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Section 1: 10-K (FORM 10-K)

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
____________________________ 
FORM 10-K
____________________________
(Mark One)
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number: 001-35424
____________________________
HOMESTREET, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________ 
Washington
 
91-0186600
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
601 Union Street, Ste. 2000
Seattle, WA 98101
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (206) 623-3050
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
  
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par value
  
Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
____________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o    No  x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.o




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes  x   No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
 
o
Accelerated filer
 
x
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
o (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
 
o
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth Company
 
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  o    No  x

As of June 30, 2017, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $635.4 million, based on a closing price of $27.68 per share of common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on such date. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer and director and by each person known to the Company who beneficially owns more than 5% of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may under certain circumstances be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of executive officer or affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
The number of outstanding shares of the registrant's common stock as of March 2, 2018 was 26,941,533.6.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information that will be contained in the definitive proxy statement for the registrant's annual meeting to be held in May 2018 is incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
 







ITEM 1
ITEM 1A
ITEM 1B
ITEM 2
ITEM 3
ITEM 4
ITEM 5
ITEM 6
ITEM 7
ITEM 7A
ITEM 8
ITEM 9
ITEM 9A
ITEM 9B
ITEM 10
ITEM 11
ITEM 12
ITEM 13
ITEM 14
ITEM 15
CERTIFICATIONS
 
EXHIBIT 21
 
EXHIBIT 31.1
 
EXHIBIT 31.2
 
EXHIBIT 32
 
Unless we state otherwise or the content otherwise requires, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “HomeStreet,” “we,” “our,” “us” or the “Company” refer collectively to HomeStreet, Inc., a Washington corporation, HomeStreet Bank (“Bank”), HomeStreet Capital Corporation (“HomeStreet Capital”) and other direct and indirect subsidiaries of HomeStreet, Inc.


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PART I
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Form 10-K") and the documents incorporated by reference contain, in addition to historical information, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). including statements relating to projections of revenues, estimated operating expenses or other financial items; management’s plans and objectives for future operations or programs; future operations, plans, regulatory compliance or approvals; expected cost savings from restructuring or resource optimization activities; proposed new products or services; expected or estimated performance of our loan portfolio; pending or potential expansion activities; pending or future mergers, acquisitions or other transactions; future economic conditions or performance; and underlying assumptions of any of the foregoing.
All statements other than statements of historical fact are "forward-looking statements" for the purpose of these provisions. When used in this Form 10-K, terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “should,” or “will” or the negative of those terms or other comparable terms are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause us to fall short of our expectations or may cause us to deviate from our current plans, as expressed or implied by these statements. The known risks that could cause our results to differ, or may cause us to take actions that are not currently planned or expected, are described below and in Item 1A, Risk Factors.

Unless required by law, we do not intend to update any of the forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K to conform these statements to actual results or changes in our expectations. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this Form 10-K.

Except as otherwise noted, references to “we,” “our,” “us” or “the Company” refer to HomeStreet, Inc. and its subsidiaries that are consolidated for financial reporting purposes.

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ITEM 1
BUSINESS

General

HomeStreet, Inc. (together with its consolidated subsidiaries, “HomeStreet,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us”), a Washington corporation, is a diversified financial services company founded in 1921, headquartered in Seattle, Washington which serves customers primarily in the western United States, including Hawaii. We are principally engaged in commercial and consumer banking and real estate lending, including commercial real estate and single family mortgage banking operations. Our primary subsidiaries are HomeStreet Bank and HomeStreet Capital Corporation.

HomeStreet Bank (the “Bank”) is a Washington state-chartered commercial bank that provides commercial, consumer and mortgage loans, deposit products, other banking services, non-deposit investment products, private banking and cash management services. Our loan products include commercial business loans, agriculture loans, consumer loans, single family residential mortgages, loans secured by commercial real estate and construction loans for residential and commercial real estate projects. We also offer single family home loans through our partial ownership of WMS Series LLC, an affiliated business arrangement with various owners of Windermere Real Estate Company franchises whose home loan businesses are known as Penrith Home Loans (some of which were formerly known as Windermere Mortgage Services).

HomeStreet Capital Corporation, a Washington corporation, originates, sells and services multifamily mortgage loans under the Fannie Mae Delegated Underwriting and Servicing Program (“DUS®")1 in conjunction with HomeStreet Bank.

Doing business as HomeStreet Insurance Agency, we provide insurance products and services for consumers.

Shares of our common stock are traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “HMST.” We also have outstanding $65.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.5% senior notes due 2026, of which $64.8 million in aggregate principal amount is registered pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

At December 31, 2017, we had total assets of $6.74 billion, net loans held for investment of $4.51 billion, deposits of $4.76 billion and shareholders’ equity of $704.4 million. Our operations are currently grouped into two reportable segments: our Commercial and Consumer Banking Segment and our Mortgage Banking Segment.

We generate revenue by earning net interest income and noninterest income. Net interest income is primarily the difference between interest income earned on loans and investment securities less the interest we pay on deposits and other borrowings. We earn noninterest income from the origination, sale and servicing of loans and from fees earned on deposit services and investment and insurance sales.

Since our initial public offering (“IPO”) in February 2012, we have grown considerably, from 20 retail deposit branches, nine stand-alone home loan centers and 553 full-time employees at the time of our IPO to 59 retail deposit branches, six stand-alone commercial lending centers, 44 primary stand-alone home loan centers and 2,419 employees as of December 31, 2017. We experienced considerable success in our single family mortgage banking business from 2012 through the first half of 2016 and used a substantial portion of the income generated by those operations to restart and grow our commercial lending operations, which had been largely shuttered during the recession. We believe the strategic development of our consumer and commercial banking operations will help to offset the volatility of our mortgage business which, while being a core part of our overall operations, is historically cyclical and seasonal. In 2016 we converted the charter of HomeStreet Bank from a Washington state chartered savings bank to a Washington state chartered commercial bank.

At December 31, 2017, our 59 retail deposit branches were located in the State of Washington, Southern California, the Portland, Oregon area and the State of Hawaii, and our 44 primary stand-alone home loan centers and six primary commercial lending centers were located within our retail deposit branch footprint as well as in Phoenix, Arizona; Northern California (including the San Francisco Bay Area); Eugene, Salem and Bend, Oregon; Boise and northern Idaho; and Salt Lake City, Utah. An affiliated business arrangement, WMS Series LLC, doing business as Penrith Home Loans, provides point-of-sale loan origination services at certain Windermere Real Estate offices in Washington and Oregon, and two stand-alone offices. We also have one stand-alone insurance agency office located in Spokane, Washington. The number of lending offices listed above does not include satellite offices with a limited number of staff who report to a manager located in a separate primary office.

Commercial and Consumer Banking. We provide diversified financial products and services to our commercial and consumer customers through bank branches, lending centers, ATMs, online, mobile and telephone banking. These products and services include deposit products; residential, consumer, business and agricultural portfolio loans; non-deposit investment products; insurance products and cash management services. We originate construction loans, bridge loans, and permanent loans for the

1 DUS® is a registered trademark of Fannie Mae
4
 





Company's portfolio on single family residences, and on office, retail, industrial and multifamily properties. We also have a commercial lending team specializing in U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”) lending. We pool a portion of our permanent commercial real estate loans, primarily up to $10 million in principal amount, to sell into the secondary market. We also originate multifamily real estate loans for Fannie Mae under the DUS® Program, whereby loans are sold to or securitized by Fannie Mae, while we generally retain the servicing rights. This segment is also responsible for managing our investment securities portfolio.

Mortgage Banking. We originate single family residential mortgage loans for sale in the secondary markets and perform mortgage servicing on a substantial portion of those loans. The majority of our mortgage loans are sold to or securitized by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae, while we retain the right to service these loans. We are a rated originator and servicer of jumbo nonconforming mortgage loans, allowing us to sell the loans we originate to other entities for inclusion in securities. Additionally, we purchase loans from WMS Series LLC through a correspondent arrangement. We also sell loans on a servicing-released and servicing-retained basis to securitizers and correspondent lenders. A small percentage of our loans are brokered to other lenders or sold on a servicing-released basis to correspondent lenders. On occasion, we may sell a portion of our mortgage servicing rights ("MSR") portfolio. We hedge the loan funding and the interest rate risk associated with the secondary market loan sales and the retained single family mortgage servicing rights using a combination of risk management tools.

Investing in Growth

Our IPO, in February 2012, was part of a plan by our management team to transform HomeStreet from a troubled thrift institution to a regional community bank. Operating under cease and desist orders from our primary regulators, management instituted a plan in 2009 to reduce troubled assets in a strategic and measured way, in order to return the Bank to profitability and raise capital. Our successful IPO restored the institution’s Well-Capitalized status with our regulators and supported growth in our banking operations. In the same quarter that we completed our IPO, we were able to take advantage of a competitor’s exit from the single family mortgage lending market to hire highly experienced management talent and loan production and operations personnel, doubling the size of our single family mortgage lending operation during 2012. This hiring opportunity positioned the Bank to take advantage of a resurgence in mortgage borrowing in our primary markets and to expand our business into Northern California, increasing both our market share and our market footprint. Resolution of our regulatory concerns and increased income from our mortgage lending operations allowed us to focus on growing our commercial and consumer banking operations, geographic footprint and expertise.

We began opening de novo branches to expand our retail deposit branch network and increase our core deposit base, while offering expanded community banking products and services. We have also grown and diversified the Bank through acquisitions of whole banks and retail deposit branches in attractive growth markets on the West Coast, to increase our scale in existing markets and to enter new markets where we can leverage our existing network of single family home loan centers. Our acquisitions have accelerated our growth of interest earning commercial banking assets, strengthened our core deposit base, increased our geographic diversification and added experienced commercial and consumer banking professionals in key target markets. We evaluate acquisition opportunities using certain financial criteria, including: (1) the acquisition must meet a minimum internal rate of return; (2) the return on invested capital must exceed our cost of capital; (3) the acquisition must provide sufficient earnings to be immediately accretive to earnings per share; and (4) the acquisition must offset the initial dilution of tangible book value within four years.

We made our first two whole bank acquisitions -- Fortune Bank ("Fortune") and Yakima National Bank ("YNB") --
simultaneously in the fall of 2013. The Fortune acquisition increased our commercial business loan portfolio and added experienced commercial lending officers and managers in the Seattle area. The YNB acquisition expanded our retail and commercial presence into Eastern Washington. We also acquired two branches and certain related assets in the Seattle metropolitan area from another commercial bank, further increasing our consumer banking presence in our home market.

The next acquisition was Simplicity Bancorp, Inc. ("Simplicity") and its subsidiary, Simplicity Bank, which we acquired by merger on March 1, 2015. Through this acquisition we leveraged our existing home loan center network in Southern California by adding seven retail deposit branches and related branch and loan production staff in the Los Angeles area. We had already expanded our home loan operations into Southern California by adding stand-alone home loan centers and a dedicated home loan processing center in that area. The Simplicity acquisition gave our Southern California operations a significant retail deposit customer base, reduced our reliance on time deposits and increased our portfolios of multifamily and single family mortgages and consumer loans. Interest-earning assets of $803.7 million (including $664.1 million of loans) and $651.2 million of deposits were added to the Bank from the Simplicity merger.


5




Alongside this expansion of real estate and consumer lending and retail bank deposits in Southern California, we also began to build out our commercial business lending operations in that state. In early 2015, we launched both a commercial real estate lending group through creation of a division of the Bank we refer to as HomeStreet Commercial Capital and a commercial lending team specializing in SBA loans.
In February 2016, we further expanded our presence in Southern California through the acquisition of Orange County Business Bank (“OCBB”), located in Irvine, California. This acquisition complemented our expansion of commercial and consumer banking activities in Southern California, providing us with an additional portfolio of commercial loans and deposits, considerable commercial lending talent, and an additional customer base of commercial banking customers.
In August 2016, we acquired substantially all of the assets, including two retail deposit branches, and certain liabilities from The Bank of Oswego to expand our presence in the Portland, Oregon area, increasing the number of our retail branches in the metropolitan area to five. Entry into the Lake Oswego, Oregon market supported our well-established single family mortgage lending presence and built our retail banking convenience and scale in Oregon.
We have also acquired individual retail bank branches from time to time when we have found bank branches that were attractive, available, well-priced and within our strategic growth footprint. In addition to the acquisition of two bank branches in Seattle in 2013, shortly after the Fortune and YNB acquisition, we acquired a retail bank branch and certain related assets in Dayton, Washington on December 11, 2015, which expanded our presence and retail deposit taking capabilities in Eastern Washington; and two branches in Southern California in November 2016, in Granada and Burbank, expanding our presence and retail deposit base in desirable areas of the Los Angeles region. In September 2017, we acquired a retail deposit branch in El Cajon, California, a fast growing suburb in eastern San Diego County.
In addition to these acquisitions, we have opened de novo branches in markets that we believe are underserved by community banks. From 2012 to 2015, we opened 10 de novo branches in the greater Seattle area. In 2016, we added six de novo branches in San Diego, Hawaii and Eastern Washington and in 2017 we opened three de novo branches in Southern California, Eastern Washington and the greater Seattle area. Overall, from our IPO through December 31, 2017, we added 19 de novo branches and acquired eight branches.
We remain focused on minimizing credit risk and on increasing operating efficiency by growing assets and revenues at a faster pace than expenses through measured growth within our existing markets, while managing costs and improving efficiencies.

Restructuring of Single Family Lending

At the end of 2016 and again in 2017, our Mortgage Banking Segment experienced lower than expected single family loan origination volume due to a lack of housing inventory in our primary markets, compounded by interest rate increases that reduced demand for mortgage refinances. In response to this environment, we implemented a restructuring plan in our Mortgage Banking Segment. During this period, we continued to maintain a significant market share in mortgage banking in our primary markets, and we expect mortgage banking to remain an important part of our overall strategy.

The restructuring of our Mortgage Banking Segment during 2017 included a reduction in full time equivalent staffing of
106 employees; closure of three production offices, consolidation of six offices into three offices, and space reductions in three additional offices; and streamlining of the single family leadership team. Although we anticipate that this restructuring will scale our operations to fit our market opportunities, we will continue to monitor market conditions and assess our mortgage banking office locations and staffing levels to focus on the segment's profitability.

Recent Developments

On December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law major tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Tax Reform Act"). The Tax Reform Act reduces the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent and makes many other sweeping changes to the U.S. tax code. We were required to revalue our deferred tax assets and liabilities at the new statutory tax rate upon enactment. As a result of this revaluation, in 2017, we recognized a one-time, non-cash, $23.3 million income tax benefit. Additionally, we expect our estimated effective tax rate to fall to between 21% and 22% for 2018.

On September 27, 2017, the federal banking regulatory agencies issued a joint notice of proposed rulemaking regarding several proposed simplifications of the capital rules related to certain standards initially adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in December 2010 (which standards are commonly referred to as “Basel III”). If adopted as currently drafted, these proposed changes would significantly benefit our Mortgage Banking business model by reducing the amount of regulatory capital that would be required to be held related to our mortgage servicing assets. Other proposed changes, if adopted, would require an increase in capital related to commercial and residential acquisition, development, and construction lending activity and would offset a portion of the benefit we would expect to receive with respect to our mortgage servicing assets under the

6




proposed rules. The final rules have yet to be published following the end of the comment period, but if they are adopted as currently proposed, we would expect to benefit from a reduction in the regulatory capital requirements beginning sometime in 2018.

Business Strategy

During 2017, we focused our business strategy on continuing to expand our Commercial and Consumer Banking Segment while improving our operating efficiency throughout our operations, following a period of substantial growth in both Mortgage Banking and Commercial and Consumer Banking. In 2017, we added four retail deposit branches within our existing geographic footprint, including three de novo branches and one branch obtained through acquisition. The new branches increase the scale and density of our retail bank branch network, improving convenience for our customers and building brand awareness.

In 2017, in the Mortgage Banking Segment, we continued to build on our heritage as a leading single family mortgage lender by hiring proven loan production officers. During 2017, however, our primary goals were focused on cost containment, including restructuring the organization to right-size for the current market opportunity and developing more efficient processes in our Mortgage Banking operations. These initiatives included substantial investments in increased automation, including implementation of an upgraded loan origination system and improvements to other processing and information systems.

We are pursuing the following strategies in our business segments:

Commercial and Consumer Banking. We believe there is a significant opportunity for a well-capitalized, community-focused bank to compete effectively in West Coast markets, especially those that are not well served by existing community banks. Our strategy is to offer responsive and personalized service while providing a full range of financial services to small- and middle-market commercial and consumer customers, to build loyalty and grow market share. We have grown organically and through strategic acquisitions. Between our IPO in 2012 and December 31, 2017, we have added a total of 16 retail deposit branches through acquisitions in the States of Washington and Oregon and in Southern California, and opened 19 de novo retail deposit branches. We also expanded our commercial lending footprint into California by acquiring experienced commercial lending personnel and growing our commercial loan portfolio, in part through acquisitions such as OCBB. In addition to our acquisitions, we added HomeStreet Commercial Capital, a commercial real estate lending division of the Bank based in Orange County, and a commercial lending team in Northern California. We expect to continue to grow our commercial lending (including SBA lending), commercial real estate and residential construction lending throughout our primary markets.

We plan to expand our commercial real estate business with a focus on multifamily mortgage origination, through our existing commercial banking network as well as through our Fannie Mae DUS® origination and servicing relationships. We expect to continue to benefit from being one of only 25 companies nationally that is an approved Fannie Mae DUS® seller and servicer. We plan to continue supporting our DUS® program by providing new construction and short-term bridge loans to experienced borrowers who intend to build or purchase apartment buildings for renovation, which we then seek to replace with permanent financing upon completion of the projects. We also originate commercial real estate construction loans, bridge loans and permanent loans for our portfolio, primarily on office, retail, industrial and multifamily property types located within our geographic footprint and may in the future sell those types of loans to other investors.

We seek to meet the financial needs of our consumer and small business customers by providing targeted banking products and services, investment services and products, and insurance products through our bank branches and through dedicated investment advisors, insurance agents and business banking officers. During 2017, we invested in enhanced mobile banking and web-based offerings to further grow our core deposits. We intend to continue to grow our retail deposit branch network, primarily focusing on the high-growth areas of Puget Sound in Washington, Portland, Oregon, the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California.

Mortgage Banking. We have leveraged our reputation for high quality service and reliable loan closing to increase our single family mortgage market share significantly over the last six years. In 2017, single family loan origination volume was lower than expected due to a lack of housing inventory in our primary markets that reduced demand for purchase mortgages. Demand for mortgage refinances was also lower than expected, due to higher interest rates. Therefore, we implemented the restructuring plan mentioned above. We have maintained a significant market share in mortgage banking in our primary markets and expect mortgage banking to remain an important part of the Company's overall strategy. However, the contraction in the total number of mortgage loans being originated in our markets has led us to focus on building a more efficient operation while enhancing the ability to meet the origination and servicing needs of our mortgage lending clients. We intend to continue to focus on conventional conforming and government insured or guaranteed single family mortgage origination. We also offer home equity,

7




jumbo and other portfolio loan products to complement secondary market lending, particularly for well-qualified borrowers with loan sizes greater than the conventional conforming limits.

We retain the right to service a majority of the mortgage loans that we originate, which we believe gives us a competitive advantage over many of our competitors because we have the opportunity to maintain a relationship with our customer after closing, while minimizing the potential for disruptions that are often inherent in transferring servicing and collection activities to a third party. Maintaining an ongoing relationship with our customers allows us to market additional products and services and remarket potential refinance opportunities with a goal of retaining the customer relationship. We believe that our ability to retain the servicing on our mortgage originations has made us a preferred lender for some of our customers. HomeStreet has the capital, liquidity, and infrastructure necessary to successfully retain the rights to service the mortgages we originate, and we believe this provides us with a competitive advantage over many of our competitors.

Our single family mortgage origination and servicing business is highly dependent upon compliance with underwriting and servicing guidelines of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Federal Housing Administration ("FHA"), Department of Veterans Affairs ("VA") and Ginnie Mae as well as a myriad of federal and state consumer compliance regulations. Our demonstrated expertise in these activities, our significant volume of lending in low- and moderate-income areas, and our direct community investments, have allowed us to maintain a Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) rating of “Satisfactory” or better every year since the program was implemented in 1986. We believe our historically strong compliance culture represents a significant competitive advantage in today's market, especially in the face of increasing regulatory compliance requirements.

For a discussion of operating results of these lines of business, see "Business Segments" within Management's Discussion and Analysis of this Form 10-K and Note 19 - Business Segment in the notes to our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 included in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K.


Market and Competition

We view our market as the major metropolitan areas in the Western United States, including Hawaii. These metropolitan areas share a number of key demographic factors that are characteristic of growth markets, such as large and growing populations with above-average household incomes, a significant number of large and mid-sized companies, and diverse economies. These markets all share large populations that we believe are underserved due to the rapid consolidation of community banks since the financial crisis. We believe these markets can be well served by a strong regional bank that is focused on providing consumers and businesses with quality customer service and a competitive array of deposit, lending and investment products.

As of December 31, 2017, we operated full service bank branches, as well as stand-alone commercial and residential lending centers, in the Puget Sound and eastern regions of Washington, the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area, the Hawaiian Islands, and Southern California. As of that date, we also had primary stand-alone commercial and residential lending centers in the metropolitan areas of San Francisco, California; Phoenix, Arizona; and Salt Lake City, Utah; as well as central California and Idaho. Over time, we expect to efficiently expand our full service bank branches, on a prudent and opportunistic basis, to areas being served only by stand-alone lending centers.

The financial services industry is highly competitive. We compete with other banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, mortgage banking companies, insurance companies, finance companies, and investment and mutual fund companies. In particular, we compete with many financial institutions with greater resources, including the capacity to make larger loans, fund extensive advertising campaigns and offer a broader array of products and services. The number of competitors for lower and middle-market business customers has, however, decreased in recent years primarily due to consolidations. At the same time, national banks have been focused on larger customers to achieve economies of scale in lending and depository relationships and have also consolidated business banking operations and support and reduced service levels in many of our markets. We have taken advantage of industry consolidation by recruiting well-qualified employees and attracting new customers who seek long-term stability, local decision-making, quality products and outstanding expertise and customer service.

We believe we are well positioned to take advantage of changes in the single family mortgage origination and servicing industry that have helped to reduce the number of competitors. The mortgage industry is compliance-intensive and requires significant expertise and internal control systems to ensure mortgage loan origination and servicing providers meet all origination, processing, underwriting, servicing and disclosure requirements. We believe our compliance-centered culture affords us a competitive advantage even as the growing complexity of the regulatory landscape poses a barrier to entry for many of our would-be competitors. For example, the Truth in Lending Act-Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act ("TILA-RESPA") Integrated Disclosure (commonly known as "TRID") requirements substantially increased documentation requirements and responsibilities for the mortgage industry, further complicating work flow and increasing training costs,

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thereby increasing barriers to entry and costs of operations across the mortgage industry. These rules added to the work involved in originating mortgage loans and added to processing costs for all mortgage originators. In some cases, these rules have lengthened the time needed to close loans. Increased costs and additional compliance burdens are causing some competitors to exit the industry. Mortgage lenders must make significant investments in experienced personnel and specialized systems to manage the compliance process, which creates a significant barrier to entry. In addition, lending in conventional and government guaranteed or insured mortgage products, including FHA and VA loans, requires significantly higher capitalization than had previously been required for mortgage brokers and non-bank mortgage companies.

Employees

As of December 31, 2017, we employed 2,419 full-time equivalent employees, compared to 2,552 full-time equivalent employees at December 31, 2016.

Where You Can Obtain Additional Information

We file annual, quarterly, current and other reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). We make available free of charge on or through our website http://www.homestreet.com all of these reports (and all amendments thereto), as soon as reasonably practicable after we file these materials with the SEC. Please note that the contents of our website do not constitute a part of our reports, and those contents are not incorporated by reference into this report or any of our other securities filings. You may review a copy of our reports, including exhibits and schedules filed therewith, and obtain copies of such materials at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants, such as HomeStreet, that file electronically with the SEC.


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REGULATION AND SUPERVISION

The following is a brief description of certain laws and regulations that are applicable to us. The description of these laws and regulations, as well as descriptions of laws and regulations contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K, does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable laws and regulations.

The bank regulatory framework to which we are subject is intended primarily for the protection of bank depositors and the Deposit Insurance Fund and not for the protection of shareholders or other security holders.
General
The Company is a bank holding company which has made an election to be a financial holding company. It is regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "Federal Reserve") and the Washington State Department of Financial Institutions, Division of Banks (the "WDFI"). The Company is required to register and file reports with, and otherwise comply with, the rules and regulations of the Federal Reserve and the WDFI.
The Bank is a Washington state-chartered commercial bank. The Bank is subject to regulation, examination and supervision by the WDFI and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC").
New statutes, regulations and guidance are considered regularly that could contain wide-ranging potential changes to the competitive landscape for financial institutions operating in our markets and in the United States generally. We cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed statute, regulation or other guidance will be adopted or promulgated, or the extent to which our business may be affected. Any change in policies, legislation or regulation, whether by the Federal Reserve, the WDFI, the FDIC, the Washington legislature, the United States Congress or any other federal, state or local government branch or agency with authority over us, could have a material adverse impact on us and our operations and shareholders. In addition, the Federal Reserve, the WDFI and the FDIC have significant discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including, among other things, policies with respect to the Bank's capital levels, the classification of assets and establishment of adequate loan loss reserves for regulatory purposes.
Our operations and earnings will be affected by domestic economic conditions and the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States government and its agencies. In addition to its role as the regulator of bank holding companies, the Federal Reserve has, and is likely to continue to have, an important impact on the operating results of financial institutions through its power to implement national monetary and fiscal policy including, among other things, actions taken in order to curb inflation or combat a recession. The Federal Reserve affects the levels of bank loans, investments and deposits in various ways, including through its control over the issuance of United States government securities, its regulation of the discount rate applicable to member banks and its influence over reserve requirements to which banks are subject. Beginning in December 2015, the Federal Reserve has increased short-term interest rates five times and is expected to consider additional increases in 2018. We cannot predict the ultimate impact of these rate changes on the economy or our institution, or the nature or impact of future changes in monetary policies of the Federal Reserve.
Regulation of the Company
General
As a bank holding company, the Company is subject to Federal Reserve regulations, examinations, supervision and reporting requirements relating to bank holding companies. Among other things, the Federal Reserve is authorized to restrict or prohibit activities that are determined to be a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of a subsidiary bank. Since the Bank is chartered under Washington law, the WDFI has authority to regulate the Company generally relating to its conduct affecting the Bank.
Capital / Source of Strength
During 2015, the Company was a savings and loan holding company and as such became subject to capital requirements under the Dodd-Frank Act, beginning in 2015. Following its conversion to a bank holding company, the Company continues to be subject to these capital requirements. See “Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements.”
Regulations and historical practices of the Federal Reserve have required bank holding companies to serve as a “source of strength” for their subsidiary banks. The Dodd-Frank Act codifies this requirement and extends it to all companies that control an insured depository institution. Accordingly, the Company is required to act as a source of strength for the Bank.

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Restrictions Applicable to Bank Holding Companies
Federal law prohibits a bank holding company, including the Company, directly or indirectly (or through one or more subsidiaries), from acquiring:
control of another depository institution (or a holding company parent) without prior approval of the Federal Reserve (as “control” is defined under the Bank Holding Company Act);
another depository institution (or a holding company thereof), through merger, consolidation or purchase of all or substantially all of the assets of such institution (or holding company) without prior approval from the Federal Reserve or FDIC;
more than 5.0% of the voting shares of a non-subsidiary depository institution or a holding company subject to certain exceptions; or
control of any depository institution not insured by the FDIC (except through a merger with and into the holding company's bank subsidiary that is approved by the FDIC).
In evaluating applications by holding companies to acquire depository institutions or holding companies, the Federal Reserve must consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the company and the institutions involved, the effect of the acquisition on the risk to the insurance funds, the convenience and needs of the community and competitive factors.
Acquisition of Control
Under the federal Change in Bank Control Act, a notice must be submitted to the Federal Reserve if any person (including a company), or group acting in concert, seeks to acquire “control” of a bank holding company. An acquisition of control can occur upon the acquisition of 10.0% or more of the voting stock of a bank holding company or as otherwise defined by the Federal Reserve. Under the Change in Bank Control Act, the Federal Reserve has 60 days from the filing of a complete notice to act (the 60-day period may be extended), taking into consideration certain factors, including the financial and managerial resources of the acquirer and the antitrust effects of the acquisition. Control can also exist if an individual or company has, or exercises, directly or indirectly or by acting in concert with others, a controlling influence over the Bank. Washington law also imposes certain limitations on the ability of persons and entities to acquire control of banking institutions and their parent companies.
Dividend Policy
Under Washington law, the Company is generally permitted to make a distribution, including payments of dividends, only if, after giving effect to the distribution, in the judgment of the board of directors, (1) the Company would be able to pay its debts as they become due in the ordinary course of business and (2) the Company's total assets would at least equal the sum of its total liabilities plus the amount that would be needed if the Company were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of shareholders whose preferential rights are superior to those receiving the distribution. In addition, it is the policy of the Federal Reserve that bank holding companies generally should pay dividends only out of net income generated over the past year and only if the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the organization’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The policy also provides that bank holding companies should not maintain a level of cash dividends that places undue pressure on the capital of its subsidiary bank or that may undermine its ability to serve as a source of strength.
The Company's ability to pay dividends to shareholders is significantly dependent on the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Company. Capital rules as well as regulatory policy impose additional requirements on the ability of the Company and the Bank to pay dividends. See “Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements.”
Compensation Policies
Compensation policies and practices at the Company and the Bank are subject to regulation by their respective banking regulators and the SEC.
Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies. Effective on June 25, 2010, federal banking regulators adopted Sound Incentive Compensation Policies Final Guidance (the “Final Guidance”) designed to help ensure that incentive compensation policies at banking organizations do not encourage imprudent risk-taking and are consistent with the safety and soundness of the organization. The Final Guidance applies to senior executives and others who are responsible for oversight of HomeStreet's

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company-wide activities and material business lines, as well as other employees who, either individually or as a part of a group, have the ability to expose the Bank to material amounts of risk.
Dodd-Frank Act. In addition to the Final Guidance, the Dodd-Frank Act contains a number of provisions relating to compensation applying to public companies such as the Company. The Dodd-Frank Act added a new Section 14A(a) to the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act") that requires companies to include a separate non-binding resolution subject to shareholder vote in their proxy materials approving the executive compensation disclosed in the materials. In addition, a new Section 14A(b) to the Exchange Act requires any proxy or consent solicitation materials for a meeting seeking shareholder approval of an acquisition, merger, consolidation or disposition of all or substantially all of the company's assets to include a separate non-binding shareholder resolution approving certain “golden parachute” payments made in connection with the transaction. A new Section 10D to the Exchange Act requires the SEC to direct the national securities exchanges to require companies to implement a policy to “claw back” certain executive payments that were made based on improper financial statements.
In addition, Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act requires certain regulators (including the FDIC, SEC and Federal Reserve) to adopt regulations or guidelines prohibiting excessive compensation or compensation that could lead to material loss as well as rules relating to disclosure of compensation. On April 14, 2011, these regulators published a joint proposed rulemaking to implement Section 956 of Dodd-Frank for depository institutions, their holding companies and various other financial institutions with $1 billion or more in assets. On June 10, 2016, these regulators published a modified proposed rule. Under the new proposed rule, the requirements and prohibitions will vary depending on the size and complexity of the covered institution. Generally, for covered institutions with less than $50 billion in consolidated assets (such as the Company), the new proposed rule would (1) prohibit incentive-based compensation arrangements for covered persons that would encourage inappropriate risks by providing excessive compensation or by providing compensation that could lead to a material financial loss, (2) require oversight of an institution’s incentive-based compensation arrangements by the institution’s board of directors or a committee and approval by the board or committee of certain payments and awards and (3) require the creation on an annual basis and maintenance for at least seven years of records that (a) document the institution’s incentive compensation arrangements, (b) demonstrate compliance with the regulation and (c) are disclosed to the institution's appropriate federal regulator upon request.
FDIC Regulations. We are further restricted in our ability to make certain “golden parachute” and “indemnification” payments under Part 359 of the FDIC regulations, and the FDIC also regulates payments to executives under Part 364 of its regulations relating to excessive executive compensation.
Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank
General
As a commercial bank chartered under the laws of the State of Washington, HomeStreet Bank is subject to applicable provisions of Washington law and regulations of the WDFI. As a state-chartered commercial bank that is not a member of the Federal Reserve System, the Bank's primary federal regulator is the FDIC. It is subject to regulation and examination by the WDFI and the FDIC, as well as enforcement actions initiated by the WDFI and the FDIC, and its deposits are insured by the FDIC.
Washington Banking Regulation
As a Washington bank, the Bank's operations and activities are substantially regulated by Washington law and regulations, which govern, among other things, the Bank's ability to take deposits and pay interest, make loans on or invest in residential and other real estate, make consumer and commercial loans, invest in securities, offer various banking services to its customers and establish branch offices. Under state law, commercial banks in Washington also generally have, subject to certain limitations or approvals, all of the powers that Washington chartered savings banks have under Washington law and that federal savings banks and national banks have under federal laws and regulations.
Washington law also governs numerous corporate activities relating to the Bank, including the Bank's ability to pay dividends, to engage in merger activities and to amend its articles of incorporation, as well as limitations on change of control of the Bank. Under Washington law, the board of directors of the Bank generally may not declare a cash dividend on its capital stock if payment of such dividend would cause its net worth to be reduced below the net worth requirements, if any, imposed by the WDFI and dividends may not be paid in an amount greater than its retained earnings without the approval of the WDFI. These restrictions are in addition to restrictions imposed by federal law. Mergers involving the Bank and sales or acquisitions of its branches are generally subject to the approval of the WDFI. No person or entity may acquire control of the Bank until 30 days after filing an application with the WDFI, which has the authority to disapprove the application. Washington law defines

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“control” of an entity to mean directly or indirectly, alone or in concert with others, to own, control or hold the power to vote 25.0% or more of the outstanding stock or voting power of the entity. Any amendment to the Bank's articles of incorporation requires the approval of the WDFI.
The Bank is subject to periodic examination by and reporting requirements of the WDFI, as well as enforcement actions initiated by the WDFI. The WDFI's enforcement powers include the issuance of orders compelling or restricting conduct by the Bank and the authority to bring actions to remove the Bank's directors, officers and employees. The WDFI has authority to place the Bank under supervisory direction or to take possession of the Bank and to appoint the FDIC as receiver.
Insurance of Deposit Accounts and Regulation by the FDIC
The FDIC is the Bank's principal federal bank regulator. As such, the FDIC is authorized to conduct examinations of, and to require reporting by the Bank. The FDIC may prohibit the Bank from engaging in any activity determined by law, regulation or order to pose a serious risk to the institution, and may take a variety of enforcement actions in the event the Bank violates a law, regulation or order or engages in an unsafe or unsound practice or under certain other circumstances. The FDIC also has the authority to appoint itself as receiver of the Bank or to terminate the Bank's deposit insurance if it were to determine that the Bank has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices or is in an unsafe or unsound condition.
The Bank is a member of the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”) administered by the FDIC, which insures customer deposit accounts. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the amount of federal deposit insurance coverage was permanently increased from $100,000 to $250,000, per depositor, for each account ownership category at each depository institution. This change made permanent the coverage increases that had been in effect since October 2008.
In order to maintain the DIF, member institutions, such as the Bank, are assessed insurance premiums. The Dodd-Frank Act required the FDIC to make numerous changes to the DIF and the manner in which assessments are calculated. The minimum ratio of assets in the DIF to the total of estimated insured deposits was increased from 1.15% to 1.35%, and the FDIC is given until September 30, 2020 to meet the reserve ratio. In December 2010, the FDIC adopted a final rule setting the reserve ratio of the DIF at 2.0%. As required by the Dodd-Frank Act, assessments are now based on an insured institution's average consolidated assets less tangible equity capital.
Each institution is provided an assessment rate, which is generally based on the risk that the institution presents to the DIF. Institutions with less than $10 billion in assets generally have an assessment rate that can range from 1.5 to 30 basis points. However, the FDIC does have flexibility to adopt assessment rates without additional rule-making provided that the total base assessment rate increase or decrease does not exceed 2 basis points. The assessment rates were lowered effective July 1, 2016, since the reserve ratio reached 1.15% as of June 30, 2016. In the future, if the reserve ratio reaches certain levels, these assessment rates will generally be further lowered. As of December 31, 2017, the Bank's assessment rate was 5 basis points on average assets less average tangible equity capital.
In addition, all FDIC-insured institutions are required to pay a pro rata portion of the interest due on obligations issued by the Financing Corporation to fund the closing and disposal of failed thrift institutions by the Resolution Trust Corporation. The Financing Corporation rate is adjusted quarterly to reflect changes in assessment bases of the DIF. These assessments will continue until the Financing Corporation bonds mature in 2019. The annual rate for the first quarter of 2018 is 0.46 basis points.
Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements
Capital Requirements
In July 2013, federal banking regulators (including the FDIC and the FRB) adopted new capital rules (the “Rules”). The Rules apply to both depository institutions (such as the Bank) and their holding companies (such as the Company). The Rules reflect, in part, certain standards initially adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in December 2010 (which standards are commonly referred to as “Basel III”) as well as requirements contemplated by the Dodd-Frank Act. The Rules applied to both the Company and the Bank beginning in 2015.
The Rules recognize three components, or tiers, of capital: common equity Tier 1 capital, additional Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital. Common equity Tier 1 capital generally consists of retained earnings and common stock instruments (subject to certain adjustments), as well as accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) except to the extent that the Company and the Bank exercise a one-time irrevocable option to exclude certain components of AOCI. Both the Company and the Bank made this election in 2015. Additional Tier 1 capital generally includes non-cumulative preferred stock and related surplus subject to certain adjustments and limitations. Tier 2 capital generally includes certain capital instruments (such as subordinated debt) and

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portions of the amounts of the allowance for loan and lease losses, subject to certain requirements and deductions. The term “Tier 1 capital” means common equity Tier 1 capital plus additional Tier 1 capital, and the term “total capital” means Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital.
The Rules generally measure an institution’s capital using four capital measures or ratios. The common equity Tier 1 capital ratio is the ratio of the institution’s common equity Tier 1 capital to its Tier 1 risk-weighted assets. The Tier 1 capital ratio is the ratio of the institution’s Tier 1 capital to its total risk-weighted assets. The total capital ratio is the ratio of the institution’s total capital to its total risk-weighted assets. The leverage ratio is the ratio of the institution’s Tier 1 capital to its average total consolidated assets. To determine risk-weighted assets, assets of an institution are generally placed into a risk category as prescribed by the regulations and given a percentage weight based on the relative risk of that category. The percentage weights range from 0% to 1,250%. An asset’s risk-weighted value will generally be its percentage weight multiplied by the asset’s value as determined under generally accepted accounting principles. In addition, certain off-balance-sheet items are converted to balance-sheet credit equivalent amounts, and each amount is then assigned to one of the risk categories. An institution’s federal regulator may require the institution to hold more capital than would otherwise be required under the Rules if the regulator determines that the institution’s capital requirements under the Rules are not commensurate with the institution’s credit, market, operational or other risks.
To be adequately capitalized both the Company and the Bank are required to have a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 4.5% or more, a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4.0% or more, a Tier 1 risk-based ratio of 6.0% or more and a total risk-based ratio of 8.0% or more. In addition to the preceding requirements, all financial institutions subject to the Rules, including both the Company and the Bank, are required to establish a “conservation buffer,” consisting of common equity Tier 1 capital, which is at least 2.5% above each of the preceding common equity Tier 1 capital ratio, the Tier 1 risk-based ratio and the total risk-based ratio. An institution that does not meet the conservation buffer will be subject to restrictions on certain activities including payment of dividends, stock repurchases and discretionary bonuses to executive officers.
The Rules set forth the manner in which certain capital elements are determined, including but not limited to, requiring certain deductions related to mortgage servicing rights and deferred tax assets. When the federal banking regulators initially proposed new capital rules in 2012, the rules would have phased out trust preferred securities as a component of Tier 1 capital. As finally adopted, however, the Rules permit holding companies with less than $15 billion in total assets as of December 31, 2009 (which includes the Company) to continue to include trust preferred securities issued prior to May 19, 2010 in Tier 1 capital, generally up to 25% of other Tier 1 capital.
The Rules made changes in the methods of calculating certain risk-based assets, which in turn affects the calculation of risk- based ratios. Higher or more sensitive risk weights are assigned to various categories of assets, among which are commercial real estate, credit facilities that finance the acquisition, development or construction of real property, certain exposures or credits that are 90 days past due or are nonaccrual, foreign exposures, certain corporate exposures, securitization exposures, equity exposures and in certain cases mortgage servicing rights and deferred tax assets.
Both the Company and the Bank were generally required to be in compliance with the Rules on January 1, 2015. The conservation buffer began being phased in beginning in 2016 and would have taken full effect on January 1, 2019. However, in August 2017, the rules were halted at 2017 levels. Certain calculations under the Rules will also have phase-in periods. We believe that the current capital levels of the Company and the Bank are in compliance with the standards under the Rules including the conservation buffer.
On September 27, 2017, the federal banking regulatory agencies issued a joint notice of proposed rulemaking regarding several proposed simplifications of the Basel III capital rules. If adopted as currently drafted, these proposed changes would significantly benefit our Mortgage Banking business model by reducing the amount of regulatory capital that would be required to be held related to our mortgage servicing assets. Other proposed changes, if adopted, would require an increase in capital related to commercial and residential acquisition, development, and construction lending activity and would offset a portion of the benefit we would expect to receive with respect to our mortgage servicing assets. The final rules have yet to be published following the end of the comment period, but if they are adopted without any material changes to the September 2017 proposal, the Company and the Bank would expect to benefit from a reduction in the regulatory capital requirements beginning sometime in 2018.


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Prompt Corrective Action Regulations
Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act establishes a framework of supervisory actions for insured depository institutions that are not adequately capitalized, also known as “prompt corrective action” regulations. All of the federal banking agencies have promulgated substantially similar regulations to implement a system of prompt corrective action. These regulations apply to the Bank but not the Company. As modified by the Rules, the framework establishes five capital categories; under the Rules, a bank is:
“well capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or more, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or more, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based ratio of 6.5% or more, and a leverage capital ratio of 5.0% or more, and is not subject to any written agreement, order or capital directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure;
“adequately capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or more, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or more, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based ratio of 4.5% or more, and a leverage capital ratio of 4.0% or more;
“undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio less than 8.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio less than 6.0%, a common equity risk-based ratio less than 4.5% or a leverage capital ratio less than 4.0%;
“significantly undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio less than 6.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio less than 4.0%, a common equity risk-based ratio less than 3.0% or a leverage capital ratio less than 3.0%; and
“critically undercapitalized” if it has a ratio of tangible equity to total assets that is equal to or less than 2.0%.
A bank that, based upon its capital levels, is classified as “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized” or “undercapitalized” may be treated as though it were in the next lower capital category if the appropriate federal banking agency, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, determines that an unsafe or unsound condition, or an unsafe or unsound practice, warrants such treatment.
At each successive lower capital category, an insured bank is subject to increasingly severe supervisory actions. These actions include, but are not limited to, restrictions on asset growth, interest rates paid on deposits, branching, allowable transactions with affiliates, ability to pay bonuses and raises to senior executives and pursuing new lines of business. Additionally, all “undercapitalized” banks are required to implement capital restoration plans to restore capital to at least the “adequately capitalized” level, and the FDIC is generally required to close “critically undercapitalized” banks within a 90-day period.
Limitations on Transactions with Affiliates
Transactions between the Bank and any affiliate are governed by Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act. An affiliate of the Bank is any company or entity which controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the Bank but which is not a subsidiary of the Bank. The Company and its non-bank subsidiaries are affiliates of the Bank. Generally, Section 23A limits the extent to which the Bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10.0% of the Bank's capital stock and surplus, and imposes an aggregate limit on all such transactions with all affiliates in an amount equal to 20.0% of such capital stock and surplus. Section 23B applies to “covered transactions” as well as certain other transactions and requires that all transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the Bank, as those provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans to an affiliate, the purchase of or investment in the securities issued by an affiliate, the purchase of assets from an affiliate, the acceptance of securities issued by an affiliate as collateral security for a loan or extension of credit to any person or company, the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate, or certain transactions with an affiliate that involves the borrowing or lending of securities and certain derivative transactions with an affiliate.
In addition, Sections 22(g) and (h) of the Federal Reserve Act place restrictions on loans, derivatives, repurchase agreements and securities lending to executive officers, directors and principal shareholders of the Bank and its affiliates.
Standards for Safety and Soundness
The federal banking regulatory agencies have prescribed, by regulation, a set of guidelines for all insured depository institutions prescribing safety and soundness standards. These guidelines establish general standards for internal controls, information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate risk exposure, asset growth, asset quality, earnings standards, compensation, fees and benefits. In general, the guidelines require appropriate systems and practices to identify and manage the risks and exposures specified in the guidelines before capital becomes impaired. The guidelines prohibit excessive compensation as an unsafe and unsound practice and describe compensation as excessive when

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the amounts paid are unreasonable or disproportionate to the services performed by an executive officer, employee, director, or principal shareholder.
Each insured depository institution must implement a comprehensive written information security program that includes administrative, technical and physical safeguards appropriate to the institution's size and complexity and the nature and scope of its activities. The information security program also must be designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any unanticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information, protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer and ensure the proper disposal of customer and consumer information. Each insured depository institution must also develop and implement a risk-based response program to address incidents of unauthorized access to customer information in customer information systems. If the FDIC determines that the Bank fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, it may require the Bank to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard. The Bank maintains a program to meet the information security requirements.
Real Estate Lending Standards
FDIC regulations require the Bank to adopt and maintain written policies that establish appropriate limits and standards for real estate loans. These standards, which must be consistent with safe and sound banking practices, must establish loan portfolio diversification standards, prudent underwriting standards (including loan-to-value ratio limits) that are clear and measurable, loan administration procedures and documentation, approval and reporting requirements. The Bank is obligated to monitor conditions in its real estate markets to ensure that its standards continue to be appropriate for market conditions. The Bank's board of directors is required to review and approve the Bank's standards at least annually.
The FDIC has published guidelines for compliance with these regulations, including supervisory limitations on loan-to-value ratios for different categories of real estate loans. Under the guidelines, the aggregate amount of all loans in excess of the supervisory loan-to-value ratios should not exceed 100.0% of total capital, and the total of all loans for commercial, agricultural, multifamily or other non-one-to-four family residential properties in excess of such ratios should not exceed 30.0% of total capital. Loans in excess of the supervisory loan-to-value ratio limitations must be identified in the Bank's records and reported at least quarterly to the Bank's board of directors.
The FDIC and the federal banking agencies have also issued guidance on sound risk management practices for concentrations in commercial real estate lending. The particular focus is on exposure to commercial real estate loans that are dependent on the cash flow from the real estate held as collateral and that are likely to be sensitive to conditions in the commercial real estate market (as opposed to real estate collateral held as a secondary source of repayment or as an abundance of caution). The purpose of the guidance is not to limit a bank's commercial real estate lending but to guide banks in developing risk management practices and capital levels commensurate with the level and nature of real estate concentrations.
Risk Retention
The Dodd-Frank Act requires that, subject to certain exemptions, securitizers of mortgage and other asset-backed securities retain not less than five percent of the credit risk of the mortgages or other assets and that the securitizer not hedge or otherwise transfer the risk it is required to retain. In December 2014, the federal banking regulators, together with the SEC, the Federal Housing Finance Agency and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, published a final rule implementing this requirement. Generally, the final rule provides various ways in which the retention of risk requirement can be satisfied and also describes exemptions from the retention requirements for various types of assets, including mortgages. Compliance with the final rule with respect to residential mortgage securitizations was required beginning in December 2015 and was required beginning in December 2016 for all other securitizations.

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Volcker Rule

In December 2013, the FDIC, the FRB and various other federal agencies issued final rules to implement certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act commonly known as the “Volcker Rule.” Subject to certain exceptions, the final rules generally prohibit banks and affiliated companies from engaging in short-term proprietary trading of certain securities, derivatives, commodity futures and options on those instruments, for their own account. The final rules also impose restrictions on banks and their affiliates from acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in, sponsoring or having certain other relationships with hedge funds or private equity funds.
Activities and Investments of Insured State-Chartered Financial Institutions
Federal law generally prohibits FDIC-insured state banks from engaging as a principal in activities, and from making equity investments, other than those that are permissible for national banks. An insured state bank is not prohibited from, among other things, (1) acquiring or retaining a majority interest in certain subsidiaries, (2) investing as a limited partner in a partnership the sole purpose of which is direct or indirect investment in the acquisition, rehabilitation or new construction of a qualified housing project, provided that such limited partnership investments may not exceed 2.0% of the bank's total assets, (3) acquiring up to 10.0% of the voting stock of a company that solely provides or reinsures directors', trustees' and officers' liability insurance coverage or bankers' blanket bond group insurance coverage for insured depository institutions and (4) acquiring or retaining the voting shares of a depository institution if certain requirements are met.
Washington State has enacted a law regarding financial institution parity. The law generally provides that Washington-chartered commercial banks may exercise any of the powers of Washington-chartered savings banks, national banks or federally-chartered savings banks, subject to the approval of the Director of the WDFI in certain situations.
Environmental Issues Associated With Real Estate Lending
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, or (the "CERCLA"), is a federal statute that generally imposes strict liability on all prior and present “owners and operators” of sites containing hazardous waste. However, Congress has acted to protect secured creditors by providing that the term “owner and operator” excludes a person whose ownership is limited to protecting its security interest in the site. Since the enactment of the CERCLA, this “secured creditor” exemption has been the subject of judicial interpretations which have left open the possibility that lenders could be liable for cleanup costs on contaminated property that they hold as collateral for a loan. To the extent that legal uncertainty exists in this area, all creditors, including the Bank, that have made loans secured by properties with potential hazardous waste contamination (such as petroleum contamination) could be subject to liability for cleanup costs, which costs often substantially exceed the value of the collateral property.
Reserve Requirements
The Bank is subject to Federal Reserve regulations pursuant to which depositary institutions may be required to maintain non-interest-earning reserves against their deposit accounts and certain other liabilities. Reserves must be maintained against transaction accounts (primarily negotiable order of withdrawal and regular checking accounts). The regulations generally required in 2017 that reserves be maintained as follows:
Net transaction accounts up to $15.5 million were exempt from reserve requirements.
A reserve of 3.0% of the aggregate is required for transaction accounts over $15.5 million up to $115.1 million.
A reserve of 10% is required for any transaction accounts over $115.1 million.
In 2018, the regulations generally require that reserves be maintained as follows:
Net transaction accounts up to $16.0 million were exempt from reserve requirements.
A reserve of 3.0% of the aggregate is required for transaction accounts over $16.0 million up to $122.3 million.
A reserve of 10% is required for any transaction accounts over $122.3 million.


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Federal Home Loan Bank System
The Federal Home Loan Bank system consists of 11 regional Federal Home Loan Banks. Among other benefits, each of these serves as a reserve or central bank for its members within its assigned region. Each of the Federal Home Loan Banks makes available loans or advances to its members in compliance with the policies and procedures established by its board of directors. The Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines (the “Des Moines FHLB”) and is a borrowing non-member financial institution with the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco ("San Francisco FHLB"). As a member of the Des Moines FHLB, the Bank is required to own stock in the Des Moines FHLB. Separately, pursuant to a non-member lending agreement with the San Francisco FHLB that we entered into at the time of the Simplicity Acquisition, we are required to own stock of the San Francisco FHLB so long as we continue to be a borrower from the San Francisco FHLB. As of December 31, 2017, we owned $46.6 million of stock in the FHLB in the aggregate based on these obligations.
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
Banks are subject to the provisions of the CRA of 1977, which requires the appropriate federal bank regulatory agency to assess a bank's record in meeting the credit needs of the assessment areas serviced by the bank, including low and moderate income neighborhoods. The regulatory agency's assessment of the bank's record is made available to the public. Further, these assessments are considered by regulators when evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open or relocate a branch or facility. The Bank currently has a rating of “Satisfactory” under the CRA.
Dividends
Dividends from the Bank constitute an important source of funds for dividends that may be paid by the Company to shareholders. The amount of dividends payable by the Bank to the Company depends upon the Bank's earnings and capital position and is limited by federal and state laws. Under Washington law, the Bank may not declare or pay a cash dividend on its capital stock if this would cause its net worth to be reduced below the net worth requirements, if any, imposed by the WDFI. In addition, dividends on the Bank's capital stock may not be paid in an amount greater than its retained earnings without the approval of the WDFI.
The amount of dividends actually paid during any one period will be strongly affected by the Bank's policy of maintaining a strong capital position. Federal law prohibits an insured depository institution from paying a cash dividend if this would cause the institution to be “undercapitalized,” as defined in the prompt corrective action regulations. Moreover, the federal bank regulatory agencies have the general authority to limit the dividends paid by insured banks if such payments are deemed to constitute an unsafe and unsound practice. Capital rules that went into effect in 2015 impose additional requirements on the Bank’s ability to pay dividends. See “- Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements.”
Liquidity
The Bank is required to maintain a sufficient amount of liquid assets to ensure its safe and sound operation. See “Management's Discussion and Analysis - Liquidity Risk and Capital Resources.”
Compensation
The Bank is subject to regulation of its compensation practices. See “Regulation and Supervision - Regulation of the Company - Compensation Policies.”
Bank Secrecy Act and USA Patriot Act
The Company and the Bank are subject to the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act, which gives the federal government powers to address money laundering and terrorist threats through enhanced domestic security measures, expanded surveillance powers and mandatory transaction reporting obligations. By way of example, the Bank Secrecy Act imposes an affirmative obligation on the Bank to report currency transactions that exceed certain thresholds and to report other transactions determined to be suspicious. Beginning in May 2018, the Bank Secrecy Act will also require financial institutions, including the Bank, to meet certain customer due diligence requirements, including obtaining a certification from the individual opening the account on behalf of the legal entity that identifies the beneficial owner(s) of the entity. The purpose of these requirements is to enable the Bank to be able to predict with relative certainty the types of transactions in which a customer is likely to engage which should in turn assist in determining when transactions are potentially suspicious.
Like all United States companies and individuals, the Company and the Bank are prohibited from transacting business with certain individuals and entities named on the Office of Foreign Asset Control's list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. Failure to comply may result in fines and other penalties. The Office of Foreign Asset Control (“OFAC”) has

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issued guidance directed at financial institutions in which it asserted that it may, in its discretion, examine institutions determined to be high-risk or to be lacking in their efforts to comply with these prohibitions.
The Bank maintains a program to meet the requirements of the Bank Secrecy Act, USA PATRIOT Act and OFAC.
Identity Theft
Section 315 of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act ("FACT Act") requires each financial institution or creditor to develop and implement a written Identity Theft Prevention Program to detect, prevent and mitigate identity theft “red flags” in connection with the opening of certain accounts or certain existing accounts.
The Bank maintains a program to meet the requirements of Section 315 of the FACT Act.
Consumer Protection Laws and Regulations
The Bank and its affiliates are subject to a broad array of federal and state consumer protection laws and regulations that govern almost every aspect of its business relationships with consumers. While this list is not exhaustive, these include the Truth-in-Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Secure and Fair Enforcement in Mortgage Licensing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Service Members' Civil Relief Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act, the Consumer Leasing Act, the Fair Credit Billing Act, the Homeowners Protection Act, the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, laws governing flood insurance, laws governing consumer protections in connection with the sale of insurance, federal and state laws prohibiting unfair and deceptive business practices, foreclosure laws and various regulations that implement some or all of the foregoing. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits, making loans, collecting loans and providing other services. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations can subject the Bank to various penalties, including but not limited to, enforcement actions, injunctions, fines, civil liability, criminal penalties, punitive damages and the loss of certain contractual rights. The Bank has a compliance governance structure in place to help ensure its compliance with these requirements.
The Dodd-Frank Act established the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection ("CFPB") as a new independent bureau that is responsible for regulating consumer financial products and services under federal consumer financial laws. The CFPB has broad rulemaking authority with respect to these laws and exclusive examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to banks with assets of more than $10 billion.
The Dodd-Frank Act also contains a variety of provisions intended to reform consumer mortgage practices. The provisions include (1) a requirement that lenders make a determination that at the time a residential mortgage loan is consummated the consumer has a reasonable ability to repay the loan and related costs, (2) a ban on loan originator compensation based on the interest rate or other terms of the loan (other than the amount of the principal), (3) a ban on prepayment penalties for certain types of loans, (4) bans on arbitration provisions in mortgage loans and (5) requirements for enhanced disclosures in connection with the making of a loan. The Dodd-Frank Act also imposes a variety of requirements on entities that service mortgage loans and significantly expanded mortgage loan application data collection and reporting requirements under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act.
The Dodd-Frank Act contains provisions further regulating payment card transactions. The Dodd-Frank Act required the Federal Reserve to adopt regulations limiting any interchange fee for a debit transaction to an amount which is “reasonable and proportional” to the costs incurred by the issuer. The Federal Reserve has adopted final regulations limiting the amount of debit interchange fees that large bank issuers may charge or receive on their debit card transactions. There is an exemption from the rules for issuers with assets of less than $10 billion and the Federal Reserve has stated that it will monitor and report to Congress on the effectiveness of the exemption.
Future Legislation or Regulation

The Trump administration, Congress, the regulators and various states continue to focus attention on the financial services industry. Proposals that affect the industry will likely continue to be introduced. In particular, the Trump administration and various members of Congress have expressed a desire to modify or repeal parts of the Dodd-Frank Act. We cannot predict whether any of these proposals will be enacted or adopted or, if they are, the effect they would have on our business, our operations or our financial condition or on the financial services industry generally.

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ITEM 1A
RISK FACTORS

This Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this report.

Risks Related to Our Operations

We may not be able to continue to grow at our recent pace.

Since our initial public offering (“IPO”) in February 2012, we have included targeted and opportunistic growth as a key component of our business strategy for both our Mortgage Banking Segment and our Commercial and Consumer Banking Segment and have expanded our operations at a relatively accelerated pace. We have grown our retail branch presence from 20 branches in 2012 to 59 as of December 31, 2017, including expansion into new geographic regions. Simultaneously, we have added substantially to our mortgage operations in both existing and new markets and continued to expand our commercial lending operations, resulting in substantial growth overall in total assets, total deposits, total loans and employees.

While we expect to continue both strategic and opportunistic growth in the Commercial and Consumer Banking Segment, we recently undertook a restructuring of our Mortgage Banking Segment, where production has been negatively impacted by increasing interest rates and a reduced supply of homes for sale in our primary markets. For the near term, we expect to focus primarily on measured and efficient growth and optimization of our existing mortgage banking operations, which may lead to a substantially slower growth rate than we have experienced in recent years.

We may not recognize the full benefits of our recent restructuring.

In the second and third quarter of 2017, we implemented a restructuring plan to bring our costs and the size of our mortgage banking operations in line with our decreased expectations for origination opportunities for mortgage loans, given both the interest rate environment and the lack of housing inventory in our primary markets. We recorded restructuring expenses totaling $3.7 million in 2017, with an expectation that our annual costs will be reduced significantly going forward. These expenses are associated primarily with a reduction in staffing in the Mortgage Banking Segment, the closure or consolidation of several of our stand-alone home loan centers and other efficiency measures. However, there is no guarantee that we will recognize all or a substantial portion of the anticipated cost savings. Further, if the demand for mortgage loans continues to decline in our markets, we may not recognize the expected income benefit and may have to take additional steps to streamline our mortgage operations further. Conversely, if the demand for mortgage loans increases precipitously in our markets, we may not be able to meet the full amount of the demand with our leaner operations and may find it necessary to increase costs to provide for the necessary staffing and resources.

Volatility in mortgage markets, changes in interest rates, operational costs and other factors beyond our control may adversely impact our profitability.

We have sustained significant losses in the past, and we cannot guarantee that we will remain profitable or be able to maintain profitability at a given level. Changes in the mortgage market, including an increase in interest rates and a sustained and sizable disparity between the supply and demand of houses available for sale in our primary markets, have caused a stagnation in mortgage originations throughout our markets, which adversely impacted our profitability in 2017. This decline in profitability occurred even as our relative market share for mortgage originations remained substantially unchanged. While we have implemented a restructuring of our Mortgage Banking Segment in response, continued volatility in the market could have additional negative effects on our financial results. In addition, our hedging activities may be impacted by unforeseen or unexpected changes. For example, in the fourth quarter of 2016, unexpected increases in interest rates and asymmetrical changes in the values of mortgage servicing rights and certain derivative hedging instruments impacted our earnings for that quarter. We cannot be certain that similar asymmetries may not arise in the future. These and many other factors affect our profitability, and our ability to remain profitable is threatened by a myriad of issues, including:

Volatility in interest rates may limit our ability to make loans, decrease our net interest income and noninterest income, create disparity between actual and expected closed loan volumes based on historical fallout rates, reduce demand for loans, diminish the value of our loan servicing rights, affect the value of our hedging instruments, increase the cost of deposits and otherwise negatively impact our financial situation;


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Volatility in mortgage markets, which is driven by factors outside of our control such as interest rate changes, imbalances in housing supply and demand and general economic conditions, may negatively impact our ability to originate loans and change the fair value of our existing loans and servicing rights;

Our hedging strategies to offset risks related to interest rate changes may not be successful and may result in unanticipated losses for the Company;

Changes in regulations or in regulators' interpretations of existing regulations may negatively impact the Company or the Bank and may limit our ability to offer certain products or services, increase our costs of compliance or restrict our growth initiatives, branch expansion and acquisition activities;

Increased costs from growth through acquisition could exceed the income growth anticipated from these opportunities, especially in the short term as these acquisitions are integrated into our business;

Increased costs for controls over data confidentiality, integrity, and availability due to growth or as may be necessary to strengthen the security profile of our computer systems and computer networks may have a negative impact on our net income;

Changes in government-sponsored enterprises and their ability to insure or to buy our loans in the secondary market may result in significant changes in our ability to recognize income on sale of our loans to third parties;

Competition in the mortgage market industry may drive down the interest rates we are able to offer on our mortgages, which would negatively impact our net interest income; and

Changes in the cost structures and fees of government-sponsored enterprises to whom we sell many of these loans may compress our margins and reduce our net income and profitability.

These and other factors may limit our ability to generate revenue in excess of our costs, and in some circumstances may affect the carrying value of our mortgage servicing, either of which in turn may result in a lower rate of profitability or even substantial losses for the Company.

Proxy contests threatened or commenced against the Company could cause us to incur substantial costs, divert the attention of the Board of Directors and management, take up management’s attention and resources, cause uncertainty about the strategic direction of our business and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

In November 2017, an activist investor, Roaring Blue Lion Capital Management, L.P., and its managing member, Charles W. Griege, Jr., filed a Schedule 13D with the SEC with respect to the Company. In December 2017, the Company’s Board of Directors met with Mr. Griege, and, at Mr. Griege’s request, in January 2018, the Company’s Human Resources and Corporate Governance Committee, which acts as our nominating committee, interviewed Mr. Griege to consider him for a position on our Board of Directors. On January 11, 2018, we announced that we would not be offering Mr. Griege a seat on our Board of Directors. On February 26, 2018, Mr. Griege publicly disclosed that he had provided notice to the Company that he intended to nominate directors in opposition to the slate of the Board of Directors at our 2018 Annual Meeting of Shareholders. 

A proxy contest or other activist campaign and related actions, such as the ones discussed above, could have a material and adverse effect on us for the following reasons:
Activist investors may attempt to effect changes in the Company’s strategic direction and how the Company is governed, or to acquire control over the Company. In particular, the above mentioned activist investor has suggested changes to our business that conflict with our strategic direction and could cause uncertainty amongst employees, customers, investors and other constituencies about the strategic direction of our business.

While the Company welcomes the opinions of all shareholders, responding to proxy contests and related actions by activist investors could be costly and time-consuming, disrupt our operations, and divert the attention of our Board of Directors and senior management and employees away from their regular duties and the pursuit of business opportunities. In addition, there may be litigation in connection with a proxy contest, which would serve as a further distraction to our Board of Directors, senior management and employees and could require the Company to incur significant additional costs.

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Perceived uncertainties as to our future direction as a result of potential changes to the composition of the Board of Directors may lead to the perception of a change in the strategic direction of the business, instability or lack of continuity which may be exploited by our competitors; may cause concern to our existing or potential customers and employees; may result in the loss of potential business opportunities; and may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel and business partners.

Proxy contests and related actions by activist investors could cause significant fluctuations in our stock price based on temporary or speculative market perceptions or other factors that do not necessarily reflect the underlying fundamentals and prospects of our business.


The integration of recent and future acquisitions could consume significant resources and may not be successful.

We have completed four whole-bank acquisitions and acquired eight stand-alone branches between September 2013 and December 31, 2017, all of which have required substantial resources and costs related to the acquisition and integration process. For example, we incurred $391 thousand and $4.6 million of acquisition related expenses, net of tax, in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We may in the future undertake additional growth through acquisition. There are certain risks related to the integration of operations of acquired banks and branches, which we may continue to encounter if we acquire other banks or branches in the future.

Any future acquisition we may undertake may involve numerous risks related to the investigation and consideration of the potential acquisition and the costs of undertaking such a transaction, as well as integrating acquired businesses into HomeStreet and HomeStreet Bank, including risks that arise after the transaction is completed. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

Diversion of management's attention from normal daily operations of the business;
Difficulties in integrating the operations, technologies, and personnel of the acquired companies;
Difficulties in implementing, upgrading and maintaining our internal controls over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures;
Increased risk of compliance errors related to regulatory requirements, including customer notices and other related disclosures;
Inability to maintain the key business relationships and the reputations of acquired businesses;
Entry into markets in which we have limited or no prior experience and in which competitors have stronger market positions;
Potential responsibility for the liabilities of acquired businesses;
Increased operating costs associated with addressing the foregoing risks;
Inability to maintain our internal standards, procedures and policies at the acquired companies or businesses; and
Potential loss of key employees of the acquired companies.

In addition, in certain cases our acquisition of a whole bank or a branch includes the acquisition of all or a substantial portion of the target bank's or branch’s assets and liabilities, including all or a substantial portion of its loan portfolio. There may be instances where we, under our normal operating procedures, may find after the acquisition that there may be additional losses or undisclosed liabilities with respect to the assets and liabilities of the target bank or branch, and, with respect to its loan portfolio, that the ability of a borrower to repay a loan may have become impaired, the quality of the value of the collateral securing a loan may fall below our standards, or the allowance for loan losses may not be adequate. One or more of these factors might cause us to have additional losses or liabilities, additional loan charge-offs or increases in allowances for loan losses.

Difficulties in pursuing or integrating any new acquisitions, and potential discoveries of additional losses or undisclosed liabilities with respect to the assets and liabilities of acquired companies, may increase our costs and adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations. Further, even if we successfully address these factors and are successful in closing acquisitions and integrating our systems with the acquired systems, we may nonetheless experience customer losses, or we may fail to grow the acquired businesses as we intend or to operate the acquired businesses at a level that would avoid losses or justify our investments in those companies.

In addition, we may choose to issue additional common stock for future acquisitions, or we may instead choose to pay the consideration in cash or a combination of stock and cash. Any issuances of stock relating to an acquisition may have a dilutive

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effect on earnings per share, book value per share or the percentage ownership of existng shareholders depending on the value of the assets or entity acquired. Alternatively, the use of cash as consideration in any such acquisitions could impact our capital position and may require us to raise additional capital.

Natural disasters in our geographic markets may impact our financial results.

In the fourth quarter of 2017, certain communities in California suffered significant losses from natural disasters, including devastating wildfires in Northern California in October 2017 that destroyed many homes and forced a short closure of four of our stand-alone home loan centers in those areas. While the impact of these recent natural disasters on our business do not appear to be material, we anticipate that our mortgage banking operations in areas impacted by future disasters may experience an adverse financial impact due to office closures, customers who as a result of their losses may not be able to meet their loan commitments in a timely manner, a further reduction in housing inventory due to the number of structures destroyed in the fire and negative impacts to the local economy as it seeks to recover from these disasters.

Most of our primary markets are located in geographic regions that are at a risk for earthquakes, wildfires, floods, mudslides and other natural disasters. In the event future catastrophic events impact our major markets, our operations and financial results may be adversely impacted.

Our business is geographically confined to certain metropolitan areas of the Western United States, and events and conditions that disproportionately affect those areas may pose a more pronounced risk for our business.

Although we presently have operations in eight states, a substantial majority of our revenues are derived from operations in the Puget Sound region of Washington, the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area, the San Francisco Bay Area, and the Los Angeles and San Diego metropolitan areas in Southern California. All of our markets are located in the Western United States. Each of our primary markets is subject to various types of natural disasters, and each has experienced disproportionately significant economic volatility compared to the rest of the United States in the past decade. In addition, many of these areas are currently experiencing a constriction in the availability of houses for sale as new home construction has not kept pace with population growth in our primary markets, in part due to limitations on permitting and land availability. Economic events or natural disasters that affect the Western United States and our primary markets in that region in particular, or more significantly, may have an unusually pronounced impact on our business and, because our operations are not more geographically diversified, we may lack the ability to mitigate those impacts from operations in other regions of the United States.

The significant concentration of real estate secured loans in our portfolio has had a negative impact on our asset quality and profitability in the past and there can be no assurance that it will not have such impact in the future.

A substantial portion of our loans are secured by real property, a characteristic we expect to continue indefinitely. Our real estate secured lending is generally sensitive to national, regional and local economic conditions, making loss levels difficult to predict. Declines in real estate sales and prices, significant increases in interest rates, unforeseen natural disasters and a degeneration in prevailing economic conditions may result in higher than expected loan delinquencies, foreclosures, problem loans, other real estate owned ("OREO"), net charge-offs and provisions for credit and OREO losses. Although real estate prices are currently stable in the markets in which we operate, if market values decline, the collateral for our loans may provide less security and our ability to recover the principal, interest and costs due on defaulted loans by selling the underlying real estate will be diminished, leaving us more likely to suffer additional losses on defaulted loans. Such declines may have a greater effect on our earnings and capital than on the earnings and capital of financial institutions whose loan portfolios are more diversified.

Worsening conditions in the real estate market and higher than normal delinquency and default rates on loans could cause other adverse consequences for us, including:

Reduced cash flows and capital resources, as we are required to make cash advances to meet contractual obligations to investors, process foreclosures, and maintain, repair and market foreclosed properties;

Declining mortgage servicing fee revenues because we recognize these revenues only upon collection;

Increasing mortgage servicing costs;

Declining fair value on our mortgage servicing rights; and


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Declining fair values and liquidity of securities held in our investment portfolio that are collateralized by mortgage obligations.

We may incur significant losses as a result of ineffective hedging of interest rate risk related to our loans sold with retained servicing rights.

Both the value of our single family mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs, and the value of our single family loans held for sale change with fluctuations in interest rates, among other things, reflecting the changing expectations of mortgage prepayment activity. To mitigate potential losses of fair value of single family loans held for sale and MSRs related to changes in interest rates, we actively hedge this risk with financial derivative instruments. Hedging is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models, experienced and skilled personnel and continual monitoring. Changes in the value of our hedging instruments may not correlate with changes in the value of our single family loans held for sale and MSRs, as occurred in the fourth quarter of 2016, and we could incur a net valuation loss as a result of our hedging activities. As the volume of single family loans held for sale and MSRs increases, our exposure to the risks associated with the impact of interest rate fluctuations on single family loans held for sale and MSRs also increases. Further, in times of significant financial disruption, as in 2008, hedging counterparties have been known to default on their obligations. Any such events or conditions may harm our results of operations.

We have previously had deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting, and those deficiencies or others that we have not discovered may result in our inability to maintain control over our assets or to identify and accurately report our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our internal controls over financial reporting are intended to assure we maintain accurate records, promote the accurate and timely reporting of our financial information, maintain adequate control over our assets, and detect unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets. Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results may be harmed.

As part of our ongoing monitoring of internal control from time to time we have discovered deficiencies in our internal controls that have required remediation. In the past, these deficiencies have included “material weaknesses,” defined as a deficiency or combination of deficiencies that results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected, and “significant deficiencies,” defined as a deficiency or combination of deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting that is less severe than a material weakness, yet important enough to merit attention by those responsible for oversight of the Company's financial reporting.

Management has in place a process to document and analyze all identified internal control deficiencies and implement remedial measures sufficient to resolve those deficiencies. To support our growth initiatives and to create operating efficiencies we have implemented, and will continue to implement, new systems and processes. If our project management processes are not sound and adequate resources are not deployed to these implementations, we may experience additional internal control lapses that could expose the Company to operating losses. However, any failure to maintain effective controls or timely effect any necessary improvement of our internal and disclosure controls in the future could harm operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.

If our internal controls over financial reporting are subject to additional defects we have not identified, we may be unable to maintain adequate control over our assets, or we may experience material errors in recording our assets, liabilities and results of operations. Repeated or continuing deficiencies may cause investors to question the reliability of our internal controls or our financial statements, and may result in an erosion of confidence in our management or result in penalties or other potential enforcement action by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). On January 19, 2017, we finalized a settlement agreement with the SEC and paid a fine of $500,000 related to an SEC investigation into errors disclosed in 2014 in our fair value hedge accounting for certain commercial real estate loans and swaps. Neither the errors nor the amount of the settlement was ultimately material to our financial statements in any period. However, inquiries by the SEC took the time and attention of management for significant periods of time and may have had an adverse impact on investor confidence in us and, in turn, the market value of our common stock in the near term. If we were to have future failures of a similar nature, such failures may have a more significant impact than might generally be expected, both because of a potential for enhanced regulatory scrutiny and the potential for further reputational harm.


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Our allowance for loan losses may prove inadequate or we may be negatively affected by credit risk exposures. Future additions to our allowance for loan losses, as well as charge-offs in excess of reserves, will reduce our earnings.

Our business depends on the creditworthiness of our customers. As with most financial institutions, we maintain an allowance for loan losses to reflect potential defaults and nonperformance, which represents management's best estimate of probable incurred losses inherent in the loan portfolio. Management's estimate is based on our continuing evaluation of specific credit risks and loan loss experience, current loan portfolio quality, present economic, political and regulatory conditions, industry concentrations and other factors that may indicate future loan losses. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and judgment and requires us to make estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Generally, our nonperforming loans and OREO reflect operating difficulties of individual borrowers and weaknesses in the economies of the markets we serve. This allowance may not be adequate to cover actual losses, and future provisions for losses could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

In addition, as we have acquired new operations, we have added the loans previously held by the acquired companies or related to the acquired branches to our books. In the event that we make additional acquisitions in the future, we may bring additional loans originated by other institutions onto our books. Although we review loan quality as part of our due diligence in considering any acquisition involving loans, the addition of such loans may increase our credit risk exposure, require an increase in our allowance for loan losses, and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows stemming from losses on those additional loans.

Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we report our financial condition and results of operations, and we use estimates in determining the fair value of certain of our assets, which estimates may prove to be imprecise and result in significant changes in valuation.

A portion of our assets are carried on the balance sheet at fair value, including investment securities available for sale, mortgage servicing rights related to single family loans and single family loans held for sale. Generally, for assets that are reported at fair value, we use quoted market prices or internal valuation models that use observable market data inputs to estimate their fair value. In certain cases, observable market prices and data may not be readily available or their availability may be diminished due to market conditions. We use financial models to value certain of these assets. These models are complex and use asset-specific collateral data and market inputs for interest rates. Although we have processes and procedures in place governing internal valuation models and their testing and calibration, such assumptions are complex as we must make judgments about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Different assumptions could result in significant changes in valuation, which in turn could affect earnings or result in significant changes in the dollar amount of assets reported on the balance sheet. As we grow the expectation for the sophistication of our models will increase and we may need to hire additional personnel with sufficient expertise.

Our funding sources may prove insufficient to replace deposits and support our future growth.

We must maintain sufficient funds to respond to the needs of depositors and borrowers. As a part of our liquidity management, we use a number of funding sources in addition to core deposit growth and repayments and maturities of loans and investments. As we continue to grow, we are likely to become more dependent on these sources, which may include Federal Home Loan Bank advances, proceeds from the sale of loans, federal funds purchased and brokered certificates of deposit. Adverse operating results or changes in industry conditions could lead to difficulty or an inability to access these additional funding sources and could make our existing funds more volatile. Our financial flexibility may be materially constrained if we are unable to maintain our access to funding or if adequate financing is not available to accommodate future growth at acceptable interest rates. As rates increase, the cost of our funding often increases faster than we can increase our interest income. For example, in recent periods the FHLB has increased rates on their advances in a quick response to increases in rates by the Federal Reserve and implemented those increased costs earlier than we have been able to increase our own interest income. This asymmetry of the speed at which interests rates rise on our liabilities as opposed to our assets may have a negative impact on our net interest income and, in turn, our financial results. If we are required to rely more heavily on more expensive funding sources to support future growth, our revenues may not increase proportionately to cover our costs. In that case, our operating margins and profitability would be adversely affected. Further, the volatility inherent in some of these funding sources, particularly brokered deposits, may increase our exposure to liquidity risk.


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Our management of capital could adversely affect profitability measures and the market price of our common stock and could dilute the holders of our outstanding common stock.

Our capital ratios are higher than regulatory minimums. We may choose to have a lower capital ratio in the future in order to take advantage of growth opportunities, including acquisition and organic loan growth, or in order to take advantage of a favorable investment opportunity. On the other hand, we may again in the future elect to raise capital through a sale of our debt or equity securities in order to have additional resources to pursue our growth, including by acquisition, fund our business needs and meet our commitments, or as a response to changes in economic conditions that make capital raising a prudent choice. In the event the quality of our assets or our economic position were to deteriorate significantly, as a result of market forces or otherwise, we may also need to raise additional capital in order to remain compliant with capital standards.

We may not be able to raise such additional capital at the time when we need it, or on terms that are acceptable to us. Our ability to raise additional capital will depend in part on conditions in the capital markets at the time, which are outside our control, and in part on our financial performance. Further, if we need to raise capital in the future, especially if it is in response to changing market conditions, we may need to do so when many other financial institutions are also seeking to raise capital, which would create competition for investors. An inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, any capital raising alternatives could dilute the holders of our outstanding common stock and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

If we breach any of the representations or warranties we make to a purchaser or securitizer of our mortgage loans or MSRs, we may be liable to the purchaser or securitizer for certain costs and damages.

When we sell or securitize mortgage loans in the ordinary course of business, we are required to make certain representations and warranties to the purchaser about the mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated. Our agreements require us to repurchase mortgage loans if we have breached any of these representations or warranties, in which case we may be required to repurchase such loan and record a loss upon repurchase and/or bear any subsequent loss on the loan. We may not have any remedies available to us against a third party for such losses, or the remedies available to us may not be as broad as the remedies available to the purchaser of the mortgage loan against us. In addition, if there are remedies against a third party available to us, we face further risk that such third party may not have the financial capacity to perform remedies that otherwise may be available to us. Therefore, if a purchaser enforces remedies against us, we may not be able to recover our losses from a third party and may be required to bear the full amount of the related loss.

If repurchase and indemnity demands increase on loans or MSRs that we sell from our portfolios, our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected.

If we breach any representations or warranties or fail to follow guidelines when originating an FHA/HUD-insured loan or a VA-guaranteed loan, we may lose the insurance or guarantee on the loan and suffer losses, pay penalties, and/or be subjected to litigation from the federal government.

We originate and purchase, sell and thereafter service single family loans, some of which are insured by FHA/HUD or guaranteed by the VA. We certify to the FHA/HUD and the VA that the loans meet their requirements and guidelines. The FHA/HUD and VA audit loans that are insured or guaranteed under their programs, including audits of our processes and procedures as well as individual loan documentation. Violations of guidelines can result in monetary penalties or require us to provide indemnifications against loss or loans declared ineligible for their programs. In the past, monetary penalties and losses from indemnifications have not created material losses to the Bank. As a result of the housing crisis that began in 2008, the FHA/HUD stepped up enforcement initiatives. In addition to regular FHA/HUD audits, HUD's Inspector General has become active in enforcing FHA regulations with respect to individual loans and has partnered with the Department of Justice ("DOJ") in filing lawsuits against lenders for systemic violations. The penalties resulting from such lawsuits can be much more severe, since systemic violations can be applied to groups of loans and penalties may be subject to treble damages. The DOJ has used the Federal False Claims Act and other federal laws and regulations in prosecuting these lawsuits. Because of our significant origination of FHA/HUD insured and VA guaranteed loans, if the DOJ were to find potential violations by the Bank, we could be subject to material monetary penalties and/or losses, and may even be subject to lawsuits alleging systemic violations which could result in treble damages.

We may face risk of loss if we purchase loans from a seller that fails to satisfy its indemnification obligations.

We generally receive representations and warranties from the originators and sellers from whom we purchase loans and servicing rights such that if a loan defaults and there has been a breach of such representations and warranties, we may be able

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to pursue a remedy against the seller of the loan for the unpaid principal and interest on the defaulted loan. However, if the originator and/or seller breaches such representations and warranties and does not have the financial capacity to pay the related damages, we may be subject to the risk of loss for such loan as the originator or seller may not be able to pay such damages or repurchase loans when called upon by us to do so. Currently, we only purchase loans from WMS Series LLC, an affiliated business arrangement with certain Windermere real estate brokerage franchise owners.

Changes in fee structures by third party loan purchasers and mortgage insurers may decrease our loan production volume and the margin we can recognize on conforming home loans, and may adversely impact our results of operations.

Changes in the fee structures by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or other third party loan purchasers, such as an increase in guarantee fees and other required fees and payments, may increase the costs of doing business with them and, in turn, increase the cost of mortgages to consumers and the cost of selling conforming loans to third party loan purchasers. Increases in those costs could in turn decrease our margin and negatively impact our profitability. Additionally, increased costs for premiums from mortgage insurers, extensions of the period for which private mortgage insurance is required on a loan purchased by third party purchasers and other changes to mortgage insurance requirements could also increase our costs of completing a mortgage and our margins for home loan origination. Were any of our third party loan purchasers to make such changes in the future, it may have a negative impact on our ability to originate loans to be sold because of the increased costs of such loans and may decrease our profitability with respect to loans held for sale. In addition, any significant adverse change in the level of activity in the secondary market or the underwriting criteria of these third party loan purchasers could negatively impact our results of business, operations and cash flows.

We may incur additional costs in placing loans if our third party purchasers discontinue doing business with us for any reason.
We rely on third party purchasers with whom we place loans as a source of funding for the loans we make to consumers. Occasionally, third party loan purchasers may go out of business, elect to exit the market or choose to cease doing business with us for a myriad of reasons, including but not limited to the increased burdens on purchasers related to compliance, adverse market conditions or other pressures on the industry. In the event that one or more third party purchasers goes out of business, exits the market or otherwise ceases to do business with us at a time when we have loans that have been placed with such purchaser but not yet sold, we may incur additional costs to sell those loans to other purchasers or may have to retain such loans, which could negatively impact our results of operations and our capital position.
Our real estate lending may expose us to environmental liabilities.

In the course of our business, it is necessary to foreclose and take title to real estate, which could subject us to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. Hazardous substances or waste, contaminants, pollutants or sources thereof may be discovered on properties during our ownership or after a sale to a third party. We could be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at such properties. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial and could substantially exceed the value of the real property. In addition, as the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. We may be unable to recover costs from any third party. These occurrences may materially reduce the value of the affected property, and we may find it difficult or impossible to use or sell the property prior to or following any environmental remediation. If we ever become subject to significant environmental liabilities, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Market-Related Risks

Restrictions on new home construction and lack of inventory of homes for sale in our primary markets may negatively impact our ability to originate mortgage loans at the volumes we have experienced in the past.

While a desire to purchase single family real estate remains strong in our primary markets, as is evidenced by a continued demand from customers for mortgage loan applications and pre-approvals, new and resale home availability in those markets has not kept pace with demand. Despite sustained job and population growth, Redfin.com reported the number of homes listed for sale in the Seattle and Portland metropolitan area and in California had once again decreased year over year as of December 31, 2017, and there has been no indication that there will be any near-term meaningful change in this imbalance.

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While this limit of supply has not negatively impacted our market share to date, it has negatively impacted our loan volume and despite the restructuring of our Mortgage Banking Segment to scale our operations to demand, if this trend continues to increase, the lack of inventory may continue to impair both our volume and earnings in the Mortgage Banking Segment.

The housing supply constraint is complicated by a slow development of new home construction, which is itself constrained by the geography of the West Coast and the lingering effects of the last recession. Newly constructed single family home inventory remains extremely low as homebuilders struggle to find and develop available and appropriate land for new housing and meet increased land use regulations which increase costs and limit the number of lots per parcel. In addition, because the timeline for converting raw land to finished development may exceed five years in many of our markets, the curtailment of development following the recession means that inventory will likely remain low for the foreseeable future.

The demand for houses and financing to purchase houses remains strong in our primary markets due to continued strong job growth and in-migration. As a result, our application volume without property information, which represents customers seeking pre-qualification to shop for a home, is a substantial part of our single family mortgage loan pipeline. The partial underwriting associated with these applications without property information creates expenses without the revenue associated with a closed mortgage loan, which in turn provides a further negative impact on our mortgage banking results.

Fluctuations in interest rates could adversely affect the value of our assets and reduce our net interest income and noninterest income, thereby adversely affecting our earnings and profitability.

Interest rates may be affected by many factors beyond our control, including general and economic conditions and the monetary and fiscal policies of various governmental and regulatory authorities. For example, unexpected increases in interest rates can result in an increased percentage of rate lock customer closing loans, which would in turn increase our costs relative to income. In addition, increases in interest rates in recent periods has reduced our mortgage revenues by reducing the market for refinancings, which has negatively impacted demand for certain of our residential loan products and the revenue realized on the sale of loans which, in turn, may negatively impact our noninterest income and, to a lesser extent, our net interest income. Market volatility in interest rates can be difficult to predict, as unexpected interest rate changes may result in a sudden impact while anticipated changes in interest rates generally impact the mortgage rate market prior to the actual rate change.

Our earnings are also dependent on the difference between the interest earned on loans and investments and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings. Changes in market interest rates impact the rates earned on loans and investment securities and the rates paid on deposits and borrowings and may negatively impact our ability to attract deposits, make loans and achieve satisfactory interest rate spreads, which could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations. In addition, changes to market interest rates may impact the level of loans, deposits and investments and the credit quality of existing loans.

Asymmetrical changes in interest rates, for example a greater increase in short term rates than in long term rates, could adversely impact our net interest income because our liabilities, including advances from the FHLB which typically carry a rate based on 30-day LIBOR and interest payable on our deposits, tend to be more sensitive to short term rates while our assets, which tend to be more sensitive to long term rates. In addition, it may take longer for our assets to reprice to adjust to a new rate environment because fixed rate loans do not fluctuate with interest rate changes and adjustable rate loans often have a specified period of readjustment. As a result, a flattening of the yield curve is likely to have a negative impact on our net interest income.

Our securities portfolio also includes securities that are insured or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies or government-sponsored enterprises and other securities that are sensitive to interest rate fluctuations. The unrealized gains or losses in our available-for-sale portfolio are reported as a separate component of shareholders' equity until realized upon sale. Interest rate fluctuations may impact the value of these securities and as a result, shareholders' equity, and may cause material fluctuations from quarter to quarter. Failure to hold our securities until maturity or until market conditions are favorable for a sale could adversely affect our financial condition.

A significant portion of our noninterest income is derived from originating residential mortgage loans and selling them into the secondary market. That business has benefited from a long period of historically low interest rates. To the extent interest rates rise, particularly if they rise substantially, we may experience a reduction in mortgage financing of new home purchases and refinancing. These factors have negatively affected our mortgage loan origination volume and our noninterest income in the past and may do so again in the future.


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Our mortgage operations are impacted by changes in the housing market, including factors that impact housing affordability and availability.

Housing affordability is directly affected by both the level of mortgage interest rates and the inventory of houses available for sale. The housing market recovery was aided by a protracted period of historically low mortgage interest rates that has made it easier for consumers to qualify for a mortgage and purchase a home, however, mortgage rates are now rising again. Should mortgage rates substantially increase over current levels, it would become more difficult for many consumers to qualify for mortgage credit. This could have a dampening effect on home sales and on home values.

In addition, constraints on the number of houses available for sale in some of our largest markets are driving up home prices, which may also make it harder for our customer to qualify for a mortgage, adversely impact our ability to originate mortgages and, as a consequence, our results of operations. Any return to a recessionary economy could also result in financial stress on our borrowers that may result in volatility in home prices, increased foreclosures and significant write-downs of asset values, all of which would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The price of our common stock is subject to volatility.
The price of our common stock has fluctuated in the past and may face additional and potentially substantial fluctuations in the future. Among the factors that may impact our stock price are the following:
Variances in our operating results;
Disparity between our operating results and the operating results of our competitors;
Changes in analyst’s estimates of our earnings results and future performance, or variances between our actual performance and that forecast by analysts;
News releases or other announcements of material events relating to the Company, including but not limited to mergers, acquisitions, expansion plans, restructuring activities or other strategic developments;
Statements made by activist investors criticizing our strategy, our management team or our Board of Directors;
Future securities offerings by us of debt or equity securities;
Addition or departure of key personnel;
Market-wide events that may be seen by the market as impacting the Company;
The presence or absence of short-selling of our common stock;
General financial conditions of the country or the regions in which we operate;
Trends in real estate in our primary markets; or
Trends relating to the economic markets generally.

The stock markets in general experience substantial price and trading fluctuations, and such changes may create volatility in the market as a whole or in the stock prices of securities related to particular industries or companies that is unrelated or disproportionate to changes in operating performance of the Company. Such volatility may have an adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.
Current economic conditions continue to pose significant challenges for us and could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We generate revenue from the interest and fees we charge on the loans and other products and services we sell, and a substantial amount of our revenue and earnings comes from the net interest and noninterest income that we earn from our mortgage banking and commercial lending businesses. Our operations have been, and will continue to be, materially affected by the state of the U.S. economy, particularly unemployment levels and home prices. A prolonged period of slow growth or a pronounced decline in the U.S. economy, or any deterioration in general economic conditions and/or the financial markets resulting from these factors, or any other events or factors that may signal a return to a recessionary economic environment, could dampen consumer confidence, adversely impact the models we use to assess creditworthiness, and materially adversely affect our financial results and condition. If the economy worsens and unemployment rises, which also would likely result in a decrease in consumer and business confidence and spending, the demand for our credit products, including our mortgages, may fall, reducing our net interest and noninterest income and our earnings. Significant and unexpected market developments may also make it more challenging for us to properly forecast our expected financial results.


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A change in federal monetary policy could adversely impact our mortgage banking revenues.

The Federal Reserve is responsible for regulating the supply of money in the United States, and as a result its monetary policies strongly influence our costs of funds for lending and investing as well as the rate of return we are able to earn on those loans and investments, both of which impact our net interest income and net interest margin. Changes in interest rates may increase our cost of capital or decrease the income we receive from interest bearing assets, and asymmetrical changes in short term and long term interest rates may result in a more rapid increase in the costs related to interest-bearing liabilities such as FHLB advances and interest-bearing deposit accounts without a correlated increase in the income from interest-bearing assets which are typically more sensitive to long-term interest rates. The Federal Reserve Board's interest rate policies can also materially affect the value of financial instruments we hold, including debt securities, mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs and derivative instruments used to hedge against changes in the value of our MSRs. These monetary policies can also negatively impact our borrowers, which in turn may increase the risk that they will be unable to pay their loans according to the terms or be unable to pay their loans at all. We have no control over the Federal Reserve Board’s policies and cannot predict when changes are expected or what the magnitude of such changes may be.

A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from residential mortgage lending which is a market sector that experiences significant volatility.

While we have simultaneously grown our Commercial and Consumer Banking Segment revenue and downsized our mortgage lending operations, a substantial portion of our consolidated net revenues (net interest income plus noninterest income) are still derived from originating and selling residential mortgages. Residential mortgage lending in general has experienced substantial volatility in recent periods due to changes in interest rates, a significant lack of housing inventory caused by an increase in demand for housing at a time of decreased supply, and other market forces beyond our control. Lack of housing inventory limits our ability to originate purchase mortgages as it may take longer for loan applicants to find a home to buy after being pre-approved for a loan, which results in the Company incurring costs related to the pre-approval without being able to book the revenue from an actual loan. In addition, interest rate changes may result in lower rate locks and higher closed loan volume which can negatively impact our financial results because we book revenue at the time we enter into rate lock agreements after adjusting for the estimated percentage of loans that are not expected to actually close, which we refer to as “fallout”. When interest rates rise, the level of fallout as a percentage of rate locks declines, which results in higher costs relative to income for that period, which may adversely impact our earnings and results of operations. In addition, an increase in interest rates may materially and adversely affect our future loan origination volume, margins, and the value of the collateral securing our outstanding loans, may increase rates of borrower default, and may otherwise adversely affect our business.

We may incur losses due to changes in prepayment rates.

Our mortgage servicing rights carry interest rate risk because the total amount of servicing fees earned, as well as changes in fair-market value, fluctuate based on expected loan prepayments (affecting the expected average life of a portfolio of residential mortgage servicing rights). The rate of prepayment of residential mortgage loans may be influenced by changing national and regional economic trends, such as recessions or stagnating real estate markets, as well as the difference between interest rates on existing residential mortgage loans relative to prevailing residential mortgage rates. During periods of declining interest rates, many residential borrowers refinance their mortgage loans. Changes in prepayment rates are therefore difficult for us to predict. The loan administration fee income (related to the residential mortgage loan servicing rights corresponding to a mortgage loan) decreases as mortgage loans are prepaid. Consequently, in the event of an increase in prepayment rates, we would expect the fair value of portfolios of residential mortgage loan servicing rights to decrease along with the amount of loan administration income received.


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Regulatory-Related Risks

We are subject to extensive regulation that may restrict our activities, including declaring cash dividends or capital distributions or pursuing growth initiatives and acquisition activities, and imposes financial requirements or limitations on the conduct of our business.

Our operations are subject to extensive regulation by federal, state and local governmental authorities, including the FDIC, the Washington Department of Financial Institutions and the Federal Reserve Board, and to various laws and judicial and administrative decisions imposing requirements and restrictions on part or all of our operations. The laws, rules and regulations to which we are subject evolve and change frequently, including changes that come from judicial or regulatory agency interpretations of laws and regulations outside of the legislative process that may be more difficult to anticipate. We are subject to various examinations by our regulators during the course of the year. Regulatory authorities who conduct these examinations have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the authority to restrict our operations, our growth and our acquisition activity, adversely reclassify our assets, determine the level of deposit premiums assessed, require us to increase our allowance for loan losses, require customer restitution and impose fines or other penalties. The level of discretion, and the extent of potential penalties and other remedies, have increased substantially during recent years. We have, in the past, been subject to specific regulatory orders that constrained our business and required us to take measures that investors may have deemed undesirable, and we may again in the future be subject to such orders if banking regulators were to determine that our operations require such restrictions or if they determine that remediation of operational deficiencies is required.

In addition, recent political shifts in the United States may result in additional significant changes in legislation and regulations that impact us. Dodd-Frank’s level of oversight and compliance obligations increase significantly for banks with total assets in excess of $10 billion, which may limit our ability to grow beyond that level or may significantly increase the cost and regulatory burden of doing so. While the Trump administration and Republicans controlling Congress have announced that they intend to repeal or revise significant portions of Dodd-Frank and other regulation impacting financial institutions, the nature and extent of such repeals or revisions are not presently known and readers should not rely on the assumption that these changes will come to pass. These circumstances lead to additional uncertainty regarding our regulatory environment and the cost and requirements for compliance. We are unable to predict whether U.S. federal, or, state authorities, or other pertinent bodies, will enact legislation, laws, rules or regulations. Further, an increasing amount of the regulatory authority that pertains to financial institutions comes in the form of informal “guidance”, such as handbooks, guidelines, field interpretations by regulators or similar provisions that will affect our business or require changes in our practices in the future even if they are not formally adopted as laws or regulations. Any such changes could adversely affect our cost of doing business and our profitability.

Changes in regulation of our industry has the potential to create higher costs of compliance, including short-term costs to meet new compliance standards, limit our ability to pursue business opportunities and increase our exposure to the judicial system and the plaintiff’s bar.

Policies and regulations enacted by CFPB may negatively impact our residential mortgage loan business and compliance risk.

Our consumer business, including our mortgage, credit card, and other consumer lending and non-lending businesses, may be adversely affected by the policies enacted or regulations adopted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") which under the Dodd-Frank Act has broad rulemaking authority over consumer financial products and services. For example, in January 2014 new federal regulations promulgated by the CFPB took effect which impact how we originate and service residential mortgage loans. Those regulations, among other things, require mortgage lenders to assess and document a borrower’s ability to repay their mortgage loan while providing borrowers the ability to challenge foreclosures and sue for damages based on allegations that the lender failed to meet the standard for determining the borrower’s ability to repay their loan. While the regulations include presumptions in favor of the lender based on certain loan underwriting criteria, they have not yet been challenged widely in courts and it is uncertain how these presumptions will be construed and applied by courts in the event of litigation. The ultimate impact of these regulations on the lender’s enforcement of its loan documents in the event of a loan default, and the cost and expense of doing so, is uncertain, but may be significant. In addition, the secondary market demand for loans that do not fall within the presumptively safest category of a “qualified mortgage” as defined by the CFPB is uncertain. The 2014 regulations also require changes to certain loan servicing procedures and practices, which has resulted in increased foreclosure costs and longer foreclosure timelines in the event of loan default, and failure to comply with the new servicing rules may result in additional litigation and compliance risk.


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The CFPB was also given authority over the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, or RESPA, under the Dodd-Frank Act and has, in some cases, interpreted RESPA requirements differently than other agencies, regulators and judicial opinions. As a result, certain practices that have been considered standard in the industry, including relationships that have been established between mortgage lenders and others in the mortgage industry such as developers, realtors and insurance providers, are now being subjected to additional scrutiny under RESPA. Our regulators, including the FDIC, review our practices for compliance with RESPA as interpreted by the CFPB. Changes in RESPA requirements and the interpretation of RESPA requirements by our regulators may result in adverse examination findings by our regulators, which could negatively impact our ability to pursue our growth plans, branch expansion and limit our acquisition activity.

In addition to RESPA compliance, the Bank is also subject to the CFPB's Final Integrated Disclosure Rule, commonly known as TRID, which became effective in October 2015. Among other things, TRID requires lenders to combine the initial Good Faith Estimate and Initial Truth in Lending (“TIL”) disclosures into a single new Loan Estimate disclosure and the HUD-1 and Final TIL disclosures into a single new Closing Disclosure. The definition of an application and timing requirements has changed, and a new Closing Disclosure waiting period has been added. These changes, along with other changes required by TRID, require significant systems modifications, process and procedure changes. Failure to comply with these new requirements may result in regulatory penalties for disclosure and other violations under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”) and the Truth In Lending Act (“TILA”), and private right of action under TILA, and may impact our ability to sell or the price we receive for certain loans.

In addition, the CFPB has adopted and largely implemented additional rules under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (“HMDA”) that are intended to improve information reported about the residential mortgage market and increase disclosure about consumer access to mortgage credit. The updates to the HMDA increase the types of dwelling-secured loans that are subject to the disclosure requirements of the rule and expand the categories of information that financial institutions such as the Bank are required to report with respect to such loans and such borrowers, including potentially sensitive customer information. Most of the rule's provisions went into effect on January 1, 2018. These changes increased our compliance costs due to the need for additional resources to meet the enhanced disclosure requirements as well as informational systems to allow the Bank to properly capture and report the additional mandated information. The volume of new data that is required to be reported under the updated rules will also cause the Bank to face an increased risk of errors in the processing of such information. More importantly, because of the sensitive nature of some of the additional customer information to be included in such reports, the Bank may face a higher potential for security breaches resulting in the disclosure of sensitive customer information in the event the HMDA reporting files were obtained by an unauthorized party.

Interpretation of federal and state legislation, case law or regulatory action may negatively impact our business.

Regulatory and judicial interpretation of existing and future federal and state legislation, case law, judicial orders and regulations could also require us to revise our operations and change certain business practices, impose additional costs, reduce our revenue and earnings and otherwise adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. For instance, judges interpreting legislation and judicial decisions made during the recent financial crisis could allow modification of the terms of residential mortgages in bankruptcy proceedings which could hinder our ability to foreclose promptly on defaulted mortgage loans or expand assignee liability for certain violations in the mortgage loan origination process, any or all of which could adversely affect our business or result in our being held responsible for violations in the mortgage loan origination process. In addition, the exercise by regulators of revised and at times expanded powers under existing or future regulations could materially and negatively impact the profitability of our business, the value of assets we hold or the collateral available for our loans, require changes to business practices, limit our ability to pursue growth strategies or force us to discontinue certain business practices and expose us to additional costs, taxes, liabilities, penalties, enforcement actions and reputational risk.

Such judicial decisions or regulatory interpretations may affect the manner in which we do business and the products and services that we provide, restrict our ability to grow through acquisition, restrict our ability to compete in our current business or expand into any new business, and impose additional fees, assessments or taxes on us or increase our regulatory oversight.


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Federal, state and local consumer protection laws may restrict our ability to offer and/or increase our risk of liability with respect to certain products and services and could increase our cost of doing business.

Federal, state and local laws have been adopted that are intended to eliminate certain practices considered “predatory” or “unfair and deceptive”. These laws prohibit practices such as steering borrowers away from more affordable products, failing to disclose key features, limitations, or costs related to products and services, failing to provide advertised benefits, selling unnecessary insurance to borrowers, repeatedly refinancing loans, imposing excessive fees for overdrafts, and making loans without a reasonable expectation that the borrowers will be able to repay the loans irrespective of the value of the underlying property. It is our policy not to make predatory loans or engage in deceptive practices, but these laws and regulations create the potential for liability with respect to our lending, servicing, loan investment, deposit taking and other financial activities. As a company with a significant mortgage banking operation, we also, inherently, have a significant amount of risk of noncompliance with fair lending laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are complex and require vigilance to ensure that policies and practices do not create disparate impact on our customers or that our employees do not engage in overt discriminatory practices. Noncompliance can result in significant regulatory actions including, but not limited to, sanctions, fines or referrals to the Department of Justice and restrictions on our ability to execute our growth and expansion plans. These risks are enhanced because of our growth activities as we integrate operations from our acquisitions and expand our geographic markets. As we offer products and services to customers in additional states, we may become subject to additional state and local laws designed to protect consumers. The additional laws and regulations may increase our cost of doing business, and ultimately may prevent us from making certain loans, offering certain products, and may cause us to reduce the average percentage rate or the points and fees on loans and other products and services that we do provide.

Changes to regulatory requirements relating to customer information may increase our cost of doing business and create additional compliance risk.

In May 2016, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the U.S. Department of Treasury announced that beginning in May 2018, financial institutions would be required to identify the ultimate beneficial owners of all entity clients as part of their customer due diligence compliance. Meeting this new requirement will increase our overall compliance burden and require us to expend additional resources in the review of customers who are entities. In addition, there may be unforeseen challenges in obtaining beneficial ownership information about all of our entity customers, which increases the risk that we will not be in compliance with this new requirement.

We are subject to more stringent capital requirements under Basel III.

As of January 1, 2015, we became subject to new rules relating to capital standards requirements, including requirements contemplated by Section 171 of the Dodd-Frank Act as well as certain standards initially adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which standards are commonly referred to as Basel III. Many of these rules apply to both the Company and the Bank, including increased common equity Tier 1 capital ratios, Tier 1 leverage ratios, Tier 1 risk-based ratios and total risk-based ratios. In addition, beginning in 2016, all institutions subject to Basel III, including the Company and the Bank are required to establish a “conservation buffer” that is being phased in and will take full effect on January 1, 2019. This conservation buffer consists of common equity Tier 1 capital and will ultimately be required to be 2.5% above existing minimum capital ratio requirements. This means that once the conservation buffer is fully phased in, in order to prevent certain regulatory restrictions, the common equity Tier 1 capital ratio requirement will be 7.0%, the Tier 1 risk-based ratio requirement will be 8.5% and the total risk-based capital ratio requirement will be 10.5%. Any institution that does not meet the conservation buffer will be subject to restrictions on certain activities including payment of dividends, stock repurchases and discretionary bonuses to executive officers.

Additional prompt corrective action rules implemented in 2015 also apply to the Bank, including higher and new ratio requirements for the Bank to be considered Well-Capitalized. The new rules also modify the manner for determining when certain capital elements are included in the ratio calculations, including but not limited to, requiring certain deductions related to mortgage servicing rights and deferred tax assets. While federal banking regulators have proposed a rule change that would increase the amount of mortgage servicing rights that could be included in ratio calculations, there can be no assurance that the proposed rule will be adopted in its current form or at all. For more on these regulatory requirements and how they apply to the Company and the Bank, see “Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements” in this Form 10-K. The application of more stringent capital requirements could, among other things, result in lower returns on invested capital and result in regulatory actions if we were to be unable to comply with such requirements. In addition, if we need to raise additional equity capital in order to meet these more stringent requirements, our shareholders may be diluted.


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Any restructuring or replacement of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and changes in existing government-sponsored and federal mortgage programs could adversely affect our business.

We originate and purchase, sell and thereafter service single family and multifamily mortgages under the Fannie Mae, and to a lesser extent, the Freddie Mac single family purchase programs and the Fannie Mae multifamily DUS® program. In 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship, and since then Congress, various executive branch agencies and certain large private investors in Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have offered a wide range of proposals aimed at restructuring these agencies.

We cannot be certain whether or how Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac ultimately will be restructured or replaced, if or when additional reform of the housing finance market will be implemented or what the future role of the U.S. government will be in the mortgage market, and, accordingly, we will not be able to determine the impact that any such reform may have on us until a definitive reform plan is adopted. However, any restructuring or replacement of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac that restricts the current loan purchase programs of those entities may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Moreover, we have recorded on our balance sheet an intangible asset (mortgage servicing rights, or MSRs) relating to our right to service single family loans sold to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. We valued these single family MSRs at $258.6 million at December 31, 2017. Changes in the policies and operations of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac or any replacement for or successor to those entities that adversely affect our single family residential loan and DUS® mortgage servicing assets may require us to record impairment charges to the value of these assets, and significant impairment charges could be material and adversely affect our business.

In addition, our ability to generate income through mortgage sales to institutional investors depends in part on programs sponsored by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae, which facilitate the issuance of mortgage-backed securities in the secondary market. Any significant revision or reduction in the operation of those programs could have a material adverse effect on our loan origination and mortgage sales as well as our results of operations. Also, any significant adverse change in the level of activity in the secondary market or the underwriting criteria of these entities could negatively impact our results of business, operations and cash flows.

Changes in accounting standards may require us to increase our Allowance for Loan Losses and could materially impact our financial statements.

From time to time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. For example, in June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) which changes, among other things, the way companies must record expected credit losses on financial instruments that are not accounted for at fair value through net income, including loans held for investment, available for sale and held-to-maturity debt securities, trade and other receivables, net investment in leases and other commitments to extend credit held by a reporting entity at each reporting date, and require that financial assets measured at amortized cost be presented at the net amount expected to be collected, through an allowance for credit losses that is deducted from the amortized cost basis and eliminate the probable initial recognition in current GAAP and reflect the current estimate of all expected credit losses based upon historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the financial assets.

For purchased financial assets with a more-than-insignificant amount of credit deterioration since origination (“PCD assets”) that are measured at amortized cost, an allowance for expected credit losses will be recorded as an adjustment to the cost basis of the asset. Subsequent changes in estimated cash flows would be recorded as an adjustment to the allowance and through the statement of income. Credit losses relating to available-for-sale debt securities will be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a direct write-down to the security's cost basis. The amendments in this ASU will be effective for us beginning on January 1, 2020. For most debt securities, the transition approach requires a cumulative-effect adjustment to the statement of financial position as of the beginning of the first reporting period the guidance is effective. For other-than-temporarily impaired debt securities and PCD assets, the guidance will be applied prospectively. We are currently evaluating the provisions of this ASU to determine the impact and developing appropriate systems to prepare for compliance with this new standard, however, we expect the new standard could have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

HomeStreet, Inc. primarily relies on dividends from the Bank, which may be limited by applicable laws and regulations.

HomeStreet, Inc. is a separate legal entity from the Bank, and although we may receive some dividends from HomeStreet Capital Corporation, the primary source of our funds from which we service our debt, pay any dividends that we may declare to

34




our shareholders and otherwise satisfy our obligations is dividends from the Bank. The availability of dividends from the Bank is limited by various statutes and regulations, capital rules regarding requirements to maintain a “well capitalized” ratio at the bank, as well as by our policy of retaining a significant portion of our earnings to support the Bank's operations. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Capital Management” as well as “Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements” in this Form 10-K. If the Bank cannot pay dividends to us, we may be limited in our ability to service our debts, fund the Company's operations and acquisition plans and pay dividends to the Company's shareholders. While the Company has paid special dividends in some prior quarters, we have not adopted a policy to pay dividends and in recent years our Board of Directors has elected to retain capital for growth rather than to declare a dividend. While management has recently discussed the possibility of paying dividends in the near future, we have not declared dividends in any recent quarters, and the potential of future dividends is subject to board approval, cash flow limitations, capital requirements, capital and strategic needs and other factors.
    
The financial services industry is highly competitive.

We face pricing competition for loans and deposits. We also face competition with respect to customer convenience, product lines, accessibility of service and service capabilities. Our most direct competition comes from other banks, credit unions, mortgage companies and savings institutions, but more recently has also come from financial technology (or "fintech") companies that rely on technology to provide financial services. The significant competition in attracting and retaining deposits and making loans as well as in providing other financial services throughout our market area may impact future earnings and growth. Our success depends, in part, on the ability to adapt products and services to evolving industry standards and provide consistent customer service while keeping costs in line. There is increasing pressure to provide products and services at lower prices, which can reduce net interest income and non-interest income from fee-based products and services. New technology-driven products and services are often introduced and adopted, including innovative ways that customers can make payments, access products and manage accounts. We could be required to make substantial capital expenditures to modify or adapt existing products and services or develop new products and services. We may not be successful in introducing new products and services or those new products may not achieve market acceptance. We could lose business, be forced to price products and services on less advantageous terms to retain or attract clients, or be subject to cost increases if we do not effectively develop and implement new technology. In addition, advances in technology such as telephone, text, and on-line banking; e-commerce; and self-service automatic teller machines and other equipment, as well as changing customer preferences to access our products and services through digital channels, could decrease the value of our branch network and other assets. As a result of these competitive pressures, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.

We will be subject to heightened regulatory requirements if we exceed $10 billion in assets.
We anticipate that our total assets could exceed $10 billion in the next several years, based on our historic and projected growth rates. The Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations impose various additional requirements on bank holding companies with $10 billion or more in total assets, including compliance with portions of the Federal Reserve’s enhanced prudential oversight requirements and annual stress testing requirements. In addition, banks with $10 billion or more in total assets are primarily examined by the CFPB with respect to various federal consumer financial protection laws and regulations. Currently, our bank is subject to regulations adopted by the CFPB, but the FDIC is primarily responsible for examining our bank’s compliance with consumer protection laws and those CFPB regulations. As a relatively new agency with evolving regulations and practices, there is uncertainty as to how the CFPB’s examination and regulatory authority might impact our business.
To ensure compliance with these heightened requirements when effective, our regulators may require us to fully comply with these requirements or take actions to prepare for compliance even before our or the Bank’s total assets equal or exceed $10 billion. In fact, we have already begun implementing measures to allow us to prepare for the heightened compliance that we expect will be required if we exceed $10 billion in assets, including hiring additional compliance personnel and designing and implementing additional compliance systems and internal controls. We may incur significant expenses in connection with these activities, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We expect to incur these compliance-related costs even if they are not yet fully required, and may incur them even if we do not ultimately reach $10 billion in asset at the rate we expect or at all. We may also face heightened scrutiny by our regulators as we begin to implement these new compliance measures and grow toward the $10 billion asset threshold, and our regulators may consider our preparation for compliance with these regulatory requirements when examining our operations generally or considering any request for regulatory approval we may make, even requests for approvals on unrelated matters. In addition, compliance with the annual stress testing requirements, part of which must be publicly disclosed, may also be misinterpreted by the market generally or our customers and, as a result, may adversely affect our stock price or our ability to retain our customers or effectively compete for new business opportunities.

35





Risks Related to Information Systems and Security

A failure in or breach of our security systems or infrastructure, including breaches resulting from cyber-attacks, could disrupt our businesses, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses.

Information security risks for financial institutions have increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, activists, and other external parties. Those parties also may attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers, or other users of our systems to disclose confidential information in order to gain access to our data or that of our customers. Our operations rely on the secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential information in our computer systems and networks, either managed directly by us or through our data processing vendors. In addition, to access our products and services, our customers may use personal computers, smartphones, tablet PCs, and other mobile devices that are beyond our control systems. Although we believe we have robust information security procedures and controls, we rely heavily on our third party vendors, technologies, systems, networks and our customers' devices all of which may become the target of cyber-attacks, computer viruses, malicious code, unauthorized access, hackers or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss, theft or destruction of our confidential, proprietary and other information or that of our customers, or disrupt our operations or those of our customers or third parties.

To date we are not aware of any material losses relating to cyber-attacks or other information security breaches, but there can be no assurance that we will not suffer such attacks, breaches and losses in the future. Our risk and exposure to these matters remains heightened because of, among other things, the evolving nature of these threats, our plans to continue to implement our Internet banking and mobile banking channel, our expanding operations and the outsourcing of a significant portion of our business operations. As a result, the continued development and enhancement of our information security controls, processes and practices designed to protect customer information, our systems, computers, software, data and networks from attack, damage or unauthorized access remain a priority for our management. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to insure, modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate important information security vulnerabilities or exposures; however, our measures may be insufficient to prevent physical and electronic break-ins, denial of service and other cyber-attacks or security breaches.

We maintain insurance coverage related to business interruptions and breaches of our security systems. However, disruptions or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support our businesses and customers, or cyber-attacks or security breaches of the networks, systems or devices that our customers use to access our products and services could result in customer attrition, uninsured financial losses, the inability of our customers to transact business with us, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties or intervention, additional regulatory scrutiny, reputational damage, litigation, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs, any of which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.

We rely on third party vendors and other service providers for certain critical business activities, which creates additional operational and information security risks for us.

Third parties with which we do business or that facilitate our business activities, including exchanges, clearing houses, financial intermediaries or vendors that provide services or security solutions for our operations, could also be sources of operational and information security risk to us, including from breakdowns or failures of their own systems, capacity constraints or failures of their own internal controls. Specifically, we receive core systems processing, essential web hosting and other Internet systems and deposit and other processing services from third-party service providers. In late February 2018, one of our vendors provided notice to us that their independent auditors had determined their internal controls to be inadequate. While we do not believe this particular failure of internal controls would have an impact on us due to the strength of our own internal controls, future failures of internal controls of a vendor could have a significant impact on our operations if we do not have controls to cover those issues. To date none of our third party vendors or service providers has notified us of any security breach in their systems that has resulted in an increased vulnerability to us or breached the integrity of our confidential customer data. Such third parties may also be target of cyber-attacks, computer viruses, malicious code, unauthorized access, hackers or information security breaches that could compromise the confidential or proprietary information of HomeStreet and our customers.


36




In addition, if any third-party service providers experience difficulties or terminate their services and we are unable to replace them with other service providers, our operations could be interrupted and our operating expenses may be materially increased. If an interruption were to continue for a significant period of time, our business financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Some of our primary third party service providers are subject to examination by banking regulators and may be subject to enhanced regulatory scrutiny due to regulatory findings during examinations of such service providers conducted by federal regulators. While we subject such vendors to higher scrutiny and monitor any corrective measures that the vendors are taking or would undertake, we cannot fully anticipate and mitigate all risks that could result from a breach or other operational failure of a vendor’s system.

Others provide technology that we use in our own regulatory compliance, including our mortgage loan origination technology. If those providers fail to update their systems or services in a timely manner to reflect new or changing regulations, or if our personnel operate these systems in a non-compliant manner, our ability to meet regulatory requirements may be impacted and may expose us to heightened regulatory scrutiny and the potential for payment of monetary penalties.

In addition, in order to safeguard our online financial transactions, we must provide secure transmission of confidential information over public networks. Our Internet banking system relies on third party encryption and authentication technologies necessary to provide secure transmission of confidential information. Advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptology or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the algorithms our third-party service providers use to protect customer data. If any such compromise of security were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The failure to protect our customers’ confidential information and privacy could adversely affect our business.

We are subject to federal and state privacy regulations and confidentiality obligations that, among other things restrict the use and dissemination of, and access to, certain information that we produce, store or maintain in the course of our business. We also have contractual obligations to protect certain confidential information we obtain from our existing vendors and customers. These obligations generally include protecting such confidential information in the same manner and to the same extent as we protect our own confidential information, and in some instances may impose indemnity obligations on us relating to unlawful or unauthorized disclosure of any such information.

If we do not properly comply with privacy regulations and contractual obligations that require us to protect confidential information, or if we experience a security breach or network compromise, we could experience adverse consequences, including regulatory sanctions, penalties or fines, increased compliance costs, remedial costs such as providing credit monitoring or other services to affected customers, litigation and damage to our reputation, which in turn could result in decreased revenues and loss of customers, all of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The network and computer systems on which we depend could fail for reasons not related to security breaches.

Our computer systems could be vulnerable to unforeseen problems other than a cyber-attack or other security breach. Because we conduct a part of our business over the Internet and outsource several critical functions to third parties, operations will depend on our ability, as well as the ability of third-party service providers, to protect computer systems and network infrastructure against damage from fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, physical break-ins or similar catastrophic events. Any damage or failure that causes interruptions in operations may compromise our ability to perform critical functions in a timely manner (or may give rise to perceptions of such compromise) and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations as well as our reputation and customer or vendor relationships.

We continually encounter technological change, and we may have fewer resources than many of our competitors to invest in technological improvements.

The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our clients by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy client demands for convenience, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many national vendors provide turn-key services to community banks, such as Internet banking and remote deposit capture that allow smaller banks to compete with institutions that have substantially greater

37




resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able, however, to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers.

Anti-Takeover Risk

Some provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws and certain provisions of Washington law may deter takeover attempts, which may limit the opportunity of our shareholders to sell their shares at a favorable price.

Some provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of deterring or delaying attempts by our shareholders to remove or replace management, to commence proxy contests, or to effect changes in control. These provisions include:
A classified Board of Directors so that only approximately one third of our board of directors is elected each year;
Elimination of cumulative voting in the election of directors;
Procedures for advance notification of shareholder nominations and proposals;
The ability of our Board of Directors to amend our bylaws without shareholder approval; and
The ability of our Board of Directors to issue shares of preferred stock without shareholder approval upon the terms and conditions and with the rights, privileges and preferences as the board of directors may determine.

In addition, as a Washington corporation, we are subject to Washington law which imposes restrictions on business combinations and similar transactions between a corporation and certain significant shareholders. These provisions, alone or together, could have the effect of deterring or delaying changes in incumbent management, proxy contests or changes in control. These restrictions may limit a shareholder’s ability to benefit from a change-in-control transaction that might otherwise result in a premium unless such a transaction is favored by our Board of Directors.





38




ITEM 1B
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2
PROPERTIES

We lease principal offices, which are located in downtown Seattle at 601 Union Street, Suite 2000, Seattle, WA 98101. This lease provides sufficient space to conduct the management of our business. The Company conducts Mortgage Lending as well as Commercial and Consumer Banking activities in locations in Washington, California, Oregon, Hawaii, Idaho, Arizona and Utah. As of December 31, 2017, we operated in 44 primary stand-alone home loan centers, six primary commercial lending centers, 59 retail deposit branches, and one insurance office. As of such date, we also operated three facilities for the purpose of administrative and other functions in addition to the principal offices: a loan fulfillment center and a call center and operations support facility, both located in Federal Way, Washington; and loan fulfillment centers in Pleasanton, California and Vancouver, Washington. Of these properties, we own five of the retail deposit branches, the loan fulfillment center and the call center and operations support facility in Federal Way and we own 50% of a retail branch through a joint venture. In addition, we own two parcels of land in Washington State. All facilities are in a good state of repair and appropriately designed for use as banking or administrative office facilities.


ITEM 3
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Because the nature of our business involves the collection of numerous accounts, the validity of liens and compliance with various state and federal lending laws, we are subject to various legal proceedings in the ordinary course of our business related to foreclosures, bankruptcies, condemnation and quiet title actions and alleged statutory and regulatory violations. We are also subject to legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business related to employment matters. We do not expect that these proceedings, taken as a whole, will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position or our results of operations. There are currently no matters that, in the opinion of management, would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operation or liquidity, or for which there would be a reasonable possibility of such a loss based on information known at this time.

ITEM 4
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.


39




PART II
 

ITEM 5
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “HMST.” The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low reported sales prices per share of the common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, our principal trading market.
 
 
High
 
Low
 
Special Cash Dividends Declared
For the Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
First quarter ended March 31
$
32.50

 
$
25.01

 
$

Second quarter ended June 30
29.88

 
25.40

 

Third quarter ended September 30
28.40

 
24.00

 

Fourth quarter ended December 31
31.30

 
26.83

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
For the Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
First quarter ended March 31
$
22.79

 
$
18.58

 
$

Second quarter ended June 30
22.97

 
18.74

 

Third quarter ended September 30
27.21

 
19.07

 

Fourth quarter ended December 31
33.70

 
24.03

 


As of March 2, 2018, there were 2,476 shareholders of record of our common stock.

Dividend Policy

We have not adopted a formal dividend policy to pay dividends and did not pay any dividends in 2017 or 2016. The amount and timing of any future dividends have not been determined. The payment of dividends will depend upon a number of factors, including regulatory capital requirements, the Company’s and the Bank’s liquidity, financial condition and results of operations, strategic growth plans, tax considerations, statutory and regulatory limitations and general economic conditions. Our ability to pay dividends to shareholders is significantly dependent on the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Company, which is limited to the extent necessary for the Bank to meet the regulatory requirements of a “well-capitalized” bank or other formal or informal guidance communicated by our principal regulators. Capital rules implemented beginning on January 1, 2015 have imposed more stringent requirements on the ability of the Bank to maintain “well-capitalized” status and to pay dividends to the Company. See “Regulation and Supervision of HomeStreet Bank - Capital and Prompt Corrective Action Requirements - Capital Requirements.”

For the foregoing reasons, there can be no assurance that we will pay any further special dividends in any future period.

Sales of Unregistered Securities
There were no sales of unregistered securities in the fourth quarter of 2017.

Stock Repurchases in the Fourth Quarter

Not applicable.





40




Stock Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act), or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of HomeStreet, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

The following graph shows a comparison from February 10, 2012 (the date our common stock commenced trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market) through December 31, 2017 of the cumulative total return for our common stock, the KBW Bank Index (BKX), the Russell 2000 Index (RUT) and the KBW Regional Banking Index (KRX). The graph assumes that $100 was invested at the market close on February 10, 2012 in the common stock of HomeStreet, Inc., the KBW Bank Index, the Russell 2000 Index, the KBW Regional Banking Index and data for HomeStreet, Inc., the KBW Bank Index, the Russell 2000 Index and the KBW Regional Banking Index assumes reinvestments of dividends. The stock price performance of the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance. We are adding in the KBW Regional Bank Index this year, to eventually replace KBW Bank Index, in our performance graph as the composition of the KBW Regional Bank index is more relevant to our size and market cap.

                  

392477520_stockgrapv2.jpg

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ITEM 6
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The data set forth below should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Consolidated Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto appearing at Item 8 of this report.

The following table sets forth selected historical consolidated financial and other data for us at and for each of the periods ended as described below. The selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 have been derived from, and should be read together with, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements for those years, which are not included in this Form10-K. You should read the summary selected historical consolidated financial and other data presented below in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and the notes thereto, which are included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. We have prepared our unaudited information on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and have included, in our opinion, all adjustments that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial information set forth in that information.

 
At or for the Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands, except share data)
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income statement data (for the period ended):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net interest income
$
194,438

 
$
180,049

 
$
148,338

 
$
98,669

 
$
74,444

Provision (reversal of provision) for credit losses
750

 
4,100

 
6,100

 
(1,000
)
 
900

Noninterest income
312,154

 
359,150

 
281,237

 
185,657

 
190,745

Noninterest expense
439,653

 
444,322

 
366,568

 
252,011

 
229,495

Income before income taxes
66,189

 
90,777

 
56,907

 
33,315

 
34,794

Income tax (benefit) expense
(2,757
)
 
32,626

 
15,588

 
11,056

 
10,985

Net income
$
68,946

 
$
58,151

 
$
41,319

 
$
22,259

 
$
23,809

Basic income per share
$
2.57

 
$
2.36

 
$
1.98

 
$
1.50

 
$
1.65

Diluted income per share
$
2.54

 
$
2.34

 
$
1.96

 
$
1.49

 
$
1.61

Common shares outstanding
26,888,288

 
26,800,183

 
22,076,534

 
14,856,611

 
14,799,991

Weighted average number of shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
26,864,657

 
24,615,990

 
20,818,045

 
14,800,689

 
14,412,059

Diluted
27,092,019

 
24,843,683

 
21,059,201

 
14,961,081

 
14,798,168

Book value per share
$
26.20

 
$
23.48

 
$
21.08

 
$
20.34


$
17.97

Dividends per share
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
0.11

 
$
0.33

Financial position (at year end):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
72,718

 
$
53,932

 
$
32,684

 
$
30,502

 
$
33,908

Investment securities
904,304

 
1,043,851

 
572,164

 
455,332

 
498,816

Loans held for sale
610,902

 
714,559

 
650,163

 
621,235

 
279,941

Loans held for investment, net
4,506,466

 
3,819,027

 
3,192,720

 
2,099,129

 
1,871,813

Mortgage servicing rights
284,653

 
245,860

 
171,255

 
123,324

 
162,463

Other real estate owned
664

 
5,243

 
7,531

 
9,448

 
12,911

Total assets
6,742,041

 
6,243,700

 
4,894,495

 
3,535,090

 
3,066,054

Deposits
4,760,952

 
4,429,701

 
3,231,953

 
2,445,430

 
2,210,821

Federal Home Loan Bank advances
979,201

 
868,379

 
1,018,159

 
597,590

 
446,590

Federal funds purchased and securities sold under agreements to repurchase