  

 

*

Earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges by $2.9 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013.

(1)

We had no preferred stock outstanding for any of the periods. Accordingly, the ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends are not presented because they are identical to the ratios of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities to acquire our target assets, repay indebtedness or for general corporate purposes. Further details relating to the use of the net proceeds will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

If the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is used by selling securityholders for the resale of any securities registered thereunder pursuant to a registration rights agreement to be entered into by us with such selling securityholders or otherwise, information about such selling securityholders, their beneficial ownership of the securities and their relationship with us will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment, or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference into such registration statement.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them or may sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. Any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters and agents in any distribution contemplated hereby may from time to time be designated on terms to be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Underwriters or agents could make sales in privately negotiated transactions and any other method permitted by law. Securities may be sold in one or more of the following transactions: (a) block transactions (which may involve crosses) in which a broker-dealer may sell all or a portion of the securities as agent but may position and resell all or a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; (b) purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to a prospectus supplement; (c) a special offering, an exchange distribution or a secondary distribution in accordance with applicable NYSE or other stock exchange rules; (d) ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker-dealer solicits purchasers; (e) “at the market” offerings or sales “at the market,” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise; (f) sales in other ways not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales to purchasers; or (g) through a combination of any of these methods. Broker-dealers may also receive compensation from purchasers of these securities which is not expected to exceed those customary in the types of transactions involved.

Underwriters or agents may offer and sell the securities at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed in relation to the prevailing market prices at the time of sale or at negotiated prices. We also may, from time to time, authorize underwriters acting as our agents to offer and sell the securities upon the terms and conditions as are set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may authorize underwriters or other agents to solicit offers by institutions to purchase securities from it pursuant to contracts providing for payment and delivery on a future date. Institutions with which it may make these delayed delivery contracts include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and others. In connection with the sale of securities, underwriters or agents may be deemed to have received compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters or agents may sell securities to or through dealers, and the dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or the agents and/or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.

Any underwriting compensation paid by us to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters or agents to participating dealers, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions, under the Securities Act. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us to indemnification against and contribution toward civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

We may have agreements with the underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms to indemnify them against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute with respect to payments that the underwriters, dealers, agents or remarketing firms may be required to make. Underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of their businesses.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be

 

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received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be; however, it is anticipated that the maximum commission or discount to be received in any particular offering of securities will be less than this amount.

Any securities issued hereunder (other than common stock) will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters or agents to or through whom such securities are sold by us for public offering and sale may make a market in such securities, but such underwriters or agents will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot assure you as to the liquidity of the trading market for any such securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the material terms of the common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants and rights that we may offer and sell from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement and are subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 450,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we are authorized to issue with the approval of a majority of our entire board of directors and without common stockholder approval. As of July 31, 2017, 53,072,035 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding (including 1,416,629 unvested shares of restricted common stock), and no shares of our preferred stock were issued and outstanding. Under Maryland law, our stockholders are not generally liable for our debts or obligations.

Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of common or preferred stock into other classes or series of stock, including one or more classes or series of stock that have priority with respect to voting rights, dividends or upon liquidation over our common stock, and authorizes us to issue the newly-classified shares. Prior to the issuance of shares of each new class or series, our board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series. Our board of directors may take these actions without stockholder approval unless stockholder approval is required by the terms of any other class or series of our stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automatic quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Therefore, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common or preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders. No shares of preferred stock are presently outstanding, and we have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of our stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series of stock, as well as the additional shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such approval is required by the terms of any other class or series of our stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

 

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Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Internal Revenue Code, shares of our stock must be owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or constructively, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made). To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy other requirements as well. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of any of the outstanding shares of our common stock, the outstanding shares of any class or series of our preferred stock or the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our capital stock. We refer to these limits collectively as the “ownership limit.” A person or entity that becomes subject to the ownership limit by virtue of a violative transfer that results in a transfer to a trust, as described below, is referred to as a “prohibited owner” if, had the violative transfer been effective, the person would beneficially own or constructively own shares of capital stock and, if appropriate in the context, shall also mean any person who would have been the record owner of the shares that the prohibited owner would have so owned.

The constructive ownership rules under the Internal Revenue Code are complex and may cause shares of stock owned beneficially or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned beneficially or constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock or any class or series of our preferred stock, or 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the aggregate outstanding shares of all classes and series of our capital stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, beneficially or constructively, shares of our stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own beneficially or constructively in excess of the ownership limit.

Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, subject to such conditions as it may determine and the receipt of certain representations and undertakings, prospectively or retroactively, waive all or any component of the ownership limit or establish a different limit on ownership, or excepted holder limit, for a particular stockholder if the stockholder’s ownership in excess of the ownership limit would not result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise would not result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. As a condition of its waiver or grant of an excepted holder limit, our board of directors may, but is not required to, require an opinion of counsel or a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to our qualification as a REIT. Our board of directors has established exceptions from these ownership limits that permit certain institutional investors and their clients to hold shares of our common stock in excess of these ownership limits.

In connection with granting a waiver of the ownership limit, creating an excepted holder limit or at any other time, our board of directors may increase or decrease the ownership limit or any component thereof unless, after giving effect to such increase, we would be “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or we would otherwise fail to qualify as a REIT. Prior to the modification of the ownership limit, our board of directors may require such opinions of counsel, affidavits, undertakings or agreements as it may deem necessary or advisable in order to determine or ensure our qualification as a REIT. A reduced ownership limit

 

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will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership of our common stock, preferred stock of any class or series, or stock of all classes and series, as applicable, is in excess of such decreased ownership limit until such time as such person’s or entity’s percentage ownership of our common stock, preferred stock of any class or series, or stock of all classes and series, as applicable, equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, but any further acquisition of shares of our common stock, preferred stock, or stock of any class or series, as applicable, in excess of such percentage ownership of our common stock, preferred stock or stock of all classes and series will be in violation of the ownership limit.

Our charter also prohibits:

 

   

any person from beneficially or constructively owning, applying certain attribution rules of the Internal Revenue Code, shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limit or any of the other foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, or who would have owned shares of our stock transferred to the trust as described below, must immediately give written notice to us of such event or, in the case of an attempted or proposed transaction, must give at least 15 days prior written notice to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our qualification as a REIT. The foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to qualify as a REIT or that compliance with the restrictions and limitations on ownership and transfer of our stock described above is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

If any transfer of shares of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of shares of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limit or an excepted holder limit established by our board of directors, or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause us to violate such restrictions will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limit or our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then our charter provides that the transfer of the shares will be void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares.

Shares of stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the event that resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares of stock at market price, the last sales price reported on the NYSE on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (2) the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We may reduce the amount payable by the amount of any dividend or other distribution that we have paid to the prohibited owner before we discovered that the shares had been automatically transferred to the trust and that are then owed to the trustee as described above, and we may pay the amount of any such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the

 

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trust as discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates, the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such shares of stock must be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limit or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. After the sale of the shares, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares transferred to the trust will terminate and the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the event that resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares at market price, the last sales price reported on the NYSE on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of any dividend or other distribution that we paid to the prohibited owner before we discovered that the shares had been automatically transferred to the trust and that are then owed to the trustee as described above. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner must be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary of the trust, together with other amounts held by the trustee for the beneficiary of the trust. In addition, if, prior to discovery by us that shares of stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust, and to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount must be paid to the trustee upon demand. The prohibited owner has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.

The trustee will be designated by us and must be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the charitable beneficiary of the trust, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares held in trust and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares held in trust. These rights must be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid prior to our discovery that shares of stock have been transferred to the trust must be paid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

   

to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote. In addition, if our board of directors determines that a proposed transfer would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, our board of directors may take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem the shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Internal Revenue Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give us written notice, stating the stockholder’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the stockholder beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner must provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the stockholder’s beneficial ownership on our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limit. In addition, each stockholder must provide us with such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our qualification as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.

 

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Any certificates representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT, or that compliance with the restrictions and limitations on ownership and transfer of our stock described above is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of the stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

The following summary description of our common stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, and to our charter and our bylaws, each as amended and restated. For a more complete understanding of our common stock, we encourage you to read carefully this entire prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, as well as our charter and our bylaws, copies of which are filed with the SEC and which we incorporate by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Common Stock

All of the shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights, if any, of holders of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of outstanding shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends or other distributions on such shares of common stock out of assets legally available therefor if, as and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, and the holders of outstanding shares of common stock are entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment of or adequate provision for all our known debts and liabilities and payment of any liquidation amounts for any issued and outstanding preferred stock.

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of our stock, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of shares of common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. A plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors is sufficient to elect a director and there is no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock generally can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors. However, pursuant to our majority vote policy for the election of directors, in an uncontested election, any nominee who receives a greater number of votes “withheld” from his or her election than votes “for” such election is required to tender his or her resignation to our board of directors for its consideration.

Holders of shares of common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption or appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge or consolidate with or convert into another entity, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless the action is advised by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is specified in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides that these actions may be approved by a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, except that certain amendments to the provisions of our charter related to the removal of directors and the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, and the vote required to amend such provisions, must be approved by at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the amendment. Maryland law also permits a Maryland corporation, without the approval of the stockholders of the corporation, to transfer all or substantially all of its assets if all of the equity interests of the transferee are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation. Because substantially all of our assets will be held by our operating partnership or its subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

 

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Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

General

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. As of July 31, 2017, we had no outstanding shares of preferred stock.

We may issue preferred stock. Preferred stock may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to or separate from the securities. The following description of the preferred stock sets forth general terms and provisions of the preferred stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The statements below describing the preferred stock are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of our charter and bylaws, including any applicable articles supplementary designating and setting forth the terms of a class or series of preferred stock. The applicable articles supplementary will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, dividend rights and other rights of holders of common stock. Our board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof could establish one or more classes or series of preferred stock, that could, depending on the terms of the class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for the common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of the holders thereof.

Terms

Subject to the limitations prescribed by our charter, our board of directors is authorized to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of common or preferred stock. Prior to the issuance of shares of each class or series of preferred stock, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to fix the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions for redemption of each class or series.

Reference is made to the prospectus supplement relating to the class or series of preferred stock offered thereby for the specific terms thereof, including:

 

   

the designation of the class or series of preferred stock;

 

   

the voting rights, if any, of the class or series of preferred stock;

 

   

the number of shares of the class or series of preferred stock, the liquidation preference per share of the preferred stock and the offering price of the preferred stock;

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment day(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the class or series of preferred stock;

 

   

the date from which dividends on the shares of preferred stock shall accumulate, if applicable;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for the class or series of preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

   

the provisions for, and any restriction on, redemption or repurchase, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

any listing of the class or series of preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the class or series of preferred stock may or will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities or property, including the conversion price or manner of calculation thereof;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

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whether interests in the shares of preferred stock would be represented by depositary shares;

 

   

any limitations on ownership and restrictions on transfer of class or series of preferred stock in addition to those described below;

 

   

any limitations on the classification or issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior or equal to any class or series of preferred stock being offered as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or the winding up of our affairs;

 

   

a discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to shares of preferred stock; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of the class or series of preferred stock.

The terms of each class or series of preferred stock will be described in any prospectus supplement related to such class or series of preferred stock and will contain a discussion of any material Maryland law or material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be taxed as a REIT has been made). Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of shares of our stock, including preferred stock. See “Description of Securities—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” for more detail regarding the restrictions on the ownership and transfer of shares of our stock, including our preferred stock. The articles supplementary for each class or series of preferred stock may contain additional provisions restricting the ownership and transfer of the class or series of preferred stock. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any additional ownership limitation relating to a class or series of preferred stock.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

We will name the registrar and transfer agent for the preferred stock we issue pursuant to this prospectus in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares evidencing fractional interests in shares of preferred stock rather than full shares of preferred stock. In the event such option is exercised, each of the depositary shares will represent ownership of and entitlement to all rights and preferences of a fraction of a share of preferred stock of a specified class or series (including dividend, voting, redemption and liquidation rights). The applicable fraction will be specified in a prospectus supplement relating to the offering of such depositary shares. The shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares will be deposited with a depositary named in the applicable prospectus supplement, under a deposit agreement, among our company, the depositary and the holders of the certificates evidencing depositary shares, or depositary receipts. Depositary receipts will be delivered to those persons purchasing depositary shares in the offering. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges. The form of the deposit agreement and the form of the depositary receipt will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the provisions of the deposit agreement and the articles supplementary for the applicable class or series of preferred stock. While the deposit agreement relating to a particular class or series of preferred stock may have provisions applicable solely to that class or series of preferred stock, all deposit agreements relating to preferred stock we issue will include the following provisions:

Dividends and Other Distributions

Each time we pay a cash dividend or make any other type of cash distribution with regard to preferred stock of a class or series, the depositary will distribute to the holder of record of each depositary share relating to that class or series of preferred stock an amount equal to the dividend or other distribution per depositary share that the depositary receives. If there is a distribution of property other than cash, the depositary either will distribute the property to the holders of depositary shares in proportion to the depositary shares held by each of them, or the depositary will, if we approve, sell the property and distribute the net proceeds to the holders of the depositary shares in proportion to the depositary shares held by them.

Withdrawal of Preferred Stock

A holder of depositary shares will be entitled to receive, upon surrender of depositary receipts representing depositary shares, the number of whole or fractional shares of the applicable class or series of preferred stock and any money or other property to which the depositary shares relate.

Redemption of Depositary Shares

Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by a depositary, the depositary will be required to redeem, on the same redemption date, depositary shares constituting, in total, the number of shares of preferred stock held by the depositary which we redeem, subject to the depositary’s receiving the redemption price of those shares of preferred stock. If fewer than all the depositary shares relating to a class or series of preferred stock are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or by another method we determine to be equitable.

Voting

Any time we send a notice of meeting or other materials relating to a meeting to the holders of a class or series of preferred stock to which depositary shares relate, we will provide the depositary with sufficient copies

 

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of those materials so they can be sent to all holders of record of the applicable depositary shares, and the depositary will send those materials to the holders of record of the depositary shares on the record date for the meeting. The depositary will solicit voting instructions from holders of depositary shares and will vote or not vote the preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate in accordance with those instructions.

Liquidation Preference

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holder of each depositary share will be entitled to what the holder of the depositary share would have received if the holder had owned the number of shares (or fraction of a share) of preferred stock represented by the depositary share.

Conversion

If shares of a class or series of preferred stock are convertible into or exchangeable for common stock or other of our securities or property, holders of depositary shares relating to that class or series of preferred stock will, if they surrender depositary receipts representing depositary shares and appropriate instructions to convert or exchange them, receive the shares of common stock or other securities or property into which the number of shares (or fractions of shares) of preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate could at the time be converted or exchanged.

Amendment and Termination of a Deposit Agreement

We and the depositary may amend a deposit agreement, except that an amendment that materially and adversely affects the rights of holders of depositary shares, or would be materially and adversely inconsistent with the rights granted to the holders of the class or series of preferred stock to which they relate, must be approved by holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding depositary shares. No amendment may impair the right of a holder of depositary shares to surrender the depositary receipts evidencing those depositary shares and receive the preferred stock to which they relate, except as required to comply with law. We may terminate a deposit agreement with the consent of holders of a majority of the depositary shares to which it relates. Upon termination of a deposit agreement, the depositary will make the whole or fractional shares of preferred stock to which the depositary shares issued under the deposit agreement relate available to the holders of those depositary shares. A deposit agreement will automatically terminate if:

 

   

all outstanding depositary shares to which it relates have been redeemed or converted; or

 

   

the depositary has made a final distribution to the holders of the depositary shares issued under the deposit agreement upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up.

Miscellaneous

There will be provisions: (1) requiring the depositary to forward to holders of record of depositary shares any reports or communications from us which the depositary receives with respect to the shares of preferred stock to which the depositary shares relate; (2) regarding compensation of the depositary; (3) regarding resignation of the depositary; (4) limiting our liability and the liability of the depositary under the deposit agreement (generally limited to failure to act in good faith, gross negligence or willful misconduct); and (5) indemnifying the depositary against certain possible liabilities.

Reference is made to the prospectus supplement relating to the depositary shares offered thereby for the specific terms thereof, including, but not limited to, a discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the depositary shares.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee, which we may amend or supplement from time to time, or the indenture. The following description is a summary of the material provisions of the indenture including references to the applicable section of the indenture. It does not state the indenture in its entirety. We urge you to read the indenture because it, and not this description, defines the rights of holders of debt securities. Except as otherwise defined herein, terms used in this description but not otherwise defined herein are used as defined in the indenture. When we refer to “we,” “our,” and “us,” in this section, we are referring to Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc. excluding its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated herein. The form of the indenture has been filed with the SEC as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and you may inspect it at the office of the trustee at 225 Asylum Street, 23rd Floor, Hartford, CT 06103. The indenture is subject to, and is governed by, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. If we issue the debt securities under a different indenture, we will file it and incorporate it by reference into the registration statement and describe it in a prospectus supplement.

General

The debt securities will be our direct obligations and may be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and may be either secured or unsecured. The indenture does not limit the principal amount of debt securities that we may issue. We may issue debt securities in one or more series. A supplemental indenture will set forth specific terms of each series of debt securities. There will be a prospectus supplement relating to each particular series of debt securities. Reference is made to the prospectus supplement relating to each particular series of debt securities, offered thereby for the specific terms thereof, including:

 

   

the title of the debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of a series of debt securities which may be issued;

 

   

the date or dates on which principal of the debt securities will mature and the amounts to be paid upon maturity of the Securities;

 

   

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) at which the debt securities will bear interest, if any, as well as the dates from which interest will accrue, the dates on which interest will be payable and the record date for the interest payable on any payment date;

 

   

the currency or currencies in which principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, will be payable;

 

   

the place or places where principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable;

 

   

any provisions regarding our right to redeem debt securities or of holders to require us to redeem debt securities;

 

   

the right, if any, of holders of the debt securities to convert them into common stock or other securities, including any provisions intended to prevent dilution of those conversion rights;

 

   

any provisions requiring or permitting us to make payments to a sinking fund which will be used to redeem debt securities or a purchase fund which will be used to purchase debt securities;

 

   

the percentage of the principal amount of the debt securities which is payable if maturity of the debt securities is accelerated because of a default;

 

   

a discussion of U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities; and

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities.

 

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The indenture does not contain any restrictions on the payment of dividends or the repurchase of our securities or any financial covenants. However, supplemental indentures relating to a particular series of debt securities may contain provisions of that type.

We may issue debt securities at a discount from their stated principal amount. A prospectus supplement may describe the material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to a debt security issued with original issue discount.

If the principal of, premium, if any, or interest with regard to any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency, we will describe in the prospectus supplement relating to those debt securities any restrictions on currency conversions, tax considerations or other material restrictions with respect to that issue of debt securities.

Form of Debt Securities

We may issue debt securities in certificated or uncertificated form, in registered form with or without coupons or in bearer form with coupons, if applicable.

We may issue debt securities of a series in the form of one or more global certificates evidencing all or a portion of the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series. We may deposit the global certificates with depositaries, and the certificates may be subject to restrictions upon transfer or upon exchange for debt securities in individually certificated form.

Events of Default and Remedies

An event of default with respect to each series of debt securities will include:

 

   

our default in payment of the principal of or premium, if any, on any debt securities of any series beyond any applicable grace period;

 

   

our default for 30 days or a period specified in a supplemental indenture, which may be no period, in payment of any installment of interest due with regard to debt securities of any series;

 

   

our default for 60 days or a period specified in a supplemental indenture, which may be no period after notice in the observance or performance of any other covenants in the indenture; and

 

   

certain events involving our bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization.

The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of any series of debt securities of any default (except a default in payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any) if the trustee considers it in the interest of the holders of the series to do so.

The indenture provides that if any event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of a series of debt securities then outstanding may declare the principal of and accrued interest, if any, on that series of debt securities to be due and payable immediately by written notice to us. However, if we cure all defaults (except the failure to pay principal, premium or interest which became due solely because of the acceleration) and certain other conditions are met, that declaration may be annulled and past defaults (except a default in the payment of interest or premium, if any, on, or the principal of, debt securities of the series or a default in respect of a covenant or a provision that under the indenture cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of all debt securities of the series then outstanding) may be waived by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the applicable series of debt securities.

The holders of a majority of the outstanding principal amount of a series of debt securities will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting proceedings for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.

 

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A supplemental indenture relating to a particular series of debt securities may modify these events of default or include other events of default.

A prospectus supplement will describe any additional or different events of default which apply to any series of debt securities.

Modification of the Indenture

We and the trustee may:

 

   

without the consent of holders of debt securities, modify the indenture to cure errors or clarify ambiguities as evidenced in an officers’ certificate;

 

   

with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the debt securities which are outstanding under the indenture, modify the indenture or the rights of the holders of the debt securities generally; and

 

   

with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in outstanding principal amount of any series of debt securities, modify any supplemental indenture relating solely to that series of debt securities or the rights of the holders of that series of debt securities.

However, we may not:

 

   

extend the fixed maturity of any debt securities, reduce the rate or extend the time for payment of interest, if any, on any debt securities, reduce the principal amount of any debt securities or the premium, if any, on any debt securities, impair or affect the right of a holder to institute suit for the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any, with regard to any debt securities, change the currency in which any debt securities are payable or impair the right, if any, to convert any debt securities into common stock or any of our other securities, without the consent of each holder of debt securities who will be affected; or

 

   

reduce the percentage of holders of debt securities required to consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver, without the consent of the holders of all the then outstanding debt securities or outstanding debt securities of the series which will be affected.

Mergers and Other Transactions

We may not consolidate with or merge into any other entity, or transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to another person, unless: (1) the entity formed by the consolidation or into which we are merged, or which acquires or leases our properties and assets substantially as an entirety, assumes by a supplemental indenture all our obligations with regard to outstanding debt securities and our other covenants under the indenture; (2) with regard to each series of debt securities, immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no event of default, with respect to that series of debt securities, and no event which would become an event of default, will have occurred and be continuing and (3) we deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and opinion of counsel, in each case stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture with respect to the merger or consolidation have been complied with.

Governing Law

The indenture, each supplemental indenture, and the debt securities issued under them is or will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities and may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities or attached to, or separate from, such securities. We will issue each series of warrants under a separate warrant agreement between us and a bank or trust company as warrant agent, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The form of warrant agreement and the form of warrant certificate will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not act for or on behalf of warrant holders. The following sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that may be offered under this registration statement. Further terms of the warrants and the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, where applicable, the following:

 

   

the title of such warrants;

 

   

the aggregate number of such warrants;

 

   

the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued;

 

   

the type and number of securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the other securities, if any, with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such offered security;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

the price at which each security purchasable upon exercise of such warrants may be purchased;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

   

the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

any anti-dilution protection;

 

   

a discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exercise and exchange of such warrants.

Warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new warrant certificates of different denominations and warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise or to any dividend or interest payments or voting rights as to which holders of the shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon such exercise may be entitled.

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase for cash such number of shares of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities at such exercise price as shall, in each case, be set forth in, or be determinable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the expiration date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, unexercised warrants will be void.

 

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Warrants may be exercised as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the warrants. Upon receipt of payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants are presented for exercise with respect to a warrant certificate, a new warrant certificate will be issued for the remaining amount of warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

We may issue rights to our stockholders for the purchase of shares of common stock or preferred stock. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of rights. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of such series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The form of rights agreement and rights certificates relating to each series of rights will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the rights to be issued, including the following, where applicable:

 

   

the date for determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

   

the aggregate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock of a specified class and/or series purchasable upon exercise of such rights and the exercise price;

 

   

the designation and terms of the preferred stock, if any, purchasable upon exercise of such rights;

 

   

the aggregate number of rights being issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which such rights may be transferable separately;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise such rights shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

 

   

any special U.S. federal income tax consequences; and

 

   

any other terms of such rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of such rights.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF THE MARYLAND GENERAL CORPORATION LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following description of the terms of our stock and of certain provisions of Maryland law is only a summary. For a complete description, we refer you to the MGCL and to our charter and our bylaws, copies of which are filed with the SEC and which we incorporate by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Our Board of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors we have may be established only by our board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required under the MGCL, which is one, and our bylaws provide that the number of our directors may not be more than 15. Because our board of directors has the power to amend our bylaws, it could modify our bylaws to change that range. Subject to the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and, if our board of directors is classified, any director elected to fill a vacancy will hold office for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies.

Except as may be provided with respect to any class or series of our stock, at each annual meeting of our stockholders, each of our directors will be elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of our stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. A plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors is sufficient to elect a director, and holders of shares of common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock generally will be able to elect all of our directors at any annual meeting. However, pursuant to our majority vote policy for the election of directors, in an uncontested election, any nominee who receives a greater number of votes “withheld” from his or her election than votes “for” such election is required to tender his or her resignation to our board of directors for its consideration.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of our preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed with or without cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on our board of directors, precludes stockholders from (1) removing incumbent directors except upon a substantial affirmative vote and (2) filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation) or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must generally be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (1) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding voting stock of the corporation and (2) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business

 

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combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. A Maryland corporation’s board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a Maryland corporation’s board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has by resolution exempted business combinations between us and any other person, provided that such business combination is first approved by our board of directors (including a majority of our directors who are not affiliates or associates of such person). As a result, any person described above may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interest of our stockholders, without compliance by our company with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute. There is no assurance that our board of directors will not amend or repeal this resolution in the future.

The business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that a holder of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” has no voting rights with respect to the control shares except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in the corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (1) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition; (2) an officer of the corporation; or (3) a director of the corporation who is also an employee of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock owned by the acquirer, or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (1) one-tenth or more but less than one-third; (2) one-third or more but less than a majority; or (3) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and delivering an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as

 

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determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to (1) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or statutory share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. There is no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions of the MGCL which provide for:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors in office and (if the board is classified) for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

Our charter provides that vacancies on our board may be filled only by the remaining directors and (if our board is classified in the future) for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we (1) require the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors for the removal of any director from the board, with or without cause, (2) vest in the board the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (3) require, unless called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer, our president or our board of directors, the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all votes entitled to be cast at such a meeting to call a special meeting of our stockholders.

Meetings of Stockholders

Pursuant to our bylaws, a meeting of our stockholders for the election of directors and the transaction of any business will be held annually on a date and at the time and place set by our board of directors. The chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, our president or our board of directors may call a special meeting of our stockholders. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of our stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be brought before a meeting of our stockholders must also be called by our secretary upon the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting on such matter and containing the information required by our bylaws. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder must pay such estimated cost before our secretary is required to prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting. Only the matters set forth in the notice of special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such meeting.

 

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Amendment to Our Charter and Bylaws

Except for amendments to the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors and the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, and the vote required to amend these provisions (each of which must be advised by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter), our charter generally may be amended only if advised by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Our board of directors has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws.

Dissolution of Our Company

The dissolution of our company must be advised by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting on such business or in the election of such nominee and who has provided notice to us within the time period, and containing the information and other materials, specified by the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.

With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (1) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (2) provided that the meeting has been called for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the special meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of such nominee and who has provided notice to us within the time period, and containing the information and other materials, specified by the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.

Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders, including business combination provisions, supermajority vote requirements and advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. Likewise, if the provision in our bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were rescinded or if we were to opt in to the classified board or other provisions of Subtitle 8, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that was established by a final judgment and was material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates the liability of our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

 

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The MGCL requires us (unless our charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

Under the MGCL, we may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by us or on our behalf in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to us or in a suit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. Nevertheless, a court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or on our behalf, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by us; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by us if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate ourselves and our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity;

 

   

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, manager, managing member or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who served any predecessor of our company, including Hannon Armstrong Capital, LLC, in a similar capacity, who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in such capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers that provide for indemnification to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

 

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Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may authorize us to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT. Our charter also provides that our board of directors may determine that compliance with any restriction or limitation on ownership and transfer of our stock is no longer required for us to qualify as a REIT.

 

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HANNON ARMSTRONG SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE, L.P. PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

The following is a summary of material provisions in the partnership agreement of our operating partnership, a copy of which is filed with the SEC and which we incorporate by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

General

Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure, L.P., our operating partnership, was formed to acquire and own our assets directly or indirectly through its subsidiaries. We are considered to be an UpREIT in which all of our assets are owned in a limited partnership of which we are the sole general partner. For purposes of satisfying the asset and income tests for qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our proportionate share of the assets and income of our operating partnership will be deemed to be our assets and income.

We are the sole general partner of our operating partnership and are liable for its obligations. As the sole general partner, we have full, exclusive and complete responsibility and discretion in the management and control of our operating partnership, including the ability to cause our operating partnership to enter into certain major transactions, including a merger of our operating partnership or a sale of substantially all of its assets. The OP units have no voting rights. Our operating partnership is under no obligation to give priority to the separate interests of the limited partners or our stockholders in deciding whether to cause our operating partnership to take or decline to take any actions. As the sole general partner of our operating partnership, our consent is required for any amendment to the partnership agreement of our operating partnership. Additionally, without the consent of the limited partners, we may amend the partnership agreement of our operating partnership in any respect, implement mergers involving our operating partnership or sales of all or substantially all of its assets. Through the exercise of these powers, we would be authorized, without the consent of limited partners, to implement a transaction such as a merger involving our operating partnership that could result in the conversion of outstanding OP units into cash, shares of our common stock or other securities. The partnership agreement of our operating partnership only requires that, in such circumstances, limited partners receive cash, shares of our common stock or other securities having a fair market or net asset value, as the case may be, equal to the net asset value of the OP units being converted as of the month end period immediately prior to such conversion. The limited partners have no power to remove the general partner without the general partner’s consent.

Although all of our assets are currently held through the UpREIT structure, we may in the future elect for various reasons to hold certain of our assets directly rather than through our operating partnership. In the event we elect to hold assets directly, the income of our operating partnership will be allocated as between us and limited partners so as to take into account the performance of such assets.

Fiduciary Responsibilities

Our directors and officers have duties under applicable Maryland law to manage us in a manner consistent with the best interests of our company. At the same time, we, as the general partner of our operating partnership, will have fiduciary duties to manage our operating partnership in a manner beneficial to our operating partnership and its partners. Our duties, as the general partner, to our operating partnership and its limited partners, therefore, may come into conflict with the duties of our directors and officers to us. We will be under no obligation to give priority to the separate interests of the limited partners of our operating partnership in deciding whether to cause the operating partnership to take or decline to take any actions. The limited partners of our operating partnership have agreed that if there is a conflict in the duties our directors and officers owe to us under Maryland law and the duties that we, in our capacity as general partner of our operating partnership, owe to such limited partners, we will fulfill our fiduciary duties to such limited partners by acting in the best interests of our company.

The limited partners of our operating partnership have expressly acknowledged that we are acting for the benefit of the operating partnership, the limited partners and our company collectively.

 

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Capital Contributions

If our operating partnership requires additional funds at any time in excess of capital contributions made by us or from borrowing, we may borrow funds from a financial institution or other lender and lend such funds to our operating partnership on the same terms and conditions as are applicable to our borrowing of such funds. In addition, we are authorized to cause our operating partnership to issue partner interests for less than fair market value if we conclude in good faith that such issuance is in the best interest of our operating partnership and our stockholders.

Operations

The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that our operating partnership is to be operated in a manner that will (1) enable us to satisfy the requirements for qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (2) avoid any U.S. federal income or excise tax liability and (3) ensure that our operating partnership will not be classified as a “publicly traded partnership” taxable as a corporation for purposes of Section 7704 of the Internal Revenue Code.

Similarly, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that taxable income is allocated to the partners of our operating partnership in accordance with their relative percentage interests such that a holder of one OP unit will be allocated taxable income for each taxable year in an amount equal to the amount of taxable income to be recognized by a holder of one share of our common stock, subject to compliance with the provisions of Sections 704(b) and 704(c) of the Internal Revenue Code and corresponding Treasury Regulations. Losses, if any, will generally be allocated among the partners in accordance with their respective percentage interests in our operating partnership. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Tax Aspects of Ownership of Equity Interests in Partnerships and Other Transparent Entities.”

Upon the liquidation of our operating partnership, after payment of debts and obligations, any remaining assets of our operating partnership will be distributed to partners with positive capital accounts in accordance with their respective positive capital account balances.

In addition to the administrative and operating costs and expenses incurred by our operating partnership in acquiring and holding our assets, our operating partnership will pay all of our administrative costs and expenses and such expenses will be treated as expenses of our operating partnership. Such expenses will include:

 

   

all expenses relating to our continuity of existence;

 

   

all expenses relating to any offerings and registrations of securities;

 

   

all expenses associated with our preparation and filing of any periodic reports under U.S. federal, state or local laws or regulations;

 

   

all expenses associated with our compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations; and

 

   

all other operating or administrative costs of ours incurred in the ordinary course of its business.

Exchange of OP Units

Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, holders of OP units, other than us or our subsidiaries, have the right to cause our operating partnership to purchase their OP units for cash in an amount equal to the market value of an equivalent number of shares of our common stock. The market value of the common stock for this purpose will be equal to the average of the closing trading price of a share of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten trading days before the day on which the redemption notice is given to our operating partnership. In lieu of paying cash, we may elect to issue shares of our common stock in exchange for OP units offered for redemption, on a one-for-one basis, subject to certain adjustments. We anticipate that we will normally elect to issue common stock in exchange for OP units offered for redemption rather than pay cash. Redemption rights of

 

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OP unit holders may not be exercised, however, if and to the extent that the delivery of shares upon such exercise would (1) result in any person owning shares in excess of our ownership limits, (2) result in shares being owned by fewer than 100 persons or (3) result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Mandatory Redemption Rights

We (and our operating partnership) do not have a mandatory redemption policy. However, as the sole general partner of our operating partnership, we may, without the consent of the limited partners approve certain amendments to the partnership agreement of our operating partnership, implement mergers involving our operating partnership or sales of all or substantially all of its assets. Through the exercise of these powers, we would be authorized, without the consent of limited partners, to implement a transaction such as a merger involving our operating partnership, that could result in the conversion of outstanding OP units (including units issued pursuant to our operating partnership’s long-term incentive plan, or LTIP units) into cash, shares of our common stock or other securities. The partnership agreement of our operating partnership only requires that, in such circumstances, limited partners receive cash, shares of our common stock or other securities having a fair market or net asset value, as the case may be, equal to the net asset value of the OP units being converted as of the month end period immediately prior to such conversion. See “—General.”

Distributions

The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that our operating partnership will distribute cash flow from operations to the partners of our operating partnership in accordance with their relative percentage interests at such times and in such amounts determined by us as the general partner such that a holder of one OP unit will receive the same amount of annual cash flow distributions from our operating partnership as the amount of annual distributions paid to the holder of one share of our common stock.

To satisfy the requirements to qualify as a REIT and generally not be subject to U.S. federal income and excise tax, our current policy is to cause our operating partnership to pay distributions to holders of OP units and holders of LTIP units which, on an annual basis, will equal all or substantially all of our taxable income. Any distributions we and our operating partnership make will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our earnings and financial condition, maintenance of our REIT qualification, restrictions on making distributions under Maryland law and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant. Our earnings and financial condition will be affected by various factors, including the net interest and other income from our portfolio, our operating expenses and any other expenditures.

Transferability of Interests

We are not able to (1) voluntarily withdraw as the general partner of our operating partnership, or (2) transfer our general partner interest in our operating partnership (except to a wholly-owned subsidiary), unless the transaction in which such withdrawal or transfer occurs results in the limited partners receiving or having the right to receive an amount of cash, securities or other property equal in value to the amount they would have received if they had exercised their redemption rights immediately prior to such transaction. The limited partners are not able to transfer their OP units, in whole or in part, without our written consent as the general partner of the partnership except where the limited partner becomes incapacitated.

 

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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the acquisition, holding, and disposition of our common stock. For purposes of this section, references to “we,” “our,” “us” or “our company” mean only Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc., and not our subsidiaries or other lower-tier entities, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is based upon the Internal Revenue Code, the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Treasury Department, or the Treasury Regulations, current administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS (including administrative interpretations and practices expressed in private letter rulings which are binding on the IRS only with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings), and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. No advance ruling has been or will be sought from the IRS regarding any matter discussed in this summary, with the exception of those matters specifically described herein. The summary is also based upon the assumption that the operation of our company, and of its subsidiaries and other lower-tier and affiliated entities will, in each case, be in accordance with its applicable organizational documents. This summary is for general information only, and does not purport to discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be important to a particular stockholder in light of its investment or tax circumstances or to stockholders subject to special tax rules, such as:

 

   

U.S. expatriates;

 

   

persons who mark-to-market our common stock;

 

   

subchapter S corporations;

 

   

U.S. stockholders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

   

financial institutions;

 

   

insurance companies;

 

   

broker-dealers;

 

   

RICs;

 

   

trusts and estates;

 

   

holders who receive our common stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;

 

   

persons holding our common stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;

 

   

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

   

persons holding their interest through a partnership or similar pass-through entity;

 

   

persons holding a 10% or more (by vote or value) beneficial interest in us; and

 

   

except to the extent discussed below, tax-exempt organizations and non-U.S. stockholders (as defined below).

This summary assumes that stockholders will hold our common stock as capital assets, which generally means as property held for investment.

THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX TREATMENT OF US AS A REIT AND HOLDERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK DEPENDS IN SOME INSTANCES ON DETERMINATIONS OF FACT AND INTERPRETATIONS OF COMPLEX PROVISIONS OF U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAW FOR WHICH

 

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NO CLEAR PRECEDENT OR AUTHORITY MAY BE AVAILABLE. IN ADDITION, THE TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE HOLDING AND DISPOSITION OF OUR COMMON STOCK TO ANY PARTICULAR STOCKHOLDER WILL DEPEND ON THE STOCKHOLDER’S PARTICULAR TAX CIRCUMSTANCES. YOU ARE URGED TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL, AND FOREIGN INCOME AND OTHER TAX CONSEQUENCES TO YOU, IN LIGHT OF YOUR PARTICULAR INVESTMENT OR TAX CIRCUMSTANCES, OF ACQUIRING, HOLDING, AND DISPOSING OF OUR COMMON STOCK.

Taxation of Our Company—General

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013. We believe that we have been organized and operated, and we intend to continue to operate, in such a manner so as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code.

The law firm of Clifford Chance US LLP has acted as our counsel in connection with the preparation and filing of this prospectus. We will receive the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013, we have been organized and operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, and our current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code. It must be emphasized that the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP will be based on various assumptions relating to our organization and operation, including that all factual representations and statements set forth in all relevant documents, records and instruments are true and correct, all actions described in this prospectus are completed in a timely fashion and that we will at all times operate in accordance with the method of operation described in our organizational documents and this prospectus. Additionally, the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP will be conditioned upon factual representations and covenants made by our management and affiliated entities regarding our organization, assets, present and future conduct of our business operations and other items regarding our ability to meet the various requirements for qualification as a REIT, and assumes that such representations and covenants are accurate and complete and that they and we will take no action inconsistent with our qualification as a REIT. The opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP will not foreclose the possibility that we may have to pay an excise or penalty tax, which could be significant in amount, in order to maintain our REIT qualification. In addition, the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP will be based in part on the conclusion, which is discussed in more detail below, that the better view is that the scope and nature of the rights we hold in the buildings in which structural components securing our financing receivables have been installed are sufficient to cause such financing receivables to also be secured by real property interests in such buildings within the meaning of the newly adopted Real Property Regulations (as defined below). However, no assurance can be provided that the IRS will not challenge this conclusion or that if this conclusion is challenged that this position would be sustained.

While we believe that we are organized and have operated, and we intend to continue to operate, in such a manner so as to qualify as a REIT, given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs, the ongoing importance of factual determinations and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances or applicable law, no assurance can be given by Clifford Chance US LLP or us that we will so qualify for any particular year. Clifford Chance US LLP will have no obligation to advise us or the holders of shares of our common stock of any subsequent change in the matters stated, represented or assumed or of any subsequent change in the applicable law. You should be aware that opinions of counsel are not binding on the IRS, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge the conclusions set forth in such opinions.

Qualification and taxation as a REIT depends on our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, through actual results of operations, distribution levels, diversity of share ownership and various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Internal Revenue Code, the compliance with which will not be reviewed by Clifford Chance US LLP. In addition, our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT may depend in part upon the operating

 

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results, organizational structure and entity classification for U.S. federal income tax purposes of certain entities in which we invest, which could include entities that have made elections to be taxed as REITs, the qualification of which will not have been reviewed by Clifford Chance US LLP. Our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT also requires that we satisfy certain asset and income tests, some of which depend upon the fair market values of assets directly or indirectly owned by us or which serve as security for loans made by us. Such values may not be susceptible to a precise determination. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any taxable year will satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT.

Real Property Regulations

As previously disclosed in our reports filed under the Exchange Act, the Treasury Department and the IRS published proposed regulations which considered revisions to the definition of “real property” for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests. On August 30, 2016, these regulations, which we refer to as the Real Property Regulations, became final and apply to us with respect to our taxable years beginning after December 31, 2016. Among other things, the Real Property Regulations provide that an obligation secured by a structural component of a building or other inherently permanent structure qualifies as a real estate asset for REIT qualification purposes only if such obligation is also secured by a real property interest in the inherently permanent structure served by such structural component. This aspect of the Real Property Regulations has important implications for our qualification as a REIT since a significant portion of our REIT qualifying assets consists of financing receivables that are secured by liens on installed structural improvements designed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings and a significant portion of REIT qualifying gross income is interest income earned with respect to such financing receivables.

The structural improvements securing our financing receivables generally qualify as “fixtures” under local real property law, as well as under the Uniform Commercial Code, or the UCC, which governs rights and obligations of parties in secured transactions. Although not controlling for REIT purposes, the general rule in the United States is that once improvements are permanently installed in real properties, such improvements become fixtures and thus take on the character of and are considered to be real property for certain state and local law purposes. In general, in the United States, laws governing fixtures, including the UCC and real property law, afford lenders who have secured their financings with security interests in fixtures with rights that extend not just to the fixtures that secure their financings, but also to the real properties in which such fixtures have been installed. By way of example only, Section 9-604(b) of the UCC, which has been adopted in all but two states in the United States, permits a lender secured by fixtures, upon a default, to enforce its rights under the UCC or under applicable real property laws. The opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2013, we have been organized and operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, and our current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, is based on its conclusion that, although there is limited authority directly on point, given the nature of, and the extent to which the structural improvements securing our financing receivables are fully integrated into and serve the related buildings, the better view is that the nature and scope of our rights in such buildings that inure to us as a result of our financing receivables are sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the Real Property Regulations described above. In addition to the limited authority directly on point, Clifford Chance US LLP has included in its opinion two other important caveats that relate to this conclusion: First, the Real Property Regulations do not define what is required for an obligation secured by a lien on a structural component to also be secured by a real property interest in the building served by such structural component. However, the initial proposed version of the Real Property Regulations, which never became effective, included a requirement that the interest in the real property held by a REIT be “equivalent” to the REIT’s interest in a structural component held by the REIT in order for the structural component to be treated as a real estate asset. This requirement was ultimately not included in the final Real Property Regulations, in part in response to comments that such requirement may negatively affect investment in energy efficient and renewable energy assets. We believe that the deletion of this requirement implies that under the final Real Property Regulations, our rights in the building need not be equivalent to our rights in the structural components serving

 

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the building. Second, real property law is typically relegated to the states and the specific rights available to any lien or mortgage holder, including our rights as a fixture lien holder described above, may vary between jurisdictions as a result of a range of factors, including the specific local real property law requirements and judicial and regulatory interpretations of such laws, and the competing rights of mortgage and other lenders. While a number of cases have addressed the rights of fixture lien holders generally, there are limited judicial interpretations in only a few jurisdictions that directly address the rights and remedies available to a fixture lien holder in the real property in which the fixtures have been installed. Such rights have been addressed in some cases that support the conclusion described above and, in factual circumstances distinguishable from our own, in some cases where the courts have found these rights to be more limited. The resolution of these issues in many jurisdictions therefore remains uncertain. As a result of the foregoing, the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP also includes language to the effect that no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge the conclusion that such financing receivables meet the requirements of the Real Property Regulations or that, if challenged, such position would be sustained.

Prior to the issuance of the Real Property Regulations, we received a private letter ruling from the IRS, which we refer to as the Ruling, which, based on the representations and assumptions contained therein, held that our financing receivables qualify as real estate assets and the income from such financing receivables qualify as interest income from mortgages on real property for purposes of the REIT requirements. The preamble to the Real Property Regulations provides that, to the extent a private letter ruling issued prior to the issuance of the Real Property Regulations is inconsistent with the Real Property Regulations, the private letter ruling is revoked prospectively from the applicability date of the Real Property Regulations. We do not believe that the Ruling is inconsistent with the Real Property Regulations because we believe the analysis in the Ruling was based on similar principles as the relevant portions of the Real Property Regulations, and accordingly we do not believe that the Real Property Regulations impact our ability to rely on the Ruling. However, no assurance can be given that the IRS would not successfully assert that we are not permitted to rely on the Ruling because the Ruling has been revoked by the Real Property Regulations.

If the IRS were to assert that a significant portion of our financing receivables do not qualify as real estate assets and do not generate income treated as interest income from mortgages on real property, we would fail to satisfy both the gross income requirements and asset requirements applicable to REITs. As a result, we could be required to pay one or more penalty taxes, which could be significant in amount, alter our mix of assets or adjust our business strategy, or we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

Taxation of REITs in General

As indicated above, qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Internal Revenue Code. The material qualification requirements are summarized below, under “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.” While we intend to operate so that we continue to qualify as a REIT, no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification as a REIT or that we will be able to continue to operate in accordance with the REIT requirements in the future. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

Provided that we qualify as a REIT, we will generally be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay and, therefore, will not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” at the corporate and stockholder levels that results generally from investment in a corporation. Rather, income generated by a REIT generally is taxed only at the stockholder level, upon a distribution of dividends by the REIT.

Stockholders who are individual U.S. stockholders (as defined below) are generally taxed on corporate dividends from U.S. corporations at a maximum rate of 20% (the same as long-term capital gains), thereby substantially reducing, though not completely eliminating, the double taxation that has historically applied to corporate dividends. With limited exceptions, dividends received by individual U.S. stockholders from us or

 

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from other entities that are taxed as REITs will continue to be taxed at rates applicable to ordinary income, and therefore may be subject to a 39.6% maximum rate on ordinary income. Net operating losses, foreign tax credits and other tax attributes of a REIT generally do not pass through to the stockholders of the REIT, subject to special rules for certain items, such as capital gains, recognized by REITs. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.”

Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation as follows:

 

   

We will be taxed at regular U.S. federal corporate rates on any undistributed income, including undistributed net capital gains.

 

   

We may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” on our items of tax preference, if any.

 

   

If we have net income from prohibited transactions, which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax. See “—Prohibited Transactions” and “—Foreclosure Property” below.

 

   

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (a) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (b) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate (currently 35%).

 

   

If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on an amount equal to (a) the greater of (1) the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or (2) the amount by which we fail the 95% gross income test, as the case may be, multiplied by (b) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy any of the REIT asset tests, as described below, other than a failure of the 5% or 10% REIT asset test that does not exceed a statutory de minimis amount as described more fully below, but our failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate tax rate (currently 35%) of the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset tests.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy any provision of the Internal Revenue Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a gross income or asset test requirement) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to wilful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, or the required distribution, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (1) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior years), plus (2) retained amounts on which income tax is paid at the corporate level.

 

   

We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of our stockholders, as described below in “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

 

   

A 100% excise tax may be imposed on some items of income and expense that are directly or constructively paid between us and any TRSs we may own if and to the extent that the IRS successfully adjusts the reported amounts of these items.

 

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If we acquire appreciated assets from a corporation that is not a REIT in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our hands is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the assets in the hands of the non-REIT corporation, we will be subject to tax on such appreciation at the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate then applicable if we subsequently recognize gain on a disposition of any such assets during the 10-year period (5-year period for assets acquired before August 8, 2016) following their acquisition from the non-REIT corporation. The results described in this paragraph assume that the non-REIT corporation will not elect, in lieu of this treatment, to be subject to an immediate tax when the asset is acquired by us.

 

   

We will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any “excess inclusion income” derived from an investment in residual interests in certain loan securitization structures (i.e., a “taxable mortgage pool”) to the extent that our common stock is held by specified types of tax-exempt organizations known as “disqualified organizations” that are not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income. To the extent that we own a taxable mortgage pool through a TRS, we will not be subject to this tax. See “—Effect of Subsidiary Entities—Taxable Mortgage Pools” and “—Excess Inclusion Income.”

 

   

We may elect to retain and pay U.S. federal income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the stockholder’s basis in our common stock. Stockholders that are U.S. corporations will also appropriately adjust their earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated.

 

   

We will have subsidiaries or own interests in other lower-tier entities that are subchapter C corporations, the earnings of which could be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

In addition, we may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including state, local, and foreign income, franchise property and other taxes. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT

The Internal Revenue Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for the special Internal Revenue Code provisions applicable to REITs;

 

  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

  (5)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months;

 

  (6)

in which, during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include specified entities);

 

  (7)

that makes an election to be a REIT for the current taxable year or has made such an election for a previous taxable year that has not been terminated or revoked;

 

  (8)

that uses a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

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  (9)

that has no earnings and profits from any non-REIT taxable year at the close of any taxable year; and

 

  (10)

which meets other tests, and satisfies all of the relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT qualification described below, including with respect to the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

The Internal Revenue Code provides that conditions (1) through (4) must be met during the entire taxable year, that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year; and that conditions (5) and (6) do not need to be satisfied for the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT has been made. We believe that our common stock has sufficient diversity of ownership to satisfy the requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. Our charter provides restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of shares of our stock, which are intended, among other purposes, to assist us in satisfying the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. For purposes of condition (6), an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

To monitor compliance with the share ownership requirements, we are generally required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of shares of our stock. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of shares of our stock, in which the record holders are to disclose the actual owners of the shares (i.e., the persons required to include in gross income the dividends paid by us). A list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand must be maintained as part of our records. Failure by us to comply with these record-keeping requirements could subject us to monetary penalties. If we satisfy these requirements and after exercising reasonable diligence would not have known that condition (6) is not satisfied, we will be deemed to have satisfied such condition. A stockholder that fails or refuses to comply with the demand is required by Treasury Regulations to submit a statement with its tax return disclosing the actual ownership of the shares and other information.

For purposes of condition (8), we have adopted December 31 as our year end, and thereby satisfy this requirement.

Effect of Subsidiary Entities

Ownership of Partnership Interests

In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership, Treasury regulations provide that the REIT is deemed to own its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets and to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s gross income based on its pro rata share of capital interests in the partnership for purposes of the asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, as described below. However, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, described below, the determination of a REIT’s interest in partnership assets will be based on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for these purposes, certain excluded securities as described in the Internal Revenue Code. In addition, the assets and gross income of the partnership generally are deemed to retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership and other partnerships in which we own an equity interest (including equity interests in any lower tier partnerships) is treated as assets and items of income of our company for purposes of applying the REIT requirements described below. Consequently, to the extent that we directly or indirectly hold a preferred or other equity interest in a partnership, the partnership’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control or only limited influence over the partnership.

Disregarded Subsidiaries

If a REIT owns a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” that subsidiary is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the

 

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subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT itself, including for purposes of the gross income and asset tests applicable to REITs, as summarized below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is any corporation, other than a TRS, that is wholly-owned by a REIT, by other disregarded subsidiaries of a REIT or by a combination of the two. Single member limited liability companies that are wholly-owned by a REIT are also generally disregarded as separate entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including for purposes of the REIT gross income and asset tests. Disregarded subsidiaries, along with partnerships in which we hold an equity interest, are sometimes referred to herein as “pass-through subsidiaries.”

In the event that a disregarded subsidiary ceases to be wholly-owned by us (for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of us), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “—Asset Tests” and “—Gross Income Tests.”

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries

A REIT, in general, may jointly elect with a subsidiary corporation, whether or not wholly-owned, to treat the subsidiary corporation as a TRS. We generally may not own more than 10% of the securities of a taxable corporation, as measured by voting power or value, unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a TRS. The separate existence of a TRS or other taxable corporation, unlike a disregarded subsidiary as discussed above, is not ignored for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, such an entity would generally be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow generated by us and our subsidiaries in the aggregate and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. We and each of our TRSs have made a TRS election with respect to each of our TRSs, which allows our TRSs to invest in assets and engage in activities that could not be held or conducted directly by us without jeopardizing our qualification as a REIT.

A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or other taxable subsidiary corporation or as receiving any income that the subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the subsidiary. This treatment can affect the gross income and asset test calculations that apply to the REIT, as described below. Because a parent REIT does not include the assets and income of such subsidiary corporations in determining the parent’s compliance with the REIT requirements, such entities may be used by the parent REIT to undertake indirectly activities that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude it from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries or render commercially unfeasible (for example, activities that give rise to certain categories of income such as non-qualifying hedging income or inventory sales). We hold assets in our TRSs, subject to the limitation that securities in TRSs may not represent more than 25% (20% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) of our total assets. To the extent that we acquire loans with an intention of selling such loans in a manner that might expose us to a 100% tax on “prohibited transactions,” such loans will be acquired by a TRS. If dividends are paid to us by our TRSs, then a portion of dividends, if any, that we distribute to stockholders who are taxed at individual rates generally will be eligible for taxation at preferential qualified dividend income tax rates rather than at ordinary income rates. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Certain restrictions imposed on TRSs are intended to ensure that such entities will be subject to appropriate levels of U.S. federal income taxation. First, if certain tests regarding the TRS’ debt-to-equity ratio are not satisfied, a TRS may not deduct interest payments made in any year to an affiliated REIT to the extent that such payments exceed, generally, 50% of the TRS’s adjusted taxable income for that year (although the TRS may carry forward to, and deduct in, a succeeding year the disallowed interest amount if the 50% test is satisfied in

 

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that year). In addition, if amounts are paid to a REIT or a TRS or deducted by a TRS due to transactions between a REIT, its tenants and/or the TRS, that exceed the amount that would be paid to a REIT or deducted by a TRS or are less than the amount that would be paid to a TRS in an arm’s-length transaction, the REIT generally will be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of such excess. We intend to scrutinize all of our transactions with any of our subsidiaries that are treated as TRSs in an effort to ensure that we will not become subject to this excise tax; however, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in avoiding this excise tax.

Taxable Mortgage Pools

An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool, or TMP, under the Internal Revenue Code if:

 

   

substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

 

   

more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

 

   

the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

 

   

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

Under Treasury regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP. We may enter into financing and securitization arrangements that give rise to TMPs. Specifically, we may securitize certain loans that we hold and such securitizations may result in us owning interests in a TMP. To the extent that we do so, we may enter into such transactions through a qualified REIT subsidiary or a subsidiary REIT. We would be precluded from selling to outside investors equity interests in securitizations entered into through a qualified REIT subsidiary or from selling any debt securities issued in connection with such securitizations that might be considered equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in order to ensure that such entity remains a qualified REIT subsidiary.

A TMP generally is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes; it cannot be included in any consolidated U.S. federal corporate income tax return. However, special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a taxable mortgage pool. If a REIT owns directly, or indirectly through one or more qualified REIT subsidiaries or other entities that are disregarded as a separate entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, 100% of the equity interests in the TMP, the TMP will be a qualified REIT subsidiary and, therefore, ignored as an entity separate from the REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and would not generally affect the tax qualification of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the taxable mortgage pool classification would generally, except as described below, be limited to the REIT’s stockholders. See “—Excess Inclusion Income.”

If we own less than 100% of the ownership interests in a subsidiary that is a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply unless such subsidiary is itself a REIT. Rather, the subsidiary would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our REIT income and asset test calculations and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We do not expect that we would form any subsidiary that would become a TMP, in which we own some, but less than all, of the ownership interests (unless such subsidiary is a REIT), and we intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT.

Gross Income Tests

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we annually must satisfy two gross income tests. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year, excluding gross income from sales of inventory or dealer

 

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property in “prohibited transactions” and certain hedging and foreign currency transactions must be derived from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends received from and gains from the disposition of other shares of other REITs, interest income derived from loans secured by real property, and gains from the sale of real estate assets (other than income or gains with respect to debt instruments issued by public REITs that are not otherwise secured by real property), as well as income from certain kinds of temporary investments. Second, at least 95% of our gross income in each taxable year, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging and foreign currency transactions, must be derived from some combination of income that qualifies under the 75% income test described above, as well as other dividends, interest, and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, which need not have any relation to real property. We intend to continue to monitor the amount of our non-qualifying income and manage our portfolio of assets to comply with the gross income tests, but we cannot assure you that we will be successful in this effort.

For purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, a REIT is deemed to have earned a proportionate share of the income earned by any partnership, or any limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in which it owns an interest, which share is determined by reference to its capital interest in such entity, and is deemed to have earned the income earned by any qualified REIT subsidiary.

Interest Income

Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property. If we receive interest income with respect to a loan that is secured by both real property and other property and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date of our binding commitment to make or purchase the mortgage loan, then, subject to the exception described below, the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other property, and our income from the arrangement will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, if a loan is secured by both real property and personal property and the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the fair market value of all real and personal property securing the loan, the loan is generally treated as secured solely by real property for purposes of these rules. We invest in loans made for purposes of improving or developing real property, the interest from which is qualifying income for purposes of the REIT income tests, provided that the loan value of the real property securing the loan is equal to or greater than the highest outstanding principal amount of the loan during any taxable year, and other requirements are met, or beginning as of 2016, provided the fair market value of the personal property securing the loan does not exceed 15% of the fair market value of the real and personal property securing the loan. With respect to loans made for purposes of improving or developing real property, the loan value of the real property is the fair market value of the land plus the reasonably estimated cost of the improvements or developments (other than personal property) which will secure the loan and which are to be constructed from the proceeds of the loan. In particular, we intend to continue to treat the interest income that we receive from loans secured by the financing of real property included in our sustainable infrastructure projects, which we include in our “financing receivables,” as interest on obligations secured by mortgages on real property that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. As discussed above under “Taxation of Our Company—General—Real Property Regulations,” we received a private letter ruling from the IRS relating to our ability to treat income from certain of our financing receivables as qualifying REIT income to the extent it falls within the scope of such private letter ruling and to the extent such private letter ruling is not inconsistent with the Real Property Regulations. We are entitled to rely upon this ruling for that income which fits within the scope of such private letter ruling only to the extent that we have the legal and contractual rights described therein and did not misstate or omit in the ruling request a relevant fact and that we continue to operate in the future in accordance with the relevant facts described in such request, and no assurance can be given that we will always be able to do so. If we were not able to treat the interest income that we receive as qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests, we would be required to restructure the manner in which we receive such income and we may realize significant income that does not qualify for the

 

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REIT gross income tests, which could cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test.

In the event that we invest in a financing receivable or other loan that is not fully secured by real property, is secured by personal property and, beginning as of 2016, if the fair market value of the personal property securing the loan exceeds 15% of the fair market value of the real and personal property securing the loan, we would be required to apportion our annual interest income to the real property security based on a fraction, the numerator of which is the value of the real property securing the financing receivable or other loan, determined when we commit to acquire the financing receivable or other loan, and the denominator of which is the highest “principal amount” of the financing receivable or other loan during the year. The IRS has issued Revenue Procedure 2014-51 addressing a REIT’s investment in distressed debt, or the Distressed Debt Revenue Procedure. The Distressed Debt Revenue Procedure interprets the “principal amount” of the loan to be the face amount of the loan, despite the Internal Revenue Code requiring taxpayers to treat gain attributable to any market discount, that is the difference between the purchase price of the loan and its face amount, for all purposes (other than certain withholding and information reporting purposes) as interest. Any financing receivable that we invest in that is not fully secured by real property, is secured in part by personal property and, beginning in 2016, is secured by personal property the fair market value of which exceeds 15% of the fair market value of all real and personal property securing the mortgage loan will therefore be subject to the interest apportionment rules and the position taken in the Distressed Debt Revenue Procedure, as described above.

In the future, we may hold mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than a direct mortgage on the real property. Revenue Procedure 2003-65 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan, if it meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests (described below), and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. The mezzanine loans that we acquire may not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. Hence, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of such assets as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests or the interest generated by these loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test.

To the extent that we derive interest income from a loan where all or a portion of the amount of interest payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales and not the net income or profits of any person. This limitation does not apply, however, to a loan where the borrower derives substantially all of its income from the property from the leasing of substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower would qualify as rents from real property had it been earned directly by us.

To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (or a shared appreciation provision), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that the property is not inventory or dealer property in the hands of the borrower or us.

Fee Income

We may receive various fees in connection with our operations. The fees generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if they are received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by income or profits. Other fees are not qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests.

 

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Dividend Income

We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions are generally classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Any dividends received by us from a REIT will be qualifying income in our hands for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

Hedging Transactions

We have entered and may in the future enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including hedging instruments such as interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, swaptions, and options on such contracts, futures contracts, puts and calls, similar financial instruments or other financial instruments that we deem appropriate. Except to the extent provided by Treasury regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we enter into (1) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as specified in Treasury regulations before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, (2) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests which is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, and (3) primarily to manage risk with respect to a hedging transaction described in clause (1) or (2) after the extinguishment of such borrowings or disposal of the asset producing such income that is hedged by the hedging transaction, which is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into, in each case will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to continue to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT but there can be no assurances we will be successful in this regard.

Phantom Income

Due to the nature of the assets in which we expect to invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income in early periods that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

To the extent we acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount, the amount of such discount generally will be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We will accrue market discount on the basis of a constant yield to maturity of a debt instrument. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions in a subsequent taxable year.

Some of the debt instruments that we acquire may have been issued with original issue discount. In general, we will be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the debt instrument, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though smaller or no cash payments are received on such debt instrument. As in the case of the market discount

 

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discussed in the preceding paragraph, the constant yield in question will be determined and we will be taxed based on the assumption that all future payments due on the debt instrument in question will be made, with consequences similar to those described in the previous paragraph if all payments on the debt instrument are not made.

Although we do not presently intend to, we may, in the future, acquire debt investments that are subsequently modified by agreement with the borrower. If the amendments to the outstanding debt are “significant modifications” under the applicable Treasury regulations, the modified debt may be considered to have been reissued to us in a debt-for-debt exchange with the borrower. In that event, we may be required to recognize taxable income to the extent the principal amount of the modified debt exceeds our adjusted tax basis in the unmodified debt, and would hold the modified loan with a cost basis equal to its principal amount for U.S. federal tax purposes.

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinate mortgage-backed securities at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

Finally, we may be required under the terms of indebtedness that we incur to private lenders to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

Due to each of these potential timing differences between income recognition and the related cash receipts, there is a significant risk that we may have substantial taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Rents from Real Property

Rents that we receive from real property or interests therein that we own or purchase in the future qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income tests described above, only if several conditions are met, including the following. If rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is greater than 15% of the total rent received under any particular lease, then all of the rent attributable to such personal property will not qualify as rents from real property. The determination of whether an item of personal property constitutes real or personal property under the REIT provisions of the Internal Revenue Code is subject to both legal and factual considerations and is therefore subject to different interpretations. We intend to structure any leases so that the rent payable thereunder will qualify as “rents from real property,” but there can be no assurance we will be successful in this regard.

In addition, in order for rents received by us to qualify as “rents from real property,” the rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property, if earned directly by us. Moreover, for rents received to qualify as “rents from real property,” we generally must not operate or manage the property or furnish or render certain services to the tenants of such property, other than through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from which we derive no income or through a TRS. We are permitted, however, to perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered rendered to the occupant of the property. In addition, we may directly or indirectly provide non-customary services to tenants of our properties without disqualifying all of the rent from the property if the

 

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greater of 150% of our direct cost in furnishing or rendering the services or the payment for such services does not exceed 1% of the total gross income from the property. In such a case, only the amounts for non-customary services are not treated as rents from real property and the provision of the services does not disqualify the related rent.

Rental income will qualify as rents from real property only to the extent that we do not directly or constructively own, (1) in the case of any tenant which is a corporation, stock possessing 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, or 10% or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such tenant, or (2) in the case of any tenant which is not a corporation, an interest of 10% or more in the assets or net profits of such tenant.

Failure to Satisfy the Gross Income Tests

We intend to continue to monitor our sources of income, including any non-qualifying income received by us, and manage our assets so as to ensure our compliance with the gross income tests. We cannot assure you, however, that we will be able to satisfy the gross income tests. If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may still qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. These relief provisions will generally be available if the failure of our company to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and, following the identification of such failure, we set forth a description of each item of our gross income that satisfies the gross income tests in a schedule for the taxable year filed in accordance with the Treasury regulation. It is not possible to state whether we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions in all circumstances. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances involving our failure to satisfy the gross income tests, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above under “—Taxation of REITs in General,” even where these relief provisions apply, a tax would be imposed upon the profit attributable to the amount by which we fail to satisfy the particular gross income test, which could be a significant amount.

Asset Tests

We, at the close of each calendar quarter, must also satisfy five tests relating to the nature of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by some combination of “real estate assets,” cash, cash items, U.S. government securities and, under some circumstances, stock or debt instruments purchased with new capital. For this purpose, real estate assets include interests in real property, such as land, buildings, certain building improvements, leasehold interests in real property, stock of other corporations that qualify as REITs, mortgage loans, and beginning in 2016, debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs and personal property to the extent rents attributable to such personal property are treated as “rents from real property” for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests discussed above. Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% test are subject to the additional asset tests described below. Second, the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets. Third, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, as measured by either voting power or value. Fourth, the aggregate value of all securities of TRSs held by us may not exceed 25% (20% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) of the value of our total assets. Fifth, the aggregate value of debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs held by us that are not otherwise secured by real property may not exceed 25% of the value of our total assets.

The 5% and 10% asset tests do not apply to securities of TRSs and qualified REIT subsidiaries. The 10% value test does not apply to certain “straight debt” and other excluded securities, as described in the Internal Revenue Code, including but not limited to any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, (a) a REIT’s interest as a partner in a partnership is not considered a security for purposes of applying the 10% value test; (b) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or other excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income is derived from sources that would

 

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qualify for the 75% REIT gross income test; and (c) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or other excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership to the extent of the REIT’s interest as a partner in the partnership.

For purposes of the 10% value test, “straight debt” means a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (i) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, (ii) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors other than certain contingencies relating to the timing and amount of principal and interest payments, as described in the Internal Revenue Code and (iii) in the case of an issuer which is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our “controlled taxable REIT subsidiaries” as defined in the Internal Revenue Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer which (a) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (b) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, for the purposes of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

We may hold certain mezzanine loans that do not qualify for the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2003-65 discussed above pursuant to which certain loans secured by a first priority security interest in equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly own real property will be treated as qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% real estate asset test and therefore not be subject to the 10% vote or value test. In addition such mezzanine loans may not qualify as “straight debt” securities or for one of the other exclusions from the definition of “securities” for purposes of the 10% value test. We intend to make any such investments in such a manner as not to fail the asset tests described above but there can be no assurance that we will be successful in this regard.

We may hold certain participation interests, including B Notes, in loans secured by real property and mezzanine loans originated by other lenders. B Notes are interests in underlying loans created by virtue of participations or similar agreements to which the originators of the loans are parties, along with one or more participants. The borrower on the underlying loan is typically not a party to the participation agreement. The performance of this investment depends upon the performance of the underlying loan and, if the underlying borrower defaults, the participant typically has no recourse against the originator of the loan. The originator often retains a senior position in the underlying loan and grants junior participations which absorb losses first in the event of a default by the borrower. We generally expect to treat our participation interests as qualifying real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests and interest that we derive from such investments as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test discussed above. The appropriate treatment of participation interests for U.S. federal income tax purposes is not entirely certain, however, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our treatment of our participation interests. In the event of a determination that such participation interests do not qualify as real estate assets, or that the income that we derive from such participation interests does not qualify as mortgage interest for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests, we could be subject to a penalty tax, or could fail to qualify as a REIT.

We intend to continue to treat a portion of our interests in the loans secured by real property included in our sustainable infrastructure projects, which we include in our “financing receivables,” as real estate assets that qualify under the 75% asset test. We received a private letter ruling from the IRS relating to our ability to treat certain of our financing receivables as qualifying REIT assets to the extent they fall within the scope of such private letter ruling (see “Taxation of Our Company—General—Real Property Regulations” and “Gross Income Tests—Interest Income” above). We expect that our holdings of TRSs and other assets is, and will continue to be, structured in a manner that will comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we intend to continue to monitor compliance on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine compliance with these requirements, we will need to estimate the value of our assets. We do not expect to obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the total value of our assets or the value of any particular security or other asset. Moreover, values of some assets, including our interests in our TRSs, may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future.

 

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Although we will be prudent in making these estimates, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we might not satisfy the REIT asset tests, and could fail to qualify as a REIT. A financing receivable that we own will generally be treated as a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test if, on the date that we acquire or originate the financing receivable, the value of the real property securing the loan is equal or greater to the principal amount of the loan. In the event that we invest in a financing receivable or other loan that is secured by both real property and other property, the Distressed Debt Revenue Procedure may apply to determine what portion of the financing receivable or other loan will be treated as a real estate asset for purposes of the 75% asset test. The interest apportionment rules apply if the financing receivable or other loan in question is secured by both real property and other property. Pursuant to the Distressed Debt Revenue Procedure, the IRS has announced that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a financing receivable or other loan as a real estate asset in its entirety to the extent that the value of the financing receivable or other loan is equal to or less than the value of the real property securing the financing receivable or other loan at the relevant testing date. However, uncertainties exist regarding the application of Distressed Debt Revenue Procedure, particularly with respect to the proper treatment under the asset tests of financing receivable or other loans acquired at a discount that increase in value following their acquisition, and no assurance can be given that the IRS would not challenge our treatment of such assets. Furthermore, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset tests.

In addition, we may enter into repurchase agreements under which we will nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any repurchase agreement and that the repurchase agreement will be treated as a secured lending transaction notwithstanding that we may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

Failure to Satisfy the Asset Tests

After initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our qualification as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy the asset tests because we acquire or increase our ownership of assets during a quarter, we can cure this failure by disposing of sufficient non-qualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. If we fail the 5% asset test, or the 10% vote or value asset tests at the end of any quarter and such failure is not cured within 30 days thereafter, we may dispose of sufficient assets (generally within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure to satisfy these asset tests occurred) to cure such a violation that does not exceed the lesser of 1% of our assets at the end of the relevant quarter or $10.0 million. If we fail any of the other asset tests or our failure of the 5% and 10% asset tests is in excess of the de minimis amount described above, as long as such failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, we are permitted to avoid disqualification as a REIT, after the 30 day cure period, by taking steps, including the disposition of sufficient assets to meet the asset tests (generally within six months after the last day of the quarter in which our identification of the failure to satisfy the REIT asset test occurred), and paying a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest U.S. federal corporate income tax rate (currently 35%) of the net income generated by the non-qualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the asset test.

 

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Annual Distribution Requirements

In order to qualify as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:

 

  (a)

the sum of:

 

   

90% of our “REIT taxable income” (computed without regard to our deduction for dividends paid and our net capital gains); and

 

   

90% of the net income (after tax), if any, from foreclosure property (as described below); minus

 

  (b)

the sum of specified items of non-cash income that exceeds a percentage of our income.

These distributions must be paid in the taxable year to which they relate or in the following taxable year if such distributions are declared in October, November or December of the taxable year, are payable to stockholders of record on a specified date in any such month and are actually paid before the end of January of the following year. Such distributions are treated as both paid by us and received by each stockholder on December 31 of the year in which they are declared. In addition, at our election, a distribution for a taxable year may be declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and be paid with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided that such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such taxable year. These distributions are taxable to our stockholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement.

In order for distributions to be counted towards our distribution requirement and to give rise to a tax deduction by us, they must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if it is pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class and is in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in the organizational documents. This preferential dividend limitation will no longer apply to us during any period after December 31, 2014 that we are treated as a publicly offered REIT, which generally includes a REIT required to file annually and periodic reports with the SEC.

To the extent that we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to tax at ordinary U.S. federal corporate tax rates on the retained portion. In addition, we may elect to retain, rather than distribute, our net long-term capital gains and pay tax on such gains. In this case, we could elect to have our stockholders include their proportionate share of such undistributed long-term capital gains in income and receive a corresponding credit or refund, as the case may be, for their proportionate share of the tax paid by us. Our stockholders would then increase the adjusted basis of their stock in us by the difference between the designated amounts included in their long-term capital gains and the tax deemed paid with respect to their proportionate shares. Stockholders that are U.S. corporations would also appropriately adjust their earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated.

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior periods) and (y) the amounts of income retained on which we have paid U.S. federal corporate income tax. We intend to continue to make timely distributions so that we are not subject to the 4% excise tax.

It is possible that we, from time to time, may not have sufficient cash to meet the distribution requirements due to timing differences between (a) the actual receipt of cash, including receipt of distributions from our subsidiaries and (b) the inclusion of items in income by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the event that such timing differences occur, in order to meet the distribution requirements, it might be necessary to arrange for short-term, or possibly long-term, borrowings, to use cash reserves, to liquidate non cash assets at rates or times

 

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we regard as unfavorable, or to pay dividends in the form of taxable in-kind distributions of property including taxable stock dividends. In the case of a taxable stock dividend, stockholders would be required to include the dividend as income and would be required to satisfy the tax liability associated with the distribution with cash from other sources including sales of our common stock. Both a taxable stock distribution and sale of common stock resulting from such distribution could adversely affect the price of our common stock. We may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirements for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In this case, we may be able to avoid losing our qualification as a REIT or being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. However, we will be required to pay interest and a penalty based on the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

Recordkeeping Requirements

We are required to maintain records and request on an annual basis information from specified stockholders. These requirements are designed to assist us in determining the actual ownership of our outstanding stock and maintaining our qualification as a REIT.

Excess Inclusion Income

It is possible that a portion of our income from a TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income,” although we have no current intention of entering into TMP arrangements that would give rise to excess inclusion income. A REIT’s excess inclusion income must be allocated among its stockholders in proportion to dividends paid. We are required to notify stockholders of the amount of “excess inclusion income” allocated to them. A stockholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

 

   

cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the stockholder,

 

   

in the case of a stockholder that is a REIT, a RIC, or a common trust fund or other pass through entity, is considered excess inclusion income of such entity,

 

   

is subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of stockholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax,

 

   

results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption, to the extent allocable to most types of non-U.S. stockholders, and

 

   

is taxable (at the highest U.S. federal corporate tax rate, currently 35%) to the REIT, rather than its stockholders, to the extent allocable to the REIT’s stock held in record name by disqualified organizations (generally, tax-exempt entities not subject to unrelated business income tax, including governmental organizations).

The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make such determinations using a reasonable method.

Tax-exempt investors, RIC or REIT investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our common stock.

If a subsidiary partnership of ours that we do not wholly-own, directly or through one or more disregarded entities, were a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and potentially would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax or withholding tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test

 

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calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we will have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT.

Prohibited Transactions

Net income we derive from a prohibited transaction is subject to a 100% tax. The term “prohibited transaction” generally includes a sale or other disposition of property (other than foreclosure property) that is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, in the ordinary course of a trade or business by a REIT, by a lower-tier partnership in which the REIT holds an equity interest or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to the REIT. We intend to continue to conduct our operations so that no asset owned by us or our pass-through subsidiaries will be held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, and that a sale of any assets owned by us directly or through a pass-through subsidiary will not be in the ordinary course of business. However, whether property is held as inventory or “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends on the particular facts and circumstances. No assurance can be given that any particular asset in which we hold a direct or indirect interest will not be treated as property held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers or that certain safe harbor provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that prevent such treatment will apply. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular U.S. federal corporate income tax rates.

Foreclosure Property

Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the maximum U.S. federal corporate tax rate (currently 35%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. We do not anticipate that we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but, if we do receive any such income, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

Tax on Built-In Gains

If we acquire appreciated assets from a subchapter C corporation in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our hands is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the assets in the hands of the subchapter C corporation (a “carry-over basis transaction”), and if we subsequently dispose of any such assets during the 5-year period following the acquisition of the assets from the subchapter C corporation, we will be subject to tax at the highest corporate tax rates on any gain from such assets to the extent of the excess of the fair market value of the assets on the date that they were acquired by us over the basis of such assets on such date, which we refer to as built-in gains. However, the built-in gains tax will not apply if the subchapter C corporation elects to be subject to an immediate tax when the asset is acquired by us. We do not expect any tax payable by our company that is attributable to built-in gains to be material.

Failure to Qualify

In the event that we violate a provision of the Internal Revenue Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, we may nevertheless continue to qualify as a REIT under specified relief provisions available

 

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to us to avoid such disqualification if (1) the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, (2) we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each failure to satisfy a requirement for qualification as a REIT and (3) the violation does not include a violation under the gross income or asset tests described above (for which other specified relief provisions are available). This cure provision reduces the instances that could lead to our disqualification as a REIT for violations due to reasonable cause. If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and none of the relief provisions of the Internal Revenue Code apply, we will be subject to tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. Distributions to our stockholders in any year in which we are not a REIT will not be deductible by us, nor will they be required to be made. In this situation, to the extent of current or accumulated earnings and profits, and, subject to limitations of the Internal Revenue Code, distributions to our stockholders will generally be taxable in the case of our stockholders who are individual U.S. stockholders (as defined below), at a maximum rate of 20%, and dividends in the hands of our corporate U.S. stockholders may be eligible for the dividends received deduction. Unless we are entitled to relief under the specific statutory provisions, we will also be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following a year during which qualification was lost. It is not possible to state whether, in all circumstances, we will be entitled to statutory relief.

Tax Aspects of Ownership of Equity Interests in Partnerships and Other Transparent Entities

General

We hold our assets through entities that are classified as partnerships and other transparent entities, including trusts, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including our interest in our operating partnership and any equity interests in lower-tier partnerships. For a discussion of the tax treatment of transparent “pass-through” entities in which we hold interests, see “—Effect of Subsidiary Entities—Disregarded Subsidiaries.” In general, partnerships are “pass-through” entities that are not subject to U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners are allocated their proportionate shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a partnership, and are subject to tax on these items without regard to whether the partners receive a distribution from the partnership. We include in our income our proportionate share of these partnership items for purposes of the various REIT income tests, based on our capital interest in such partnership, and in the computation of our REIT taxable income. Moreover, for purposes of the REIT asset tests, we include our proportionate share of assets held by subsidiary partnerships, based on our capital interest in such partnerships (other than for purposes of the 10% value test, for which the determination of our interest in partnership assets will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership excluding, for these purposes, certain excluded securities as described in the Internal Revenue Code). Consequently, to the extent that we hold an equity interest in a partnership, the partnership’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control, or only limited influence, over the partnership.

Entity Classification

The ownership by us of equity interests in partnerships, including our operating partnership, involves special tax considerations, including the possibility of a challenge by the IRS of the status of any of our subsidiary partnerships as a partnership, as opposed to an association taxable as a corporation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Because it is likely that at least half of our operating partnership’s investments will be loans secured by real property and the operating partnership intends to use leverage to finance the investments, the taxable mortgage pool rules potentially could apply to the operating partnership. However, we and the operating partnership do not presently intend that the operating partnership will incur any indebtedness, the payments on which bear a relationship to payments (including payments at maturity) received by the operating partnership from its investments. Accordingly, we and the operating partnership do not believe that the operating partnership will be an obligor under debt obligations with two or more maturities, the payments on which bear a relationship to payments on the operating partnership’s debt investments, and, therefore, we and the operating partnership do not believe that the operating partnership will be classified as a taxable mortgage pool. Furthermore, a partnership that does not elect to be treated as a corporation nevertheless will be treated as a corporation for U.S.

 

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federal income tax purposes if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and it does not receive at least 90% of its gross income from certain specified sources of “qualifying income” within the meaning of that section. A “publicly traded partnership” is any partnership (i) the interests in which are traded on an established securities market or (ii) the interests in which are readily tradable on a “secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof.” Although interests in our operating partnership are not traded on an established securities market, there is a significant risk that the right of a holder of such interests to redeem the interests for cash or, at our option, our common stock, could cause the interests in our operating partnership to be considered readily tradable on the substantial equivalent of a secondary market. Under the relevant Treasury Regulations, interests in a partnership will not be considered readily tradable on a secondary market or on the substantial equivalent of a secondary market if the partnership qualifies for specified “safe harbors,” which are based on the specific facts and circumstances relating to the partnership. We believe that our operating partnership currently satisfies one or more of the applicable safe harbors. However, we cannot provide any assurance that our operating partnership will, in each of its taxable years, qualify for one of these safe harbors. If our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership were treated as an association for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would be taxable as a corporation and, therefore, generally would be subject to an entity-level tax on its income. In such a situation, the character of our assets and items of our gross income would change and would preclude us from satisfying the REIT asset tests (particularly the tests generally preventing a REIT from owning more than 10% of the voting securities, or more than 10% of the value of the securities, of a corporation) or the gross income tests as discussed in “—Asset Tests” and “—Gross Income Tests” above, and in turn would prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify,” above, for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests for a taxable year.

In addition, any change in the status of any of our subsidiary partnerships for tax purposes might be treated as a taxable event, in which case we could have taxable income that is subject to the REIT distribution requirements without receiving any cash.

Tax Allocations with Respect to Partnership Properties

The partnership agreement of our operating partnership generally provides that items of operating income and loss will be allocated to the holders of units in proportion to the number of units held by each holder. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. Our operating partnership’s allocations of income and loss are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations promulgated under this section of the Internal Revenue Code. Under the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated for tax purposes in a manner such that the contributing partner is charged with, or benefits from, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value of the contributed property and the adjusted tax basis of such property at the time of the contribution (a “book-tax difference”). Such allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect partnership capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

To the extent that any of our subsidiary partnerships acquires appreciated (or depreciated) properties by way of capital contributions from its partners, allocations would need to be made in a manner consistent with these requirements. Where a partner contributes cash to a partnership at a time that the partnership holds appreciated or depreciated property, the Treasury regulations provide for a similar allocation of these items to the other (i.e., non-contributing) partners. These rules apply to the contribution that we made to our operating partnership of the cash proceeds received in offerings of shares of our common stock. As a result, the partners of our operating

 

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partnership, including us, could be allocated greater or lesser amounts of depreciation and taxable income in respect of the operating partnership’s properties than would be the case if all of the partnership’s assets (including any contributed assets) had a tax basis equal to their fair market values at the time of any contributions to that partnership. This could cause us to recognize, over a period of time, taxable income in excess of cash flow from the operating partnership, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements discussed above and result in a greater portion of our distributions being taxable as dividends.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

This section summarizes the taxation of U.S. stockholders that are not tax-exempt organizations. For these purposes, a U.S. stockholder is a beneficial owner of our common stock that for U.S. federal income tax purposes is:

 

   

a citizen or resident of the U.S.;

 

   

a corporation (including an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the U.S. or of a political subdivision thereof (including the District of Columbia);

 

   

an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

any trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.

If an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A partner of a partnership holding our common stock should consult its own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to the partner of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our stock by the partnership.

Distributions

Provided that we continue to qualify as a REIT, distributions made to our taxable U.S. stockholders out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, and not designated as capital gain dividends, will generally be taken into account by them as ordinary dividend income and will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations. In determining the extent to which a distribution with respect to our common stock constitutes a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock, if any, and then to our common stock. Dividends received from REITs are generally not eligible to be taxed at the preferential qualified dividend income rates applicable to individual U.S. stockholders who receive dividends from taxable subchapter C corporations. With limited exceptions, dividends received by individual U.S. stockholders from us that are not designated as capital gain dividends will continue to be taxed at rates applicable to ordinary income, which are as high as 39.6%.

In addition, distributions from us that are designated as capital gain dividends will be taxed to U.S. stockholders as long-term capital gains, to the extent that they do not exceed the actual net capital gain of our company for the taxable year, without regard to the period for which the U.S. stockholder has held its stock. To the extent that we elect under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code to retain our net capital gains, U.S. stockholders will be treated as having received, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our undistributed capital gains as well as a corresponding credit or refund, as the case may be, for taxes paid by us on such retained capital gains. U.S. stockholders will increase their adjusted tax basis in our common stock by the difference between their allocable share of such retained capital gain and their share of the tax paid by us. Corporate U.S. stockholders may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. Long-term capital gains are generally taxable at maximum U.S. federal rates of 20% in the case of U.S.

 

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stockholders who are individuals, and 35% for corporations. Capital gains attributable to the sale of depreciable real property held for more than 12 months are subject to a 25% maximum U.S. federal income tax rate for U.S. stockholders who are individuals, to the extent of previously claimed depreciation deductions.

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. stockholder to the extent that they do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the U.S. stockholder’s shares of our common stock in respect of which the distributions were made, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of these shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the adjusted tax basis of a U.S. stockholder’s shares of our common stock, they will be included in income as long-term capital gain, or short-term capital gain if the shares have been held for one year or less. In addition, any dividend declared by us in October, November or December of any year and payable to a U.S. stockholder of record on a specified date in any such month will be treated as both paid by us and received by the U.S. stockholder on December 31 of such year, provided that the dividend is actually paid by us before the end of January of the following calendar year.

With respect to U.S. stockholders who are taxed at the rates applicable to individuals, we may elect to designate a portion of our distributions paid to such U.S. stockholders as “qualified dividend income.” A portion of a distribution that is properly designated as qualified dividend income is taxable to non-corporate U.S. stockholders as capital gain, provided that the U.S. stockholder has held our common stock with respect to which the distribution is made for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which such common stock became ex-dividend with respect to the relevant distribution. The maximum amount of our distributions eligible to be designated as qualified dividend income for a taxable year is equal to the sum of:

 

  (a)

the qualified dividend income received by us during such taxable year from non-REIT C corporations (including any TRS in which we own an interest);

 

  (b)

the excess of any “undistributed” REIT taxable income recognized during the immediately preceding year over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such undistributed REIT taxable income; and

 

  (c)

the excess of any income recognized during the immediately preceding year attributable to the sale of a built-in-gain asset that was acquired in a carry-over basis transaction from a non-REIT C corporation over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such built-in gain.

Generally, dividends that we receive will be treated as qualified dividend income for purposes of (a) above if the dividends are received from a domestic C corporation (other than a REIT or a RIC), any of our TRSs, or a “qualified foreign corporation” and specified holding period requirements and other requirements are met.

To the extent that we have available net operating losses and capital losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that must be made in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of our Company—General” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” Such losses, however, are not passed through to U.S. stockholders and do not offset income of U.S. stockholders from other sources, nor do they affect the character of any distributions that are actually made by us, which are generally subject to tax in the hands of U.S. stockholders to the extent that we have current or accumulated earnings and profits.

If excess inclusion income from a taxable mortgage pool or REMIC residual interest is allocated to any stockholder, that income will be taxable in the hands of the stockholder and would not be offset by any net operating losses of the stockholder that would otherwise be available. See “—Effect of Subsidiary Entities—Taxable Mortgage Pools” and “—Excess Inclusion Income.” As required by IRS guidance, we intend to notify our stockholders if a portion of a dividend paid by us is attributable to excess inclusion income.

 

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Dispositions of Our Common Stock

In general, a U.S. stockholder will realize gain or loss upon the sale, redemption or other taxable disposition of our common stock in an amount equal to the difference between the sum of the fair market value of any property and the amount of cash received in such disposition and the U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our common stock at the time of the disposition. In general, a U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis will equal the U.S. stockholder’s acquisition cost, increased by the excess of net capital gains deemed distributed to the U.S. stockholder (discussed above) less tax deemed paid on it and reduced by returns of capital. In general, capital gains recognized by individuals and other non-corporate U.S. stockholders upon the sale or disposition of shares of our common stock will be subject to a maximum U.S. federal income tax rate of 20%, if our common stock is held for more than 12 months, and will be taxed at ordinary income rates (of up to 39.6%) if our common stock is held for 12 months or less. Gains recognized by U.S. stockholders that are corporations are subject to U.S. federal income tax at a maximum rate of 35%, whether or not classified as long-term capital gains. The IRS has the authority to prescribe, but has not yet prescribed, regulations that would apply a capital gain tax rate of 25% (which is generally higher than the long-term capital gain tax rates for non-corporate holders) to a portion of capital gain realized by a non-corporate holder on the sale of REIT stock or depositary shares that would correspond to the REIT’s “unrecaptured Section 1250 gain.”

Holders are advised to consult with their tax advisors with respect to their capital gain tax liability. Capital losses recognized by a U.S. stockholder upon the disposition of our common stock held for more than one year at the time of disposition will be considered long-term capital losses, and are generally available only to offset capital gain income of the U.S. stockholder but not ordinary income (except in the case of individuals, who may offset up to $3,000 of ordinary income each year). In addition, any loss upon a sale or exchange of shares of our common stock by a U.S. stockholder who has held the shares for six months or less, after applying holding period rules, will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of distributions received from us that were required to be treated by the U.S. stockholder as long-term capital gain.

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations

Distributions made by us and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. stockholder of our common stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. stockholders will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against income or gain relating to our common stock. Distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation. A U.S. stockholder that elects to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of stock or qualified dividend income as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitation will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amounts.

Medicare Tax on Unearned Income

Certain U.S. stockholders that are individuals, estates or trusts must pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock. U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this legislation on their ownership and disposition of our common stock.

Foreign Accounts

A 30% withholding tax may, pursuant to Treasury Regulations and IRS guidance, be imposed on dividends paid after June 30, 2014, and gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock occurring after December 31, 2018, to “foreign financial institutions” in respect of accounts of U.S. stockholders at such financial institutions. U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this withholding provision on their ownership and disposition of our common stock. See “—Foreign Accounts” below.

 

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Taxation of Tax-Exempt U.S. Stockholders

U.S. tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from U.S. federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income, which we refer to in this prospectus as UBTI. While many investments in real estate may generate UBTI, the IRS has ruled that dividend distributions from a REIT to a tax-exempt entity do not constitute UBTI. Based on that ruling, and provided that (1) a tax-exempt U.S. stockholder has not held our common stock as “debt financed property” within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code (i.e., where the acquisition or holding of the property is financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt stockholder), (2) our common stock is not otherwise used in an unrelated trade or business and (3) we do not hold an asset that gives rise to “excess inclusion income” (see “—Effect of Subsidiary Entities,” and “—Excess Inclusion Income”), distributions from us and income from the sale of our common stock generally should not give rise to UBTI to a tax-exempt U.S. stockholder. As previously noted, we may engage in transactions that would result in a portion of our dividend income being considered “excess inclusion income,” and accordingly, it is possible that a portion of our dividends received by a tax-exempt stockholder will be treated as UBTI.

Tax-exempt U.S. stockholders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, and qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c) (17) and (c)(20) of the Internal Revenue Code, respectively, are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions from us as UBTI, unless they are able to properly exclude certain amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our common stock. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

In certain circumstances, a pension trust (1) that is described in Section 401(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, (2) is tax exempt under Section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, and (3) that owns more than 10% of our stock could be required to treat a percentage of the dividends from us as UBTI if we are a “pension-held REIT.” We will not be a pension-held REIT unless (1) either (A) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock, or (B) a group of pension trusts, each individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock, collectively owns more than 50% of such stock; and (2) we would not have qualified as a REIT but for the fact that Section 856(h)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code provides that stock owned by such trusts shall be treated, for purposes of the requirement that not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding stock of a REIT is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities), as owned by the beneficiaries of such trusts. Certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock should generally prevent a tax-exempt entity from owning more than 10% of the value of our stock, or us from becoming a pension-held REIT.

Tax-exempt U.S. stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of owning our stock.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

The following is a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock applicable to non-U.S. stockholders of our common stock. For purposes of this summary, a non-U.S. stockholder is a beneficial owner of our common stock that is not a U.S. stockholder or an entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The discussion is based on current law and is for general information only. It addresses only selective and not all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation.

Non-U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal estate consequences of ownership of our common stock.

 

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Ordinary Dividends

The portion of dividends received by non-U.S. stockholders payable out of our earnings and profits that are not attributable to gains from sales or exchanges of U.S. real property interests and which are not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder will generally be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless reduced or eliminated by an applicable income tax treaty. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. In addition, any portion of the dividends paid to non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as excess inclusion income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding tax or a reduced treaty rate. As previously noted, we may engage in transactions that would result in a portion of our dividends being considered excess inclusion income, and accordingly, it is possible that a portion of our dividend income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding rate or a reduced treaty rate. In the case of a taxable stock dividend with respect to which any withholding tax is imposed on a non-U.S. stockholder, we may have to withhold or dispose of part of the shares otherwise distributable in such dividend and use such withheld shares or the proceeds of such disposition to satisfy the withholding tax imposed.

In general, non-U.S. stockholders will not be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business solely as a result of their ownership of our stock. In cases where the dividend income from a non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is, or is treated as, effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. stockholder generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. stockholders are taxed with respect to such dividends, and may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on the income after the application of the income tax in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation.

Non-Dividend Distributions

Unless (A) our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest, or USRPI, or (B) either (1) the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain) or (2) the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S. (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gain for the year), distributions by us which are not dividends out of our earnings and profits will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax. If it cannot be determined at the time at which a distribution is made whether or not the distribution will exceed current and accumulated earnings and profits, the distribution will be subject to withholding at the rate applicable to dividends. However, the non-U.S. stockholder may seek a refund from the IRS of any amounts withheld if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits.

If our common stock constitutes a USRPI, as described below, distributions by us in excess of the sum of our earnings and profits plus the non-U.S. stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in our common stock will be taxed under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, or FIRPTA, at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital gains rates, that would apply to a U.S. stockholder of the same type (e.g., an individual or a corporation, as the case may be), and the collection of the tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding at a rate of 15% of the amount by which the distribution exceeds the stockholder’s share of our earnings and profits. Non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as “qualified foreign pension funds” or that are non-U.S. publicly traded investment vehicles meeting certain requirements are exempt from the federal income and withholding taxes applicable under FIRPTA on such distributions by us.

Capital Gain Dividends

Under FIRPTA, a distribution made by us to a non-U.S. stockholder, to the extent attributable to gains from dispositions of USRPIs held by us directly or through pass-through subsidiaries, or USRPI capital gains, will be

 

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considered effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the rates applicable to U.S. stockholders, without regard to whether the distribution is designated as a capital gain dividend. In addition, we will be required to withhold tax equal to 35% of the amount of capital gain dividends to the extent the dividends constitute USRPI capital gains. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. However, the 35% withholding tax will not apply to any capital gain dividend (i) with respect to any class of our stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the U.S. if the non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of such dividend or (ii) received by certain non-U.S. publicly traded investment vehicles meeting certain requirements. Instead, any capital gain dividend received by such a stockholder will be treated as a distribution subject to the rules discussed above under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders—Ordinary Dividends.” Also, the branch profits tax will not apply to such a distribution. In addition, non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from income and withholding taxes applicable under FIRPTA on distributions from us. We believe our common stock is, and will continue to be, regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States.

A distribution is not a USRPI capital gain if we held the underlying asset solely as a creditor, although the holding of a shared appreciation mortgage loan would not be solely as a creditor. Capital gain dividends received by a non-U.S. stockholder from a REIT that are not USRPI capital gains are generally not subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax, unless either (1) the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. stockholders with respect to such gain) or (2) the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S. (in which case the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gain for the year).

Dispositions of Our Common Stock

Unless our common stock constitutes a USRPI, a sale of the stock by a non-U.S. stockholder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA. Generally, with respect to any particular stockholder, our common stock will constitute a USRPI only if each of the following three statements is true:

 

  (a)

Fifty percent or more of our assets on any of certain testing dates during a prescribed testing period consist of interests in real property located within the United States, excluding for this purpose, interests in real property solely in a capacity as creditor;

 

  (b)

We are not a “domestically-controlled qualified investment entity.” A domestically-controlled qualified entity includes a REIT, less than 50% of value of which is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. stockholders at all times during a specified testing period. For this purpose, effective beginning December 18, 2015, a REIT may generally presume that any class of the REIT’s stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by the applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market is held by U.S. persons except in the case of holders of 5% or more such class of stock and except to the extent that the REIT has actual knowledge that such stock is held by non-U.S. persons. In addition, effective beginning December 18, 2015, certain look-through and presumption rules apply for this purpose to any stock of a REIT that is held by a RIC or another REIT. Although we believe that we are, and will continue to be, a domestically-controlled REIT, because our shares are publicly traded we cannot make any assurance that we will remain a domestically-controlled qualified investment entity; and

 

  (c)

Either (i) our common stock is not “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury regulations, on an established securities market; or (ii) our common stock is “regularly traded” on an established securities market and the selling non-U.S. stockholder has actually or constructively held over 5% of our outstanding common stock any time during the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or the period such selling non-U.S. stockholder held our common stock.

 

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In addition, even if our common stock is treated as a USRPI, non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as “qualified foreign pension funds” or that are non-U.S. publicly traded investment vehicles meeting certain requirements are exempt from tax under FIRPTA on the sale of our common stock.

Specific wash sales rules applicable to sales of stock in a domestically-controlled qualified investment entity could result in gain recognition, taxable under FIRPTA, upon the sale of our common stock even if we are a domestically-controlled qualified investment entity. These rules would apply if a non-U.S. stockholder (a) disposes of our common stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been taxable to such non-U.S. stockholder as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI, and (b) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, other shares of our common stock during the 61-day period that begins 30 days prior to such ex-dividend date.

If gain on the sale of our common stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. stockholder would be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. stockholder with respect to such gain, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of non-resident alien individuals, and the purchaser of the stock could be required to withhold 15% of the purchase price and remit such amount to the IRS.

Gain from the sale of our common stock that would not otherwise be subject to FIRPTA will nonetheless be taxable in the U.S. to a non-U.S. stockholder in two cases: (a) if the non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our common stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such non-U.S. stockholder, the non-U.S. stockholder will be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. stockholder with respect to such gain, or (b) if the non-U.S. stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S., the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gain.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

We will report to our U.S. stockholders and the IRS the amount of dividends paid during each calendar year and the amount of any tax withheld. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. stockholder may be subject to backup withholding with respect to dividends paid unless the holder comes within an exempt category and, when required, demonstrates this fact or provides a taxpayer identification number or social security number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. A U.S. stockholder that does not provide his or her correct taxpayer identification number or social security number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distribution to any U.S. stockholder who fails to certify their non-foreign status.

We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. stockholder the amount of dividends paid to such holder and the tax withheld with respect to such dividends, regardless of whether withholding was required. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which the non-U.S. stockholder resides under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty. A non-U.S. stockholder may be subject to backup withholding unless applicable certification requirements are met.

Payment of the proceeds of a sale of our common stock within the U.S. is subject to both backup withholding and information reporting unless the beneficial owner certifies under penalties of perjury that it is a non-U.S. stockholder (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that the beneficial owner is a U.S. person) or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Payment of the proceeds of a sale of our common stock conducted through certain U.S. related financial intermediaries is subject to information reporting (but not backup withholding) unless the financial intermediary has documentary evidence in its records that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. stockholder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established.

 

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Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against such holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Foreign Accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed on certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities under certain circumstances. More specifically, the failure to comply with additional certification, information reporting and other specified requirements could result in withholding tax being imposed on payments of dividends and sales proceeds to U.S. stockholders (as defined above) who own shares of our common stock through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries and to certain non-U.S. stockholders. The 30% withholding tax, pursuant to Treasury Regulations and IRS guidance, is generally imposed on payments occurring after June 30, 2014 with respect to dividends, and after December 31, 2018, with respect to gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock paid to a foreign financial institution or to a foreign entity other than a financial institution, unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations or (ii) the foreign entity that is not a financial institution either certifies it does not have any substantial United States owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner. If the payee is a foreign financial institution, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury Department requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain United States persons or United States-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent it from complying with these reporting and other requirements. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding this legislation.

State, Local and Foreign Taxes

We and our stockholders may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various jurisdictions, including those in which it or they transact business, own property or reside. The state, local or foreign tax treatment of our company and our stockholders may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax treatment discussed above. Any foreign taxes incurred by us would not pass through to stockholders as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability. Prospective stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application and effect of state, local and foreign income and other tax laws on an investment in our company’s common stock.

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department. No assurance can be given as to whether, when, or in what form, U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to us and our stockholders may be enacted. Changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws and interpretations of U.S. federal income tax laws could adversely affect an investment in shares of our common stock.

 

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BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES

We may issue the securities offered by means of this prospectus in whole or in part in book-entry form, meaning that beneficial owners of the securities will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the securities, except in the event the book-entry system for the securities is discontinued. If securities are issued in book entry form, they will be represented by one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the securities. The Depository Trust Company is expected to serve as depositary. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual securities represented thereby, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary for the global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by the depositary or any nominee of such depositary to a successor depositary or a nominee of such successor. Global securities may be issued in either registered or bearer form and in either temporary or permanent form. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to a class or series of securities that differ from the terms described herein will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we anticipate that the following provisions will apply to depositary arrangements.

Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary for the global security or its nominee will credit on its book-entry registration and transfer system the respective principal amounts of the individual securities represented by such global security to the accounts of persons that have accounts with such depositary, who are called “participants.” Such accounts shall be designated by the underwriters, dealers or agents with respect to the securities or by us if the securities are offered and sold directly by us. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to the depositary’s participants or persons that may hold interests through such participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global security will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by the applicable depositary or its nominee (with respect to beneficial interests of participants) and records of the participants (with respect to beneficial interests of persons who hold through participants). The laws of some states require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such limits and laws may impair the ability to own, pledge or transfer beneficial interest in a global security.

So long as the depositary for a global security or its nominee is the registered owner of such global security, such depositary or nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by such global security for all purposes under the applicable instrument defining the rights of a holder of the securities. Except as provided below or in the applicable prospectus supplement, owners of beneficial interest in a global security will not be entitled to have any of the individual securities of the class or series represented by such global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of any such securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable instrument defining the rights of the holders of the securities.

Payments of amounts payable with respect to individual securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security representing such securities. None of us, our officers and directors or any trustee, paying agent or security registrar for an individual class or series of securities will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security for such securities or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

 

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We expect that the depositary for a class or series of securities offered by means of this prospectus or its nominee, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest, dividend or other amount in respect of a permanent global security representing any of such securities, will immediately credit its participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of such global security for such securities as shown on the records of such depositary or its nominee. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in such global security held through such participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Such payments will be the responsibility of such participants.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Clifford Chance US LLP. In addition, the description of U.S. federal income tax consequences contained in the section of the prospectus entitled “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” is based on the opinion of Clifford Chance US LLP. If the validity of any securities is also passed upon by counsel for the underwriters of an offering of those securities, that counsel will be named in the prospectus supplement relating to that offering.

 

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EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent auditor, has audited the consolidated financial statements, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, of Buckeye Wind Energy Class B Holdings LLC and Subsidiaries, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Such financial statements have been incorporated by reference in reliance upon the report of Deloitte & Touche LLP, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any reports, statements or other information we file at the SEC’s public reference room located at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room. Our SEC filings are also available to the public from commercial document retrieval services and at the website maintained by the SEC, containing reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, at www.sec.gov.

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act covering securities that may be offered under this prospectus. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, certain parts of which are omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information concerning us and the securities, reference is made to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other documents are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, reference is made to the copy of such contract or documents filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, each such statement being qualified in all respects by such reference.

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference herein is deemed to be part of this prospectus, except for any information superseded by information in this prospectus. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents set forth below that we have previously filed with the SEC. These documents contain important information about us, our business and our finances.

 

Document

  

Period

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (File No. 001-35877)

   Quarter ended June 30, 2017

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (File No. 001-35877)

   Quarter ended March 31, 2017

Annual Report on Form 10-K/A (File No. 001-35877)

   Year ended December 31, 2016

Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 001-35877)

   Year ended December 31, 2016

 

Document

  

Filed

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

   June 5, 2017

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

   March 21, 2017

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

   March 10, 2017

Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-35877)

   March 6, 2017

 

Document

  

Filed

Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A (only with respect to information contained in such Definitive Proxy Statement that is incorporated by reference into Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016) (File No. 001-35877)

   April 10, 2017

 

Document

  

Filed

Registration Statement on Form 8-A (containing the description of shares of our common stock) (File No. 001-35877)

   April 15, 2013

All documents that we file (but not those that we furnish) pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of any of the

 

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securities covered under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any previously filed documents.

If you request, either orally or in writing, we will provide you with a copy of any or all documents that are incorporated by reference. Such documents will be provided to you free of charge, but will not contain any exhibits, unless those exhibits are incorporated by reference into the document. Requests should be addressed to us at 1906 Towne Centre Blvd, Suite 370, Annapolis, Maryland 21401, Attention: Hannon Armstrong Sustainable Infrastructure Capital, Inc., Investor Relations, or contact our offices at (410) 571-9860. The documents may also be accessed on our website at www.hannonarmstrong.com.

 

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5,000,000 Shares

 

LOGO

Hannon Armstrong Sustainable

Infrastructure Capital, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Joint Book-Running Managers

BofA Merrill Lynch

Baird

J.P. Morgan

Morgan Stanley

UBS Investment Bank

Wells Fargo Securities

Co-Manager

Oppenheimer & Co.

December 12, 2018

 

 

 

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