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Section 1: S-3ASR (S-3ASR)

S-3ASR
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 7, 2018

Registration No. 333-          

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Maryland   36-4796967

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

888 Seventh Avenue, 35th Floor

New York, New York 10106

Tel: (212) 601-4700

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Greta Guggenheim

Chief Executive Officer and President

TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.

888 Seventh Avenue, 35th Floor

New York, New York 10106

Tel: (212) 601-4700

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

With a copy to:

 

Deborah J. Ginsberg, Esq.

Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary

TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.

888 Seventh Avenue, 35th Floor

New York, New York 10106

Tel: (212) 601-4700

 

David S. Freed, Esq.

Vinson & Elkins L.L.P.

666 Fifth Avenue

New York, New York 10103-0040

Tel: (212) 237-0000

Fax: (212) 237-0100

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer   ☒  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

  Amount
to be
Registered(1)(2)
 

Proposed

Maximum
Offering Price
per Unit(1)(2)

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(1)

  Amount of
Registration Fee(3)

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

               

Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share

               

Debt Securities

               

Warrants

               

Subscription Rights

               

Purchase Contracts

               

Units

               

 

 

(1)

Not specified as to each class of securities to be registered pursuant to General Instruction II.E of Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). There is being registered hereby such indeterminate number or amount, as the case may be, of the securities of each identified class as may from time to time be offered and sold at indeterminate prices. The securities covered by this registration statement may be sold or otherwise distributed separately, together or as units with other securities covered by this registration statement.

(2)

This registration statement also covers an indeterminate amount of each identified class of securities as may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, or upon exercise of, or pursuant to, convertible or exchangeable securities that provide for exercise or conversion into or purchase of such securities of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities.

(3)

Pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of the registration fee relating to securities that are registered and available for sale under this registration statement. Registration fees will be paid subsequently in advance or on a pay-as-you-go basis.

 

 

 


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PROSPECTUS

TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.

 

LOGO

Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities,

Warrants, Subscription Rights, Purchase Contracts and Units

We and any selling security holders may from time to time offer and sell, in one or more series or classes, separately or together, the following securities:

 

   

common stock;

 

   

preferred stock;

 

   

debt securities;

 

   

warrants;

 

   

subscription rights;

 

   

purchase contracts; and

 

   

units.

We will offer our securities in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time we offer those securities. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus when we offer these securities.

We are organized and conduct our operations so as to qualify as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The specific terms of the securities may include limitations on actual, beneficial or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities that may be appropriate to, among other purposes, preserve our status as a REIT.

The securities may be offered on a delayed or continuous basis directly by us and/or selling security holders, through agents, underwriters or dealers as designated from time to time, through a combination of these methods or any other method as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “TRTX.” On August 6, 2018, the last reported price for our common stock on the NYSE was $20.69 per share.

Investing in our securities involves risks. Before buying our securities, you should refer to the risk factors included in our periodic reports, in prospectus supplements relating to specific offerings and in other information that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission. See “Risk Factors” on page 2.

None of the Securities and Exchange Commission, any state securities commission, or any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is August 7, 2018.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

About This Prospectus

     1  

TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.

     1  

Risk Factors

     2  

Forward-Looking Information

     2  

Use of Proceeds

     4  

Ratios of Earnings to Fixed Charges and Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges and Preferred Stock Dividends

     5  

Description of Capital Stock

     6  

Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws

     12  

Description of Debt Securities

     18  

Description of Warrants

     25  

Description of Subscription Rights

     26  

Description of Purchase Contracts

     27  

Description of Units

     27  

Book-Entry Issuance

     28  

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

     30  

Selling Security Holders

     60  

Legal Matters

     61  

Experts

     61  

Where You Can Find More Information

     62  

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, any applicable free writing prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of the respective dates of such documents or on the date or dates which are specified in such documents. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of an automatic “shelf” registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), utilizing a “shelf” registration process. By using this shelf registration process, we and any selling security holders may offer shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase debt or equity securities described in this prospectus, subscription rights, purchase contracts and units consisting of two or more of the foregoing, from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we and any selling security holders may offer, and such description is not meant to be a complete description of each security. Each time we or any selling security holders offer securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering, the securities being offered and information regarding the selling security holders, if any. The applicable prospectus supplement or a free writing prospectus may also add to, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and any supplement or free writing prospectus, together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Except where the context suggests otherwise, the terms “our company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and its subsidiaries; the term “Manager” refers to our external manager, TPG RE Finance Trust Management, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership; the term “TPG” refers to TPG Global, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and its affiliates; the terms “stock” and “shares” refer, unless the context requires otherwise, to the common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and the Class A common stock, $0.001 par value per share, of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.; and the term “stockholders” refers, unless the context requires otherwise, to the holders of shares of such common stock and Class A common stock.

TPG RE FINANCE TRUST, INC.

We are a commercial real estate finance company sponsored by TPG. We directly originate, acquire and manage commercial mortgage loans and other commercial real estate-related debt instruments for our balance sheet. Our objective is to provide attractive risk-adjusted returns to our stockholders over time through cash distributions and capital appreciation. To meet our objective, we focus primarily on directly originating and selectively acquiring floating rate first mortgage loans that are secured by high quality commercial real estate properties undergoing some form of transition and value creation, such as retenanting, refurbishment or other form of repositioning. The collateral underlying our loans is located in primary and select secondary markets in the U.S. that we believe have attractive economic conditions and commercial real estate fundamentals. We conduct our operations as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Our common stock is traded on the NYSE, under the symbol “TRTX”.

Our principal executive offices are located at 888 Seventh Avenue, 35th Floor, New York, New York 10106, and our telephone number is (212) 601-4700. Our web address is www.tpgrefinance.com. The information on, or otherwise accessible through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Before you invest in any of our securities, in addition to the other information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should carefully read and consider the risk factors under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in Part I, Item 1A in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K as well as any risk factors contained in our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, as the same may be updated from time to time by our future filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Each of the risks described in these documents could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects, and could result in a partial or complete loss of your investment.

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain certain forward-looking statements that are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, statements relating to the performance of our investments and our financing needs and arrangements. Forward-looking statements are generally identifiable by use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “potential,” “intend,” “expect,” “endeavor,” “seek,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “could,” “project,” “predict,” “continue” or other similar words or expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions, discuss future expectations, describe existing or future plans and strategies, contain projections of results of operations, liquidity and/or financial condition or state other forward-looking information. Our ability to predict future events or conditions or their impact or the actual effect of existing or future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain. Although we believe that such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, actual results and performance in the future could differ materially from those set forth in or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could have a material adverse effect on future results and performance relative to those set forth in or implied by the related forward-looking statements, as well as on our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects, include, but are not limited to:

 

   

the effects of adverse conditions or developments in the financial markets and the economy upon our ability to originate and selectively acquire commercial mortgage loans and other commercial real estate-related debt instruments and to manage our investments;

 

   

the level and volatility of prevailing interest rates and credit spreads;

 

   

changes in our industry, interest rates, the debt or equity markets, the general economy or the commercial finance and the real estate markets specifically;

 

   

adverse changes in the real estate and real estate capital markets;

 

   

general volatility of the securities markets in which we participate;

 

   

changes in our business, investment strategies, target assets or financing strategies;

 

   

difficulty in obtaining financing or raising capital;

 

   

reductions in the yield on our investments and increases in the cost of our financing;

 

   

adverse legislative or regulatory developments, including with respect to tax laws;

 

   

general volatility of the markets in which we invest;

 

   

changes in the availability of attractive loan and other investment opportunities, whether they are due to competition, regulation or otherwise;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain financing arrangements on favorable terms, or at all;

 

   

the adequacy of collateral securing our investments and declines in the fair value of our investments;

 

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the timing of cash flows, if any, from our investments;

 

   

our ability to match the interest rates and maturities of our investments and indebtedness;

 

   

the operating performance, liquidity and financial condition of borrowers;

 

   

increased rates of default and/or decreased recovery rates on our investments;

 

   

changes in prepayment rates on our investments;

 

   

a downgrade in, or negative outlook on, the credit ratings assigned to our investments, if any, or the anticipation of such action;

 

   

the availability of qualified personnel and our relationship with our Manager;

 

   

conflicts with TPG and its affiliates, including our Manager, the personnel of TPG providing services to us, including our officers, and certain funds managed by TPG;

 

   

events, contemplated or otherwise, such as acts of God, including hurricanes, earthquakes, wildfires, mudslides and other natural disasters, acts of war and/or terrorism and other events that may cause unanticipated and uninsured performance declines and/or losses to us or the owners and operators of the real estate securing our investments;

 

   

impact of and changes in governmental regulations, tax laws and rates, accounting principles and policies and similar matters;

 

   

our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in the future at the level contemplated by our stockholders or the market generally, or at all;

 

   

deterioration in the performance of properties securing our investments that may cause deterioration in the performance of our investments and potentially principal losses to us;

 

   

defaults by borrowers in paying debt service on outstanding indebtedness;

 

   

increased competition from entities engaged in mortgage lending or investing in our target assets;

 

   

difficulty in redeploying the proceeds from repayments of our existing investments;

 

   

difficulty in successfully managing our growth, including integrating new assets into our existing systems;

 

   

the cost of operating our platform, including, but not limited to, the cost of operating a real estate investment platform and the cost of operating as a publicly traded company;

 

   

our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

   

our ability to maintain our exclusion or exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;

 

   

authoritative generally accepted accounting principles or policy changes from such standard-setting bodies such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the SEC, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), the NYSE, and other authorities that we are subject to, as well as their counterparts in any foreign jurisdictions where we might do business; and

 

   

other factors, including those discussed under “Risk Factors” in the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. We caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. All written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. Moreover, unless we are required by law to update these statements, we will not necessarily update or revise any forward-looking statements included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus after the date hereof, either to conform them to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds we receive from the offering of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including funding our investment activity, repayment of indebtedness and working capital. Further details relating to the use of net proceeds from the offering of securities under this prospectus will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Pending such uses, the net proceeds may be invested in money market funds, bank accounts, overnight repurchase agreements with primary federal reserve bank dealers collateralized by direct U.S. government obligations and other instruments or investments reasonably determined by our Manager to be of high quality and that are consistent with our intention to continue to qualify as a REIT and maintain our exclusion or exemption from regulation under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of securities to which this prospectus relates that are offered by any selling security holders.

 

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RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED STOCK DIVIDENDS

The following table sets forth our historical ratios of earnings to fixed charges and earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for each of the periods presented. The ratio of earnings to fixed charges was computed by dividing earnings (our income or loss before income taxes after adding fixed charges (interest expense on our indebtedness)) by our fixed charges. The ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends was computed by dividing earnings by our fixed charges and preferred stock dividends.

 

     Six Months
Ended June 30,
2018
     Year Ended
December 31,
2017
     Year Ended
December 31,
2016
     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
     Period from
December 18,
2014 (inception)
to December 31,
2014
 

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges

     1.92x        2.21x        2.13x        2.28x        N/A (1)  

Ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends

     1.92x        2.21x        2.13x        2.28x        N/A (1)(2)  

 

(1)

The dollar amount of the deficiency was approximately $8.2 million for the period from December 18, 2014 (inception) to December 31, 2014.

(2)

Prior to January 21, 2015 (the date of issuance of our 12.5% Series A Cumulative Non-Voting Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Series A Preferred Stock”)), we had not issued any preferred stock, and therefore there are no preferred stock dividends included in our calculation of the ratio of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends for the period from December 18, 2014 (inception) to December 31, 2014. On February 28, 2018, we redeemed all of the outstanding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock. Pursuant to our charter, the redeemed shares of our Series A Preferred Stock have the status of authorized but unissued shares of Series A Preferred Stock which may be issued by our board of directors from time to time at its discretion.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of the rights and preferences of our capital stock is only a summary. While we believe that the following description covers the material terms of our capital stock, the description may not contain all of the information that is important to you. We encourage you to read carefully this entire prospectus, the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”), our charter and bylaws and the other documents we refer to for a more complete understanding of our capital stock. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

General

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 300,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, 2,500,000 shares of Class A common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share, of which 125 shares are classified and designated as Series A Preferred Stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of capital stock or the number of shares of capital stock of any class or series with the approval of a majority of our entire board of directors and without stockholder approval. As of August 3, 2018, 59,038,875 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding, 1,148,402 shares of our Class A common stock were issued and outstanding and no shares of our preferred stock were issued and outstanding.

Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

Common Stock

Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of shares of capital stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends and other distributions on such shares out of assets legally available therefor if, as and when authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, and the holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment of or adequate provision for all our known debts and other liabilities.

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of shares of our capital stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of shares of capital stock, the holders of such shares of our common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote in the election of directors can elect all of the directors then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining shares of such capital stock will not be able to elect any directors.

Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company and generally have no appraisal rights. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of capital stock, holders of shares of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge or consolidate with or into or convert into another entity, sell all or substantially all of its assets outside the ordinary course of its business or engage in a statutory share exchange unless advised by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast

 

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on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides that these matters (other than certain amendments to the provisions of our charter related to the removal of directors, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of capital stock and the vote required to amend these provisions) may be approved by a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Because our operating assets may be held by our subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

Class A Common Stock

The preferences, rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of the Class A common stock are identical to the common stock, except as specifically set forth below. The Class A common stock votes together with the common stock as a single class.

The Class A common stock is a security that is not a “margin security” as defined in Regulation U of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve System (and rulings and interpretations thereunder) and may not be listed on a national securities exchange or a national market system.

Each share of Class A common stock is convertible at any time or from time to time, at the option of the holder, for one fully paid and nonassessable share of common stock.

Preferred Stock

General

We are authorized to issue 100,000,000 shares of preferred stock. Our charter provides that our board of directors has the authority, without action by our stockholders, to classify, designate and issue shares of preferred stock in one or more classes or series and to fix the designation, number of shares, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of any class or series of preferred stock.

Any future issuance of shares of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power and distribution and liquidation rights of holders of common stock, and the likelihood that the holders will receive dividend payments, and payments upon liquidation could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control that might otherwise be favorable to our common stockholders.

A prospectus supplement relating to any series of preferred stock being offered will include specific terms relating to the offering. They will include, where applicable:

 

   

the title and par value of the preferred stock;

 

   

the number of shares of the preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the preferred stock;

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the preferred stock shall accumulate;

 

   

the procedures for an auction and remarketing, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

   

any voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

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the provisions for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry registration procedures, if any;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, preferred stock or other securities including the conversion price or the manner of calculating the conversion price and conversion period;

 

   

if appropriate, a discussion of federal income tax consequences applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to assist us in qualifying as a REIT or otherwise;

 

   

the priority of the preferred stock with all series of preferred stock ranking on a parity with each other unless otherwise specified in the charter and that the preferred stock will rank senior to common stock with respect to payment of dividends and distribution of assets upon liquidation; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions on the preferred stock.

Conversion or Exchange

The terms, if any, on which the preferred stock may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, preferred stock or other securities will be stated in the prospectus supplement relating to the preferred stock. The terms will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option, and may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or other securities to be received by the holders of preferred stock would be subject to adjustment.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

Our transfer agent and registrar is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our stock or preferred stock into other classes or series of capital stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, our board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each class or series. Therefore, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common or preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our then-existing stockholders.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Stock and Preferred Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Stock and Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors, without a stockholder vote, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of our stock or preferred stock, to authorize us to issue additional shares of our stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our stock or preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock or preferred stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. Any additional classes or series of our stock or preferred stock, as well as the additional authorized shares of our stock or preferred stock, will be available for issuance without further

 

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action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of our stock or preferred stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Our board of directors could authorize us to issue a class or series of our stock or preferred stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our then-existing stockholders.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

In order for us to continue to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), our shares of stock must be owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year.

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, by virtue of certain constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, more than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our capital stock (which we refer to as the “ownership limit”). A person or entity that becomes subject to the ownership limit by virtue of a violative transfer that results in a transfer to a trust, as described below, is referred to as a “prohibited owner” if, had the violative transfer or other event been effective, the person or entity would have been a beneficial or constructive owner or, if appropriate, a record owner of shares of our capital stock in violation of the ownership limit or other restrictions.

The constructive ownership rules under the Internal Revenue Code are complex and may cause shares of stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our capital stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, shares of our capital stock), could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of the class or series of our capital stock and thereby subject the shares to the ownership limit.

Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, prospectively or retroactively, exempt a person from the ownership limit for one or more classes and/or series of our capital stock. However, our board of directors may not exempt any person whose ownership of our outstanding stock would result in our failing to continue to qualify as a REIT. In order to be considered by our board of directors for exemption, a person also must provide such representations, covenants and undertakings as our board of directors may deem appropriate in order to conclude that granting the exemption would not cause us to fail to continue to qualify as a REIT. As a condition of its waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or IRS ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to our continued qualification as a REIT and may impose such conditions and restrictions as it deems appropriate.

Our board of directors may from time to time increase or decrease the ownership limit for one or more classes or series of our stock and for one or more persons; provided, however, that any decrease may be made only prospectively as to existing holders; and provided, further, that the ownership limit may not be increased if, after giving effect to such increase, five or fewer individuals could own in the aggregate, more than 49.9% in value of the shares then outstanding or we would otherwise fail to qualify as a REIT. The reduced ownership limit will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership of shares of our capital stock of a class or series is in excess of such decreased ownership limit until such time as such person’s or entity’s percentage of ownership of our capital stock of such class or series equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, but any

 

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further acquisition of shares of our capital stock of such class or series by such person (other than a person subject to an excepted holder limit) will be in violation of the ownership limit.

Our charter provisions further prohibit:

 

   

any person from beneficially or constructively owning, applying certain attribution rules of the Internal Revenue Code, shares of our capital stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of the taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our capital stock if such transfer would result in shares of our capital stock being owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our capital stock that will or may violate any of the foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer or any person who would have owned shares of our capital stock that resulted in a transfer of shares to a trust pursuant to the terms of our charter will be required to give immediate notice, or in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, at least 15 days’ prior written notice to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such transfer on our qualification as a REIT. The foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT or that compliance with the applicable restriction or limitation is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

Pursuant to our charter, if any transfer of shares of our capital stock would result in shares of our capital stock being owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of shares of our capital stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limit or such other limit established by our board of directors or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause us to violate such restrictions will be automatically transferred, without further action by us or any other party, to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be paid to the trustee upon demand to be held in trust for the charitable beneficiary and any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid must be paid when due to the trustee. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the ownership limit or our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then our charter provides that the purported transfer of the shares that would cause a violation of the charter will be void, and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares.

Shares of our capital stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the event that resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve the prohibited owner giving value to the shares (such as a devise or gift), the Market Price (as such term is defined in our charter) on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of our capital stock to the trust) and (2) the Market Price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We may reduce the price payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed to the trustee. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our capital stock held in the trust as discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates, the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and any other amounts held by the trustee with respect to such shares of our capital stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

 

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If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of our shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limit and the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. After that, the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve the prohibited owner giving value to the shares, the Market Price on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trust for the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any other amounts held by the trustee with respect to such shares. In addition, if prior to discovery by us that shares of our capital stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of our capital stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then (a) such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, (b) to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive pursuant to this paragraph, such excess amount must be paid to the trustee upon demand. The prohibited owner has no voting or other rights in the shares held by the trustee.

The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the charitable beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares held in trust and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares held in trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary or beneficiaries. Any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid will be paid when due to the trustee.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority, at the trustee’s sole and absolute discretion:

 

   

to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

to recast the vote.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

In addition, if our board of directors determines that a proposed transfer would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors may take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem shares of our capital stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Internal Revenue Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, is required to give us written notice, stating his, her or its name and address, the number of shares of each class and/or series of our stock which he, she or it beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner must provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of his, her or its beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limit. In addition, each stockholder and each person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our capital stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner must upon demand provide us with such information as we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance and to ensure compliance with the ownership limit.

 

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This ownership limit could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our capital stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following description of certain terms of our charter and bylaws and of certain provisions of Maryland law is only a summary. For a complete description, we refer you to the MGCL, our charter and our bylaws. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Number of Directors; Vacancies

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors we have may be established only by our board of directors and may not be fewer than the minimum number required by the MGCL. Pursuant to our bylaws, the number of directors may not be more than 12. Our charter also provides that, except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of our capital stock, any vacancy on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any individual elected to fill such a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies.

Pursuant to our bylaws, a plurality of all the votes cast in the election of directors at a meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present is sufficient to elect a director. The presence in person or by proxy of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at a meeting will constitute a quorum at any meeting of stockholders.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of any class or series of preferred stock, a director may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes of stockholders entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. Cause means, with respect to any particular director, a conviction of a felony or a final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction holding that such director caused demonstrable, material harm to us through bad faith or active and deliberate dishonesty. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on our board of directors, precludes stockholders from removing incumbent directors except upon a two-thirds affirmative vote and with cause and then filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding capital stock of the corporation) or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (1) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation and (2) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of shares of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

 

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These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by the board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has by resolution exempted any business combination between us and any other person, provided that such business combination is first approved by our board of directors.

These provisions of the MGCL could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our then existing common stockholders.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to such control shares except to the extent approved at a special meeting of stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of capital stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (1) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition; (2) an officer of the corporation; or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are shares of voting stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of capital stock previously acquired by the acquirer, or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (A) one-tenth or more but less than one-third; (B) one-third or more but less than a majority; or (C) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the direct or indirect acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, if a meeting of stockholders is held at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved, as of the date of such meeting, or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to (1) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. Our bylaws currently contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our capital stock. There can be no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

 

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Corporate Opportunities

Our charter provides that, if any of our directors or officers who is also a partner, advisory board member, director, officer, manager, member, or shareholder of TPG (any such director or officer, a “TPG Director/Officer”) acquires knowledge of a potential business opportunity, we renounce, on our behalf and on behalf of our subsidiaries, any potential interest or expectation in, or right to be offered or to participate in, such business opportunity to the maximum extent permitted from time to time by Maryland law. Accordingly, to the maximum extent permitted from time to time by Maryland law, (1) no TPG Director/Officer is required to present, communicate or offer any business opportunity to us or any of our subsidiaries and (2) the TPG Director/Officer, on his or her own behalf or on behalf of TPG, will have the right to hold and exploit any business opportunity, or to direct, recommend, offer, sell, assign or otherwise transfer such business opportunity to any person or entity other than us.

The taking by a TPG Director/Officer for himself or herself, or the offering or other transfer to another person or entity, of any potential business opportunity whether pursuant to our charter or otherwise, will not constitute or be construed or interpreted as (1) an act or omission of the TPG Director/Officer committed in bad faith or as the result of active or deliberate dishonesty or (2) receipt by the TPG Director/Officer of an improper benefit or profit in money, property, services or otherwise.

Meetings of Stockholders

Pursuant to our bylaws, a meeting of our stockholders for the election of directors and the transaction of any business will be held annually on a date and at the time and place set by our board of directors. In addition, the chairman of our board of directors, chief executive officer, president or board of directors may call a special meeting of our stockholders. Subject to the procedural requirements for requesting a special meeting of our stockholders set forth in our bylaws, a special meeting of our stockholders will also be called by our secretary upon the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting.

Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws

Except for amendments related to increasing or decreasing the aggregate number of authorized shares of our stock or preferred stock, to authorize us to issue additional shares of our stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our stock or preferred stock (which may be approved without any action by our stockholders), our charter may be amended only if the amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, amendments to the provisions of our charter related to the removal of directors, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of capital stock and the vote required to amend these provisions will be valid only if declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Our board of directors has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws.

Dissolution of Our Company

The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Maryland Unsolicited Takeovers Act

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter

 

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or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors in office and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; and

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

We have elected in our charter to be subject to the provision of Subtitle 8 that provides that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director, which removal will be allowed only for cause, (2) vest in our board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (3) require, unless called by the chairman of our board of directors, chief executive officer or president or our board of directors, the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all votes entitled to be cast at such a meeting to call a special meeting.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) by any stockholder who is a stockholder of record as of the record date for the annual meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each such nominee or on such other business and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws. Stockholders generally must provide notice to our secretary not earlier than the 150th day or later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the 120th day before the first anniversary of the date of our proxy statement for the preceding year’s annual meeting.

With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (1) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (2) provided that our board of directors has determined that directors will be elected at such meeting, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record as of the record date for the meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the special meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of such nominee and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws. Stockholders generally must provide notice to our secretary not earlier than the 120th day before such special meeting or later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the later of the 90th day before the special meeting or the tenth day after the first public announcement of the date of the special meeting and the nominees of our board of directors to be elected at the meeting.

Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws

Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our common stockholders, including business combination and control share provisions, provisions on removal of directors and filling vacancies of our board, restrictions on transfer and ownership of our stock and advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. See “—Business Combinations,” “—Control Share Acquisitions” and “—Maryland Unsolicited Takeovers Act” above.

 

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Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (1) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (2) active and deliberate dishonesty that was established by a final judgment and was material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to or in which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party or witness by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was (1) committed in bad faith or (2) the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to the corporation, or in a suit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, such indemnification is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter and bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any individual who is a present or former director or officer of our company and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, trustee, member, manager or partner of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

 

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Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

We have entered into customary indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers obligating us to indemnify them to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

Under the management agreement between our Manager and us (our “Management Agreement”), our Manager maintains a contractual as opposed to a fiduciary relationship with us, which limits our Manager’s obligations to us to those specifically set forth in our Management Agreement. The ability of our Manager and its officers and other personnel of TPG provided to our Manager, including our chairman and executive officers, to engage in other business activities may reduce the time they spend managing us.

Exclusive Forum for Certain Litigation

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that Court does not have jurisdiction, the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any director or officer or other employee of ours to us or to our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws, or (4) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours (if any) that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description contains general terms and provisions of the debt securities to which any prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus may relate. The particular terms of the debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus and the extent, if any, to which such general provisions may not apply to the debt securities so offered will be described in the prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus relating to such debt securities. Senior debt securities, if any, will be issued under a senior indenture between us and a trustee to be selected by us at or about the time we offer our senior debt securities (a “senior indenture”). Subordinated debt securities, if any, will be issued under a subordinated indenture between us and a trustee to be selected by us at or about the time we offer our subordinated debt securities (a “subordinated indenture”). A form of the senior indenture and a form of the subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

As used in this prospectus, the term “indentures” refers to both the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture. The indentures have or will be qualified under and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). As used in this prospectus, the term “trustee” refers to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

The following are summaries of material provisions included or anticipated to be included, as applicable, in the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture or in supplements thereto. As summaries, they do not purport to be complete or restate the indentures in their entirety and are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all provisions of the indentures and the debt securities. We urge you to read the indentures, including any related supplemental indentures, applicable to a particular series of debt securities because they, and not this description, define your rights as the holders of the debt securities. Except as we may otherwise indicate, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are substantially identical.

General

Each prospectus supplement will describe the terms relating to a series of debt securities, including without limitation:

 

   

the title and any series designation of such debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

   

whether or not such series of debt securities will be issued in global form, the terms and who the depositary will be;

 

   

the maturity date(s);

 

   

the annual interest rate(s), which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate(s) and the date(s) interest will begin to accrue, the date(s) interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such date(s);

 

   

the place(s) where payments shall be payable;

 

   

the date, if any, after which, and the price(s) at which, such series of debt securities may, pursuant to any optional redemption provisions, be redeemed at our option, and other related terms and provisions;

 

   

the date(s), if any, on which, and the price(s) at which we are obligated, pursuant to any sinking fund, mandatory redemption or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, such series of debt securities and other related terms and provisions;

 

   

the denominations in which such series of debt securities will be issued, if in other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof;

 

   

any mandatory or optional sinking fund or similar provisions;

 

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the currency or currency units of payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities;

 

   

the terms pursuant to which such debt securities are subject to defeasance;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, pursuant to which such debt securities are secured; and

 

   

any and all additional, eliminated or changed terms from the indentures that shall apply to a series of debt securities.

The debt securities may be issued as original issue discount securities. An original issue discount security is a debt security, including any zero-coupon debt security, which:

 

   

is issued at a price lower than the amount payable upon its stated maturity; and

 

   

provides that upon redemption or acceleration of the maturity, an amount less than the amount payable upon the stated maturity, shall become due and payable.

United States federal income tax consequences applicable to debt securities sold at an original issue discount will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, United States federal income tax or other consequences applicable to any debt securities which are denominated in a currency or currency unit other than United States dollars may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Under the indentures, we will have the ability, in addition to the ability to issue debt securities with terms different from those of debt securities previously issued, without the consent of the holders, to reopen a previous issue of a series of debt securities and issue additional debt securities of that series, unless the reopening was restricted when the series was created, in an aggregate principal amount determined by us. The indentures do not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

The terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, preferred stock or other securities will be described in the prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus relating to that series of debt securities. The terms will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock, preferred stock or other securities to be received by the holders of the series of debt securities would be subject to adjustment.

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

The subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in an applicable prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated debt securities which we may issue, nor does it limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

The indentures provide that we may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to, or merge with or into, any other person, provided that:

 

   

we are the continuing person, or the successor person shall be organized and existing under the laws of the United States or a state thereof and shall expressly assume the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest and all additional amounts, if any, on, all of the outstanding debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions contained in the indenture by supplemental indenture satisfactory to the trustee; and

 

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immediately after giving effect to such transaction and treating any indebtedness which becomes our or any of our subsidiary’s obligation as a result thereof as having been incurred by us or such subsidiary at the time of such transaction, no event of default under the indenture, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become such an event of default, occurs and is continuing.

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of debt securities, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control, any recapitalization transaction or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control).

Events of Default Under the Indenture

The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities issued:

 

   

failure to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due;

 

   

failure to pay interest when due and such failure continues for 30 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

   

failure to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and such failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization; and

 

   

any other event of default described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice in writing to us, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately; provided, however, that the payment of principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, on debt securities issued under the subordinated indenture shall remain subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture. If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs, then all unpaid principal amounts, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, will immediately become due and payable, without any action by the trustee or any holder of debt securities. The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any default or event of default, except a default or event of default relating to the payment of principal or interest, if it determines that withholding such notice is in the holders’ interest.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to such series and its consequences, except a continuing default or events of default in the payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities of such series. Any such waiver shall cure such default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

it is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture;

 

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the trustee may take any other action deemed proper by it which is not inconsistent with such direction; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered indemnity to the trustee satisfactory to the trustee to institute such proceedings as trustee; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute such proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 60 days after such notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with certain of the covenants in the indentures.

Satisfaction and Discharge

Each of the indentures will automatically cease to be of further effect as to any series of debt securities issued thereunder and the trustee, upon our demand and at our expense, will execute appropriate instruments acknowledging the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture with respect to such series upon compliance with the following conditions:

(1) either

 

   

our having delivered or caused to be delivered to the trustee for cancellation all debt securities of a series theretofore authenticated under the indenture other than any debt securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid as provided in the indenture;

 

   

all debt securities of any series outstanding under the indenture not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the trustee and we shall have deposited with the trustee sufficient cash, U.S. government or U.S. government agency debt securities or bonds, or a combination thereof, that will generate sufficient funds to pay, at maturity or upon redemption, all such debt securities of any series outstanding under the indenture; or

 

   

our having properly fulfilled any other means of satisfaction and discharge that may be set forth in the terms of the debt securities of such series;

(2) our having paid or caused to be paid all sums payable by us under the indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable; and

(3) our having delivered to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.

 

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Defeasance

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under either of the indentures.

Legal Defeasance

We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if the following conditions are met:

 

   

we deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash or U.S. government or U.S. government agency debt securities or bonds that will generate sufficient funds to make interest, principal, any premium and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates;

 

   

there is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that permits us to make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due;

 

   

we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above;

 

   

we deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent relating to such legal defeasance have been fulfilled; and

 

   

no event of default shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become an event of default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit.

If we ever accomplished legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

However, even if we make the deposit in trust and deliver an opinion as discussed above, a number of our obligations relating to the debt securities will remain. These include, among others, our obligations to:

 

   

register the transfer and exchange of debt securities;

 

   

replace mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;

 

   

maintain paying agencies; and

 

   

hold money for payment in trust.

Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of any deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Covenant Defeasance

Without any change in current U.S. federal income tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants on the debt securities of any series. This is called “covenant defeasance.” In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, the following conditions must be met:

 

   

we deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash, U.S. government or U.S. government agency debt securities or bonds that will generate sufficient funds to make interest, principal, any premium and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates;

 

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we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit and be released from the relevant covenants without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and were not released from the covenants and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due;

 

   

we deliver to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent relating to such covenant defeasance have been fulfilled; and

 

   

no event of default shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become an event of default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you can still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the event causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to the following matters:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency under the indenture or the debt securities;

 

   

to evidence the succession of another person as obligor under the indenture;

 

   

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

   

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities;

 

   

to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of debt securities;

 

   

to add any additional events of default for the benefit of the holders of all or any outstanding debt securities;

 

   

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series;

 

   

to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment of a successor trustee;

 

   

to comply with the rules of any applicable depositary;

 

   

to comply with the requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act; or

 

   

to conform the text of the indenture or the debt securities of any series to any provision of the “Description of Debt Securities” or similar section of the prospectus supplement or offering document relating to the debt securities of such series.

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected, voting together as a single class. However, we can make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of such series of debt securities;

 

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reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any such debt securities;

 

   

changing any of our obligations to pay additional amounts;

 

   

reducing the amount of principal of an original issue discount security or any other debt security payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

changing currency in which any debt security or any premium or interest is payable;

 

   

impairing the right to enforce any payment on or with respect to any debt security;

 

   

adversely changing the right to convert or exchange, including decreasing the conversion rate or increasing the conversion price of, such debt security, if applicable;

 

   

in the case of the subordinated indenture, modifying the subordination provisions in a manner adverse to the holders of the subordinated debt securities;

 

   

reducing the percentage in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of any series, the consent of whose holders is required for modification or amendment of the applicable indenture or debt securities or for waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the applicable indenture or for waiver of certain defaults;

 

   

reducing the requirements contained in the applicable indenture for quorum or voting; or

 

   

modifying any of the above provisions.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

The debt securities of each series will be issuable only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof. The indentures do or will provide, as applicable, that debt securities of a series may be issuable in temporary or permanent global form and may be issued as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus with respect to such series.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, debt securities of any series will be exchangeable for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, debt securities may be presented for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed, duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for such purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities to be transferred or exchanged, we will not require a service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges. The security registrar and any transfer agent initially designated by us for any debt securities will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If the debt securities of any series are to be redeemed, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any such debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing; or

 

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register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any such debt securities being redeemed in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only such duties as are specifically described in the indentures and, upon an event of default under an indenture, must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given to it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered security and indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur. The trustee is not required to spend or risk its own money or otherwise become financially liable while performing its duties unless it reasonably believes that it will be repaid or receive adequate indemnity.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date will be made to the person in whose name such debt securities or one or more predecessor securities are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest.

Principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series will be payable at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, interest payments may be made by check mailed to the holder or by wire transfer. Unless otherwise indicated in such prospectus supplement, the corporate trust office of the trustee will be designated as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. Any other paying agents initially designated by us for the debt securities of a particular series will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will be required to maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All moneys paid by us to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after the principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security may then look only to us for payment.

Governing Law

The indentures and each debt security will be deemed to be contracts made under the internal laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes will be construed in accordance with the laws of said state. The indentures are subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are required to be part of the indentures and shall, to the extent applicable, be governed by such provisions.

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description of the terms of the warrants sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the warrants to which any prospectus supplement may relate. We may issue warrants for the purchase of debt or equity securities described in this prospectus. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any offered securities and may be attached to or separate from such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under one or more warrant agreements we will enter into with a warrant agent specified in the agreement. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants of that series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. The following summary of certain provisions of the warrants does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of the warrant agreement that will be filed with the SEC in connection with an offering of our warrants.

 

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A prospectus supplement relating to any series of warrants being offered will include specific terms relating to the offering. They will include, where applicable:

 

   

the title of the warrants;

 

   

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

   

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

   

the currencies in which the price or prices of the warrants may be payable;

 

   

the designation, amount and terms of the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the other offered securities, if any, with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with the security;

 

   

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

   

the price or prices at which, and currency or currencies in which, the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and the date on which the right shall expire;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

any minimum or maximum amount of warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

any listing of warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

if appropriate, a discussion of U.S. federal income tax consequences; and

 

   

any other material term of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

The following is a general description of the terms of the subscription rights we may issue from time to time. Particular terms of any subscription rights we offer will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such subscription rights.

We may issue subscription rights to purchase our equity or debt securities. These subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the security holder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of any offering of subscription rights for which this prospectus is being delivered, including the following:

 

   

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

   

the exercise price payable for our equity or debt securities upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the number of subscription rights issued to each security holder;

 

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the amount of our equity or debt securities that may be purchased per each subscription right;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

   

any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

 

   

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.

The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription rights certificate or subscription rights agreement, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights.

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from or sell to us, and for us to sell to or purchase from the holders, a specified principal amount of debt securities or a specified number of shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock at a future date or dates. The consideration for the debt securities, common stock or preferred stock and the principal amount of debt securities or number of shares of each may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula set forth in the purchase contracts. The purchase contracts may be issued separately or as part of units, often known as purchase units, consisting of a purchase contract and other securities or obligations issued by us or third parties, including U.S. Treasury securities, which may secure the holders’ obligations to purchase the debt securities, common stock or preferred stock under the purchase contracts. The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders of the purchase contracts or units or vice versa, and these payments may be unsecured or prefunded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure their obligations under those contracts in a specified manner.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the purchase contracts and purchase units, including, if applicable, collateral or depositary arrangements.

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of two or more shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights, purchase contracts or any combination of such securities.

The applicable prospectus supplement will specify the following terms of any units in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:

 

   

the terms of the units and of any of the common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights or purchase contracts comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units;

 

   

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units; and

 

   

whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.

 

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BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES

We may issue the securities offered by means of this prospectus in whole or in part in book-entry form, meaning that beneficial owners of the securities will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the securities, except in the event the book-entry system for the securities is discontinued. If securities are issued in book-entry form, they may be evidenced by one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the securities. DTC is expected to serve as depositary. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual securities represented thereby, a global security may not be transferred, except as a whole, by the depositary for the global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by the depositary or any nominee of such depositary to a successor depositary or a nominee of such successor. Global securities may be issued in either registered or bearer form and in either temporary or permanent form. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to a class or series of securities that differ from the terms described herein will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we anticipate that the following provisions will apply to depositary arrangements.

Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary for the global security or its nominee will credit on its book-entry registration and transfer system the respective principal amounts of the individual securities represented by such global security to the accounts of persons that have accounts with such depositary, who are called “participants.” Such accounts shall be designated by the underwriters, dealers or agents with respect to the securities or by us if the securities are offered and sold directly by us. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to the depositary’s participants or persons that may hold interests through such participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in the global security will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by the applicable depositary or its nominee (with respect to beneficial interests of participants) and records of the participants (with respect to beneficial interests of persons who hold through participants). The laws of some states require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such limits and laws may impair the ability to own, pledge or transfer beneficial interests in a global security.

So long as the depositary for a global security or its nominee is the registered owner of such global security, such depositary or nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by such global security for all purposes under the applicable instrument defining the rights of a holder of the securities. Except as provided below or in the applicable prospectus supplement, owners of beneficial interest in a global security will not be entitled to have any of the individual securities of the class or series represented by such global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of any such securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable instrument defining the rights of the holders of the securities.

Payments of amounts payable with respect to individual securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security representing such securities. None of us, our officers and board members or any selling security holder, trustee, paying agent or security registrar for an individual series of securities will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security for such securities or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for a series of securities offered by means of this prospectus or its nominee, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest, dividend or other amount in respect of a permanent global security representing any of such securities, will immediately credit its participants’ accounts with

 

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payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the principal amount of such global security for such securities as shown on the records of such depositary or its nominee. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in such global security held through such participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Such payments will be the responsibility of such participants.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

General

The following is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our capital stock by U.S. Holders and Non-U.S. Holders, each as defined below. For purposes of this section under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations,” references to “TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.,” “we,” “our” and “us” mean only TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc. and not its subsidiaries or other lower-tier entities, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is based upon the Internal Revenue Code, the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Treasury Department, rulings and other administrative pronouncements issued by the IRS, and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect, and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. The following discussion takes into account H.R. 1, informally titled the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”). The TCJA makes major changes to the Internal Revenue Code, including several provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that may affect the taxation of REITs and their security holders. The most significant of these provisions are described below. The individual and collective impact of these changes on REITs and their security holders is uncertain, and may not become evident for some period. Investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the implications of the TCJA on their investment, including how the scheduled sunsetting of certain provisions of the TCJA may affect their investment. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. We have not sought and will not seek a ruling from the IRS regarding any matter discussed in this prospectus. The summary is also based upon the assumption that we will operate our company and its subsidiaries and affiliated entities in accordance with their applicable organizational documents or partnership agreements. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. It does not purport to discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be important to a particular investor in light of its investment or tax circumstances, or to investors subject to special tax rules, such as:

 

   

financial institutions or broker-dealers;

 

   

insurance companies;

 

   

persons who mark-to-market our capital stock;

 

   

subchapter S corporations;

 

   

U.S. Holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

   

regulated investment companies and REITs;

 

   

trusts and estates;

 

   

persons who hold our capital stock on behalf of other persons as nominees;

 

   

persons who receive our capital stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;

 

   

holders of our Class A common stock;

 

   

persons holding our capital stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;

 

   

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

   

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of their use of applicable financial statements (within the meaning of Section 451(b)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code);

 

   

persons holding our capital stock through a partnership or similar pass-through entity;

 

   

except to the extent discussed below, “qualified shareholders” as defined in Section 897(k)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code, which describes certain partnerships and other collective investment vehicles that satisfy various recordkeeping, administrative and other requirements; and

 

   

except to the extent discussed below, tax-exempt organizations and foreign investors.

 

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If a partnership, including for this purpose any entity or arrangement that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, holds our capital stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership and upon certain determinations made at the partner level. An investor that is a partnership and the partners in such partnership should consult their tax advisors about the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock.

This summary assumes that investors will hold their capital stock as a capital asset, which generally means as property held for investment.

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of our securities that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation, or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, a state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust (a) if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over its administration and one or more United States persons (as defined in Section 7701(a)(30) of the Internal Revenue Code) have authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (b) that has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations to be treated as a United States person.

The term “Non-U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of our capital stock (other than an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) that is not a U.S. Holder.

The U.S. federal income tax treatment of holders of our capital stock depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. In addition, the tax consequences to any particular holder of holding our capital stock will depend on the holder’s particular tax circumstances. For example, a holder that is a partnership or trust that has issued an equity interest to certain types of tax-exempt organizations may be subject to a special entity-level tax if we make distributions attributable to “excess inclusion income.” See “—Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.—Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income” below. A similar tax may be payable by persons who hold our capital stock as nominees on behalf of tax-exempt organizations.

The statements in this section are not intended to be, and should not be construed as, tax advice. The statements in this section and the opinion of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. referred to below are based on the Internal Revenue Code, current, temporary and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, the legislative history of the Internal Revenue Code, current administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS, and court decisions. The reference to IRS interpretations and practices includes the IRS practices and policies endorsed in private letter rulings, which are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the taxpayer that received the ruling. In each case, these sources are relied upon as they exist on the date of this discussion. Future legislation, U.S. Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations, and court decisions could change the current law or adversely affect existing interpretations of current law on which the information in this section is based. Any such change could apply retroactively. We have not received any rulings from the IRS concerning our qualification as a REIT. Accordingly, even if there is no change in applicable law, no assurance can be provided that statements made in this section, which do not bind the IRS or the courts, will not be challenged by the IRS or sustained by a court if so challenged. You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income and other tax consequences, including estate tax consequences, to you in light of your particular investment or tax circumstances of acquiring, holding, exchanging or otherwise disposing of our capital stock and our election to be taxed as REIT.

 

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Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.

We elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our initial taxable year ended December 31, 2014. We have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, and we believe that our current organization and intended manner of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT.

Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. has acted as our tax counsel in connection with the filing of this prospectus and our U.S. federal income tax status as a REIT. In connection with the filing of this prospectus, we will receive an opinion of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. to the effect that we qualified to be taxed as a REIT under the U.S. federal income tax laws for our taxable years ended December 31, 2014 through December 31, 2017, and our organization and current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to qualify as a REIT for our taxable years ending December 31, 2018 and thereafter. It must be emphasized that the opinion of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. will be based on various assumptions relating to our organization and operation, and will be conditioned upon fact-based representations and covenants made by our management regarding our organization, assets, and income, and the past, present and future conduct of our business operations. While we intend to operate so that we will qualify as a REIT, given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs, the ongoing importance of factual determinations, and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances, no assurance can be given by Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. or by us that we will qualify as a REIT for any particular year. The opinion will be expressed as of the date issued. Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. will have no obligation to advise us or our stockholders of any subsequent change in the matters stated, represented or assumed, or of any subsequent change in the applicable law. You should be aware that opinions of counsel are not binding on the IRS, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge the conclusions set forth in such opinions. Vinson & Elkins L.L.P.’s opinion does not foreclose the possibility that we may have to use one or more of the REIT savings provisions described below, which would require us to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be material) in order to maintain REIT qualification.

Qualification and taxation as a REIT depends on our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual operating results, distribution levels, and diversity of stock and asset ownership, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Internal Revenue Code, the compliance with which will not be monitored or reviewed on a continuing basis by Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. Our ability to qualify as a REIT also requires that we satisfy certain asset tests, some of which depend upon the fair market values of assets that we own directly or indirectly. Such values may not be susceptible to a precise determination. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any taxable year will satisfy such requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. For a discussion of the tax consequences of failure to qualify as a REIT, see “—Failure to Qualify.”

Taxation of REITs in General

As indicated above, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Internal Revenue Code. The material qualification requirements are summarized below under “—Requirements for Qualification—General.” While we intend to operate so that we qualify as a REIT, no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our qualification, or that we will be able to operate in accordance with the REIT requirements in the future. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

Provided that we qualify as a REIT, we will generally be entitled to a deduction for dividends that we pay and therefore will not be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” at the corporate and stockholder levels that generally results from investment in a corporation. In general, the income that we generate is taxed only at the stockholder level upon a distribution of dividends to our stockholders.

 

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Under current law, most U.S. Holders that are individuals, trusts or estates are taxed on corporate dividends at a maximum rate of 20% (the same as long-term capital gains), not including the 3.8% Medicare tax described below. With limited exceptions, however, dividends from us or from other entities that are taxed as REITs are generally not eligible for this rate. However, under the TCJA, ordinary REIT dividends constitute “qualified business income,” and thus a 20% deduction is available to individual taxpayers with respect to such dividends, resulting in a maximum U.S. federal income tax rate of 29.6%, not including the 3.8% Medicare tax. See “Taxation of Stockholders—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders—Distributions.”

Any net operating losses, foreign tax credits and other tax attributes generally do not pass through to our stockholders, subject to special rules for certain items such as the capital gains that we recognize. See “Taxation of Stockholders.”

If we qualify as a REIT, we will nonetheless be subject to U.S. federal tax in the following circumstances:

 

   

We will be taxed at regular corporate income tax rates on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.

 

   

For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, we may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” on our items of tax preference, including limitations on our use of any net operating loss deductions.

 

   

If we have net income from prohibited transactions, which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of inventory or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax. See “—Prohibited Transactions”, and “—Foreclosure Property”, below.

 

   

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property”, we may thereby avoid the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction), but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate (currently 21%, but 35% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018).

 

   

To the extent we derive “excess inclusion income” from an interest in certain mortgage loan securitization structures (i.e., from a taxable mortgage pool (a “TMP”)) or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit (a “REMIC”), we could be subject to corporate level U.S. federal income tax at a 21% rate (or for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, at a 35% rate) to the extent that such income is allocable to specified types of tax-exempt stockholders known as “disqualified organizations” that are not subject to unrelated business income tax. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a TMP through a taxable REIT subsidiary (a “TRS”), we will not be subject to this tax directly, but will indirectly bear such tax economically as the shareholder of such a TRS. See “—Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income” below.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because we satisfy other requirements, we will be subject to a 100% tax on an amount based on the magnitude of the failure, as adjusted to reflect the profit margin associated with our gross income.

 

   

If we violate the asset tests (other than certain de minimis violations) or other requirements applicable to REITs, as described below, and yet maintain our qualification as a REIT because there is reasonable cause for the failure and other applicable requirements are met, we may be subject to a penalty tax. In that case, the amount of the penalty tax will be at least $50,000 per failure, and, in the case of certain asset test failures, will be determined as the amount of net income generated by the assets in question multiplied by the highest corporate tax rate (currently 21%, but 35% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) if that amount exceeds $50,000 per failure.

 

   

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year, and (c) any

 

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undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we would be subject to a non-deductible 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (i) the amounts that we actually distributed, and (ii) the amounts we retained and upon which we paid income tax at the corporate level.

 

   

We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet recordkeeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s stockholders, as described below in “—Requirements for Qualification—General.”

 

   

A 100% tax may be imposed on some payments we receive (or on certain expenses deducted by any TRS, and, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, on income imputed to any TRS for services rendered to or on behalf of us), if arrangements among us and our TRSs do not reflect arm’s-length terms.

 

   

If we acquire appreciated assets from a corporation that is not a REIT (i.e., a corporation taxable under subchapter C of the Internal Revenue Code) in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of the assets in our hands is determined by reference to the adjusted tax basis of the assets in the hands of the subchapter C corporation, we may be subject to tax on such appreciation at the highest corporate income tax rate then applicable if we subsequently recognize gain on a disposition of any such assets during the five-year period following their acquisition from the subchapter C corporation.

 

   

The earnings of any subsidiaries that are subchapter C corporations, excluding any qualified REIT subsidiaries, but including any TRSs, are subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

In addition, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes, including payroll taxes and state, local, and foreign income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated. Moreover, as described further below, our TRSs will be subject to U.S. federal, state and local corporate income tax on their taxable income.

Requirements for Qualification—General

The Internal Revenue Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for the special Internal Revenue Code provisions applicable to REITs;

 

  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

 

  (5)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

in which, during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include specified tax-exempt entities);

 

  (7)

that meets other tests described below, including with respect to the nature of its income and assets and its required distributions;

 

  (8)

that elects to be a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS that must be met to elect and maintain REIT status; and

 

  (9)

that uses the calendar year as its taxable year for U.S. federal income tax purposes and complies with the recordkeeping requirements of the U.S. federal income tax laws.

 

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The Internal Revenue Code provides that conditions (1) through (4), (7), (8) and (9) must be met during the entire taxable year, and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Conditions (5) and (6) need not be met during a corporation’s initial tax year as a REIT (which, in our case, was 2014). In addition, our charter restricts the ownership and transfer of our stock which is intended to assist us in satisfying the stock ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above.

To monitor compliance with the stock ownership requirements, we generally are required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of our stock. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of our stock pursuant to which the record holders must disclose the actual owners of the stock (that is, the persons required to include our dividends in their gross income). We must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand as part of our records. We could be subject to monetary penalties if we fail to comply with these recordkeeping requirements. If you fail or refuse to comply with the demands, you will be required by U.S. Treasury Regulations to submit a statement with your tax return disclosing the actual ownership of our stock and other information.

The Internal Revenue Code provides relief from violations of the REIT gross income requirements, as described below under “—Income Tests,” in cases where a violation is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, and other requirements are met, including the payment of a penalty tax that is based upon the magnitude of the violation. In addition, certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code extend similar relief in the case of certain violations of the REIT asset requirements (see “—Asset Tests” below) and other REIT requirements, again provided that the violation is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and other conditions are met, including the payment of a penalty tax. If we fail to satisfy any of the various REIT requirements, there can be no assurance that these relief provisions would be available to enable us to maintain our qualification as a REIT, and, if such relief provisions are available, the amount of any resultant penalty tax could be substantial.

Effect of Subsidiary Entities

Affiliated REITs. We have formed, and may in the future form, or acquire equity in, entities which have elected to be taxed as REITs. Each of these entities must meet all of the REIT qualification tests discussed herein. Each of them also may be subject to tax on certain of its income as described above. Depending on the percentage of our ownership in any subsidiary REIT, we may make a protective TRS election with respect to such subsidiary REIT. If the IRS respects our protective TRS election with respect to such subsidiary REIT, the failure of such subsidiary REIT to qualify as a REIT would only cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT to the extent that the total value of interests in TRSs represent more than 20% of our assets. See “—Asset Tests” below.

Ownership of Partnership Interests. If we are a partner in an entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, U.S. Treasury Regulations provide that we are deemed to own our proportionate share of the partnership’s assets, and to earn our proportionate share of the partnership’s income, for purposes of the asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs. Our proportionate share of a partnership’s assets and income is based on our capital interest in the partnership (except that for purposes of the value prong of the 10% asset test, our proportionate share of the partnership’s assets is based on our proportionate interest in the equity and certain debt securities issued by the partnership). In addition, the assets and gross income of the partnership are deemed to retain the same character in our hands. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of any of our subsidiary partnerships will be treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the REIT requirements.

Disregarded Subsidiaries. If we own a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” that subsidiary is generally disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all of the subsidiary’s assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit, including for purposes of the gross income and asset tests applicable to REITs. A qualified REIT subsidiary is any corporation, other than a TRS (as described below) that is wholly-owned by a REIT, or

 

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by other disregarded subsidiaries, or by a combination of the two. Other non-corporate entities that are wholly-owned by us, including single member limited liability companies that have not elected to be taxed as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, are also generally disregarded as separate entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests. Disregarded subsidiaries, along with any partnerships in which we hold an equity interest, are sometimes referred to herein as “pass-through subsidiaries.”

In the event that a disregarded subsidiary of ours ceases to be wholly-owned—for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of ours—or is classified as a TRS, the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, the subsidiary would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income requirements applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the securities of another corporation unless it is a REIT, a TRS or a qualified REIT subsidiary. See “—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.”

Taxable Subsidiaries. In general, we may jointly elect with a subsidiary corporation, whether or not wholly-owned, to treat such subsidiary corporation as a TRS. We generally may not own more than 10% of the securities of a taxable corporation, as measured by voting power or value, unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a TRS. The separate existence of a TRS or other taxable corporation is not ignored for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, a TRS or other taxable corporation generally would be subject to corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow that we and our subsidiaries generate in the aggregate, and may reduce our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We are not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or other taxable subsidiary corporation or as receiving any income that the subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by a taxable subsidiary to us is an asset in our hands, and we treat the dividends paid to us from such taxable subsidiary, if any, as income. This treatment can affect our income and asset test calculations, as described below. Because we do not include the assets and income of TRSs or other taxable subsidiary corporations in determining our compliance with the REIT requirements, we may use such entities to undertake indirectly activities that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude us from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries. For example, we may use TRSs or other taxable subsidiary corporations to conduct activities that give rise to certain categories of income such as management fees or to conduct activities that, if conducted by us directly, could be treated in our hands as prohibited transactions.

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, deductions are disallowed for business interest expense (even if paid to third parties) in excess of the sum of a taxpayer’s business interest income and 30% of the adjusted taxable income of the business, which is its taxable income computed without regard to business interest income or expense, net operating losses or the pass-through income deduction (and for taxable years before 2022, excludes depreciation and amortization). Such limitations may also impact the amount of U.S. federal income tax paid by any of our TRSs. Accordingly, if we lend money to a TRS, the TRS may be unable to deduct all or a part of the interest paid on that loan, and the lack of an interest deduction could result in a material increase in the amount of tax paid by the TRS. Further, the TRS rules impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT, such as intercompany loans, or the REIT’s tenants that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We intend to scrutinize all of our transactions with our TRSs and to conduct such transactions on an arm’s-length basis; however, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in avoiding this excise tax.

We may hold assets in one or more TRSs, subject to the limitation that securities in TRSs may not represent more than 20% of our assets (25% for our 2017 and prior taxable years). In general, we intend that loans that we originate or purchase, and properties that we purchase or receive upon foreclosure, with an intention of promptly selling them that might expose us to a 100% tax on “prohibited transactions” will be originated or transferred to and sold by a TRS. The TRS through which any such sales are made may be treated as a dealer for U.S. federal

 

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income tax purposes. As a dealer, the TRS would in general mark all the loans and other applicable securities it holds on the last day of each taxable year to their market value, and would recognize ordinary income or loss on such loans and securities with respect to such taxable year as if they had been sold for that value on that day. In addition, the TRS may further elect to be subject to the mark-to-market regime described above in the event that the TRS is properly classified as a “trader” as opposed to a “dealer” for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Income Tests

In order to qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy two gross income requirements on an annual basis. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year, excluding gross income from sales of inventory or dealer property in “prohibited transactions” and certain hedging transactions, generally must be derived from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including interest income derived from mortgage loans secured by real property (including certain types of mortgage-backed securities), “rents from real property,” dividends received from other REITs, income and gain from foreclosure property, specified income from temporary investments, and gain from the sale of “real estate assets” (effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, excluding gain from the sale of a debt instrument issued by a “publicly offered REIT” (i.e., a REIT which is required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act) to the extent not secured by real property or an interest in real property) not held for sale to customers. Second, at least 95% of our gross income in each taxable year, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging transactions, must be derived from some combination of income that qualifies under the 75% gross income test described above, as well as other dividends, interest, and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, which need not have any relation to real property. Income and gain from certain hedging transactions will be excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. See “—Derivatives and Hedging Transactions.”

Interest income generally constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test (as described above) to the extent that the obligation upon which such interest is paid is secured by a mortgage on real property (and, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, a mortgage on an interest in real property). If we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and other property, and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date that we acquired or originated the mortgage loan, the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other collateral, and our income from the arrangement will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. Even if a loan is not secured by real property, or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, in the case of mortgage loans secured by both real property and personal property, if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all such property securing the loan, then the personal property securing the loan will be treated as real property for purposes of determining whether the mortgage loan is a qualifying asset for the 75% asset test and the related interest income qualifies for purposes of the 75% gross income test.

To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (a “shared appreciation provision”), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from the sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests provided that the property is not held as inventory or dealer property. To the extent that we derive interest income from a mortgage loan, or income from the rental of real property where all or a portion of the amount of interest or rental income payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales, and not the net income or profits, of the borrower or lessee. This limitation does not apply, however, where the borrower or lessee leases substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants or subtenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower or lessee, as the case may be, would qualify as rents from real property had we earned the income directly.

 

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We have invested in and will continue to invest in commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) that are either pass-through certificates or collateralized loan obligations as well as mortgage loans and mezzanine loans. We expect that the CMBS will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that substantially all interest income from our CMBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we will be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest on such mortgage loans will be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that such loans are secured by real property, as discussed above. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. If less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC regular interests are benefitted by interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that could produce some non-qualifying income for the holder of the REMIC regular interests. We expect that substantially all of our income from mortgage related securities will be qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.

See below under “—Asset Tests” for a discussion of the effect of our investment in CMBS on our qualification as a REIT.

We and our subsidiaries have invested and will continue to invest in mezzanine loans, which are loans secured by equity interests in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than by a direct mortgage of the real property. The IRS has issued Revenue Procedure 2003-65, which provides a safe harbor applicable to mezzanine loans. Under the Revenue Procedure, if a mezzanine loan meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, (1) the mezzanine loan will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the asset tests described below, and (2) interest derived from the mezzanine loan will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. We intend to structure any investments in mezzanine loans in a manner that complies with the various requirements applicable to our qualification as a REIT. To the extent that any of our mezzanine loans do not meet all of the requirements for reliance on the safe harbor set forth in the Revenue Procedure, however, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the tax treatment of these loans.

We may hold certain participation interests, including B Notes, in mortgage loans and mezzanine loans. Such interests in an underlying loan are created by virtue of a participation or similar agreement to which the originator of the loan is a party, along with one or more participants. The borrower on the underlying loan is typically not a party to the participation agreement. The performance of this investment depends upon the performance of the underlying loan, and if the underlying borrower defaults, the participant typically has no recourse against the originator of the loan. The originator often retains a senior position in the underlying loan, and grants junior participations which absorb losses first in the event of a default by the borrower. We believe that our participation interests will qualify as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests described below, and that the interest that we will derive from such investments will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% income test. The appropriate treatment of participation interests for U.S. federal income tax purposes is not entirely certain, however, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our treatment of our participation interests. In the event of a determination that such participation interests do not qualify as real estate assets, or that the income that we will derive from such participation interests does not qualify as mortgage interest for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests, we could be subject to a penalty tax, or could fail to qualify as a REIT. See “—Taxation of REITs in General,” “—Requirements for Qualification—General,” “—Asset Tests” and “—Failure to Qualify.”

We have invested and will continue to invest in construction loans, the interest from which will be qualifying income for purposes of the REIT income tests, provided that the loan value of the real property securing the construction loan is equal to or greater than the highest outstanding principal amount of the

 

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construction loan during any taxable year, and other requirements are met. For purposes of construction loans, the loan value of the real property is the fair market value of the land plus the reasonably estimated cost of the improvements or developments (other than personal property) that will secure the loan and that are to be constructed from the proceeds of the loan.

To the extent we own or acquire real property or an interest therein, rents received by us will qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income requirements described above only if several conditions are met. If rent is partly attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property, the portion of the rent that is attributable to the personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property” unless it constitutes 15% or less of the total rent received under the lease. In addition, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. Amounts received as rent, however, generally will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by reason of being based on fixed percentages of gross receipts or sales. Moreover, for rents received to qualify as “rents from real property,” we generally must not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to the tenants of such property, other than through an “independent contractor” from which we derive no revenue. We are permitted, however, to perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and which are not otherwise considered rendered to the occupant of the property. In addition, we may directly or indirectly provide non-customary services to tenants of our properties without disqualifying all of the rent from the property if the payments for such services do not exceed 1% of the total gross income from the property. For purposes of this test, we are deemed to have received income from such non-customary services in an amount at least 150% of the direct cost of providing the services. Moreover, we are generally permitted to provide services to tenants or others through a TRS without disqualifying the rental income received from tenants for purposes of the income tests. Also, rental income will qualify as rents from real property only to the extent that we do not directly or constructively hold a 10% or greater interest, as measured by vote or value, in the lessee’s equity.

We may directly or indirectly receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally are treated as dividend income to the extent of the current and accumulated earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions will generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any dividends that we receive from a REIT, however, will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.

Fees will generally be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if they are received in consideration for entering into agreements to make loans secured by real property and the fees are not determined by income and profits. Other fees generally will not be qualifying income for purposes of either gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS will not be included for purposes of the gross income tests.

Any income or gain that we or our pass-through subsidiaries derive from instruments that hedge certain risks, such as the risk of changes in interest rates, will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that specified requirements are met, including the requirements that the instrument is entered into during the ordinary course of our business, hedges risks associated with indebtedness issued by us or our pass-through subsidiary that is incurred to acquire or carry “real estate assets” (as described below under “—Asset Tests”), and is properly identified as a hedge along with the risk that it hedges within prescribed time periods. Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, if we have entered into a qualifying hedging transaction (an “Original Hedge”), and a portion of the hedged indebtedness is extinguished or the related property is disposed of and in connection with such extinguishment or disposition we enter into a new clearly identified hedging transaction that would counteract the Original Hedge transaction (a “Counteracting Hedge”), income from the Original Hedge and income from the Counteracting Hedge (including gain from the disposition of the Original Hedge and the Counteracting Hedge) will not be treated as gross income for purposes of the 95% and 75% gross income tests. Income and gain from all other hedging transactions will not be qualifying income for either the 95% or 75% gross income test. See “—Derivatives and Hedging Transactions.” In addition, certain foreign currency gains, if any will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests.

 

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Certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. “Real estate foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Real estate foreign exchange gain generally includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property and certain foreign currency gain attributable to certain “qualified business units” of a REIT. “Passive foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Passive foreign exchange gain generally includes real estate foreign exchange gain as described above and also includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations. Because passive foreign exchange gain includes real estate foreign exchange gain, real estate foreign exchange gain is excluded from gross income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests. These exclusions for real estate foreign exchange gain and passive foreign exchange gain do not apply to foreign currency gain derived from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities. Such gain is treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may still qualify as a REIT for such year if we are entitled to relief under applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. These relief provisions will be generally available if (1) our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and (2) following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income test for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test for such taxable year in accordance with U.S. Treasury Regulations yet to be issued. It is not possible to state whether we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions in all circumstances. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above under “—Taxation of REITs in General,” even where these relief provisions apply, the Internal Revenue Code imposes a tax based upon the amount by which we fail to satisfy the particular gross income test.

Asset Tests

At the close of each calendar quarter, we must also satisfy several tests relating to the nature of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by some combination of “real estate assets,” cash, cash items, U.S. government securities, and, under some circumstances, stock or debt instruments purchased with new capital. For this purpose, real estate assets include interests in real property, such as land, buildings, leasehold interests in real property, stock of other REITs, CMBS structured as grantor trusts or interests in REMICs and mortgage loans, and, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, personal property leased in connection with real property to the extent that rents attributable to such personal property are treated as “rents from real property,” and debt instruments issued by “publicly offered REITs”. Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% asset test are subject to the additional asset tests described below.

Second, the value of any one issuer’s securities that we own may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets. Third, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, as measured by either voting power or value. The 5% and 10% asset tests do not apply to securities of TRSs and qualified REIT subsidiaries, debt of “publicly offered REITs,” or securities that are “real estate assets”, and the value prong of the 10% asset test does not apply to “straight debt” having specified characteristics and to certain other securities described below. Solely for purposes of the 10% asset test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Internal Revenue Code. Fourth, the aggregate value of all securities of TRSs that we hold may not exceed 20% (25% for our 2017 and prior taxable years) of the value of our total assets. Fifth, no

 

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more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of the securities of TRSs and other non-TRS taxable subsidiaries and other assets that are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test. Sixth, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, no more than 25% of the value of our total assets may consist of debt instruments issued by “publicly offered REITs” to the extent such debt instruments are not secured by real property or interests in real property.

Notwithstanding the general rule, as noted above, that for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests, we are treated as owning our proportionate share of the underlying assets of a subsidiary partnership, if we hold indebtedness issued by a partnership, the indebtedness will be subject to, and may cause a violation of, the asset tests unless the indebtedness is a qualifying mortgage asset, or other conditions are met. Similarly, although stock of another REIT is a qualifying asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, any non-mortgage debt that is issued by another REIT may not so qualify (such debt, however, will not be treated as a “security” for purposes of the value prong of the 10% asset test, as explained below).

Certain securities will not cause a violation of the 10% asset test (by value) described above. Such securities include instruments that constitute “straight debt,” which includes, among other things, securities having certain contingency features. A security does not qualify as “straight debt” where a REIT (or a controlled TRS of the REIT) owns other securities of the same issuer which do not qualify as straight debt, unless the value of those other securities constitutes, in the aggregate, 1% or less of the total value of that issuer’s outstanding securities. In addition to straight debt, the Internal Revenue Code provides that certain other securities will not violate the 10% value test. Such securities include (a) any loan made to an individual or an estate, (b) certain rental agreements pursuant to which one or more payments are to be made in subsequent years (other than agreements between a REIT and certain persons related to the REIT under attribution rules), (c) any obligation to pay rents from real property, (d) securities issued by governmental entities that are not dependent in whole or in part on the profits of (or payments made by) a non-governmental entity, (e) any security (including debt securities) issued by another REIT, and (f) any debt instrument issued by a partnership if the partnership’s income is of a nature that it would satisfy the 75% gross income test described above under “—Income Tests.” In applying the 10% value test, a debt security issued by a partnership is not taken into account to the extent, if any, of the REIT’s proportionate interest in the equity and certain debt securities issued by that partnership.

We have invested in and will continue to invest in CMBS that are either pass-through certificates or collateralized loan obligations as well as mortgage loans and mezzanine loans. We expect that the CMBS will be treated either as interests in grantor trusts or as interests in REMICs for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the case of CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. Such mortgage loans will generally qualify as real estate assets to the extent that they are secured by real property. We expect that substantially all of our CMBS treated as interests in grantor trusts will qualify as real estate assets.

Any interests that we hold in a REMIC, including CMBS that are structured as interests in REMICs, will generally qualify as real estate assets, and income derived from REMIC interests will generally be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the REIT income tests described above. If less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest qualifies for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests. If we hold a “residual interest” in a REMIC or in a TMP, from which we derive “excess inclusion income,” we will be required to either distribute the excess inclusion income or pay tax on it (or a combination of the two), even though we may not receive the income in cash. To the extent that distributed excess inclusion income is allocable to a particular stockholder, the income (1) would not be allowed to be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the stockholder, (2) would be subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of most types of stockholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax, and (3) would result in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction pursuant to any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption to the extent allocable to foreign stockholders. Moreover, any excess inclusion income that we receive that is allocable to specified categories of tax-exempt

 

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investors which are not subject to unrelated business income tax, such as government entities, may be subject to corporate-level income tax in our hands, whether or not it is distributed. See “—Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income.”

To the extent that we hold mortgage participations or CMBS that do not represent REMIC interests, such assets may not qualify as real estate assets, and the income generated from them might not qualify for purposes of either or both of the REIT income requirements, depending upon the circumstances and the specific structure of the investment.

In addition, in certain cases, the modification of a debt instrument could result in the conversion of the instrument from a qualifying real estate asset to a wholly or partially non-qualifying asset that must be contributed to a TRS or disposed of in order for us to maintain our REIT status.

In addition, certain of our mezzanine loans may qualify for the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2003-65 pursuant to which certain loans secured by a first priority security interest in ownership interests in a partnership or limited liability company will be treated as qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% real estate asset test and the 10% vote or value test. See “—Income Tests.” We may make some mezzanine loans that do not qualify for that safe harbor and that do not qualify as “straight debt” securities or for one of the other exclusions from the definition of “securities” for purposes of the 10% asset test. We intend to make such investments in such a manner as not to fail the asset tests described above.

We may enter into secured revolving repurchase facilities under which we will nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any such agreements notwithstanding that we may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the secured revolving repurchase facility, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

We do not expect to obtain independent appraisals to support our conclusions as to the value of our total assets, or the value of any particular security or securities. Moreover, values of some assets, including instruments issued in securitization transactions, may not be susceptible to a precise determination, and values are subject to change in the future. Furthermore, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our interests in our subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers cause a violation of the REIT asset tests.

Certain relief provisions are available to allow REITs to satisfy the asset requirements, or to maintain REIT qualification notwithstanding certain violations of the asset and other requirements. One such provision allows a REIT which fails one or more of the asset test requirements to nevertheless maintain its REIT qualification if (1) the REIT provides the IRS with a description of each asset causing the failure, (2) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (3) the REIT pays a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 per failure, and (b) the product of the net income generated by the assets that caused the failure multiplied by the highest applicable corporate tax rate (currently 21%, but 35% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018), and (4) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or otherwise satisfies the relevant asset tests within that time frame. In the case of de minimis violations of the 10% and 5% asset tests, a REIT may maintain its qualification despite a violation of such requirements if (1) the value of the assets causing the violation does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the REIT’s total assets, and $10,000,000, and (2) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or the relevant tests are otherwise satisfied within that time frame.

If we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter, such a failure would not cause us to lose our REIT qualification if we (1) satisfied the asset tests at the close of the preceding calendar quarter and (2) the

 

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discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset requirements was not wholly or partly caused by an acquisition of non-qualifying assets, but instead arose from changes in the market value of our assets. If the condition described in (2) were not satisfied, we still could avoid disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose or by making use of relief provisions described above.

Annual Distribution Requirements

In order to qualify as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:

 

  (a)

the sum of

 

  (1)

90% of our “REIT taxable income,” computed without regard to our net capital gains and the deduction for dividends paid, and

 

  (2)

90% of our net income (after tax), if any, from foreclosure property (as described below), minus

 

  (b)

the sum of specified items of noncash income.

We generally must make these distributions in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if paid with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration. In the event that we are not a “publicly offered REIT,” in order for distributions to be counted as satisfying the annual distribution requirements for REITs, and to provide us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if the distribution is (1) pro rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class, and (2) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in our organizational documents. The preferential dividend rule does not apply to “publicly offered REITs.” Currently, we are a “publicly offered REIT.”

To the extent that we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to tax at ordinary corporate tax rates on the retained portion. We may elect to retain, rather than distribute, our net long-term capital gains and pay tax on such gains. In this case, we could elect for our stockholders to include their proportionate shares of such undistributed long-term capital gains in income, and to receive a corresponding credit for their share of the tax that we paid. Our stockholders would then increase their adjusted basis of their capital stock by the difference between (a) the amounts of capital gain dividends that we designated and that they include in their taxable income, minus (b) the tax that we paid on their behalf with respect to that income.

To the extent that in the future we may have available net operating losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. Any distributions made with respect to such tax years into which net operating losses have been carried forward from prior tax years will nevertheless be taxable as dividends to the extent of current earnings and profits for such tax year. See “—Taxation of Stockholders—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders—Distributions.”

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year, and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we would be subject to a non-deductible 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed, and (y) the amounts of income we retained and on which we paid corporate income tax. In making this calculation, the amount that a REIT is treated as having “actually distributed” during the current taxable year is both the amount distributed during the current year and the amount by which the distributions during the prior year exceeded its taxable income and capital gain for that prior year (the prior year calculation uses the same methodology so, in determining the amount of the distribution in the prior year, a REIT looks back to the year before and so forth).

 

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It is possible that, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash to meet the distribution requirements due to timing differences between our actual receipt of cash, including receipt of distributions from our subsidiaries and our inclusion of items in income for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This may be an issue, in particular, with respect to our investments in distressed or modified debt instruments. See “—Timing Differences Between Receipt of Cash and Recognition of Income.” Potential sources of non-cash taxable income include:

 

   

“residual interests” in REMICs or TMPs;

 

   

loans or CMBS held as assets that are issued or acquired at a discount and require the accrual of taxable economic interest in advance of receipt in cash; and

 

   

loans on which the borrower is permitted to defer cash payments of interest, and distressed loans on which we may be required to accrue taxable interest income even though the borrower is unable to make current servicing payments in cash.

In addition, under the TCJA, we generally will be required to include certain amounts in our taxable income no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. The application of this rule may require the accrual of income with respect to our debt instruments (including mortgage loans and mezzanine loans) or our CMBS, including original issue discount or market discount, earlier than would be the case under the general tax rules, although the precise application of this rule is unclear at this time. This rule generally will be effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 or, for debt instruments or mortgage-backed securities issued with original issue discount, for tax years beginning after December 31, 2018.

In the event that such timing differences occur, in order to meet the distribution requirements, it might be necessary for us to arrange for short-term, or possibly long-term, borrowings, or to pay dividends in the form of taxable stock dividends or in-kind distributions of property. Alternatively, we may declare a taxable dividend payable in cash or stock at the election of each stockholder, where the aggregate amount of cash to be distributed in such dividend may be subject to limitation. In such case, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the amount of the dividend paid in stock will be equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of stock.

We may satisfy the 90% distribution test with taxable distributions of our stock or debt securities. On August 11, 2017, the IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2017-45 authorizing elective cash/stock dividends to be made by “publicly offered REITs.” Pursuant to Revenue Procedure 2017-45, effective for distributions declared on or after August 11, 2017, the IRS will treat the distribution of stock pursuant to an elective cash/stock dividend as a distribution of property under Section 301 of the Internal Revenue Code (i.e., a dividend), as long as at least 20% of the total dividend is available in cash and certain other parameters detailed in the Revenue Procedure are satisfied. Although we have no current intention of paying dividends in our own stock, if in the future we choose to pay dividends in our own stock, our stockholders may be required to pay tax in excess of the cash that they receive.

The TCJA limits a taxpayer’s net interest expense deduction to 30% of the sum of adjusted taxable income, business interest, and certain other amounts. Adjusted taxable income does not include items of income or expense not allocable to a trade or business, business interest or expense, the new deduction for qualified business income, net operating losses (“NOLs”), and for years prior to 2022, deductions for depreciation, amortization, or depletion. For partnerships, the interest deduction limit is applied at the partnership level, subject to certain adjustments to the partners for unused deduction limitations at the partnership level. The TCJA allows a real property trade or business to elect out of this interest limit so long as it uses a 40-year recovery period for nonresidential real property, a 30-year recovery period for residential rental property, and a 20-year recovery period for related improvements. For this purpose, a real property trade or business is any real property development, redevelopment, construction, reconstruction, acquisition, conversion, rental, operating, management, leasing, or brokerage trade or business. As a mortgage REIT, we do not believe that our business constitutes a “real property trade or business” within the meaning of the TCJA. However, as a mortgage REIT, we do not believe we will be negatively impacted by the 30% limitation on the deductibility of interest imposed

 

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by the TCJA because interest expense may be fully deducted to the extent of interest income under the TCJA. Any TRSs that we own which have borrowed either from us or third parties, however, may be negatively impacted. Disallowed interest expense is carried forward indefinitely (subject to special rules for partnerships). The interest deduction limit applies beginning in 2018.

NOL provisions are also modified by the TCJA. The TCJA limits the NOL deduction to 80% of taxable income (before the deduction). It also generally eliminates NOL carrybacks for individuals and non-REIT corporations (NOL carrybacks did not apply to REITs under prior law), but allows indefinite NOL carryforwards. The new NOL rules apply to losses arising in taxable years beginning in 2018.

We may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirements for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year but treated as an additional distribution to our shareholders in the year such dividends are paid. In this case, we may be able to avoid losing REIT qualification or being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. We will be required to pay interest and a penalty based on the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to shareholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our shareholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

Timing Differences Between Receipt of Cash and Recognition of Income

Due to the nature of the assets in which we invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income in early periods that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

We may acquire debt instruments in the secondary market for less than their face amount. The discount at which such debt instruments are acquired may reflect doubts about their ultimate collectability rather than current market interest rates. The amount of such discount will nevertheless generally be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We will generally accrue market discount during the term of the debt instrument and report the accrued market discount as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made. Payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If that turned out not to be the case, and we eventually collected less on the debt instrument than the amount we paid for it plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, there would be a bad debt deduction available to us at that time. Nevertheless, our (and our stockholders’) ability to benefit from that bad debt deduction would depend on our having taxable income in that later taxable year. REITs may not carry back net operating losses, so this possible “income early, losses later” phenomenon could adversely affect us and our stockholders if it were persistent and in significant amounts.

Some of the CMBS or other debt instruments that we acquire may have been issued with original issue discount. In general, we will be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the debt instrument, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though smaller or no cash payments are received on such debt instrument. As in the case of the market discount discussed in the preceding paragraph, the constant yield in question will be determined and income will be accrued based on the assumption that all future payments due on the debt instrument in question will be made, with consequences similar to those described in the previous paragraph if all payments on the debt instrument are not made.

 

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In addition, we may acquire distressed debt investments that are subsequently modified by agreement with the borrower. If the amendments to the outstanding subordinate debt are “significant modifications” under the applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations, the modified debt may be considered to have been reissued to us in a debt-for-debt exchange with the borrower. In that event, we may be required to recognize taxable gain to the extent the principal amount of the modified debt exceeds our adjusted tax basis in the unmodified debt, even if the value of the debt or the payment expectations have not changed. Following such a taxable modification, we would hold the modified loan with a cost basis equal to its principal amount for U.S. federal tax purposes. To the extent that such modifications are made with respect to a debt instrument held by a TRS that is treated as a dealer or trader and that makes an election to use mark-to-market accounting, such TRS would be required at the end of each taxable year, including the taxable year in which any such modification were made, to mark the modified debt instrument to its fair market value as if the debt instrument were sold. In that case, the TRS could recognize a loss at the end of the taxable year in which the modifications were made to the extent that the fair market value of such debt instrument at such time was less than the instrument’s tax basis, or a gain to the extent that the fair market value of such debt instrument at such time was greater than the instrument’s tax basis.

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or CMBS acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinate CMBS or other debt instruments at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

In addition, under the TCJA, we generally will be required to include certain amounts in our taxable income no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. The application of this rule may require the accrual of income with respect to our debt instruments (including mortgage loans and mezzanine loans) or our CMBS, including original issue discount or market discount, earlier than would be the case under the general tax rules, although the precise application of this rule is unclear at this time. This rule generally will be effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 or, for debt instruments or mortgage-backed securities issued with original issue discount, for tax years beginning after December 31, 2018.

Finally, we may be required under the terms of indebtedness that we incur (including certain securitizations), to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

Due to each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and cash receipts or disbursements, there is a significant risk that we may have substantial taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to raise funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Prohibited Transactions

Net income that we derive from a prohibited transaction is subject to a 100% tax. The term “prohibited transaction” generally includes a sale or other disposition of property (other than foreclosure property, as discussed below) that is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business by us, or by a borrower that has issued a shared appreciation mortgage or similar debt instrument to us. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset that we own (or are treated as owning) will be treated as, or as having been, held for sale to customers, and that a sale of any such asset will not be treated as having been in the ordinary course of our business. Whether property is held “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends on the particular facts and circumstances. No assurance can be given that any property that we sell will not be treated as property held for sale to customers, or that we can comply with certain safe-harbor provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that would prevent such treatment. The 100% tax does not

 

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apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates. We intend to structure our activities to avoid transactions that are prohibited transactions.

Foreclosure Property

Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that we acquire as the result of having bid on the property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after a default (or upon imminent default) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by us and secured by the property, (2) for which we acquired the related loan or lease at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated, and (3) with respect to which we made a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. We generally will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate income tax rate (currently 21%, but 35% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that constitutes qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property. To the extent that we receive any income from foreclosure property that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, we intend to make an election to treat the related property as foreclosure property.

Foreign Investments

We and our subsidiaries may hold investments in and pay taxes to foreign countries. Taxes that we pay in foreign jurisdictions may not be passed through to, or used by, our stockholders as a foreign tax credit or otherwise. Our foreign investments might also generate foreign currency gains and losses. Foreign currency gains would generally be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests, as discussed above. See above under “—Income Tests.”

Derivatives and Hedging Transactions

We and our subsidiaries may enter into hedging transactions with respect to interest rate exposure on one or more of our assets or liabilities. Any such hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including the use of derivative instruments such as interest rate swap contracts, interest rate cap or floor contracts, futures or forward contracts, and options. Except to the extent provided by U.S. Treasury Regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we enter into (1) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as specified in U.S. Treasury Regulations before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, (2) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests (or any asset that produces such income) which is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, or (3) any transaction entered into to “offset” a transaction described in (1) or (2) if a portion of the hedged indebtedness is extinguished or the related property is disposed of, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT. We may conduct some or all of our hedging activities through a TRS or other corporate entity, the income from which may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, rather than by participating in the arrangements directly or through pass-through subsidiaries. No assurance can be given, however, that our hedging activities will not give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of either or both of the REIT gross income tests, or that our hedging activities will not adversely affect our ability to satisfy the REIT qualification requirements.

 

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Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income

An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a TMP under the Internal Revenue Code if

 

   

substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations,

 

   

more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates,

 

   

the entity has issued debt obligations (liabilities) that have two or more maturities, and

 

   

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations (liabilities) “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

Under the U.S. Treasury Regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP.

Our financing and securitization arrangements could give rise to TMPs, with the consequences described below.

Where an entity, or a portion of an entity, is classified as a TMP, it is generally treated as a taxable corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT, or a portion of a REIT, or a disregarded subsidiary of a REIT, that is a TMP, however, special rules apply. The TMP is not treated as a corporation that is subject to corporate income tax, and the TMP classification does not directly affect the tax status of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would, in general, except as described below, be limited to the stockholders of the REIT.

A portion of the REIT’s income from a TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” Under IRS guidance, the REIT’s excess inclusion income, including any excess inclusion income from a residual interest in a REMIC, must be allocated among its stockholders in proportion to dividends paid. The REIT is required to notify stockholders of the amount of “excess inclusion income” allocated to them. A stockholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

 

   

cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the stockholder,

 

   

is subject to tax as unrelated business taxable income in the hands of stockholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax, and

 

   

results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption to the extent allocable to foreign stockholders.

See “—Taxation of Stockholders.” Under IRS guidance, to the extent that excess inclusion income is allocated to a tax-exempt stockholder of a REIT that is not subject to unrelated business income tax (such as a government entity), the REIT may be subject to tax on this income at the highest applicable corporate tax rate (currently 21%, but 35% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018). In that case, the REIT could reduce distributions to such stockholders by the amount of such tax paid by the REIT attributable to such stockholder’s ownership. U.S. Treasury Regulations provide that such a reduction in distributions does not give rise to a preferential dividend that could adversely affect the REIT’s compliance with its distribution requirements. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make any such determinations using a reasonable method. However, there can be no assurance that the IRS would not challenge our method of making any such determinations. If the IRS were to disagree with any such determinations made or with the method used by us, the amount of any excess inclusion income required to be taken into account by one or more stockholders could be significantly increased. Tax-exempt investors, foreign investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors.

 

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If a subsidiary partnership of ours that we do not wholly-own, directly or through one or more disregarded entities, were a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and potentially would be subject to corporate income tax or withholding tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our status as a REIT.

Failure to Qualify

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification other than the income or asset tests, we could avoid disqualification if our failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure. Relief provisions are available for failures of the income tests and asset tests, as described above in “—Income Tests” and “—Asset Tests.”

If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions described above do not apply, we would be subject to U.S. federal income tax, including, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate income tax rates. We cannot deduct distributions to stockholders in any year in which we are not a REIT, nor would we be required to make distributions in such a year. In this situation, to the extent of current and accumulated earnings and profits, distributions to domestic stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates will generally be taxable at capital gains rates. In addition, subject to the limitations of the Internal Revenue Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends received deduction. Unless we are entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we lost qualification. It is not possible to state whether, in all circumstances, we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

Tax Aspects of Investments in Partnerships

General

We may hold investments through entities that are classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, partnerships are “pass-through” entities that are not subject to U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners are allocated their proportionate shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a partnership, and are potentially subject to tax on these items, without regard to whether the partners receive a distribution from the partnership. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, however, the tax liability for adjustments to a partnership’s tax returns made as a result of an audit by the IRS will be imposed on the partnership itself in certain circumstances absent an election to the contrary. See “—Partnership Audit Rules” below. We will include in our income our proportionate share of these partnership items for purposes of the various REIT income tests and in computation of our REIT taxable income. Moreover, for purposes of the REIT asset tests, we will include in our calculations our proportionate share of any assets held by partnerships. Our proportionate share of a partnership’s assets and income is based on our capital interest in the partnership (except that for purposes of the 10% value test, our proportionate share is based on our proportionate interest in the equity and certain debt securities issued by the partnership). See “Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.—Effect of Subsidiary Entities—Ownership of Partnership Interests.”

We may in the future acquire limited partner or non-managing member interests in partnerships and limited liability companies that are joint ventures. If a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest takes, or expects to take, actions that could jeopardize our qualification as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a REIT gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we are able to qualify for a statutory REIT “savings” provision, which may require us to pay a significant penalty tax to maintain our REIT qualification.

 

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It is unclear how distributions treated as “guaranteed payments” from a partnership received by a REIT with respect to a preferred equity investment should be treated for purposes of applying the REIT requirements. We will monitor any preferred equity investments that we make in subsidiary partnerships to ensure our REIT compliance.

Entity Classification

Any investment in partnerships involves special tax considerations, including the possibility of a challenge by the IRS of the status of any partnership as a partnership, as opposed to an association taxable as a corporation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If any of these entities were treated as an association for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would be taxable as a corporation and therefore could be subject to an entity-level tax on its income. In such a situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could preclude us from satisfying the REIT asset tests or the gross income tests as discussed in “Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.— Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests,” and in turn could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT, unless we are eligible for relief from the violation pursuant to relief provisions described above. See “Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.—Asset Tests,” “—Income Tests” and “—Failure to Qualify,” above, for discussion of the effect of failure to satisfy the REIT tests for a taxable year, and of the relief provisions. In addition, any change in the status of any subsidiary partnership for tax purposes might be treated as a taxable event, in which case we could have taxable income that is subject to the REIT distribution requirements without receiving any cash.

Tax Allocations with Respect to Partnership Properties

Under the Internal Revenue Code and the U.S. Treasury Regulations, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated for tax purposes so that the contributing partner is charged with, or benefits from, the unrealized gain or unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss is generally equal to the difference between the fair market value of the contributed property at the time of contribution, and the adjusted tax basis of such property at the time of contribution (a “book-tax difference”). Such allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

To the extent that any of our subsidiary partnerships acquires appreciated (or depreciated) properties by way of capital contributions from its partners, allocations would need to be made in a manner consistent with these requirements. Where a partner contributes cash to a partnership at a time that the partnership holds appreciated (or depreciated) property, the U.S. Treasury Regulations provide for a similar allocation of these items to the other (i.e., non-contributing) partners. These rules may apply to a contribution that we make to any subsidiary partnerships of the cash proceeds received in offerings of our stock. As a result, the partners of our subsidiary partnerships, including us, could be allocated greater or lesser amounts of depreciation and taxable income in respect of a partnership’s properties than would be the case if all of the partnership’s assets (including any contributed assets) had a tax basis equal to their fair market values at the time of any contributions to that partnership. This could cause us to recognize, over a period of time, taxable income in excess of cash flow from the partnership, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements discussed above.

Partnership Audit Rules

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. It is possible that they

 

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could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of those partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. The changes created by these new rules are sweeping and in many respects dependent on the promulgation of additional regulations or other guidance by the U.S. Treasury Department. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock.

Taxation of Stockholders

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders

Distributions. So long as we qualify as a REIT, the distributions that we make to our taxable U.S. Holders out of current or accumulated earnings and profits that we do not designate as capital gain dividends will generally be treated as dividends and taken into account by U.S. Holders as ordinary income and will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations. With limited exceptions, our dividends are not eligible for taxation at the preferential income tax rates (i.e., the 20% maximum U.S. federal rate) for qualified dividends received by U.S. Holders that are individuals, trusts and estates from taxable C corporations. Such U.S. Holders, however, are taxed at the preferential rates on dividends designated by and received from REITs to the extent that certain holding requirements are met and the dividends are attributable to:

 

   

income retained by the REIT in the prior taxable year on which the REIT was subject to corporate level income tax (less the amount of tax),

 

   

dividends received by the REIT from TRSs or other taxable C corporations, or

 

   

income in the prior taxable year from the sales of “built-in gain” property acquired by the REIT from C corporations in carryover basis transactions (less the amount of corporate tax on such income).

Under the TCJA, individuals, trusts, and estates generally may deduct 20% of the “qualified REIT dividends” (i.e., REIT dividends other than capital gain dividends and portions of REIT dividends designated as qualified dividend income, which in each case are already eligible for capital gain tax rates) they receive. The deduction for qualified REIT dividends is not subject to the wage and property basis limits that apply to other types of “qualified business income” under the TCJA. The 20% deduction for qualified REIT dividends results in a maximum 29.6% federal income tax rate on REIT dividends. As with the other individual income tax changes in the TCJA, the deduction provisions are effective beginning in 2018. Without further legislation, the deduction would sunset after 2025.

Dividends that we designate as capital gain dividends will generally be taxed to U.S. Holders as long-term capital gains, to the extent that such dividends do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year, without regard to the period for which the U.S. Holder that receives such dividend has held its stock. We may elect to retain and pay taxes on some or all of our net long-term capital gains, in which case provisions of the Internal Revenue Code will treat our U.S. Holders as having received, solely for tax purposes, our undistributed capital gains, and the U.S. Holders will receive a corresponding credit for taxes that we paid on such undistributed capital gains. See “Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.—Annual Distribution Requirements.” Effective for distributions in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, the aggregate amount of dividends that we may designate as “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividends” with respect to any taxable year may not exceed the dividends paid by us with respect to such year, including dividends that are paid in the following year and if made with or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration that are treated as paid with respect to such year. Corporate U.S. Holders may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. Long-term capital gains are generally taxable at maximum U.S. federal rates of 20% in the case of U.S. Holders that are individuals, trusts and estates, not including the 3.8% Medicare tax described below (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these

 

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gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at up to a 25% rate, not including the 3.8% Medicare tax) and 21% (or for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, 35%) in the case of U.S. Holders that are corporations.

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will generally represent a return of capital and will not be taxable to a U.S. Holder to the extent that the amount of such distributions does not exceed the adjusted basis of the U.S. Holder’s shares in respect of which the distributions were made. Rather, the distribution will reduce the adjusted basis of the U.S. Holder’s shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the adjusted basis of a U.S. Holder’s shares, the U.S. Holder generally must include such distributions in income as capital gain. In addition, any dividend that we declare in October, November or December of any year and that is payable to a stockholder of record on a specified date in any such month will be treated as both paid by us and received by the stockholder on December 31 of such year, provided that we actually pay the dividend before the end of January of the following calendar year.

To the extent that we have available net operating losses and capital losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.—Annual Distribution Requirements.” Such losses, however, are not passed through to U.S. Holders and do not offset income of U.S. Holders from other sources. In addition, any distributions made with respect to such tax years into which net operating losses have been carried forward from prior tax years will nevertheless be taxable as dividends to the extent that we have current earnings and profits.

In certain circumstances, we may make a taxable distribution of our stock as part of a distribution in which stockholders may elect to receive stock or (subject to a limit measured as a percentage of the total distribution) cash. In this circumstance, a U.S. Holder generally must include the sum of the value of our stock and the amount of cash received in its gross income as dividend income to the extent that such U.S. Holder’s share of the distribution is made out of its share of the portion of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such distribution. The value of any of our stock received as part of a distribution is generally equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of our stock. Depending on the circumstances of the U.S. Holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. Holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. A U.S. Holder that received our stock pursuant to a distribution generally has a tax basis in such stock equal to the amount of cash that would have been received instead of our stock as described above, and a holding period in such stock that begins on the day following the payment date for the distribution.

If excess inclusion income from a TMP or REMIC residual interest is allocated to any U.S. Holder, that income will be taxable in the hands of the U.S. Holder and would not be offset by any net operating losses of the U.S. Holder that would otherwise be available. See “Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.—Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income.” As required by IRS guidance, we intend to notify our stockholders if a portion of a dividend paid by us is attributable to excess inclusion income.

Conversion of Our Preferred Stock. Except as provided below, (i) a U.S. Holder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon the conversion of our preferred stock into our common stock, and (ii) a U.S. Holder’s basis and holding period in our common stock received upon conversion generally will be the same as those of the converted shares of preferred stock (but the basis will be reduced by the portion of adjusted tax basis allocated to any fractional share exchanged for cash). Any of our shares of common stock received in conversion that are attributable to accumulated and unpaid dividends on the converted shares of preferred stock will be treated as a distribution that is potentially taxable as a dividend. Cash received upon conversion in lieu of a fractional share generally will be treated as payment in exchange for such fractional share, and gain or loss will be recognized on the receipt of cash in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash received and the adjusted tax basis allocable to the fractional share deemed exchanged. This gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder has held its shares of preferred stock for more than one year at the time of

 

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conversion. U.S. Holders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such U.S. Holder exchanges our common stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.

Redemption of Our Preferred Stock. In general, a redemption of preferred stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Internal Revenue Code as a distribution that is taxable at ordinary income tax rates as a dividend (to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits), unless the redemption satisfies certain tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Internal Revenue Code enabling the redemption to be treated as a sale of the preferred stock (in which case the redemption will be treated in the same manner as a sale described in “—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock” below). The redemption will satisfy such tests and be treated as a sale of the preferred stock if the redemption:

 

   

is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. Holder’s interest in our capital stock;

 

   

results in a “complete termination” of the U.S. Holder’s interest in all classes of our capital stock; or

 

   

is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. Holder, all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Internal Revenue Code.

In determining whether any of these tests have been met, stock considered to be owned by the U.S. Holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Internal Revenue Code, as well as stock actually owned, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the three alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Internal Revenue Code described above will be satisfied with respect to any particular U.S. Holder of preferred stock depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, prospective investors are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

If a redemption of preferred stock does not meet any of the three tests described above, the redemption proceeds will be treated as a distribution, as described in “—Distributions” above. In that case, a U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed preferred stock will be transferred to such U.S. Holder’s remaining stock holdings in our company. If the U.S. Holder does not retain any of our capital stock, such basis could be transferred to a related person that holds our capital stock or it may be lost.

Under proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, if any portion of the amount received by a U.S. Holder on a redemption of any class of our preferred stock is treated as a distribution with respect to our stock but not as a taxable dividend, then such portion will be allocated to all shares of the redeemed class held by the redeemed holder just before the redemption on a pro-rata, share-by-share, basis. The amount applied to each share will first reduce the redeemed holder’s basis in that share and any excess after the basis is reduced to zero will result in taxable gain. If the redeemed holder has different bases in its shares, then the amount allocated could reduce some of the basis in certain shares while reducing all the basis and giving rise to taxable gain in others. Thus the redeemed holder could have gain even if such holder’s basis in all its shares of the redeemed class exceeded such portion.

The proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations permit the transfer of basis in the redeemed preferred stock to the redeemed holder’s remaining, unredeemed shares of preferred stock of the same class (if any), but not to any other class of stock held (directly or indirectly) by the redeemed holder. Instead, any unrecovered basis in the redeemed shares of preferred stock would be treated as a deferred loss to be recognized when certain conditions are satisfied. The proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations would be effective for transactions that occur after the date the regulations are published as final U.S. Treasury Regulations. There can, however, be no assurance as to whether, when and in what particular form such proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations will ultimately be finalized

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock. In general, capital gains recognized by U.S. Holders that are individuals, trusts and estates upon the sale or disposition of our capital stock will be subject to a maximum U.S. federal

 

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income tax rate of 20%, not including the 3.8% Medicare tax described below, if the capital stock is held for more than one year, and will be taxed at substantially higher ordinary income rates of up to 37% (or, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, 39.6%), not including such Medicare tax, if the capital stock is held for one year or less. Gains recognized by U.S. Holders that are corporations are subject to U.S. federal income tax at a maximum rate of 21% (or for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, 35%), whether or not such gains are classified as long-term capital gains. Capital losses recognized by a U.S. Holder upon the disposition of our capital stock that was held for more than one year at the time of disposition will be considered long-term capital losses, and are generally available only to offset capital gain income of the U.S. Holder but not ordinary income (except in the case of individuals, trusts and estates who may offset up to $3,000 of ordinary income each year). In addition, any loss upon a sale or exchange of shares of our capital stock by a U.S. Holder who has held the shares for six months or less, after applying holding period rules, will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of distributions that we make that are required to be treated by the U.S. Holder as long-term capital gain.

If an investor recognizes a loss upon a subsequent disposition of our capital stock or other securities in an amount that exceeds a prescribed threshold, it is possible that the provisions of U.S. Treasury Regulations involving “reportable transactions” could apply, with a resulting requirement to separately disclose the loss-generating transaction to the IRS. These regulations, though directed towards “tax shelters,” are broadly written, and apply to transactions that would not typically be considered tax shelters. The Internal Revenue Code imposes significant penalties for failure to comply with these requirements. You should consult your tax advisors concerning any possible disclosure obligation with respect to the receipt or disposition of our capital stock or securities, or transactions that we might undertake directly or indirectly. Moreover, you should be aware that we and other participants in the transactions in which we are involved (including their advisors) might be subject to disclosure or other requirements pursuant to these regulations.

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income. A U.S. Holder that is an individual or estate, or a trust that does not fall into a special class of trusts that is exempt from such tax, will be subject to a 3.8% tax on the lesser of (1) the U.S. Holder’s “net investment income” for the relevant taxable year and (2) the excess of the U.S. Holder’s modified adjusted gross income for the taxable year over a certain threshold (which in the case of individuals will be between $125,000 and $250,000 depending on the individual’s circumstances). Net investment income generally includes dividends, and net gains from the disposition of stock, unless such income or gains are derived in the ordinary course of the conduct of a trade or business (other than a trade or business that consists of certain passive or trading activities). A U.S. Holder that is an individual, estate or trust should consult its tax advisor regarding the applicability of the Medicare tax to its income and gains in respect of its investment in our capital stock.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding. A U.S. Holder may be subject to information reporting and/or backup withholding with respect to distributions on our shares, and depending on the circumstances, the proceeds of a sale or other taxable disposition of our shares. Under the backup withholding rules, you may be subject to backup withholding at a current rate of 24% with respect to distributions unless you (a) are a corporation or come within certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrate this fact; or (b) provide a taxpayer identification number, certify as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding, and otherwise comply with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount withheld under these rules will be refunded or credited against your U.S. federal income tax liability, provided that you timely furnish the IRS with certain required information.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders

The following discussion is a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of our capital stock applicable to Non-U.S. Holders. This discussion is based on current law, and is for general information only. It addresses only selected, and not all, aspects of U.S. federal income taxation.

In General. For most foreign investors, investment in a REIT that invests principally in mortgage loans (including CMBS) is not the most tax-efficient way to invest in such assets. That is because receiving

 

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distributions of income derived from such assets in the form of REIT dividends subjects most foreign investors to withholding taxes that direct investment in those asset classes, and the direct receipt of interest and principal payments with respect to them, generally would not. The principal exceptions are foreign sovereigns and their agencies and instrumentalities, which may be exempt from withholding taxes on REIT dividends under the Internal Revenue Code, and certain foreign pension funds or similar entities able to claim an exemption from withholding taxes on REIT dividends under the terms of a bilateral tax treaty between their country of residence and the United States.

Ordinary Dividends. The portion of dividends received by Non-U.S. Holders that is (1) payable out of our earnings and profits, (2) not attributable to our capital gains (other than capital gain dividends to the extent that such capital gain dividends are attributable to gain from the sale of U.S. real property interests (“USRPIs”) as defined under FIRPTA but treated as ordinary dividends (as discussed below)) and (3) not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. Holder, will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless reduced or eliminated by treaty. Reduced treaty rates and other exemptions are not available to the extent that income is attributable to excess inclusion income allocable to the foreign stockholder. Accordingly, we will withhold at a rate of 30% on any portion of a dividend that is paid to a Non-U.S. Holder and attributable to that holder’s share of our excess inclusion income. See “Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.—Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income.” As required by IRS guidance, we intend to notify our stockholders if a portion of a dividend paid by us is attributable to excess inclusion income.

In general, Non-U.S. Holders will not be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business solely as a result of their ownership of our capital stock. In cases where the dividend income from a Non-U.S. Holder’s investment in our capital stock is, or is treated as, effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the Non-U.S. Holder generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. Holders are taxed with respect to such dividends. Such income must generally be reported on a U.S. income tax return filed by or on behalf of the Non-U.S. Holder. The income may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax in the case of a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation.

We expect to withhold (and any other applicable withholding agent, such as your broker, may withhold) U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a Non-U.S. Holder unless:

 

   

a lower treaty rate applies and the Non-U.S. Holder provides an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or applicable successor form) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate;

 

   

the Non-U.S. Holder provides an IRS Form W-8ECI claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s trade or business; or

 

   

the distribution is treated as attributable to a sale of a USRPI under FIRPTA (which is, absent an exception, subject to withholding as discussed below).

Non-Dividend Distributions. Unless our capital stock constitutes a USRPI, which we do not currently anticipate, distributions that we make that are not dividends, that is, are not paid out of our earnings and profits, and are not attributable to gains from dispositions of USRPIs that we hold directly or through pass-through subsidiaries, will not be subject to U.S. income tax. A Non-U.S. Holder may seek a refund from the IRS of any amounts withheld if it subsequently is determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. For withholding purposes, because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we expect to treat (and any other applicable withholding agent, such as your broker, may treat) all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits and therefore may withhold at the applicable rate on the entire distribution.

If, contrary to our expectations, our capital stock constitutes a USRPI, as described below, distributions that we make in excess of the sum of (a) the stockholder’s proportionate share of our earnings and profits, and (b) the

 

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stockholder’s basis in its capital stock, will be taxed under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”), at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital gains rates, that would apply to a domestic stockholder of the same type (e.g., an individual or a corporation, as the case may be), and the collection of the tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding tax at a rate of 15% of the amount by which the distribution exceeds the stockholder’s share of our earnings and profits.

Capital Gain Dividends. Under FIRPTA, a distribution that we make to a Non-U.S. Holder, to the extent attributable to gains from dispositions of USRPIs that we held directly or through pass-through subsidiaries, or USRPI capital gains, will, except with respect to the significant exception described below for 10% (or less) stockholders, be considered effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the Non-U.S. Holder and will be subject to U.S. income tax at the rates applicable to U.S. individuals or corporations, without regard to whether we designate the distribution as a capital gain dividend. See above under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders—Ordinary Dividends,” for a discussion of the consequences of income that is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. In addition, we generally will be required to withhold tax equal to 21% (or for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, 35%) of any distribution to a Non-U.S. Holder to the extent attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. The amount withheld would be creditable against the Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. tax liability. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30% in the hands of a Non-U.S. Holder that is a corporation. A distribution is not a USRPI capital gain if we held an interest in the underlying asset solely as a creditor. Dividends received by a Non-U.S. Holder that we properly designate as capital gains dividends and are attributable to dispositions of our assets other than USRPIs are not subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax, unless (1) the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder would be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, or (2) the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the Non-U.S. Holder will incur a 30% tax on his or her capital gains.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, a distribution that would otherwise have been treated as a USRPI capital gain will not be so treated or be subject to FIRPTA, and generally will not be subject to the 21% withholding tax described above, and instead will be treated in the same manner as an ordinary dividend (see “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders—Ordinary Dividends”) if (1)(A) the capital gain dividend is received with respect to a class of stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States, within the meaning of applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations, and (1)(B) the recipient Non-U.S. Holder does not own more than 10% of that class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date on which the capital gain dividend is received, or (2) the Non-U.S. Holder was treated as a “qualified shareholder” or “qualified foreign pension fund,” as discussed below. We believe that our common stock is currently “regularly traded” on an established securities exchange.

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock. Unless our capital stock constitutes a USRPI, a sale of our capital stock by a Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. taxation under FIRPTA. Our capital stock will not be treated as a USRPI if less than 50% of our assets throughout a prescribed testing period consist of interests in real property located within the United States, excluding, for this purpose, interests in real property solely in a capacity as a creditor. It is not currently anticipated that our capital stock will constitute a USRPI. However, we cannot assure you that our capital stock will not become a USRPI.

Even if our capital stock constitutes a USRPI, if the applicable class of our capital stock is regularly traded on an established securities market, within the meaning of applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations, a Non-U.S. Holder’s sale of such capital stock would not be subject to tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI, provided that the selling Non-U.S. Holder held 10% or less of the applicable class of our capital stock (taking into account applicable constructive ownership rules) at all times during the five-year period ending on the date of the sale. We believe that our common stock is “regularly traded” on an established securities market.

There is also an exemption from FIRPTA taxation for sales of stock in “domestically controlled qualified investment entities” including REITs. A domestically controlled qualified investment entity includes a REIT in

 

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which, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by Non-U.S. Holders. We cannot assure you that we are or will be a domestically controlled qualified investment entity. However, as noted above, we do not anticipate that our capital stock will be a USRPI. Consequently, gain on the sale of our shares of capital stock should not be subject to taxation under FIRPTA, even if we are not a domestically controlled qualified investment entity.

If gain on the sale of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the Non-U.S. Holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. Holder with respect to such gain, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of non-resident alien individuals, and, if the applicable class of our capital stock were not regularly traded on an established securities market, within the meaning of applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations, the purchaser of the capital stock could be required to withhold 15% of the purchase price and remit such amount to the IRS.

Gain from the sale of our capital stock that would not otherwise be subject to FIRPTA will nonetheless be taxable in the United States to a Non-U.S. Holder in two cases: (1) if the Non-U.S. Holder’s investment in our capital stock is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by such Non-U.S. Holder, the Non-U.S. Holder will be subject to the same treatment as a U.S. Holder with respect to such gain, or (2) if the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gain.

Qualified Foreign Pension Funds. Any distribution to a “qualified foreign pension fund” (or an entity all of the interests of which are held by a “qualified foreign pension fund”) who holds our capital stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. tax as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA (but distributions attributable to our earnings and profits and not designated as capital gain dividends would remain subject to 30% (or lower applicable bilateral tax treaty rate or exemption) U.S. dividend withholding tax. In addition, a sale of our capital stock by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA.

A qualified foreign pension fund is any trust, corporation or other organization or arrangement: (i) which is created or organized under the law of a country other than the United States; (ii) which is established to provide retirement or pension benefits to participants or beneficiaries that are current or former employees (or persons designated by such employees) of one or more employers in consideration for services rendered; (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary with a right to more than 5% of its assets or income; (iv) which is subject to government regulation and provides annual information reporting about its beneficiaries to the relevant tax authorities in the country in which it is established or operates; and (v) with respect to which, under the laws of the country in which it is established or operates, (A) contributions to such organization or arrangement that would otherwise be subject to tax under such laws are deductible or excluded from the gross income of such entity or taxed at a reduced rate or (B) taxation of any investment income of such organization or arrangement is deferred or such income is taxed at a reduced rate.

Conversion of Our Preferred Stock. So long our preferred stock does not constitute a USRPI under FIRPTA, the tax consequences to a Non-U.S. Holder of the conversion of our preferred stock into common stock will generally be the same as those described above for a U.S. Holder. The conversion of our preferred stock into our common stock may be a taxable exchange for a Non-U.S. Holder if our preferred stock constitutes a USRPI. However, even if our preferred stock does constitute a USRPI, provided our common stock also constitutes a USRPI, a Non-U.S. Holder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon a conversion of our preferred stock into our common stock so long as certain FIRPTA-related reporting requirements are satisfied. If our preferred stock does constitute a USRPI and such requirements are not satisfied, however, a conversion will be treated as a taxable exchange of our preferred stock for our common stock. Such a deemed taxable exchange will be subject

 

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to tax under FIRPTA at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital gains rates, that would apply to a U.S. Holder of the same type (e.g., an individual or a corporation, as the case may be) on the excess, if any, of the fair market value of such Non-U.S. Holder’s common stock received over such Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted basis in its preferred stock. Collection of such tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding tax at a rate of 15% of the value of the common stock. It is not currently anticipated that our capital stock will constitute a USRPI. However, we cannot assure you that our capital stock will not become a USRPI. Non-U.S. Holders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such holder exchanges shares received on a conversion of our preferred stock for cash or other property.

Redemption of Our Preferred Stock. For a discussion of the treatment of a redemption of our preferred stock, see “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders—Redemption of Our Preferred Stock.” Similar treatment will apply to Non-U.S. Holders, subject to the discussion in “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders—Ordinary Dividends” and “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding. Generally, information returns will be filed with the IRS in connection with distributions on our capital stock and, depending on the circumstances, the proceeds from a sale or other taxable disposition of our capital stock. Copies of applicable information returns reporting such payments and any withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities in the Non-U.S. Holder’s country in which you reside under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement.

Payments of dividends or of proceeds from the disposition of shares made to a Non-U.S. Holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless such holder establishes an exemption, for example, by properly certifying its non-U.S. status on an IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E or another appropriate version of IRS Form W-8 or other applicable or successor form. Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding and information reporting may apply if either we have or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that a Non-U.S. Holder is a U.S. person.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amount withheld under these rules will be refunded or credited against your U.S. federal income tax liability, provided that you timely furnish the IRS with certain required information.

FATCA. Legislation enacted in 2010 (commonly known as FATCA) and existing guidance issued thereunder will generally impose a 30% withholding tax on dividends in respect of, and, after December 31, 2018, gross proceeds from a disposition of our capital stock held by or through (1) a foreign financial institution (as that term is defined in Section 1471(d)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code) unless that foreign financial institution enters into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury Department to collect and disclose information regarding U.S. account holders of that foreign financial institution (including certain account holders that are foreign entities that have U.S. owners) and satisfies other requirements, and (2) specified other non-U.S. entities unless such an entity provides the payor with a certification identifying the direct and indirect U.S. owners of the entity and complies with other requirements. Accordingly, the entity through which our capital stock is held will affect the determination of whether withholding is required. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country, or future U.S. Treasury Regulations or other guidance, may modify these requirements. We will not pay any additional amounts to shareholders in respect of any amounts withheld. You are encouraged to consult with your tax advisor regarding the possible implications of this legislation on your capital stock.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders

Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from U.S. federal income taxation. Such entities, however, may be subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). While some investments in real estate may generate UBTI, the IRS has ruled that dividend distributions from a REIT to a tax-exempt entity generally

 

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do not constitute UBTI. Based on that ruling, and provided that (1) a tax-exempt stockholder has not held our capital stock as “debt financed property” within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code (i.e., where the acquisition or holding of the property is financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt stockholder), and (2) our capital stock is not otherwise used in an unrelated trade or business, distributions that we make and income from the sale of our capital stock generally should not give rise to UBTI to a tax-exempt stockholder.

To the extent that we are (or a part of us, or a disregarded subsidiary of ours is) a TMP, or if we hold residual interests in a REMIC, a portion of the dividends paid to a tax-exempt stockholder that is allocable to excess inclusion income may be treated as UBTI. If, however, excess inclusion income is allocable to some categories of tax-exempt stockholders that are not subject to UBTI, we might be subject to corporate level tax on such income, and, in that case, may reduce the amount of distributions to those stockholders whose ownership gave rise to the tax. See “Taxation of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.—Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income.” As required by IRS guidance, we intend to notify our stockholders if a portion of a dividend paid by us is attributable to excess inclusion income.

Tax-exempt stockholders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, and qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) and (c)(20) of the Internal Revenue Code are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally require such stockholders to characterize distributions that we make as UBTI.

In certain circumstances, a pension trust that owns more than 10% of our capital stock could be required to treat a percentage of the dividends as UBTI, if we are a “pension-held REIT.” We will not be a pension-held REIT unless (1) we are required to “look through” one or more of our pension trust stockholders in order to satisfy the REIT closely held test and (2) either (i) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our capital stock, or (ii) one or more pension trusts, each individually holding more than 10% of the value of our capital stock, collectively own more than 50% of the value of our capital stock. Certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock generally should prevent a tax-exempt entity from owning more than 10% of the value of our capital stock, and generally should prevent us from becoming a pension-held REIT.

Tax-exempt stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income and other tax consequences of owning our capital stock.

Other Tax Considerations

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

Several REIT rules were amended under the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, which we refer to as the PATH Act, which was enacted on December 18, 2015. These rules were enacted with varying effective dates, some of which are retroactive. Investors should consult with their tax advisors regarding the effect of the PATH Act in their particular circumstances.

Further, the recently enacted TCJA makes significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations. The top corporate income tax rate has been reduced to 21%. In the case of individuals, the tax brackets have been adjusted, the top U.S. federal income tax rate has been reduced to 37%, special rules reduce taxation of certain income earned through pass-through entities and reduce the top effective rate applicable to ordinary dividends from REITs to 29.6% (through a 20% deduction for ordinary REIT dividends received) and various deductions have been eliminated or limited. The TCJA generally requires us to include certain amounts in our taxable income no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. The application of this rule may require the accrual of income with respect to our debt instruments, including original issue discount or market discount, earlier than would be the case under the general tax rules, although the precise application of this rule is unclear at this time. This rule generally will be effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 or, for debt instruments issued with original issue

 

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discount, for tax years beginning after December 31, 2018. To the extent that this rule requires the accrual of income earlier than under the general tax rules, it could increase our “phantom income,” which may make it more likely that we could be required to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. Most of the TCJA changes applicable to individuals are temporary and apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. There are only minor changes to the REIT rules (other than the 20% deduction applicable to individuals for ordinary REIT dividends received). The TCJA makes numerous other large and small changes to the tax rules that do not affect REITs directly but may affect our stockholders and may indirectly affect us.

The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time, which could affect the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in us. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. Changes to the U.S. federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could adversely affect an investment in our capital stock. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect our stockholders or us. New legislation, U.S. Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could significantly and negatively affect our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences to our stockholders and us of such qualification, or could have other adverse consequences, including with respect to ownership of our securities. For example, lower revised tax rates for corporations, or for individuals, trusts and estates, might cause current or potential stockholders to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than is the case under current law. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the status of legislative, regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on an investment in our securities.

State, Local and Foreign Taxes

We and our subsidiaries and stockholders may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various jurisdictions, including those in which we or they transact business, own property or reside. Our state, local or foreign tax treatment and that of our stockholders may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax treatment discussed above. We may pay foreign taxes, and any foreign taxes that we incur will not pass through to stockholders as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the application and effect of state, local and foreign income and other tax laws on an investment in our securities.

SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS

Information about selling security holders and the terms of the securities offered for resale, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment, or in filings we make with the SEC that are incorporated into this prospectus by reference. Selling security holders may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they resell, and any profits on the resale may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. The selling security holders will receive all the proceeds from the resale of our securities. We will not receive any proceeds from resales by selling security holders.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. In addition, the description of U.S. federal income tax consequences contained in the section of the prospectus entitled “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” is based on the opinion Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. Certain matters of Maryland law will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP. If the validity of any securities is also passed upon by counsel for the underwriters, dealers or agents of an offering of those securities, that counsel will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for the years then ended, and the related consolidated financial statement schedules, incorporated in this prospectus by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements, and the related consolidated financial statement schedules, have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

The financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2015 incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy any materials we have filed with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the Public Reference Room. The SEC also maintains a web site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information concerning issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us. Our common stock is listed and traded on the NYSE. We also maintain an internet site at www.tpgrefinance.com that contains information concerning us. The information contained or referred to on our website is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus and is not a part of this prospectus.

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act to register the securities being offered in this prospectus. This prospectus, which constitutes part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement or the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. For further information regarding us and our securities, please refer to the registration statement and the documents filed or incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement. You may obtain the registration statement and its exhibits from the SEC as indicated above or from us. Statements contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement as to the contents of any contract or other document that is filed or incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete and we refer you to the full text of the contract or other document filed or incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement.

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those filed documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information.

The following documents, which have been filed with the SEC (File No. 001-38156), are incorporated herein by reference:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, filed on February 26, 2018;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2018 and June 30, 2018, filed on May 7, 2018 and August 6, 2018, respectively;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 20, 2018, May 24, 2018 and June 21, 2018;

 

   

our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on April 11, 2018 (solely to the extent incorporated by reference into Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017); and

 

   

the description of our common stock in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on July 18, 2017, including all other amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

All documents subsequently filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus and a part hereof from the date of filing of those documents. Notwithstanding the foregoing, information furnished under Items 2.02 and 7.01 of our Current Reports on Form 8-K, including the related exhibits, is not incorporated by reference in this registration statement. Any statement contained in any document incorporated by reference shall be deemed to be amended, modified or superseded for the purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus

 

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supplement or a later document that is or is considered to be incorporated by reference herein amends, modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statements so amended, modified or superseded shall not be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus, except as so amended, modified or superseded.

We will provide without charge to each person to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request of such person, a copy of any or all of the documents referred to above which have been or may be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Requests for such documents should be directed to:

TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.

888 Seventh Avenue, 35th Floor

New York, New York 10106

Attention: Investor Relations

Telephone: (212) 601-4700

Email: [email protected]

 

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

Set forth below are the fees and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, to be incurred by us in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All amounts set forth below are estimated.

 

SEC Registration Fee

   $          

Legal Fees and Expenses

              ** 

Printing and Engraving Expenses

     ** 

Trustees’, Registrars and Transfer Agents’, and Depositories’ Fees and Expenses

     ** 

Accounting Fees and Expenses

     ** 

Miscellaneous

     ** 
  

 

 

 

Total

   $   ** 
  

 

 

 

 

*

Pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of the registration fee relating to the securities that are registered and available for sale under this registration statement.

**

These fees and expenses are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time. An estimate of the aggregate amount of these fees and expenses will be reflected in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (1) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (2) active and deliberate dishonesty that was established by a final judgment and was material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to or in which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party or witness by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was (1) committed in bad faith or (2) the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to the corporation, or in a suit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to

 

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indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, such indemnification is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

   

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

   

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter and bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

   

any individual who is a present or former director or officer of our company and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

   

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, trustee, member, manager or partner of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

We have entered into customary indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers obligating us to indemnify them to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits.

The Exhibit Index appearing immediately before the signature pages below is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings.

 

  (a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which,

 

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  individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

Provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

If the registrant is relying on Rule 430B,

 

  (A)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (B)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however , that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or

 

  (ii)

If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying

 

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  on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (b)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to existing provisions or arrangements whereby the registrant may indemnify a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant against liabilities arising under the Securities Act, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than for the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

  (d)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Exhibit Index

 

Exhibit
Number

 

Exhibit Description

  1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement
  3.1   Articles of Amendment and Restatement of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (001-38156) filed on July 25, 2017)
  3.2   Amended and Restated Bylaws of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit  3.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (001-38156) filed on July 25, 2017)
  3.3*   Articles Supplementary designating a new series of Preferred Stock of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.
  4.1   Specimen Common Stock Certificate of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-11/A (333-217446) filed on June 21, 2017)
  4.2   Indenture, dated as of February  14, 2018, by and among TPG Real Estate Finance 2018-FL1 Issuer, Ltd., TPG RE Finance Trust 2018-FL1 Co-Issuer, LLC, TPG RE Finance Trust CLO Loan Seller, LLC, Wilmington Trust, National Association and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K (001-38156) filed on February 20, 2018)
  4.3*   Specimen Certificate for a new series of Preferred Stock of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.
  4.4**   Form of Senior Indenture
  4.5*   Form of Note issued under the Senior Indenture
  4.6**   Form of Subordinated Indenture
  4.7*   Form of Note issued under the Subordinated Indenture
  4.8*   Warrant Agreement and Specimen Warrant Certificate
  4.9*   Subscription Rights Agreement and Specimen Subscription Rights Certificate
  5.1**   Opinion of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. as to the legality of certain of the securities being issued
  5.2**   Opinion of Venable LLP as to the legality of certain of the securities being issued
  8.1**   Opinion of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. as to certain U.S. federal income tax matters
12.1**   Statement of computation of ratios of earnings to fixed charges
12.2**   Statement of computation of ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends
23.1**   Consent of Venable LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2)
23.2**   Consent of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. (included in Exhibits 5.1 and 8.1)
23.3**   Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP
23.4**   Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
24.1**   Power of Attorney (included in the signature pages of this Registration Statement)
25.1***   Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the trustee under the Senior Indenture
25.2***   Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the trustee under the Subordinated Indenture

 

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*

To be filed, if necessary, by amendment or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated by reference herein in connection with an offering.

**

Filed herewith.

***

Where applicable, to be incorporated by reference to a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, on this 7th day of August, 2018.

TPG RE FINANCE TRUST, INC.

 

By:  

/s/ Greta Guggenheim

Name:   Greta Guggenheim
Title:   Chief Executive Officer and President

POWER OF ATTORNEY

We, the undersigned officers and directors of TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Robert Foley and Deborah Ginsberg, and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement, and any other registration statement for the same offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as full to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them, or their or his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement and power of attorney have been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:

 

Signature

  

Title(s)

 

Date

/s/ Greta Guggenheim

Greta Guggenheim

  

Chief Executive Officer, President and

Director (Principal Executive Officer)

  August 7, 2018

/s/ Robert Foley

Robert Foley

   Chief Financial and Risk Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting
Officer)
  August 7, 2018

/s/ Avi Banyasz

Avi Banyasz

   Chairman of the Board of Directors   August 7, 2018

/s/ Kelvin Davis

Kelvin Davis

   Director   August 7, 2018

/s/ Michael Gillmore

Michael Gillmore

   Director   August 7, 2018

/s/ Wendy Silverstein

Wendy Silverstein

   Director   August 7, 2018


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Signature

  

Title(s)

 

Date

/s/ Bradley Smith

Bradley Smith

   Director   August 7, 2018

/s/ Gregory White

Gregory White

   Director   August 7, 2018
(Back To Top)

Section 2: EX-4.4 (EX-4.4)

EX-4.4

Exhibit 4.4

TPG RE FINANCE TRUST, INC.,

Issuer

AND

[                ],

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of [                ]

Senior Debt Securities


CROSS REFERENCE TABLE1

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended    Section of
Indenture

310(a)

   7.08

310(b)

   7.07
     7.09

311(a)

   7.12

311(b)

   7.12

312(a)

   5.01
     5.02(a)

312(b)

   5.02(c)

312(c)

   5.02(d)

313(a)

   5.04(a)

313(b)

   5.04(b)

313(c)

   5.04(a)
     5.04(b)

313(d)

   5.04(c)

314(a)

   5.03
     13.11

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   13.06(a)

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   13.06(b)

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   7.01(a)

315(b)

   7.13

315(c)

   7.01(a)

315(d)

   7.01(b)

315(e)

   6.07
     7.01(b)

316(a) (last sentence)

   1.01

316(a)(1)(A)

   6.01(b)
     6.06

316(a)(1)(B)

   6.06

316(a)(2)

   Inapplicable

316(b)

   6.04

316(c)

   8.01

317(a)

   6.02

317(b)

   4.03

318(a)

   13.08

 

1 

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS*

Page

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS

     1  

Section 1.01

  Definitions of Terms      1  

ARTICLE II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     6  

Section 2.01

  Designation and Terms of Securities      6  

Section 2.02

  Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate      8  

Section 2.03

  Denominations; Provisions for Payment      8  

Section 2.04

  Execution and Authentication      10  

Section 2.05

  Registration of Transfer and Exchange      11  

Section 2.06

  Temporary Securities      12  

Section 2.07

  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities      12  

Section 2.08

  Cancellation      13  

Section 2.09

  Benefits of Indenture      13  

Section 2.10

  Authenticating Agent      13  

Section 2.11

  Global Securities      14  

Section 2.12

  CUSIP and ISIN Numbers      15  

ARTICLE III REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

     15  

Section 3.01

  Redemption      15  

Section 3.02

  Notice of Redemption      15  

Section 3.03

  Payment Upon Redemption      16  

Section 3.04

  Sinking Fund      17  

Section 3.05

  Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      17  

Section 3.06

  Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      17  

ARTICLE IV CERTAIN COVENANTS

     18  

Section 4.01

  Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest      18  

Section 4.02

  Maintenance of Office or Agency      18  

Section 4.03

  Paying Agents      19  

Section 4.04

  Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee      20  

Section 4.05

  Existence      20  

Section 4.06

  Calculation of Original Issue Discount      20  

ARTICLE V SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

     20  

Section 5.01

  Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders      20  

Section 5.02

  Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders      20  

Section 5.03

  Reports by the Company      21  

Section 5.04

  Reports by the Trustee      22  

 

* 

This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

i


ARTICLE VI REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     22  

Section 6.01

  Events of Default      22  

Section 6.02

  Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee      24  

Section 6.03

  Application of Moneys Collected      25  

Section 6.04

  Limitation on Suits      26  

Section 6.05

  Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver      26  

Section 6.06

  Control by Securityholders      27  

Section 6.07

  Undertaking to Pay Costs      27  

ARTICLE VII CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     28  

Section 7.01

  Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee      28  

Section 7.02

  Certain Rights of Trustee      29  

Section 7.03

  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities      31  

Section 7.04

  May Hold Securities      31  

Section 7.05

  Moneys Held in Trust      31  

Section 7.06

  Compensation and Reimbursement      31  

Section 7.07

  Disqualification; Conflicting Interests      32  

Section 7.08

  Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility      32  

Section 7.09

  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor      32  

Section 7.10

  Acceptance of Appointment By Successor      34  

Section 7.11

  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business      35  

Section 7.12

  Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company      35  

Section 7.13

  Notice of Default      35  

ARTICLE VIII CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     35  

Section 8.01

  Evidence of Action by Securityholders      35  

Section 8.02

  Proof of Execution by Securityholders      36  

Section 8.03

  Who May be Deemed Owners      36  

Section 8.04

  Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded      37  

Section 8.05

  Actions Binding on Future Securityholders      37  

ARTICLE IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     38  

Section 9.01

  Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders      38  

Section 9.02

  Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders      39  

Section 9.03

  Effect of Supplemental Indentures      40  

Section 9.04

  Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures      40  

Section 9.05

  Execution of Supplemental Indentures      41  

 

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ARTICLE X SUCCESSOR ENTITY

     41  

Section 10.01

  Company May Consolidate, Etc.      41  

Section 10.02

  Successor Entity Substituted      41  

Section 10.03

  Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee      42  

ARTICLE XI SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

     42  

Section 11.01

  Applicability of Article      42  

Section 11.02

  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      42  

Section 11.03

  Defeasance and Discharge of Obligations; Covenant Defeasance      43  

Section 11.04

  Deposited Funds to be Held in Trust      45  

Section 11.05

  Payment of Funds Held by Paying Agents      46  

Section 11.06

  Repayment to the Company      46  

Section 11.07

  Reinstatement      46  

ARTICLE XII IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

     47  

Section 12.01

  No Recourse      47  

ARTICLE XIII MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     47  

Section 13.01

  Effect on Successors and Assigns      47  

Section 13.02

  Actions by Successor      47  

Section 13.03

  Notices      48  

Section 13.04

  Governing Law      48  

Section 13.05

  Treatment of Securities as Debt      49  

Section 13.06

  Compliance Certificates and Opinions      49  

Section 13.07

  Payments on Business Days      49  

Section 13.08

  Conflict with Trust Indenture Act      49  

Section 13.09

  Counterparts      50  

Section 13.10

  Separability      50  

Section 13.11

  Compliance Certificates      50  

Section 13.12

  Waiver of Jury Trial      50  

Section 13.13

  Force Majeure      50  

 

 

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INDENTURE, dated as of [                ], among TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and [                ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of unsecured debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid and legally binding agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS

SECTION 1.01 Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are included by reference in such Trust Indenture Act or defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or in any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act of 1933, as amended, as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board of Directors.

 

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“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a Saturday, Sunday or a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

“Company” means TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Maryland, and, subject to the provisions of Article X, shall also include its successors and assigns.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the designated office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [                ], Attention: [                ], or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Securityholders and the Company, or the principal corporate trust office of any successor Trustee (or such other address as such successor Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Securityholders and the Company).

“Custodian” means any custodian, receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or other similar official under any proceedings under any Bankruptcy Law.

“Default” means any event, act or condition that with notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

“Dollar Equivalent” means, with respect to any monetary amount in a Foreign Currency, at any time for the determination thereof, the amount of U.S. dollars obtained by converting such Foreign Currency involved in such computation into U.S. dollars at the spot rate for the purchase of U.S. dollars with the applicable Foreign Currency as quoted by a financial institution designated by the Company in New York, New York, at approximately 11:00 a.m. (New York time) on the date two business days prior to such determination.

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

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“Foreign Currency” means a currency or currency unit issued by the government of any country other than the United States or a composite currency the value of which is determined by reference to the values of the currencies of any group of countries.

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

“Herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

“Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two of the following officers: the Chief Executive Officer and President, the Chief Financial and Risk Officer, the Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary and any other Vice President of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.06, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

“Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.06, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof. Opinions of counsel may rely as to factual matters on certificates of the Company or governmental or other officials customary for opinions of the type required, including certificates certifying as to matters of fact.

 

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“Original Issue Discount Security” means a Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01.

“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except:

(a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled;

(b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article III, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and

(c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07, except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company.

In determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01 and the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more currencies that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be based on the Dollar Equivalent on the date of original issuance of such Security, of the principal amount of such Security.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint-venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

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“Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the corporate trust department of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, assistant secretary, trust officer or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of the Indenture.

“Securities” means the Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

“Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered on the books of the Company kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings set forth in Section 2.05.

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership, limited liability company or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

“Trustee” means [             ], acting not in its individual capacity but solely as Trustee under the Indenture, and, subject to the provisions of Article VII, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“Voting Stock”, as applied to stock of any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

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ARTICLE II

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,

REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

SECTION 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

(3) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable, any original issue discount that may apply to the Securities of that series upon their issuance, the principal amount due at maturity, and the place(s) of payment;

(4) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any, whether the rate(s) are fixed or variable and the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360 day year of twelve 30-day months;

(5) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the manner of determination of such record dates;

(6) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension or deferral;

(7) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund, mandatory redemption, or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

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(9) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Trustee’s certificate of authentication for such series;

(10) if other than denominations of two thousand U.S. dollars ($2,000) or any integral multiple of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) in excess thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

(11) any and all other terms (including terms, to the extent applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities) with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

(12) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the terms and the identity of the Depositary for such series;

(13) whether the Securities will be convertible into and/or exchangeable for shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities of the Company or any other Person and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, and the applicable conversion or exchange period;

(14) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(15) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive or financial covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series;

(16) if other than U.S. dollars, the coin or currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated (including, but not limited to, Foreign Currency);

(17) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

(18) whether and upon what terms Securities of a series may be defeased if different from the provisions set forth in this Indenture;

 

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(19) any and all additional, eliminated or changed terms that shall apply to the Securities of the series; and

(20) any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates. Unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened for issuances of additional Securities of such series. The terms of the Securities of any series may provide that such Securities shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee upon original issuance from time to time upon written order of persons designated in such Board Resolution or supplemental indenture and that such persons are authorized to determine, consistent with such Board Resolution or supplemental indenture, such terms and conditions of the Securities of such series.

SECTION 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustees Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

SECTION 2.03 Denominations; Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of two thousand U.S. dollars ($2,000) or any integral multiple of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) in excess thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(10). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(16), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Unless otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities in accordance with Section 2.01(a)(4), interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

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The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date and shall be no longer payable pursuant to the following clause (2).

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

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Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

SECTION 2.04 Execution and Authentication.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by two of its officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an officer thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by two of its officers, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

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The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

SECTION 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose, a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

(c) Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, the second paragraph of Section 3.03 and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11.

 

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SECTION 2.06 Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay, the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

SECTION 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case, the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

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Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

SECTION 2.08 Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

SECTION 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities, any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

SECTION 2.10 Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding, there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities, which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

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Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

SECTION 2.11 Global Securities.

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event, the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate

 

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evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

SECTION 2.12 CUSIP and ISIN Numbers.

The Company, in issuing the Securities, shall use CUSIP and ISIN numbers for such Securities (if then generally in use). The Trustee shall use CUSIP and ISIN numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to holders; provided, however, that neither the Company nor the Trustee shall have any responsibility for any defect in the CUSIP or ISIN number that appears on any Security, check, advice of payment or redemption notice, and any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing in the event of any change in the CUSIP or ISIN numbers.

ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND

SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

SECTION 3.01 Redemption.

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01.

SECTION 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or, at the Company’s written request delivered to the Trustee at least five days before such notice is to be sent to the holders (unless a shorter period is acceptable to the Trustee), shall request the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to the registered holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid (or, in the case of Securities held in book-entry form through the Depositary, by electronic transmission), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 60 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed or in the

 

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supplemental indenture for such series of Securities. Any notice that is sent in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case, and the CUSIP number of the Securities and state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in the notice or printed on the Securities. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 35 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to two thousand U.S. dollars ($2,000) or any integral multiple thereof or any integral multiple of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) in excess thereof) of the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part; provided, that if such securities are in the form of a Global Security, the Securities to be redeemed shall be selected in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary.

SECTION 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and

 

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surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

SECTION 3.04 Sinking Fund.

If Securities of a series provide for a sinking fund as contemplated by Section 2.01, the provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

SECTION 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

SECTION 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 35 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for

 

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such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date, the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE IV

CERTAIN COVENANTS

The following covenants shall apply to the Securities, except with respect to any series of Securities for which the supplemental indenture or Board Resolution under which such series of Securities is issued, or in the form of Security for such series, expressly provides that any such covenant shall not apply to such series of Securities:

SECTION 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Indenture, the Company or the Trustee or paying agent, if any, may, to the extent it is required to do so by law, deduct or withhold taxes imposed by the United States of America or other domestic or foreign taxing authorities from the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest payments hereunder.

SECTION 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as hereinabove authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall designate and maintain some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any change in location of any such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. Unless otherwise specified in accordance with Section 2.01 with respect to a series of Securities, the Company initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of [     ], acting as the Company’s paying agent, Security Registrar and transfer agent, as the office to be maintained by it for each such purpose.

 

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SECTION 4.03 Paying Agents.

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge or defeasance of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

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SECTION 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.09, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

SECTION 4.05 Existence.

Subject to Article X, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its existence.

SECTION 4.06 Calculation of Original Issue Discount.

If any series of Securities is issued under this Indenture with original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the Company shall file with the Trustee promptly at the end of each calendar year (i) a written notice specifying the amount of original issue discount (including daily rates and accrual periods) accrued on such Outstanding Original Issue Discount Securities as of the end of such year and (ii) such other specific information relating to such original issue discount as may then be relevant under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time.

ARTICLE V

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS

BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

SECTION 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) not more than 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

SECTION 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

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(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(d) Every holder of Securities, by receiving and holding the same, agrees with the Company and the Trustee that neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any agent of either of them shall be held accountable by reason of the disclosure of information as to the names and addresses of the Securityholders made pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act.

SECTION 5.03 Reports by the Company.

(a) The Company agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company files the same with the Securities and Exchange Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Securities and Exchange Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company files with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Securities and Exchange Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Securities and Exchange Commission; and provided further, so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Securities and Exchange Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR) or any successor system thereto, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes of this Section 5.03 without any further action required by the Company.

(b) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Securities and Exchange Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Securities and Exchange Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

(c) The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable over-night delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

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SECTION 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.

(a) If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(b) The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(c) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange and of any delisting thereof.

ARTICLE VI

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND

SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

SECTION 6.01 Events of Default.

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing, except with respect to any series of Securities for which the supplemental indenture or resolution of the Board of Directors under which such series of Securities is issued or in the form of Security for such series expressly provides that any such Event of Default shall not apply to such series of Securities:

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

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(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

(4) the Company, pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law, (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days.

(b) In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

(c) At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

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No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, subject to any determination in such proceedings, then and in every such case the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

SECTION 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

(a) The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be

 

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necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

SECTION 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected.

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of reasonable costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

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THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any Person lawfully entitled thereto.

SECTION 6.04 Limitation on Suits.

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding; and (v) during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

SECTION 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

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(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

SECTION 6.06 Control by Securityholders.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

SECTION 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such

 

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suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

ARTICLE VII

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

SECTION 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(1) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

(i) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(ii) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy of mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein);

 

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(2) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

(3) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

(4) none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

(c) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Section.

SECTION 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders, pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby;

 

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(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and reasonably believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit, and, if the Trustee shall determine to make such further inquiry or investigation, it shall be entitled to examine the books, records and premises of the Company at reasonable times and in a reasonable manner, personally or by agent or attorney and shall incur no liability or additional liability of any kind by reason of such inquiry or investigation;

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

(h) The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of the capacities it may be appointed to hereunder, and to each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder;

(i) The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture, which Officers’ Certificate may be signed by any Person authorized to sign an Officers’ Certificate, including any Person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded;

(j) Whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, conclusively rely upon an Officers’ Certificate; and

(k) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action.

In addition, the Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default except (1) any Event of Default occurring pursuant to Sections 6.01(a)(1) and 6.01(a)(2) or (2) any Default or Event of Default of which the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge. Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officers’ Certificate).

 

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SECTION 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

SECTION 7.04 May Hold Securities.

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

SECTION 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust.

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.04, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree in writing with the Company to pay thereon.

SECTION 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.

(a) The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Company and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing for all services rendered by it in connection with the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its own negligence, willful misconduct or bad faith. The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee or any predecessor Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense

 

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incurred without negligence, willful misconduct or bad faith on the part of the Trustee or any predecessor Trustee arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of the trust or trusts hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim (whether asserted by the Company, or any holder of Securities or any other Person) or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder.

(b) The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee or any predecessor Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee or any predecessor Trustee for reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the holders of particular Securities.

(c) When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(a)(4) or Section 6.01(a)(5), the expenses (including the reasonable charges and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law.

(d) The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture.

SECTION 7.07 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

SECTION 7.08 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

The Trustee shall at all times satisfy the requirements of Section 310(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Trustee (a) shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000) or (b) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of a bank holding company having a consolidated capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000) in each case as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition.

SECTION 7.09 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

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(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

(1) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.07 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

(2) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.08 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

(3) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation, then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

(c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.10.

(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

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SECTION 7.10 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (2) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

(c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

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(d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

(e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

SECTION 7.11 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate trust business of the Trustee (including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture), shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.07 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.08, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

SECTION 7.12 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

SECTION 7.13 Notice of Default.

If any Default or any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Default or Event of Default is actually known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Default or Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is actually known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Default or Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

ARTICLE VIII

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

SECTION 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any

 

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action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

SECTION 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

Subject to the provisions of Section 8.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

(a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

(b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

(c) The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

SECTION 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners.

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

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None of the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent or the Security Registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a Global Security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

SECTION 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

SECTION 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid, any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

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ARTICLE IX

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

SECTION 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall comply with the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

(a) to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein, in the Securities of any series;

(b) to comply with Article X;

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

(d) to add to the covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions relating to the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series), to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

(e) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

(f) to add any additional Events of Defaults for the benefit of the holders of all or any outstanding series of Securities (and if such Events of Default are to be applicable to less than all outstanding series, stating that such Events of Default are expressly being included solely to be applicable to such series);

(g) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

(h) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;

(i) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee;

 

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(j) to comply with the rules of any applicable Depositary;

(k) to comply with any requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission or any successor in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act; or

(l) to conform the text of this Indenture or the Securities of any series to any provision of the section entitled “Description of Debt Securities” or any similarly captioned section in the applicable prospectus or other offering document, as supplemented by any applicable supplement, relating to the offering of such series of Securities.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

SECTION 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures (voting together as a single class) at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall comply with the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby,

(i) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof;

(ii) change any obligation to pay additional amounts;

(iii) reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount security or any other Security payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

(iv) change currency in which any Security or any premium or interest is payable;

 

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(v) impair the right to enforce any payment on or with respect to any Security;

(vi) adversely change the right to convert or exchange, including decreasing the conversion rate or increasing the conversion price of, such Security (if applicable);

(vii) reduce the percentage in principal amount of outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose holders is required for modification or amendment of the indenture or for waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or for waiver of certain defaults;

(viii) reduce the requirements contained in the indenture for quorum or voting; or

(ix) modify any of the above provisions.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

SECTION 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

SECTION 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

Securities of any series, affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any securities exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

 

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SECTION 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and, if applicable, upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall receive an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by, and conforms to, the terms of this Article and that it is proper for the Trustee under the provisions of this Article to join in the execution thereof.

Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Trustee to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

ARTICLE X

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

SECTION 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc.

The Company may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of its assets to, or merge with or into any other Person, provided that in any such case, (a) either the Company shall be the continuing Person, or the successor Person shall be organized and existing under the laws of the United States or a state thereof and such successor Person shall expressly assume the due and punctual payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and any interest on and all additional amounts, if any, payable in respect of, all of the Securities, according to their tenor, and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions of this Indenture to be performed by the Company by supplemental indenture, complying with Article IX hereof, satisfactory to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee by such successor and (b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction and treating any indebtedness which becomes an obligation of the Company or any Subsidiary as a result thereof as having been incurred by the Company or such Subsidiary at the time of such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

SECTION 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted.

(a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the obligations set forth under Section 10.01 on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

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(b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

(c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

SECTION 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee.

The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall receive an Officers’ Certificate or Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, and any such assumption, comply with the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE XI

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

SECTION 11.01 Applicability of Article.

If the Securities of a series are denominated and payable only in U.S. dollars (except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01), then the provisions of this Article XI relating to defeasance of Securities shall be applicable except as otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.01 for Securities of such series. Defeasance provisions, if any, for Securities denominated in a Foreign Currency may be specified pursuant to Section 2.01.

SECTION 11.02 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

This Indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to a series of Securities issued hereunder if at any time:

(a) either

(1) the Company shall have delivered or shall have caused to be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07 and Securities for whose payment funds or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.06); or

 

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(2) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall irrevocably deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee in trust, cash, Governmental Obligations that will generate cash, or a combination thereof, sufficient, to pay in U.S. dollars (except as otherwise provided pursuant to Section 2.01) at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, premium, if any, and interest due or to become due on such date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

(b) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series; and

(c) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to such series have been complied with.

Nothing in this Section 11.02 shall be deemed to discharge the following provisions that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be: (A) the rights of Securityholders of Securities of such series to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 11.03(c) and as more fully set forth in such Section, payments in respect of the principal of and any premium and interest on such Securities when due, (B) the Company’s obligation with respect to such Securities under Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.02, 4.03, 7.05 and 7.09, (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and (D) this Article XI. Sections 7.06 and 11.06 shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

SECTION 11.03 Defeasance and Discharge of Obligations; Covenant Defeasance.

(a) If at any time:

(1) all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.02 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee in trust, cash, Governmental Obligations that will generate cash, or a combination thereof, sufficient to pay in U.S. dollars (except as otherwise provided pursuant to Section 2.01) at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, premium, if any, and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and

(2) the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other amounts payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series,

 

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then, after the date such, cash, Governmental Obligations or combination thereof, is deposited with the Trustee, the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except, to the extent applicable, for the following provisions that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid: (A) the rights of Securityholders of Securities of such series to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 11.03(c) and as more fully set forth in such Section, payments in respect of the principal of and any premium and interest on such Securities when due, (B) the Company’s obligation with respect to such Securities under Sections 2.03, 2.04, 2.05, 2.07, 4.02, 4.03, 7.05 and 7.09 , (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and (D) this Article XI. Thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.06 shall survive such satisfaction and discharge.

(b) In addition, the Company, at its option and at any time, by written notice executed by an officer of the Company delivered to the Trustee, may elect to have its obligations, to the extent applicable, under Sections 4.05 and 5.03 and any covenant contained in Article X, and any other covenant contained in the Board Resolution or supplemental indenture relating to such series pursuant to Section 2.01, discharged with respect to all Outstanding Securities of a series, this Indenture and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (“covenant defeasance”), such discharge to be effective on the date the applicable conditions set forth in clauses (1) through (6) of Section 11.03(c) are satisfied, and such Securities shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration of Securityholders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be “Outstanding” for all other purposes under this Indenture. For this purpose, such covenant defeasance means that, with respect to the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute an Event of Default under Section 6.01(a)(3) or otherwise, but except as specified in this Section 11.03(b), the remainder of the Company’s obligations under the Securities of such series, this Indenture, and any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to such series shall be unaffected thereby.

(c) The following shall be the conditions to the application of Section 11.03 to the Outstanding Securities of the applicable series:

(1) the Company irrevocably deposits in trust with the Trustee or, at the option of the Trustee, with a trustee satisfactory to the Trustee and the Company under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the Trustee cash, Governmental Obligations that will generate enough cash, or a combination thereof, as will be sufficient to pay in U.S. dollars the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Outstanding Securities of such series to maturity or redemption, as the case may be, and to pay all other amounts payable by it hereunder, provided that (A) the trustee of the irrevocable trust shall have been irrevocably instructed to pay such funds or the proceeds of such Governmental Obligations to the Trustee and (B) the Trustee shall have been irrevocably instructed to apply such funds or the proceeds of such Governmental Obligations to the payment of said principal, premium, if any, and interest with respect to the Securities of such series;

 

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(2) the Company delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent specified herein relating to defeasance or covenant defeasance, as the case may be, have been complied with, and an Opinion of Counsel to the same effect;

(3) no Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, and no event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing, on the date of such deposit;

(4) in the event of an election under Section 11.03(a), the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge were not to occur;

(5) in the event of an election under Section 11.03(b), the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Securityholders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and covenant defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance were not to occur; and

(6) notwithstanding any other provisions of this Section 11.03, such defeasance or covenant defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations which may be imposed on the Company pursuant to Section 2.01.

After such irrevocable deposit made pursuant to this Section 11.03 and satisfaction of the other conditions set forth herein, the Trustee upon request shall acknowledge in writing the discharge of the Company’s obligations pursuant to this Section 11.03.

SECTION 11.04 Deposited Funds to be Held in Trust.

All funds or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.02 or 11.03 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the Governmental Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 11.02 or 11.03 or the principal and interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the holders of Outstanding Securities.

 

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SECTION 11.05 Payment of Funds Held by Paying Agents.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

SECTION 11.06 Repayment to the Company.

Any funds or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the Securities of a particular series, in each case under this Article XI or otherwise, that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for a period ending on the earlier of 10 business days prior to the date the money would be turned over to the applicable state and two years after the date upon which the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, shall, upon request of the Company, be repaid to the Company, or if then held by the Company shall be discharged from such trust; and thereafter, the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such funds or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company, as applicable, for the payment thereof. Anything in this Article XI to the contrary notwithstanding, subject to Section 7.06, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company from time to time upon request by the Company any funds or Governmental Obligations (or other property and any proceeds therefrom) held by it as provided in Sections 11.02 or 11.03 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof that would then be required to be deposited to effect a defeasance or covenant defeasance, as the case may be, in accordance with this Article XI.

SECTION 11.07 Reinstatement.

If the Trustee or paying agent is unable to apply any funds or Governmental Obligations in accordance with Sections 11.02 or 11.03 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture, any indentures supplemental to this Indenture with respect to the applicable series of Securities and the Securities of such series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Sections 11.02 or 11.03, as the case may be, until such time as the Trustee or paying agent is permitted to apply all such funds or Governmental Obligations in accordance with Sections 11.02 or 11.03, as the case may be; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest on any Securities of such series following the reinstatement of its obligations as aforesaid, the Company, as applicable, shall be subrogated to the rights of the holders of such Securities of such series to receive such payment from the funds or Governmental Obligations held by the Trustee or paying agent.

 

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ARTICLE XII

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS,

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

SECTION 12.01 No Recourse.

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

ARTICLE XIII

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

SECTION 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns.

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture made by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not. All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture made by or on behalf of the Trustee shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

SECTION 13.02 Actions by Successor.

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

 

47


SECTION 13.03 Notices.

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein any notice, request or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given, made or served by the Trustee or by the holders of Securities or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited in first class mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc., 888 7th Avenue, 35th Floor, New York, New York 10106, Attention: General Counsel. Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling, except to the extent such action or undertaking may arise from negligence or bad faith. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction, except to the extent such reliance and compliance may arise from negligence or bad faith. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties.

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail, certified or registered, return receipt requested, to his address shown on the Security Register; provided that if the Securities are held in book-entry form, such notice or other communication may be sent by electronic transmission in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders.

In the event of suspension of regular mail service or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to give notice by mail, then such notification as shall be given with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute sufficient notice for every purpose hereunder.

SECTION 13.04 Governing Law.

This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract made under the internal laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be construed in accordance with the laws of said State. This Indenture is subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are required to be part of this Indenture and shall, to the extent applicable, be governed by such provisions.

 

48


SECTION 13.05 Treatment of Securities as Debt.

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

SECTION 13.06 Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

(a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.11) relating to the proposed action have been complied with and, if requested, an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent, if any, have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

(b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture shall include (1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

SECTION 13.07 Payments on Business Days.

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

SECTION 13.08 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the Trust Indenture Act which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.

 

49


SECTION 13.09 Counterparts.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

SECTION 13.10 Separability.

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

SECTION 13.11 Compliance Certificates.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year during which any Securities of any series were outstanding, an officer’s certificate stating whether or not the signers know of any Default or Event of Default that occurred during such fiscal year. Such certificate shall contain a certification from the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer of the Company, stating to the best of his or her knowledge, that a review has been conducted of the activities of the Company and the Company’s performance under this Indenture and that the Company has complied with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture. For purposes of this Section 13.11, such compliance shall be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture. If the officer of the Company signing such certificate has knowledge of such a Default or Event of Default, the certificate shall describe any such Default or Event of Default and its status.

SECTION 13.12 Waiver of Jury Trial.

EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE SECURITIES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

SECTION 13.13 Force Majeure.

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

[Signature Page Follows]

 

50


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

TPG RE FINANCE TRUST, INC.

By:

 

 

Name:

 

 

Title:

 

 

[                                                                                       ],

as Trustee

By:

 

 

Name:

 

 

Title:

 

 

 

51

(Back To Top)

Section 3: EX-4.6 (EX-4.6)

EX-4.6

Exhibit 4.6

TPG RE FINANCE TRUST, INC.,

Issuer

AND

[                                                         ],

Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of [                ]

Subordinated Debt Securities

 


CROSS REFERENCE TABLE1

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended    Section of
Indenture

310(a)

   7.08

310(b)

   7.07
   7.09

311(a)

   7.12

311(b)

   7.12

312(a)

   5.01
     5.02(a)

312(b)

   5.02(c)

312(c)

   5.02(d)

313(a)

   5.04(a)

313(b)

   5.04(b)

313(c)

   5.04(a)
     5.04(b)

313(d)

   5.04(c)

314(a)

   5.03
   13.11

314(b)

   Inapplicable

314(c)

   13.06(a)

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   13.06(b)

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   7.01(a)

315(b)

   7.13

315(c)

   7.01(a)

315(d)

   7.01(b)

315(e)

   6.07
   7.01(b)

316(a) (last sentence)

   1.01

316(a)(1)(A)

   6.01(b)
   6.06

316(a)(1)(B)

   6.06

316(a)(2)

   Inapplicable

316(b)

   6.04

316(c)

   8.01

317(a)

   6.02

317(b)

   4.03

318(a)

   13.08

 

1 

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.


TABLE OF CONTENTS*

 

         Page  

Article I DEFINITIONS

     1  

Section 1.01

  Definitions of Terms      1  

Article II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

     6  

Section 2.01

  Designation and Terms of Securities      9  

Section 2.02

  Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate      8  

Section 2.03

  Denominations; Provisions for Payment      9  

Section 2.04

  Execution and Authentication      10  

Section 2.05

  Registration of Transfer and Exchange      11  

Section 2.06

  Temporary Securities      12  

Section 2.07

  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities      12  

Section 2.08

  Cancellation      13  

Section 2.09

  Benefits of Indenture      14  

Section 2.10

  Authenticating Agent      14  

Section 2.11

  Global Securities      14  

Section 2.12

  CUSIP and ISIN Numbers      15  

Article III REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

     16  

Section 3.01

  Redemption      16  

Section 3.02

  Notice of Redemption      16  

Section 3.03

  Payment Upon Redemption      17  

Section 3.04

  Sinking Fund      17  

Section 3.05

  Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      18  

Section 3.06

  Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      18  

Article IV CERTAIN COVENANTS

     18  

Section 4.01

  Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest      18  

Section 4.02

  Maintenance of Office or Agency      19  

Section 4.03

  Paying Agents      19  

Section 4.04

  Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee      20  

Section 4.05

  Existence      20  

Section 4.06

  Calculation of Original Issue Discount      20  

 

 

* 

This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

i


Article V SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

     21  

Section 5.01

  Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders      21  

Section 5.02

  Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders      21  

Section 5.03

  Reports by the Company      21  

Section 5.04

  Reports by the Trustee      22  

Article VI REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

     23  

Section 6.01

  Events of Default      23  

Section 6.02

  Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee      25  

Section 6.03

  Application of Moneys Collected      26  

Section 6.04

  Limitation on Suits      26  

Section 6.05

  Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver      27  

Section 6.06

  Control by Securityholders      28  

Section 6.07

  Undertaking to Pay Costs      28  

Article VII CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

     29  

Section 7.01

  Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee      29  

Section 7.02

  Certain Rights of Trustee      30  

Section 7.03

  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities      31  

Section 7.04

  May Hold Securities      32  

Section 7.05

  Moneys Held in Trust      32  

Section 7.06

  Compensation and Reimbursement      32  

Section 7.07

  Disqualification; Conflicting Interests      33  

Section 7.08

  Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility      33  

Section 7.09

  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor      33  

Section 7.10

  Acceptance of Appointment By Successor      34  

Section 7.11

  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business      36  

Section 7.12

  Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company      36  

Section 7.13

  Notice of Default      36  

Article VIII CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     36  

Section 8.01

  Evidence of Action by Securityholders      36  

Section 8.02

  Proof of Execution by Securityholders      37  

Section 8.03

  Who May be Deemed Owners      37  

Section 8.04

  Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded      38  

Section 8.05

  Actions Binding on Future Securityholders      38  

Article IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     38  

Section 9.01

  Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders      38  

Section 9.02

  Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders      40  

Section 9.03

  Effect of Supplemental Indentures      41  

 

ii


Section 9.04

  Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures      41  

Section 9.05

  Execution of Supplemental Indentures      41  

Section 9.06

  Subordination Unimpaired      42  

Article X SUCCESSOR ENTITY

     42  

Section 10.01

  Company May Consolidate, Etc.      42  

Section 10.02

  Successor Entity Substituted      42  

Section 10.03

  Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee      43  

Article XI SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

     43  

Section 11.01

  Applicability of Article      43  

Section 11.02

  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      43  

Section 11.03

  Defeasance and Discharge of Obligations; Covenant Defeasance      44  

Section 11.04

  Deposited Funds to be Held in Trust      46  

Section 11.05

  Payment of Funds Held by Paying Agents      47  

Section 11.06

  Repayment to the Company      47  

Section 11.07

  Reinstatement      47  

Article XII IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

     48  

Section 12.01

  No Recourse      48  

Article XIII MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     48  

Section 13.01

  Effect on Successors and Assigns      48  

Section 13.02

  Actions by Successor      49  

Section 13.03

  Notices      48  

Section 13.04

  Governing Law      49  

Section 13.05

  Treatment of Securities as Debt      49  

Section 13.06

  Compliance Certificates and Opinions      50  

Section 13.07

  Payments on Business Days      50  

Section 13.08

  Conflict with Trust Indenture Act      50  

Section 13.09

  Counterparts      51  

Section 13.10

  Separability      51  

Section 13.11

  Compliance Certificates      51  

Section 13.12

  Waiver of Jury Trial      51  

Section 13.13

  Force Majeure      51  

Article XIV SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES

     52  

Section 14.01

  Subordination Terms      52  

Section 14.02

  Trustee and Holders May Rely on Certificate of Liquidating Agent; Trustee May Require Further Evidence as to Ownership of Senior Indebtedness      54  

Section 14.03

  Payment Permitted if No Default      54  

 

iii


Section 14.04

  Trustee Not Charged with Knowledge of Prohibition      55  

Section 14.05

  Trustee to Effect Subordination      55  

Section 14.06

  Rights of Trustee as Holder of Senior Indebtedness      55  

Section 14.07

  Provisions Applicable to Paying Agents      56  

Section 14.08

  Trustee Not Fiduciary for Holders of Senior Indebtedness      56  

 

iv


INDENTURE, dated as of [                ], among TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Company”), and [                ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of unsecured subordinated debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid and legally binding agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are included by reference in such Trust Indenture Act or defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or in any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act of 1933, as amended, as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board of Directors.

 

1


“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a Saturday, Sunday or a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

“Company” means TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Maryland, and, subject to the provisions of Article X, shall also include its successors and assigns.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the designated office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [                ], Attention: [                ], or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Securityholders and the Company, or the principal corporate trust office of any successor Trustee (or such other address as such successor Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Securityholders and the Company).

“Custodian” means any custodian, receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or other similar official under any proceedings under any Bankruptcy Law.

“Default” means any event, act or condition that with notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

“Dollar Equivalent” means, with respect to any monetary amount in a Foreign Currency, at any time for the determination thereof, the amount of U.S. dollars obtained by converting such Foreign Currency involved in such computation into U.S. dollars at the spot rate for the purchase of U.S. dollars with the applicable Foreign Currency as quoted by a financial institution designated by the Company in New York, New York, at approximately 11:00 a.m. (New York time) on the date two business days prior to such determination.

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

2


“Foreign Currency” means a currency or currency unit issued by the government of any country other than the United States or a composite currency the value of which is determined by reference to the values of the currencies of any group of countries.

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

“Herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

“Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by two of the following officers: the Chief Executive Officer and President, the Chief Financial and Risk Officer, the Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary and any other Vice President of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.06, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

“Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.06, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof. Opinions of counsel may rely as to factual matters on certificates of the Company or governmental or other officials customary for opinions of the type required, including certificates certifying as to matters of fact.

 

3


“Original Issue Discount Security” means a Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01.

“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except:

(a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled;

(b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article III, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and

(c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07, except with respect to any such Security as to which proof satisfactory to the Trustee is presented that such Security is held by a person in whose hands such Security is a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company.

In determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01 and the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more currencies that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be based on the Dollar Equivalent on the date of original issuance of such Security, of the principal amount of such Security.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint-venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

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“Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the corporate trust department of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, assistant secretary, trust officer or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of the Indenture.

“Securities” means the Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

“Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered on the books of the Company kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings set forth in Section 2.05.

“Senior Indebtedness” means the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest (including any interest accruing subsequent to the filing of a petition of bankruptcy at the rate provided for in the documentation with respect thereto, whether or not such interest is an allowed claim under applicable law) on any indebtedness for money borrowed of the Company, incurred or assumed, whether or not evidenced by securities, notes, debentures, bonds or other similar instruments issued by the Company, unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, the instrument creating or evidencing the same or pursuant to which the same is outstanding expressly provides that such indebtedness shall be subordinated in right of payment to the Securities. Notwithstanding the foregoing, “Senior Indebtedness” shall not include (i) any indebtedness of the Company to a Subsidiary of the Company or any affiliate of the Company or any of such affiliate’s Subsidiaries, (ii) indebtedness to, or guaranteed on behalf of, any stockholder, director, officer or employee of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company or any affiliate of the Company or any of such affiliate’s Subsidiaries (including, without limitation, amounts owed for compensation), (iii) indebtedness to trade creditors and other amounts incurred in connection with obtaining goods, materials or services, (iv) any liability for federal, state, local or other taxes owed or owing by the Company, (v) that portion of any indebtedness incurred in violation of an incurrence test applicable to a series of the Securities, or (vi) that portion of any indebtedness which, when incurred and without respect to any election under Section 1111(b) of Title 11, United States Code, is without recourse to the Company.

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership, limited liability company or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

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“Trustee” means [                ], acting not in its individual capacity but solely as Trustee under the Indenture, and, subject to the provisions of Article VII, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“Voting Stock”, as applied to stock of any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

ARTICLE II

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,

REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

(3) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable, any original issue discount that may apply to the Securities of that series upon their issuance, the principal amount due at maturity, and the place(s) of payment;

(4) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any, whether the rate(s) are fixed or variable and the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360 day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

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(5) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the manner of determination of such record dates;

(6) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension or deferral;

(7) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund, mandatory redemption, or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(9) any additional or different subordination terms applicable to Securities of the series;

(10) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Trustee’s certificate of authentication for such series;

(11) if other than denominations of two thousand U.S. dollars ($2,000) or any integral multiple of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) in excess thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

(12) any and all other terms (including terms, to the extent applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities) with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

(13) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the terms and the identity of the Depositary for such series;

(14) whether the Securities will be convertible into and/or exchangeable for shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities of the Company or any other Person and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, and the applicable conversion or exchange period;

 

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(15) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(16) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive or financial covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series;

(17) if other than U.S. dollars, the coin or currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated (including, but not limited to, Foreign Currency);

(18) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

(19) whether and upon what terms Securities of a series may be defeased if different from the provisions set forth in this Indenture;

(20) any and all additional, eliminated or changed terms that shall apply to the Securities of the series; and

(21) any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates. Unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened for issuances of additional Securities of such series. The terms of the Securities of any series may provide that such Securities shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee upon original issuance from time to time upon written order of persons designated in such Board Resolution or supplemental indenture and that such persons are authorized to determine, consistent with such Board Resolution or supplemental indenture, such terms and conditions of the Securities of such series.

 

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Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustees Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

Section 2.03 Denominations; Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of two thousand U.S. dollars ($2,000) or any integral multiple of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) in excess thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(11). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(17), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Unless otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities in accordance with Section 2.01(a)(4), interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons

 

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entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date and shall be no longer payable pursuant to the following clause (2).

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

Section 2.04 Execution and Authentication.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by two of its officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an officer thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

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A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by two of its officers, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose, a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

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(c) Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, the second paragraph of Section 3.03 and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11.

Section 2.06 Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay, the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange

 

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and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case, the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.08 Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

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Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities (and, with respect to the provisions of Article XIV, the holders of Senior Indebtedness) any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities (and, with respect to the provisions of Article XIV, the holders of Senior Indebtedness).

Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding, there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities, which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

Section 2.11 Global Securities.

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, one or more Global Securities that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

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(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event, the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

Section 2.12 CUSIP and ISIN Numbers.

The Company, in issuing the Securities, shall use CUSIP and ISIN numbers for such Securities (if then generally in use). The Trustee shall use CUSIP and ISIN numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to holders; provided, however, that neither the Company nor the Trustee shall have any responsibility for any defect in the CUSIP or ISIN number that appears on any Security, check, advice of payment or redemption notice, and any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing in the event of any change in the CUSIP or ISIN numbers.

 

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ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND

SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

Section 3.01 Redemption.

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01.

Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or, at the Company’s written request delivered to the Trustee at least five days before such notice is to be sent to the holders (unless a shorter period is acceptable to the Trustee), shall request the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to the registered holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid (or, in the case of Securities held in book-entry form through the Depositary, by electronic transmission), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 60 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed or in the supplemental indenture for such series of Securities. Any notice that is sent in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case, and the CUSIP number of the Securities and state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in the notice or printed on the Securities. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

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(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 35 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to two thousand U.S. dollars ($2,000) or any integral multiple thereof or any integral multiple of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) in excess thereof) of the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part; provided, that if such securities are in the form of a Global Security, the Securities to be redeemed shall be selected in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary.

Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

Section 3.04 Sinking Fund.

If Securities of a series provide for a sinking fund as contemplated by Section 2.01, the provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

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Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 35 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date, the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE IV

CERTAIN COVENANTS

The following covenants shall apply to the Securities, except with respect to any series of Securities for which the supplemental indenture or Board Resolution under which such series of Securities is issued, or in the form of Security for such series, expressly provides that any such covenant shall not apply to such series of Securities:

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.

 

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Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Indenture, the Company or the Trustee or paying agent, if any, may, to the extent it is required to do so by law, deduct or withhold taxes imposed by the United States of America or other domestic or foreign taxing authorities from the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest payments hereunder.

Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as hereinabove authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall designate and maintain some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any change in location of any such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. Unless otherwise specified in accordance