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Section 1: 424B5 (SUPPLEMENT)

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-214579

Supplement dated October 4, 2018
To Prospectus Supplement dated December 13, 2016, as supplemented May 19, 2017
(To Prospectus dated November 10, 2016)

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

Global Net Lease, Inc.
Up to $175,000,000 of Shares
of Common Stock

This supplement (this “Supplement”) is the second supplement to the prospectus supplement, dated December 13, 2016 (as previously supplemented on May 19, 2017, the “Prospectus Supplement”), and the accompanying prospectus dated November 10, 2016 (together with the Prospectus Supplement, the “Prospectus”). This Supplement should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus. Capitalized terms used and not defined in this Supplement will have the meanings ascribed to these terms in the Prospectus Supplement.

This Supplement is being filed to reflect an amendment to the equity distribution agreement by and among the Company, its operating partnership, Global Net Lease Operating Partnership, L.P., UBS Securities LLC, Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated, Capital One Securities, Inc., Mizuho Securities USA LLC, B. Riley FBR, Inc. (formerly known as FBR Capital Markets & Co.) and KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. to add BMO Capital Markets Corp. as an agent. Accordingly, each reference to the term “Agent” or “Agents” in the Prospectus Supplement is hereby amended to include BMO Capital Markets Corp.

The following sections of the Prospectus Supplement are hereby amended:

Use of Proceeds

The information under the heading “Use of Proceeds” is hereby deleted in its entirety and replaced with the following:

“We intend to use any net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including funding our acquisitions, repaying outstanding indebtedness (including borrowings under our existing credit facility), and for working capital. Our existing credit facility consists of two components, a revolving credit facility and a term loan facility. The revolving credit facility requires us to pay interest only on amounts outstanding and matures on July 24, 2021, subject to our right to extend the maturity date for one year. The term loan facility requires us to pay interest only on amounts outstanding and matures on July 24, 2022. Borrowings under the credit facility bear interest at a variable rate per annum based on an applicable margin that varies based on our ratio of consolidated total indebtedness and our consolidated total asset value plus either (i) LIBOR, as applicable to the currency being borrowed, or (ii) a “base rate” equal to the greatest of (a) the lender’s “prime rate,” (b) 0.5% above the Federal Funds Effective Rate, or (c) 1.0% above one-month LIBOR. The range of applicable interest rate margins is from 0.60% to 1.20% per annum with respect to base rate borrowings and 1.60% to 2.20% per annum with respect to LIBOR borrowings.

As of September 30, 2018, and based on prevailing exchange rates on that date, approximately $455.6 million USD was outstanding under the revolving credit facility and approximately $286.0 million was outstanding under the term loan facility. The total amounts outstanding under each facility bore interest at a weighted-average effective interest rate equal to 3.0% after giving effect to interest rate swaps in place. Borrowings under the revolving credit facility that are repaid may be reborrowed, subject to customary conditions.

Pending application of the net proceeds for the purposes described above, we anticipate that any net proceeds will be invested in short-term, highly-liquid investments, including government obligations, bank certificates of deposit, short-term debt obligations and interest-bearing accounts. Affiliates of KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., Capital One Securities, Inc. and Mizuho Securities USA LLC are lenders under our existing credit facility, and, accordingly, will receive net proceeds from this offering to the extent that we use any net proceeds to repay borrowings under the credit facility. In addition, the Agents or their affiliates may receive net proceeds from this offering to the extent we use any net proceeds to repay any of our other indebtedness that may be held by any of the Agents or their respective affiliates from time to time. See “Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)—Other Relationships” and “—Conflicts of Interest.””


 
 

Plan of Distribution (Other Relationships)

The first paragraph under the subheading “Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)—Other Relationships” is hereby deleted in its entirety and replaced with the following:

“An affiliate of KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. is the agent, and affiliates of BMO Capital Markets Corp., Capital One Securities, Inc. and Mizuho Securities USA LLC are co-syndication agents and lenders under our existing credit facility. Accordingly, they will receive net proceeds from this offering to the extent that we use any net proceeds to repay borrowings under the credit facility. In addition, the Agents or their affiliates may receive net proceeds from this offering to the extent we use any net proceeds to repay any of our other indebtedness that may be held by any of the Agents or their respective affiliates from time to time. KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., Capital One Securities, Inc. and Mizuho Securities USA LLC or their affiliates also acted as joint lead arrangers and bookrunners for the credit facility. BMO Capital Markets Corp. and B. Riley FBR, Inc. or their affiliates are agents under our existing Series A Preferred Stock “at the market” program. In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the Agents and their respective affiliates, officers, directors and employees may purchase, sell or hold a broad array of investments and actively traded securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps and other financial instruments for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and any investment and trading activities may involve or relate to assets, securities or instruments of ours (directly, as collateral securing other obligations or otherwise) or persons and entities with relationships with us. Some or all of the Agents or their affiliates have provided and in the future may provide investment banking, commercial banking or other financial services, including providing credit facilities or other borrowings, to us in the ordinary course of business for which they have received and may in the future receive compensation. The Agents and their respective affiliates may also communicate independent investment recommendations, market color or trading ideas or publish or express independent research views in respect of our assets, securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they should acquire, long or short positions in our assets, securities and instruments.”

Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)

The first paragraph under the subheading “Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)—Conflicts of Interest” is hereby deleted in its entirety and replaced with the following:

“As described above under “Use of Proceeds,” we intend to use net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include the repayment of borrowings outstanding under our existing credit facility or other indebtedness. As described above under “—Other Relationships,” affiliates of KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., Capital One Securities, Inc. and Mizuho Securities USA LLC are lenders under the credit facility. As a result, and because the Agents or their respective affiliates may, from time to time, hold other of our indebtedness, affiliates of KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., Capital One Securities, Inc. and Mizuho Securities USA LLC will receive a portion of the net proceeds of this offering in connection with the repayment of borrowings outstanding under our existing credit facility or other indebtedness. These repayments may exceed 5% of the net proceeds of this offering (not including Agents’ discounts and commissions). Nonetheless, in accordance with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority Inc. Rule 5121, the appointment of a qualified independent underwriter is not necessary in connection with this offering because, as a real estate investment trust, we are excluded from that requirement.”

The following section is hereby added as a new section of the Prospectus Supplement:

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“MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following summary discusses the material U.S. federal income tax considerations associated with our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the acquisition, ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock. This discussion amends, restates and supersedes the discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations included under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus. This discussion is based upon the Code, Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”), and reported judicial and administrative rulings and decisions in effect as of the date of this prospectus, all of which are subject to change, retroactively or prospectively, and to possibly differing interpretations. Any such change could affect the validity of this discussion.

This discussion does not address (i) U.S. federal taxes other than income taxes or (ii) state, local or non-U.S. taxes. In addition, this discussion does not purport to address the U.S. federal income or other tax considerations applicable to holders of shares of our stock that are subject to special treatment under U.S. federal income tax law, including, for example:

financial institutions;
partnerships or entities treated as partnerships, S corporations or other pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
insurance companies;
pension plans or other tax-exempt organizations, except to the extent discussed below;
“qualified foreign pension funds” or entities wholly owned by a qualified foreign pension fund;
dealers in securities or currencies;
traders in securities that elect to use a mark to market method of accounting;
persons that hold their stock as part of a straddle, hedge, constructive sale or conversion transaction;
persons subject to special tax accounting rules under Section 451(b) of the Code;
regulated investment companies;
REITs;
certain U.S. expatriates;
persons whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar;
persons who acquired shares of our stock through the exercise of an employee stock option or otherwise as compensation;
persons who are Non-U.S. Stockholders (as defined below), except to the extent discussed below; and
owners of holders of shares of stock.

No ruling on the U.S. federal, state, or local tax considerations relevant to our operation or to the purchase, ownership or disposition of shares of our stock, has been requested from the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) or other tax authority. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below.

This summary is also based upon the assumption that the operation of the Company, and of its subsidiaries and other lower-tier and affiliated entities, will in each case be in accordance with its applicable organizational documents or partnership agreements. This summary does not discuss the impact that U.S. state and local taxes and taxes imposed by non U.S. jurisdictions could have on the matters discussed in this summary. In addition, this summary assumes that security holders hold shares of our stock as a capital asset, which generally means as property held for investment.

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Prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisors in order to determine the U.S. federal, state, local, foreign and other tax consequences to them of the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our stock, the tax treatment of a REIT and the effect of potential changes in the applicable tax laws.

We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the applicable provisions of the Code and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder commencing with our taxable year ended on December 31, 2013. We intend to continue operating as a REIT so long as our board of directors determines that REIT qualification remains in our best interest. However, we cannot assure you that we will meet the applicable requirements under U.S. federal income tax laws, which are highly technical and complex.

In brief, a corporation that complies with the provisions in Code Sections 856 through 860 and qualifies as a REIT generally is not taxed on its net taxable income to the extent such income is currently distributed to stockholders, thereby completely or substantially eliminating the “double taxation” that a corporation and its stockholders generally bear together. However, as discussed in greater detail below, a corporation could be subject to U.S. federal income tax in some circumstances even if it qualifies as a REIT and would likely suffer adverse consequences, including reduced cash available for distribution to its stockholders, if it failed to qualify as a REIT.

Proskauer Rose LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Proskauer Rose LLP is of the opinion that (i) commencing with our taxable year ended on December 31, 2013, we have been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a REIT under the Code, and our actual method of operation through the date hereof has enabled us to meet and, assuming that our election to be treated as a REIT is not either revoked or intentionally terminated, our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet, the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and (ii) our operating partnership has been and will be taxed as a partnership or a disregarded entity and not an association or publicly traded partnership (within the meaning of Code Section 7704) subject to tax as a corporation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning with its first taxable year. This opinion is incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus, as supplemented, is a part, and is based and conditioned, in part, on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters and covenants made to Proskauer Rose LLP by us and based upon certain terms and conditions set forth in the opinion. Our qualification as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, through operation of the properties we acquire and our investment in other assets, the applicable requirements under U.S. federal income tax laws. Proskauer Rose LLP has not reviewed these operating results for compliance with the applicable requirements under U.S. federal income tax laws. Therefore, we cannot assure you that our actual operating results allow us to satisfy the applicable requirements to qualify as a REIT under U.S. federal income tax laws in any taxable year.

General

The term “REIT taxable income” means the taxable income as computed for a corporation that is not a REIT:

without the deductions allowed by Code Sections 241 through 247, and 249 (relating generally to the deduction for dividends received);
excluding amounts equal to: the net income from foreclosure property and the net income derived from prohibited transactions;
deducting amounts equal to: the net loss from foreclosure property, the net loss derived from prohibited transactions, the tax imposed by Code Section 857(b)(5) upon a failure to meet the 95% or the 75% Gross Income Tests (as defined below), the tax imposed by Code Section 856(c)(7)(C) upon a failure to meet the Asset Tests (as defined below), the tax imposed by Code Section 856(g)(5) for otherwise avoiding REIT disqualification, and the tax imposed by Code Section 857(b)(7) on redetermined rents, redetermined deductions and excess interest;
deducting the amount of dividends paid under Code Section 561, computed without regard to the amount of the net income from foreclosure property (which is excluded from REIT taxable income); and

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without regard to any change of annual accounting period pursuant to Code Section 443(b).

In any year in which we qualify as a REIT and have a valid election in place, we will claim deductions for the dividends we pay to the stockholders, and therefore will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on that portion of our taxable income or capital gain which is distributed to our stockholders.

Although we can eliminate or substantially reduce our U.S. federal income tax liability by maintaining our REIT qualification and paying sufficient dividends, we will be subject to U.S. federal tax in the following circumstances:

We will be taxed at normal corporate rates on any undistributed REIT taxable income or net capital gain.
If we fail to satisfy either the 95% Gross Income Test or the 75% Gross Income Test (each of which is described below), but our failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and we therefore maintain our REIT qualification, we will be subject to a tax equal to the product of (a) the amount by which we failed the 75% or 95% Gross Income Test (whichever amount is greater) multiplied by (b) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
We will be subject to an excise tax if we fail to currently distribute sufficient income. In order to make the “required distribution” with respect to a calendar year, we must distribute the sum of (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the calendar year, and (3) the excess, if any, of the grossed up required distribution (as defined in the Code) for the preceding calendar year over the distributed amount for that preceding calendar year. Any excise tax liability would be equal to 4% of the difference between the amount required to be distributed under this formula and the amount actually distributed and would not be deductible by us.
If we have net income from prohibited transactions such income would be subject to a 100% tax. See “ — REIT Qualification Tests — Prohibited Transactions.”
We will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the highest corporate rate on any non-qualifying income from foreclosure property, although we will not own any foreclosure property unless we make loans or accept purchase money notes secured by interests in real property and foreclose on the property following a default on the loan, or foreclose on property pursuant to a default on a lease.
If we fail to satisfy any of the REIT Asset Tests (as defined below), other than a failure of the 5% or 10% REIT assets tests that does not exceed a statutory de minimis amount as described more fully below, but our failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the amount determined by multiplying the highest corporate tax rate by the net income generated by the non-qualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy the Asset Tests.
If we fail to satisfy any other provision of the Code that would result in our failure to continue to qualify as a REIT (other than a requirement of the Gross Income Tests or the Asset Tests) and that violation is due to reasonable cause, we may retain our REIT qualification, but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.
We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record-keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of our stockholders. Such penalties generally would not be deductible by us.
If we acquire any asset from a corporation that is subject to full corporate-level U.S. federal income tax in a transaction in which our basis in the asset is determined by reference to the transferor corporation’s basis in the asset, and we recognize gain on the disposition of such an asset during the five-year period beginning on the date we acquired such asset, then the excess of the fair market value as of the beginning of the applicable recognition period over our adjusted basis in such asset

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at the beginning of such recognition period will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the highest regular corporate U.S. federal income tax rate. The results described in this paragraph assume that the non-REIT corporation will not elect, in lieu of this treatment, to be subject to an immediate tax when the asset is acquired by us.
A 100% tax may be imposed on transactions between us and a taxable REIT subsidiary (a “TRS”) that do not reflect arm’s-length terms.
The earnings of our subsidiaries that are C corporations, other than a subsidiary that is a qualified REIT subsidiary (a “QRS”), including any subsidiary we may elect to treat as a TRS will generally be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.
We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include his, her or its proportionate share of our undistributed net capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in his, her or its income as long-term capital gain, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for his, her or its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the stockholder’s basis in our stock. Stockholders that are U.S. corporations will also appropriately adjust their earnings and profits for the retained capital gain in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated.

In addition, notwithstanding our qualification as a REIT, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes, including state and local and foreign income, property, payroll and other taxes on our assets and operations. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.

REIT Qualification Tests

Organizational Requirements

The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

(1) that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2) the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;
(3) that would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for its qualification as a REIT;
(4) that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company;
(5) that meets the gross income, asset and annual distribution requirements;
(6) the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons on at least 335 days in each full taxable year, proportionately adjusted for a short taxable year;
(7) generally in which, at any time during the last half of each taxable year, no more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include specified entities);
(8) that makes an election to be taxable as a REIT for the current taxable year, or has made this election for a previous taxable year, which election has not been revoked or terminated, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to maintain qualification as a REIT; and
(9) that uses a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Organizational requirements (1) through (5) must be met during each taxable year for which REIT qualification is sought, while requirements (6) and (7) do not have to be met until after the first taxable year for which a REIT election is made. We have adopted December 31 as our year end, thereby satisfying requirement (9).

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Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and QRSs

A REIT that is a partner in a partnership or a member in a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, based on its interest in partnership capital, and will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership or limited liability company retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which we own an interest, including our operating partnership, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of the Asset Tests and Gross Income Tests (each as defined below).

We expect to control our subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership or limited liability company and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our qualification as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a Gross Income Test or Asset Test (each as defined below), and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

We may from time to time own certain assets through subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as QRSs. A corporation will qualify as our QRS if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a TRS, as described below. A QRS is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a QRS are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for purposes of the Asset Tests and Gross Income Tests (each as defined below). A QRS is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, but may be subject to state or local tax, and our ownership of the stock of a QRS will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “— Asset Tests.” While we currently hold all of our investments through the operating partnership, we also may hold investments separately, through QRSs. Because a QRS must be wholly owned by a REIT, any such subsidiary utilized by us would have to be owned by us, or another QRS, and could not be owned by the operating partnership unless we own 100% of the equity interest in the operating partnership.

We may from time to time own certain assets through entities that we wholly-own and that are disregarded as separate from us. If a disregarded subsidiary ceases to be wholly owned by us (for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another one of our disregarded subsidiaries), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the Asset Tests and Gross Income Tests, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “— Asset Tests” and “— Income Tests.”

Ownership of Interests in TRSs

We do not currently own an interest in a TRS but we may acquire securities in one or more TRSs in the future. A TRS is a corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a TRS. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a TRS generally may engage in any business, including investing in assets and engaging in activities that could not be held or conducted directly by us without jeopardizing our qualification as a REIT.

A TRS is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a TRS is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset tests described below. However, no more than 20% of the gross value of a REIT’s assets may be comprised of securities of one or more TRSs. See “— Asset Tests.”

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Share Ownership Requirements

The common stock and any other stock we issue must be held by a minimum of 100 persons (determined without attribution to the owners of any entity owning our stock) for at least 335 days in each full taxable year, proportionately adjusted for partial taxable years. In addition, we cannot be “closely-held,” which means that at all times during the second half of each taxable year, no more than 50% in value of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (determined by applying certain attribution rules under the Code to the owners of any entity owning our stock) as specifically defined for this purpose. However, these two requirements do not apply until after the first taxable year an entity elects REIT status.

Our charter contains certain provisions intended, among other purposes, to enable us to meet requirements (6) and (7) above. First, subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person may beneficially or constructively own (applying certain attribution rules under the Code) more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of capital stock and not more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any class or series of our shares of capital stock, without the approval of our board of directors. See the section entitled “Description of Capital Stock — Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership of Stock” in the accompanying prospectus. Additionally, our charter contains provisions requiring each holder of shares of our stock to disclose, upon demand, constructive or beneficial ownership of shares as deemed necessary to comply with the requirements of the Code. Furthermore, stockholders failing or refusing to comply with our disclosure request will be required, under Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, to submit a statement of such information to the IRS at the time of filing their annual income tax returns for the year in which the request was made.

Asset Tests

At the close of each calendar quarter of the taxable year, we must satisfy four tests based on the composition of our assets (the “Asset Tests”). After initially meeting the Asset Tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our qualification as a REIT for failure to satisfy the Asset Tests at the end of a later quarter solely due to changes in value of our assets. In addition, if the failure to satisfy the Asset Tests results from an acquisition during a quarter, the failure generally can be cured by disposing of non-qualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We will continue to maintain adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with these tests and will act within 30 days after the close of any quarter as may be required to cure any noncompliance.

75% Asset Test.  At least 75% of the value of our assets must be represented by “real estate assets,” cash, cash items (including receivables) and government securities, which we refer to as the 75% Asset Test. Real estate assets include (1) real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on interests in real property), (2) shares in other qualifying REITs, (3) debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs and (4) any property (not otherwise a real estate asset) attributable to the temporary investment of “new capital” in stock or a debt instrument, but only for the one-year period beginning on the date we received the new capital. Property will qualify as being attributable to the temporary investment of new capital if the money used to purchase the stock or debt instrument is received by us in exchange for our stock or in a public offering of debt obligations that have a maturity of at least five years. Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% test are subject to the additional asset tests described below under “— 25% Asset Test.”

We are currently invested in the real properties described in our filings with the SEC. In addition, we have invested and intend to invest funds not used to acquire properties in cash sources, “new capital” investments or other liquid investments which allow us to continue to qualify under the 75% Asset Test. Therefore, our investment in real properties should constitute “real estate assets” and should allow us to meet the 75% Asset Test.

25% Asset Test.  Except as described below, the remaining 25% of our assets generally may be invested subject to certain restrictions, which we refer to as the 25% Asset Test. However, if we invest in any securities that do not qualify under the 75% Asset Test, other than equity investments in QRSs and TRSs such securities may not exceed either (1) 5% of the value of our assets as to any one issuer; or (2) 10% of the outstanding securities by vote or value of any one issuer. In addition, not more than 25% of our assets may be invested in publicly offered REIT debt instruments that do not otherwise qualify as real estate assets under the 75% Asset Test. The 10% value test does not apply to certain “straight debt” and other excluded securities, as described

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in the Code, including but not limited to any loan to an individual or estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, a partnership interest held by a REIT is not considered a “security” for purposes of the 10% value test; instead, the REIT is treated as owning directly its proportionate share of the partnership’s assets, which is based on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership (disregarding for this purpose the general rule that a partnership interest is not a security), but excluding certain securities described in the Code.

For purposes of the 10% value test, “straight debt” means a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money if (i) the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, (ii) the interest rate and interest payment dates are not contingent on profits, the borrower’s discretion, or similar factors other than certain contingencies relating to the timing and amount of principal and interest payments, as described in the Code and (iii) in the case of an issuer that is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our “controlled TRSs” as defined in the Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer that (a) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (b) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, for the purposes of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

We believe that our holdings of real estate assets and other securities comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we intend to monitor compliance on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine compliance with these requirements, we will need to estimate the value of our assets, and we do not expect to obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the total value of our assets or the value of any particular security or other asset. Moreover, values of some assets, including our interests in TRSs, may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future. Although we will be prudent in making these estimates, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we might not satisfy the Asset Tests, and could fail to qualify as a REIT.

A REIT is able to cure certain asset test violations. As noted above, a REIT cannot own securities of any one issuer (other than those qualifying under the 75% Asset Test or securities of one or more QRS or TRS) representing more than 5% of the total value of the REIT’s assets or more than 10% of the outstanding securities, by vote or value, of any one issuer. However, a REIT would not lose its REIT qualification for failing to satisfy these 5% or 10% asset tests in a quarter if the failure is due to the ownership of assets the total value of which does not exceed the lesser of (1) 1% of the total value of the REIT’s assets at the end of the quarter for which the measurement is done, and (2) $10 million; provided, that in either case the REIT either disposes of the assets within six months after the last day of the quarter in which the REIT identifies the failure (or such other time period prescribed by the Department of the Treasury (the “Treasury”)), or otherwise meets the requirements of those rules by the end of that period.

If a REIT fails to meet any of the asset test requirements for a quarter and the failure exceeds the de minimis threshold described above, then the REIT still would be deemed to have satisfied the requirements if (1) following the REIT’s identification of the failure, the REIT files a schedule with a description of each asset that caused the failure, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Treasury; (2) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect; (3) the REIT disposes of the assets within six months after the last day of the quarter in which the identification occurred or such other time period as is prescribed by the Treasury (or the requirements of the rules are otherwise met within that period); and (4) the REIT pays a tax on the failure equal to the greater of (a) $50,000, or (b) an amount determined (under regulations) by multiplying (I) the highest rate of tax for corporations under Code Section 11, by (II) the net income generated by the assets that caused the failure for the period beginning on the first date of the failure and ending on the date the REIT has disposed of the assets (or otherwise satisfies the requirements).

Income Tests

For each calendar year, we must satisfy two separate tests based on the composition of our gross income, as defined under our method of accounting, which we refer to as the Gross Income Tests.

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75% Gross Income Test.  At least 75% of our gross income for the taxable year (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging and foreign currency transactions) must result from (1) rents from real property, (2) interest on obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, (3) gains from the sale or other disposition of real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property) other than property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our trade or business, (4) dividends from other qualifying REITs and gain (other than gain from prohibited transactions) from the sale of shares of other qualifying REITs, (5) income from other specified investments relating to real property or mortgages thereon, and (6) for a limited time, temporary investment income (as described under the 75% Asset Test above). We refer to this requirement as the 75% Gross Income Test. We intend to invest funds not otherwise invested in real properties in cash sources or other liquid investments which will allow us to qualify under the 75% Gross Income Test.

95% Gross Income Test.  At least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions) for the taxable year must be derived from (1) sources that satisfy the 75% Gross Income Test, (2) dividends, (3) interest, or (4) gain from the sale or disposition of stock or other securities that are not assets held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our trade or business. We refer to this requirement as the 95% Gross Income Test. It is important to note that dividends and interest on obligations not collateralized by an interest in real property qualify under the 95% Gross Income Test, but not under the 75% Gross Income Test. We intend to invest funds not otherwise invested in properties in cash sources or other liquid investments which will allow us to qualify under the 95% Gross Income Test.

Rents from Real Property.  Income attributable to a lease of real property generally will qualify as “rents from real property” under the 75% Gross Income Test and the 95% Gross Income Test if such lease is respected as a true lease for U.S. federal income tax purposes (see “— Characterization of Property Leases”) and subject to the rules discussed below. Rent from a particular tenant will not qualify if we, or an owner of 10% or more of our stock, directly or indirectly, owns 10% or more of the voting stock or the total number of shares of all classes of stock in, or 10% or more of the assets or net profits of, the tenant (subject to certain exceptions). The portion of rent attributable to personal property rented in connection with real property will not qualify, unless the portion attributable to personal property is 15% or less of the total rent received under, or in connection with, the lease.

Generally, rent will not qualify if it is based in whole, or in part, on the income or profits of any person from the underlying property. However, rent will not fail to qualify if it is based on a fixed percentage (or designated varying percentages) of receipts or sales, including amounts above a base amount so long as the base amount is fixed at the time the lease is entered into, the provisions are in accordance with normal business practice and the arrangement is not an indirect method for basing rent on income or profits.

If a REIT operates or manages a property or furnishes or renders certain “impermissible services” to the tenants at the property, and the income derived from the services exceeds 1% of the total amount received by that REIT with respect to the property, then no amount received by the REIT with respect to the property will qualify as “rents from real property.” Impermissible services are services other than services “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of real property and not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant.” For these purposes, the income that a REIT is considered to receive from the provision of “impermissible services” will not be less than 150% of the cost of providing the service. If the amount so received is 1% or less of the total amount received by us with respect to the property, then only the income from the impermissible services will not qualify as “rents from real property.” However, this rule generally will not apply if such services are provided to tenants through an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue, or through a TRS. With respect to this rule, tenants may receive some services in connection with their leases of the real properties. Our intention is that the services we provide are those usually or customarily rendered in connection with the rental of space only, and therefore, providing these services will not cause the rents received with respect to the properties to fail to qualify as rents from real property for purposes of the 75% Gross Income Test (and the 95% Gross Income Test described above). Our board of directors intends to hire qualifying independent contractors or to utilize TRSs to render services which it believes, after consultation with our tax advisors, are not usually or customarily rendered in connection with the rental of space.

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In addition, we have represented that, with respect to our leasing activities, we will not (1) charge rent for any property that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person (excluding rent based on a percentage of receipts or sales, as described above), (2) charge rent that will be attributable to personal property in an amount greater than 15% of the total rent received under the applicable lease, or (3) enter into any lease with a related party tenant.

Amounts received as rent from a TRS are not excluded from rents from real property by reason of the related party rules described above, if the activities of the TRS and the nature of the properties it leases meet certain requirements, and if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the TRS are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. TRSs will pay regular corporate tax rates on any income they earn. In addition, the TRS rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. Further, the rules impose a 100% excise tax on transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT or the REIT’s tenants whose terms are not on an arm’s-length basis.

Interest Income.  It is possible that we will be paid interest on loans secured by real property. All interest income qualifies under the 95% Gross Income Test, and interest on loans secured by real property qualifies under the 75% Gross Income Test; provided, that in both cases, the interest does not depend, in whole or in part, on the income or profits of any person (excluding amounts based on a fixed percentage of receipts or sales). If a loan is secured by both real property and other property, the interest on it may nevertheless qualify under the 75% Gross Income Test. If we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and other property, and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date that we committed to acquire the loan, or agreed to modify the loan in a manner that is treated as an acquisition of a new loan for U.S. federal income tax purposes, then the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other collateral, and our income from the loan will qualify for purposes of the 75% Gross Income Test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. For purposes of the preceding sentence, however, pursuant to IRS guidance we do not need to re-determine the fair market value of real property in connection with a loan modification that is occasioned by a default or made at a time when we reasonably believe the modification to the loan will substantially reduce a significant risk of default on the original loan, and any such modification will not be treated as a prohibited transaction. We intend to structure our loans secured by real property so that the amount of the loan does not exceed the fair market value of the real property at the time of the loan commitment so that income generated through any investments in loans secured by real property should be treated as qualifying income under the 75% Gross Income Test.

Dividend Income.  We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or QRSs. These distributions are generally classified as dividends to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% Gross Income Test, but not the 75% Gross Income Test. Any dividends received by us from a REIT will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 95% and 75% Gross Income Tests.

We will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our TRSs and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other non-qualifying income, within the limitations of the Gross Income Tests. Although we intend to take these actions to prevent a violation of the Gross Income Tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

Prohibited Transaction Income.  Any gain that we realize on the sale of an asset (other than foreclosure property) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, either directly or through any subsidiary partnership or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. Under existing law, whether an asset is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset owned by us is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers, and that a sale of any asset owned by us will not be in the ordinary course of business. However,

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the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by us, our subsidiary partnerships, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a TRS, although the gains of any TRS will be subject to tax at the regular U.S. federal corporate income tax rate.

Foreclosure Property.  Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as a result of the REIT having bid on the property at foreclosure or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law after there was a default (or default was imminent) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by the REIT and secured by the property, (2) for which the related loan or lease was acquired by the REIT at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (3) for which such REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. REITs generally are subject to tax at the maximum U.S. federal corporate tax rate on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% Gross Income Test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property in the hands of the selling REIT. If we believe we will receive any income from foreclosure property that is not qualifying income for purposes of the 75% Gross Income Test, we intend to elect to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

Satisfaction of the Gross Income Tests.  Our share of income from the properties primarily will give rise to rental income and gains on sales of the properties, substantially all of which generally will qualify under the 75% Gross Income and 95% Gross Income Tests. However, we may establish a TRS in order to engage on a limited basis in acquiring and promptly reselling short- and medium-term lease assets for immediate gain. The gross income generated by our TRS would not be included in our gross income. However, any dividends from our TRS to us would be included in our gross income and qualify for the 95% Gross Income Test, but not the 75% Gross Income Test.

If we fail to satisfy either the 75% Gross Income or 95% Gross Income Tests for any taxable year, we may retain our qualification as a REIT for such year if we satisfy the IRS that (1) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, (2) we attach to our return a schedule describing the nature and amount of each item of our gross income, and (3) any incorrect information on such schedule was not due to fraud with intent to evade U.S. federal income tax. If this relief provision is available, we would remain subject to tax equal to the greater of the amount by which we failed the 75% Gross Income Test or the 95% Gross Income Test, as applicable, multiplied by a fraction meant to reflect our profitability.

Annual Distribution Requirements

In addition to the other tests described above, we are required to distribute dividends (other than capital gain dividends) to our stockholders each year in an amount at least equal to the excess of: (1) the sum of: (a) 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and by excluding any net capital gain); and (b) 90% of the net income (after tax) from foreclosure property; less (2) the sum of some types of items of non-cash income. Whether sufficient amounts have been distributed is based on amounts paid in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if we: (1) declared a dividend before the due date of our tax return (including extensions); (2) distribute the dividend within the 12-month period following the close of the taxable year (and not later than the date of the first regular dividend payment made after such declaration); and (3) file an election with our tax return. Additionally, dividends that we declare in October, November or December in a given year payable to stockholders of record in any such month will be treated as having been paid on December 31st of that year so long as the dividends are actually paid during January of the following year.

For our taxable years commencing prior to January 1, 2015, in order for distributions to have been counted towards satisfying the annual distribution requirements for REITs, and to provide us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions must not have been “preferential dividends.” A dividend was not a

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preferential dividend if the distribution was (1) pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class, and (2) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in our organizational documents.

If we do not distribute 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the undistributed portion. We also will be subject to an excise tax if we fail to currently distribute sufficient income. In order to make the “required distribution” with respect to a calendar year and avoid the excise tax, we must distribute the sum of (1) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for the calendar year, and (3) the excess, if any, of the grossed up required distribution (as defined in the Code) for the preceding calendar year over the distributed amount for that preceding calendar year. Any excise tax liability would be equal to 4% of the difference between the amount required to be distributed and the amount actually distributed and would not be deductible by us.

We intend to pay sufficient dividends each year to satisfy the annual distribution requirements and avoid U.S. federal income and excise taxes on our earnings; however, it may not always be possible to do so. It is possible that we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet the annual distribution requirements due to tax accounting rules and other timing differences. Other potential sources of non-cash taxable income include:

“residual interests” in REMICs or taxable mortgage pools;
loans or mortgage-backed securities held as assets that are issued at a discount and require the accrual of taxable economic interest in advance of receipt in cash; and
loans on which the borrower is permitted to defer cash payments of interest, distressed loans on which we may be required to accrue taxable interest income even though the borrower is unable to make current servicing payments in cash, and debt securities purchased at a discount.

We will closely monitor the relationship between our REIT taxable income and cash flow, and if necessary to comply with the annual distribution requirements, will attempt to borrow funds to fully provide the necessary cash flow or to pay dividends in the form of taxable in-kind distributions of property, including taxable stock dividends. If we fail to meet the annual distribution requirements as a result of an adjustment to our U.S. federal income tax return by the IRS, or under certain other circumstances, we may cure the failure by paying a “deficiency dividend” (plus penalties and interest to the IRS) within a specified period.

Failure to Qualify

If we fail to continue to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we may be eligible for relief provisions if the failures are due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and if a penalty tax is paid with respect to each failure to satisfy the applicable requirements. If the applicable relief provisions are not available or cannot be met, we will not be able to deduct our dividends and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at the regular corporate rate, thereby reducing cash available for distributions. In such event, all distributions to stockholders (to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) will be taxable as ordinary dividend income. This “double taxation” results from our failure to continue to qualify as a REIT. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we will not be eligible to elect REIT qualification for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost.

Recordkeeping Requirements

We are required to maintain records and request on an annual basis information from specified stockholders. These requirements are designed to assist us in determining the actual ownership of our outstanding stock and maintaining our qualification as a REIT.

Prohibited Transactions

As discussed above, we will be subject to a 100% U.S. federal income tax on any net income derived from “prohibited transactions.” Net income derived from prohibited transactions arises from the sale or exchange of property held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our business which is not foreclosure property. There is an exception to this rule for the sale of property that:

is a real estate asset under the 75% Asset Test;

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generally has been held for at least two years;
has aggregate expenditures which are includable in the basis of the property not in excess of 30% of the net selling price;
in some cases, was held for production of rental income for at least two years;
in some cases, substantially all of the marketing and development expenditures were made through an independent contractor; and
when combined with other sales in the year, either does not cause the REIT to have made more than seven sales of property during the taxable year (excluding sales of foreclosure property or in connection with an involuntary conversion) or occurs in a year when the REIT disposes of less than 10% of its assets (measured by U.S. federal income tax basis or fair market value, and ignoring involuntary dispositions and sales of foreclosure property) or occurs in a year when the REIT disposes of less than 20% of its assets if the three year average adjusted basis or fair market value does not exceed 10%.

Although we may eventually sell each of the properties, our primary intention in acquiring and operating the properties is the production of rental income and we do not expect to hold any property for sale to customers in the ordinary course of our business. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates. As a general matter, any condominium conversions we might undertake must satisfy these restrictions to avoid being “prohibited transactions,” which will limit the annual number of transactions. See “— Ownership of Interests in TRSs.”

Characterization of Property Leases

We have acquired and intend to acquire and own commercial properties subject to net leases. We have structured and currently intend to structure our leases so that they qualify as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, with respect to each lease, we generally expect that:

our operating partnership and the lessee will intend for their relationship to be that of a lessor and lessee, and such relationship will be documented by a lease agreement;
the lessee will have the right to exclusive possession and use and quiet enjoyment of the properties covered by the lease during the term of the lease;
the lessee will bear the cost of, and will be responsible for, day-to-day maintenance and repair of the properties other than the cost of certain capital expenditures, and will dictate through the property managers, who will work for the lessee during the terms of the leases, and how the properties will be operated and maintained;
the lessee will bear all of the costs and expenses of operating the properties, including the cost of any inventory used in their operation, during the term of the lease, other than the cost of certain furniture, fixtures and equipment, and certain capital expenditures;
the lessee will benefit from any savings and will bear the burdens of any increases in the costs of operating the properties during the term of the lease;
in the event of damage or destruction to a property, the lessee will be at economic risk because it will bear the economic burden of the loss in income from operation of the properties subject to the right, in certain circumstances, to terminate the lease if the lessor does not restore the property to its prior condition;
the lessee will indemnify the lessor against all liabilities imposed on the lessor during the term of the lease by reason of (A) injury to persons or damage to property occurring at the properties or (B) the lessee’s use, management, maintenance or repair of the properties;
the lessee will be obligated to pay, at a minimum, substantial base rent for the period of use of the properties under the lease;

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the lessee will stand to incur substantial losses or reap substantial gains depending on how successfully it, through the property managers, who work for the lessees during the terms of the leases, operates the properties;
we expect that each lease that we enter into, at the time we enter into it (or at any time that any such lease is subsequently renewed or extended) will enable the tenant to derive a meaningful profit, after expenses and taking into account the risks associated with the lease, from the operation of the properties during the term of its leases; and
upon termination of each lease, the applicable property will be expected to have a remaining useful life equal to at least 20% of its expected useful life on the date the lease is entered into, and a fair market value equal to at least 20% of its fair market value on the date the lease was entered into.

If, however, the IRS were to recharacterize our leases as service contracts, partnership agreements or otherwise, rather than true leases, or disregard the leases altogether for tax purposes, all or part of the payments that we receive from the lessees would not be considered rent and might not otherwise satisfy the various requirements for qualification as “rents from real property.” In that case, we would not be able to satisfy either the 75% or 95% Gross Income Tests and, as a result, could lose our REIT qualification.

Derivatives and Hedging Transactions

We and our subsidiaries have entered and may continue to enter into hedging transactions with respect to interest rate exposure or currency rate fluctuations on one or more of our assets or liabilities. These hedging transactions can take a variety of forms, including the use of derivative instruments such as interest rate swap contracts, interest rate cap or floor contracts, futures or forward contracts and options. When we or a pass-through subsidiary enters into such a contract either (i) to reduce interest rate risk on indebtedness incurred or to be incurred to acquire or carry real estate assets or (ii) to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income that would qualify under the 75% Gross Income Test or the 95% Gross Income Test, and, in each case, we clearly and timely identify the transaction, income from the hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of the financial instrument or any periodic income from the instrument, would not constitute gross income for purposes of the 95% Gross Income Test or 75% Gross Income Test. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT. We may conduct some or all of our hedging activities through a TRS or other corporate entity, the income from which may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, rather than participating in the arrangements directly or through pass-through subsidiaries to the extent such income would jeopardize our REIT status. No assurance can be given, however, that our hedging activities will not give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of either or both of the Gross Income Tests, and will not adversely affect our ability to satisfy the REIT qualification requirements.

Tax Aspects of Investments in Partnerships

General.  We currently hold and anticipate holding direct or indirect interests in one or more partnerships, including the operating partnership. We operate as an umbrella partnership REIT, or UPREIT, which is a structure whereby we own a direct interest in the operating partnership, and the operating partnership, in turn, owns the properties and may possibly own interests in other non-corporate entities that own properties. Such non-corporate entities would generally be organized as limited liability companies, partnerships or trusts and would either be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes (if the operating partnership were the sole owner) or treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

The following is a summary of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of our investment in the operating partnership if the operating partnership is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This discussion should also generally apply to any investment by us in other entities taxable as partnerships for such purposes.

A partnership (that is not a publicly traded partnership taxed as a corporation) is not subject to tax as an entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Rather, partners are allocated their allocable share of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership, and are potentially subject to tax thereon, without regard to whether the partners receive any distributions from the partnership. We are required to take into account our allocable share of the foregoing items for purposes of the Gross Income Tests and Asset Tests,

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and in the computation of our REIT taxable income and U.S. federal income tax liability. Further, there can be no assurance that distributions from the operating partnership will be sufficient to pay the tax liabilities resulting from an investment in the operating partnership.

Generally, an entity with two or more members formed as a partnership or limited liability company under state law will be taxed as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes unless it specifically elects otherwise. Because the operating partnership was formed as a partnership under state law, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the operating partnership will be treated as a partnership, if it has two or more partners, or a disregarded entity, if it is treated as having one partner. We intend that interests in the operating partnership (and any partnership invested in by the operating partnership) will fall within one of the “safe harbors” for the partnership to avoid being classified as a publicly traded partnership. However, our ability to satisfy the requirements of some of these safe harbors depends on the results of actual operations and accordingly no assurance can be given that any such partnership will at all times satisfy one of such safe harbors. We reserve the right to not satisfy any safe harbor. Even if a partnership is a publicly traded partnership, it generally will not be treated as a corporation if at least 90% of its gross income in each taxable year is from certain sources, which generally include rents from real property and other types of passive income. We believe that our operating partnership has had and will have sufficient qualifying income so that it would be taxed as a partnership, even if it were treated as a publicly traded partnership.

If for any reason the operating partnership (or any partnership invested in by the operating partnership) is taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change, and as a result, we would most likely be unable to satisfy the applicable REIT requirements under U.S. federal income tax laws discussed above. In addition, any change in the status of any partnership may be treated as a taxable event, in which case we could incur a tax liability without a related cash distribution. Further, if any partnership was treated as a corporation, items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such partnership would be subject to corporate income tax, and the partners of any such partnership would be treated as stockholders, with distributions to such partners being treated as dividends.

Anti-abuse Treasury Regulations have been issued under the partnership provisions of the Code that authorize the IRS, in some abusive transactions involving partnerships, to disregard the form of a transaction and recast it as it deems appropriate. The anti-abuse regulations apply where a partnership is utilized in connection with a transaction (or series of related transactions) with a principal purpose of substantially reducing the present value of the partners’ aggregate U.S. federal tax liability in a manner inconsistent with the intent of the partnership provisions. The anti-abuse regulations contain an example in which a REIT contributes the proceeds of a public offering to a partnership in exchange for a general partnership interest. The limited partners contribute real property assets to the partnership, subject to liabilities that exceed their respective aggregate bases in such property. The example concludes that the use of the partnership is not inconsistent with the intent of the partnership provisions, and thus, cannot be recast by the IRS. However, the anti-abuse regulations are extraordinarily broad in scope and are applied based on an analysis of all the facts and circumstances. As a result, we cannot assure you that the IRS will not attempt to apply the anti-abuse regulations to us. Any such action could potentially jeopardize our qualification as a REIT and materially affect the tax consequences and economic return resulting from an investment in us.

Income Taxation of Partnerships and their Partners.  Although a partnership agreement generally will determine the allocation of a partnership’s income and losses among the partners, such allocations may be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Code Section 704(b) and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder. If any allocation is not recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ economic interests in the partnership. We believe that the allocations of taxable income and loss in the operating partnership agreement comply with the requirements of Code Section 704(b) and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder.

In some cases, special allocations of net profits or net losses will be required to comply with the U.S. federal income tax principles governing partnership tax allocations. Additionally, pursuant to Code Section 704(c), income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to property contributed to the operating partnership in exchange for units must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged

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with, or benefits from, the unrealized gain or loss attributable to the property at the time of contribution. The amount of such unrealized gain or loss is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value and the adjusted basis of the property at the time of contribution. These allocations are designed to eliminate book-tax differences by allocating to contributing partners lower amounts of depreciation deductions and increased taxable income and gain attributable to the contributed property than would ordinarily be the case for economic or book purposes. With respect to any property purchased by the operating partnership, such property generally will have an initial tax basis equal to its fair market value, and accordingly, Code Section 704(c) will not apply, except as described further below in this paragraph. The application of the principles of Code Section 704(c) in tiered partnership arrangements is not entirely clear. Accordingly, the IRS may assert a different allocation method than the one selected by the operating partnership to cure any book-tax differences. In certain circumstances, we create book-tax differences by adjusting the values of properties for economic or book purposes and generally the rules of Code Section 704(c) would apply to such differences as well.

For properties contributed to the operating partnership, depreciation deductions are calculated based on the transferor’s basis and depreciation method. Because depreciation deductions are based on the transferor’s basis in the contributed property, the operating partnership generally would be entitled to less depreciation than if the properties were purchased in a taxable transaction. The burden of lower depreciation generally will fall first on the contributing partner, but also may reduce the depreciation allocated to other partners.

Gain on the sale or other disposition of depreciable property is characterized as ordinary income (rather than capital gain) to the extent of any depreciation recapture. Buildings and improvements depreciated under the straight-line method of depreciation are generally not subject to depreciation recapture unless the property was held for less than one year. However, individuals, trusts and estates that hold shares either directly or through a pass-through entity may be subject to tax on the disposition on such assets at a rate of 25% rather than at the normal capital gains rate, to the extent that such assets have been depreciated.

Some expenses incurred in the conduct of the operating partnership’s activities may not be deducted in the year they were paid. To the extent this occurs, the taxable income of the operating partnership may exceed its cash receipts for the year in which the expense is paid. As discussed above, the costs of acquiring properties must generally be recovered through depreciation deductions over a number of years. Prepaid interest and loan fees, and prepaid management fees are other examples of expenses that may not be deducted in the year they were paid.

Taxation of U.S. Stockholders

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders

Generally, for purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Stockholder” is a person (other than a partnership or entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

an individual citizen or resident of the United States for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
a corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;
an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
a trust if (1) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over its administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) the trust has a valid election in effect under current Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

If a partnership or entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds shares of our stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A partner of a partnership holding shares of our stock should consult its own tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to the partner of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of shares of our stock by the partnership.

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Distributions.  Distributions that we make to our U.S. Stockholders out of current or accumulated earnings and profits that we do not designate as “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income” (as described below) for tax years ending before January 1, 2026 generally will entitle individuals, trusts and estates to the 20% pass-through deduction. Corporate stockholders are not entitled to the pass-through deduction or the dividends-received deduction with respect to our distributions. A noncorporate U.S. Stockholder’s ability to claim the deduction equal to 20% of qualifying dividends received may be limited by the U.S. Stockholder’s particular circumstances. In addition, for any noncorporate U.S. Stockholder that claims a deduction in respect of qualifying dividends, the maximum threshold for the accuracy-related penalty with respect to substantial understatements of income tax could be reduced from 10% to 5%.

Distributions in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated first as a tax-deferred return of capital to the U.S. Stockholder, reducing the U.S. Stockholder’s tax basis in his, her or its shares of our stock by the amount of such distribution, and then as capital gain. Because our earnings and profits are reduced for depreciation and other non-cash items, it is possible that a portion of each distribution will constitute a tax-deferred return of capital. Additionally, because distributions in excess of earnings and profits reduce the U.S. Stockholder’s basis in our stock, this will increase the U.S. Stockholder’s gain, or reduce the U.S. Stockholder’s loss, on any subsequent sale of the stock.

Distributions that are designated as capital gain dividends will be taxed as long-term capital gain to the extent they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year, without regard to the period for which the U.S. Stockholder that receives such distribution has held its stock. However, corporate stockholders may be required to treat up to 20% of some types of capital gain dividends as ordinary income. We also may decide to retain, rather than distribute, our net capital gain and pay any tax thereon. In such instances, U.S. Stockholders would include their proportionate shares of such gain in income as long-term capital gain, receive a credit on their returns for their proportionate share of our tax payments, and increase the tax basis of their shares of stock by the after-tax amount of such gain.

With respect to U.S. Stockholders who are taxed at the rates applicable to individuals, we may elect to designate a portion of our distributions paid to such U.S. Stockholders as qualified dividend income. A portion of a distribution that is properly designated as qualified dividend income is taxable to non-corporate U.S. Stockholders as capital gain; provided, that the U.S. Stockholder has held the stock with respect to which the distribution is made for more than 60 days during the 121 day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which such stock became ex-dividend with respect to the relevant distribution. The maximum amount of our distributions eligible to be designated as qualified dividend income for a taxable year is equal to the sum of:

(1) the qualified dividend income received by us during such taxable year from C corporations (including any TRSs);
(2) the amount of earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year that were distributed by the REIT during the taxable year;
(3) the excess of any “undistributed” REIT taxable income recognized during the immediately preceding year over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such undistributed REIT taxable income; and
(4) the excess of any income recognized during the immediately preceding year attributable to the sale of a built-in-gain asset that was acquired in a carry-over basis transaction from a non-REIT corporation or had appreciated at the time our REIT election became effective over the U.S. federal income tax paid by us with respect to such built-in gain.

Although U.S. Stockholders generally will recognize taxable income in the year that a distribution is received, any distribution that we declare in October, November or December of any year and that is payable to a U.S. Stockholder of record on a specific date in any such month will be treated as both paid by us and received by the U.S. Stockholder on December 31st of the year it was declared even if paid by us during January of the following calendar year.

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We have the ability to declare a large portion of a distribution on our common stock in shares of our common stock. As long as a portion of such distribution is paid in cash (which portion can be as low as 20%) and certain requirements are met, the entire distribution (to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits) will be treated as a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, U.S. Stockholders will be taxed on 100% of the dividend in the same manner as a cash dividend, even though most of the dividend was paid in shares of our stock. In general, any dividend on shares of our common stock will be taxable as a dividend, regardless of whether any portion is paid in stock.

Distributions that we make and gains arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. Stockholder of our stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. Stockholders will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against income or gain relating to our stock. To the extent that distributions we make do not constitute a return of capital, they will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

Any net operating losses or capital losses we have that are carried forward to future tax years may be used in those later years, subject to limitations, to reduce the amount of distributions required to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements. However, because we are not a pass-through entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, U.S. Stockholders may not use any of our operating or capital losses to reduce their tax liabilities.

Sales of Shares.  The amount of net capital gain or loss recognized upon sale or other disposition of shares of our stock by a U.S. Stockholder generally would equal the difference between (x) the amount of cash and fair market value of any property received in the sale and (y) the U.S. Stockholder’s basis in the shares sold. Gain on a sale of stock by a U.S. non-corporate investor generally will qualify for reduced U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to long-term net capital gain, provided that the investor held the stock for longer than one year prior to the sale. However, any loss from a sale or exchange of shares of our stock by a U.S. Stockholder who has held the stock for six months or less generally would be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent that the U.S. Stockholder treated our distributions as long-term capital gain. The use of capital losses is subject to limitations. Gains recognized by U.S. Stockholders that are corporations are subject to U.S. federal income tax at the corporate tax rate. Except in limited circumstances, as discussed above with respect to capital gains dividends or qualified dividend income, the reduced tax rate for long-term net capital gains will not apply to dividends paid by us.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt U.S. Stockholders

U.S. tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from U.S. federal income tax except with respect to their unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). While many investments in real estate may generate UBTI, distributions paid on shares of our stock should not constitute UBTI unless the tax-exempt entity (i) has borrowed funds or otherwise incurred acquisition indebtedness to acquire its shares of stock, or (ii) otherwise uses the shares of stock in an unrelated trade or business.

In certain circumstances, a pension trust that owns more than 10% of our stock could be required to treat a percentage of the dividends it receives from us as UBTI, if we are a “pension-held REIT.” We will not be a pension-held REIT unless either (1) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock, or (2) a group of pension trusts, each individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock, collectively owns more than 50% of our stock. Certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock should generally prevent a tax-exempt entity from owning more than 10% of the value of our stock, and, in general, should prevent us from becoming a pension-held REIT.

Prospective tax-exempt purchasers should consult their own tax advisors and financial planners as to the applicability of these rules and consequences to their particular circumstances.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

We will report to our U.S. Stockholders and the IRS the amount of dividends paid during each calendar year and the amount of any tax withheld. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. Stockholder may be subject to backup withholding at the current rate of 24% until December 31, 2025 and 28% thereafter with respect to dividends paid, unless the U.S. Stockholder (1) is a corporation or comes within other exempt

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categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact or (2) provides a taxpayer identification number or social security number, certifies under penalties of perjury that such number is correct and that such U.S. Stockholder is not subject to backup withholding and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. A U.S. Stockholder that does not provide his, her or its correct taxpayer identification number or social security number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distribution to any U.S. Stockholder who fails to certify its non foreign status or with respect to whom the IRS notifies us that such stockholder is subject to backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against such U.S. Stockholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders

Generally, for purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Stockholder” means a person (other than a partnership or entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) that is not a U.S. Stockholder.

Distributions — In General.  Distributions paid by us that are not attributable to gain from our sales or exchanges of United States real property interests (“USRPIs”), and that are not designated by us as capital gain dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such dividends to Non-U.S. Stockholders generally are subject to a 30% withholding tax at the time of distribution, unless such dividend is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. Stockholder or an applicable tax treaty reduces or eliminates that tax. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs.

If income from the investment in shares of our stock is treated as effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the Non-U.S. Stockholder generally will be subject to a tax at the graduated rates applicable to ordinary income, in the same manner as U.S. Stockholders are taxed with respect to such dividends (and also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax in the case of a stockholder that is a foreign corporation that is not entitled to any treaty exemption). In general, Non-U.S. Stockholders will not be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business solely as a result of their ownership of our stock.

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a stockholder to the extent they do not exceed the adjusted basis of the stockholder’s shares. Instead, they will reduce the adjusted basis of such shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the adjusted basis of a Non-U.S. Stockholder’s shares, they will give rise to tax liability if the Non-U.S. Stockholder would otherwise be subject to tax on any gain from the sale or disposition of his shares, as described in the “Sales of Shares” portion of this Section below.

Distributions Attributable to Sale or Exchange of Real Property.  Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”), distributions that are attributable to gain from our sales or exchanges of USRPIs (“USRPI capital gains”) will, except as described below, be taxed to a Non-U.S. Stockholder as if such gain were effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. The Non-U.S. Stockholder would thus be taxed at the normal capital gain rates applicable to U.S. individuals or corporations (without regard to whether we designate the distribution as a capital gain dividend), and would be subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Also, such distributions may be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a corporate Non-U.S. Stockholder not entitled to any treaty exemption. We (or applicable withholding agent) are required by the Treasury Regulations to withhold 21% of any distribution that we could designate as a capital gain dividend. However, if we designate as a capital gain dividend a distribution made before the day we actually effect the designation, then although the distribution may be taxable to a Non-U.S. Stockholder, withholding would not apply to the distribution under FIRPTA. Rather, we must effect the withholding from distributions made on and after the date of the designation, until the distributions so withheld equal the amount of the prior distribution designated as a capital gain dividend. The Non-U.S. Stockholder may credit the amount withheld against the Non-U.S. Stockholder’s U.S. tax liability. Such withheld amounts do not represent actual tax

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liabilities and are creditable by the Non-U.S. Stockholder against its actual U.S. federal income tax liabilities. The Non-U.S. Stockholder would be entitled to a refund of any amounts withheld in excess of such Non-U.S. Stockholder’s actual U.S. federal income tax liabilities, provided that the Non-U.S. Stockholder files applicable returns or refund claims with the IRS.

However, generally, pursuant to FIRPTA, distributions of USRPI capital gains are not treated as effectively connected income for a Non-U.S. Stockholder and instead are treated and taxed as ordinary dividends if (a) the distribution is received with respect to a class of stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States; and (b) the Non-U.S. Stockholder does not own more than 10% of the class of stock at any time during the one year period ending on the date of such distribution. Distributions that qualify for this exception are subject to withholding tax in the manner described above as dividends of ordinary income. We anticipate that shares of our common stock will be “regularly traded” on an established securities market for the foreseeable future, although, no assurance can be given that this will be the case.

A distribution is not a USRPI capital gain if we held an interest in the underlying asset solely as a creditor. Capital gain dividends received by a Non-U.S. Stockholder that are attributable to dispositions of our assets other than USRPIs are not subject to U.S. income or withholding tax, unless (1) the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Stockholder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the Non-U.S. Stockholder would be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Stockholders with respect to such gain, or (2) the Non-U.S. Stockholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the Non-U.S. Stockholder will incur tax on his or her capital gains.

Sales of Shares.  Gain recognized by a Non-U.S. Stockholder upon a sale of shares of our stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation; provided, that: (1) such gain is not effectively connected with the conduct by such Non-U.S. Stockholder of a trade or business within the U.S.; (2) the Non-U.S. Stockholder is an individual and is not present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions apply; and (3) (A) our REIT is “domestically controlled,” which generally means that less than 50% in value of our stock continues to be held directly or indirectly by foreign persons during a continuous five year period ending on the date of disposition or, if shorter, during the entire period of our existence, or (B) the shares sold are of a class of our stock that is “regularly traded” on an established securities market and the selling Non-U.S. Stockholder has not held more than 10% of our outstanding shares of that class of stock at any time during the five-year period ending on the date of the sale.

We believe that we qualify as “domestically controlled.” However, even if we were not domestically controlled, we anticipate that shares of our common stock will be “regularly traded” on an established securities market for the foreseeable future, although no assurance can be given that this will be the case. If the gain on the sale of shares of our stock were to be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, the Non-U.S. Stockholder would be subject to the same treatment as U.S. Stockholders with respect to such gain, and the purchaser of such shares of stock may be required to withhold a portion of the gross purchase price.

Medicare Tax

Certain net investment income earned by U.S. citizens and resident aliens and certain estates and trusts is subject to a 3.8% Medicare tax. Net investment income includes, among other things, dividends on and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of shares of stock. Holders of shares of our stock should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this tax on their ownership and disposition of such shares.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA)

Withholding taxes may apply to certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” (including investment entities) and certain other non-U.S. entities as designated in the Code, the Treasury Regulations, or applicable intergovernmental agreement between the United States and a foreign country. A withholding tax of 30% generally will be imposed on dividends on, and gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, shares of our stock paid to (a) a foreign financial institution (as the beneficial owner or as an intermediary for the beneficial owners) unless such foreign financial institution agrees to verify, report and disclose its U.S. accountholders and meets certain other specified requirements or (b) a non-financial foreign

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entity that is the beneficial owner of the payment unless such entity certifies that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner and such entity meets certain other specified requirements. Applicable Treasury Regulations provide that these rules generally will apply to payments of dividends on shares of our stock and to payments of gross proceeds from a sale or other disposition of shares of our stock after December 31, 2018. We will not pay any additional amounts in respect of any amounts withheld. U.S. Stockholders and Non-U.S. Stockholders are encouraged to consult their tax advisors regarding the particular consequences to them of this legislation and guidance.

Other Tax Considerations

State, Local and Foreign Taxes.  We and you may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various jurisdictions, including those in which we transact business or reside. Our and your state, local and foreign tax treatment may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax consequences discussed above. Any foreign taxes incurred by us would not pass through to stockholders as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability. You should consult your own tax advisors and financial planners regarding the effect of state, local and foreign tax laws on an investment in shares of our stock.

Legislative Proposals.  You should recognize that our and your present U.S. federal income tax treatment may be modified by legislative, judicial or administrative actions at any time, which may be retroactive in effect. The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by Congress, the IRS and the Treasury Department, and statutory changes as well as promulgation of new regulations, revisions to existing statutes, and revised interpretations of established concepts occur frequently. We are not aware of any pending legislation that would materially affect our or your taxation as described in this prospectus. You should, however, consult your advisors concerning the status of legislative proposals that may pertain to a purchase of shares of our capital stock.”

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