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Section 1: 10-Q (10-Q)

kr_Current_Folio_10Q

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM 10-Q

 


 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended August 18, 2018

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from           to         

Commission file number 1-303

 


 

 

Picture 2

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 


 

 

 

 

Ohio

 

31-0345740

(State or other jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

 

Identification No.)

 

1014 Vine Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

(513) 762-4000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Unchanged

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

 


 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  ☒  No  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes  ☒  No  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer (do not check if a smaller reporting company)

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  ☐  No  ☒.

 

There were 797,418,728 shares of Common Stock ($1 par value) outstanding as of September 20, 2018.

 

 

 

 


 

 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1.Financial Statements.

 

THE KROGER CO.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Second Quarter Ended

 

Two Quarters Ended

 

 

 

August 18,

 

August 12,

 

August 18,

 

August 12,

 

(In millions, except per share amounts)

    

2018

    

2017

    

2018

    

2017

 

Sales

 

$

27,869

 

$

27,597

 

$

65,399

 

$

63,882

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Merchandise costs, including advertising, warehousing, and transportation, excluding items shown separately below

 

 

21,930

 

 

21,609

 

 

51,293

 

 

49,890

 

Operating, general and administrative

 

 

4,612

 

 

4,517

 

 

10,734

 

 

10,883

 

Rent

 

 

204

 

 

225

 

 

480

 

 

496

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

574

 

 

562

 

 

1,315

 

 

1,299

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating profit

 

 

549

 

 

684

 

 

1,577

 

 

1,314

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other income (expense)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

(144)

 

 

(138)

 

 

(336)

 

 

(315)

 

Non-service component of company-sponsored pension plan costs

 

 

(4)

 

 

(6)

 

 

(13)

 

 

(14)

 

Mark to market gain on Ocado securities

 

 

216

 

 

 —

 

 

252

 

 

 —

 

Gain on sale of business

 

 

11

 

 

 —

 

 

1,782

 

 

 —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net earnings before income tax expense

 

 

628

 

 

540

 

 

3,262

 

 

985

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income tax expense

 

 

127

 

 

189

 

 

743

 

 

337

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net earnings including noncontrolling interests

 

 

501

 

 

351

 

 

2,519

 

 

648

 

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

 

(7)

 

 

(2)

 

 

(15)

 

 

(8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net earnings attributable to The Kroger Co.

 

$

508

 

$

353

 

$

2,534

 

$

656

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net earnings attributable to The Kroger Co. per basic common share

 

$

0.63

 

$

0.39

 

$

3.05

 

$

0.72

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average number of common shares used in basic calculation

 

 

797

 

 

897

 

 

821

 

 

907

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net earnings attributable to The Kroger Co. per diluted common share

 

$

0.62

 

$

0.39

 

$

3.03

 

$

0.71

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average number of common shares used in diluted calculation

 

 

805

 

 

905

 

 

829

 

 

917

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividends declared per common share

 

$

0.140

 

$

0.125

 

$

0.265

 

$

0.245

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

2


 

 

THE KROGER CO.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Second Quarter Ended

 

Two Quarters Ended

 

 

 

August 18,

 

August 12,

 

August 18,

 

August 12,

 

(In millions)

    

2018

    

2017

    

2018

    

2017

 

Net earnings including noncontrolling interests

 

$

501

 

$

351

 

$

2,519

 

$

648

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Realized gains on available for sale securities, net of income tax(1)  

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(4)

 

 

 —

 

Change in pension and other postretirement defined benefit plans, net of income tax(2)

 

 

 8

 

 

10

 

 

23

 

 

23

 

Unrealized gains and losses on cash flow hedging activities, net of income tax(3)

 

 

(4)

 

 

 1

 

 

 —

 

 

(35)

 

Amortization of unrealized gains and losses on cash flow hedging activities, net of income tax(4)

 

 

 1

 

 

 1

 

 

 2

 

 

 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total other comprehensive income (loss)

 

 

 5

 

 

12

 

 

21

 

 

(11)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comprehensive income

 

 

506

 

 

363

 

 

2,540

 

 

637

 

Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

 

(7)

 

 

(2)

 

 

(15)

 

 

(8)

 

Comprehensive income attributable to The Kroger Co.

 

$

513

 

$

365

 

$

2,555

 

$

645

 


(1)

Amount is net of tax of $(1) for the first two quarters of 2018.

(2)

Amount is net of tax of $3 for the second quarter of 2018 and $6 for the second quarter of 2017.  Amount is net of tax of $7 for the first two quarters of 2018 and $14 for the first two quarters of 2017.

(3)

Amount is net of tax of $(2) for the second quarter of 2018 and $1 for the second quarter of 2017.  Amount is net of tax of $(1) for the first two quarters of 2018 and $(20) for the first two quarters of 2017.

(4)

Amount is net of tax of $1 for the second quarter of 2018 and $1 for the second quarter of 2017.  Amount is net of tax of $2 for the first two quarters of 2018 and $1 for the first two quarters of 2017.

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 

 

 

3


 

 

THE KROGER CO.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

August 18,

    

February 3,

 

(In millions, except par amounts)

 

2018

 

2018

 

ASSETS 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and temporary cash investments 

 

$

361

 

$

347

 

Store deposits in-transit 

 

 

1,017

 

 

1,161

 

Receivables 

 

 

1,488

 

 

1,637

 

FIFO inventory 

 

 

7,515

 

 

7,781

 

LIFO reserve 

 

 

(1,274)

 

 

(1,248)

 

Assets held for sale

 

 

179

 

 

604

 

Prepaid and other current assets 

 

 

460

 

 

835

 

Total current assets 

 

 

9,746

 

 

11,117

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Property, plant and equipment, net 

 

 

21,316

 

 

21,071

 

Intangibles, net

 

 

1,218

 

 

1,100

 

Goodwill 

 

 

3,087

 

 

2,925

 

Other assets 

 

 

1,590

 

 

984

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Assets 

 

$

36,957

 

$

37,197

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIABILITIES 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current portion of long-term debt including obligations under capital leases and financing obligations 

 

$

2,411

 

$

3,560

 

Trade accounts payable 

 

 

5,933

 

 

5,858

 

Accrued salaries and wages 

 

 

1,108

 

 

1,099

 

Liabilities held for sale

 

 

60

 

 

259

 

Other current liabilities 

 

 

3,837

 

 

3,421

 

Total current liabilities 

 

 

13,349

 

 

14,197

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Long-term debt including obligations under capital leases and financing obligations 

 

 

12,121

 

 

12,029

 

Deferred income taxes 

 

 

1,667

 

 

1,568

 

Pension and postretirement benefit obligations

 

 

787

 

 

792

 

Other long-term liabilities 

 

 

1,695

 

 

1,706

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Liabilities 

 

 

29,619

 

 

30,292

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commitments and contingencies see Note 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred shares, $100 per share, 5 shares authorized and unissued 

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

Common shares, $1 par per share, 2,000 shares authorized; 1,918 shares issued in 2018 and 2017

 

 

1,918

 

 

1,918

 

Additional paid-in capital 

 

 

3,180

 

 

3,161

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss 

 

 

(450)

 

 

(471)

 

Accumulated earnings 

 

 

19,331

 

 

17,007

 

Common shares in treasury, at cost, 1,121 shares in 2018 and 1,048 shares in 2017

 

 

(16,605)

 

 

(14,684)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Shareholders’ Equity - The Kroger Co.

 

 

7,374

 

 

6,931

 

Noncontrolling interests 

 

 

(36)

 

 

(26)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Equity 

 

 

7,338

 

 

6,905

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Liabilities and Equity 

 

$

36,957

 

$

37,197

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

4


 

 

THE KROGER CO.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two Quarters Ended

 

 

 

August 18,

 

August 12,

 

(In millions)

    

2018

    

2017

 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net earnings including noncontrolling interests 

 

$

2,519

 

$

648

 

Adjustments to reconcile net earnings including noncontrolling interests to net cash provided by operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

1,315

 

 

1,299

 

LIFO charge

 

 

27

 

 

43

 

Stock-based employee compensation

 

 

81

 

 

85

 

Expense for company-sponsored pension plans

 

 

38

 

 

60

 

Deferred income taxes

 

 

92

 

 

208

 

Gain on sale of business

 

 

(1,782)

 

 

 —

 

Mark to market gain on Ocado securities

 

 

(252)

 

 

 —

 

Other

 

 

32

 

 

10

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities net of effects from mergers of businesses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Store deposits in-transit

 

 

144

 

 

(67)

 

Receivables

 

 

(73)

 

 

25

 

Inventories

 

 

252

 

 

154

 

Prepaid and other current assets

 

 

365

 

 

428

 

Trade accounts payable

 

 

94

 

 

186

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

200

 

 

16

 

Income taxes receivable and payable

 

 

397

 

 

133

 

Other

 

 

(189)

 

 

97

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

 

3,260

 

 

3,325

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Flows from Investing Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payments for property and equipment, including payments for lease buyouts

 

 

(1,487)

 

 

(1,522)

 

Proceeds from sale of assets

 

 

67

 

 

94

 

Payments for acquisitions, net of cash acquired

 

 

(197)

 

 

(16)

 

Purchases of stores

 

 

(44)

 

 

 —

 

Net proceeds from sale of business

 

 

2,169

 

 

 —

 

Purchases of Ocado securities

 

 

(392)

 

 

 —

 

Other

 

 

12

 

 

(6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided (used) by investing activities

 

 

128

 

 

(1,450)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Flows from Financing Activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt

 

 

1,016

 

 

1,502

 

Payments on long-term debt

 

 

(249)

 

 

(155)

 

Net payments on commercial paper

 

 

(1,946)

 

 

(1,425)

 

Dividends paid

 

 

(211)

 

 

(221)

 

Proceeds from issuance of capital stock

 

 

40

 

 

28

 

Treasury stock purchases

 

 

(1,979)

 

 

(1,030)

 

Other

 

 

(45)

 

 

(77)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash used by financing activities

 

 

(3,374)

 

 

(1,378)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net increase in cash and temporary cash investments

 

 

14

 

 

497

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and temporary cash investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beginning of year

 

 

347

 

 

322

 

End of period

 

$

361

 

$

819

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reconciliation of capital investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payments for property and equipment, including payments for lease buyouts

 

$

(1,487)

 

$

(1,522)

 

Payments for lease buyouts

 

 

 —

 

 

 6

 

Changes in construction-in-progress payables

 

 

(43)

 

 

(102)

 

Total capital investments, excluding lease buyouts

 

$

(1,530)

 

$

(1,618)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disclosure of cash flow information:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid during the year for interest

 

$

312

 

$

342

 

Cash paid during the year for income taxes

 

$

263

 

$

23

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 

5


 

 

THE KROGER CO.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREOWNERS’ EQUITY

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

Paid-In

 

Treasury Stock

 

Comprehensive

 

Accumulated

 

Noncontrolling

 

 

 

 

(In millions, except per share amounts)

  

Shares

  

Amount

  

Capital

  

Shares

  

Amount

  

Loss

  

Earnings

  

Interest

  

Total

 

Balances at January 28, 2017

 

1,918

 

$

1,918

 

$

3,070

 

994

 

$

(13,118)

 

$

(715)

 

$

15,543

 

$

12

 

$

6,710

 

Issuance of common stock:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock options exercised

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

(2)

 

 

28

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

28

 

Restricted stock issued

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(111)

 

(2)

 

 

79

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(32)

 

Treasury stock activity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treasury stock purchases, at cost

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

34

 

 

(989)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(989)

 

Stock options exchanged

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 1

 

 

(41)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(41)

 

Share-based employee compensation

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

85

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

85

 

Other comprehensive loss net of income tax of ($5)

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(11)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(11)

 

Other

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

50

 

 —

 

 

(64)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(19)

 

 

(33)

 

Cash dividends declared ($0.245 per common share)

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(221)

 

 

 —

 

 

(221)

 

Net earnings including noncontrolling interests

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

656

 

 

(8)

 

 

648

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balances at August 12, 2017

 

1,918

 

$

1,918

 

$

3,094

 

1,025

 

$

(14,105)

 

$

(726)

 

$

15,978

 

$

(15)

 

$

6,144

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balances at February 3, 2018

 

1,918

 

$

1,918

 

$

3,161

 

1,048

 

$

(14,684)

 

$

(471)

 

$

17,007

 

$

(26)

 

$

6,905

 

Issuance of common stock:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock options exercised

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

(3)

 

 

40

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

40

 

Restricted stock issued

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(110)

 

(2)

 

 

69

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(41)

 

Treasury stock activity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treasury stock purchases, at cost

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

76

 

 

(1,927)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(1,927)

 

Stock options exchanged

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 2

 

 

(52)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(52)

 

Share-based employee compensation

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

81

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

81

 

Other comprehensive income net of income tax of $7

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

21

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

21

 

Other

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

48

 

 —

 

 

(51)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 5

 

 

 2

 

Cash dividends declared ($0.265 per common share)

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(210)

 

 

 —

 

 

(210)

 

Net earnings including noncontrolling interests

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

2,534

 

 

(15)

 

 

2,519

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balances at August 18, 2018

 

1,918

 

$

1,918

 

$

3,180

 

1,121

 

$

(16,605)

 

$

(450)

 

$

19,331

 

$

(36)

 

$

7,338

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 

6


 

 

NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

All amounts in the Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements are in millions except per share amounts.

 

1.ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation

 

The accompanying financial statements include the consolidated accounts of The Kroger Co., its wholly-owned subsidiaries, and the variable interest entities in which the Company is the primary beneficiary.  The February 3, 2018 balance sheet was derived from audited financial statements and, due to its summary nature, does not include all disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”).  Significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.  References to the “Company” in these Consolidated Financial Statements mean the consolidated company.

 

In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements include adjustments, all of which are of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for a fair statement of results of operations for such periods but should not be considered as indicative of results for a full year.  The financial statements have been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).  Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been omitted, pursuant to SEC regulations.  Accordingly, the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended February 3, 2018.

 

The unaudited information in the Consolidated Financial Statements for the second quarters and two quarters ended August 18, 2018 and August 12, 2017, includes the results of operations of the Company for the 12 and 28  -week periods then ended.

 

Refer to Note 6 for a description of changes to the Consolidated Statements of Operations for a recently adopted accounting standard regarding the presentation of the non-service component of company-sponsored pension plan costs.

 

Fair Value Measurements

 

Fair value measurements are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:

 

Level 1 – Quoted prices are available in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

 

Level 2 – Pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets included in Level 1, which are either directly or indirectly observable;

 

Level 3 – Unobservable pricing inputs in which little or no market activity exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions about the assumptions that mar