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Section 1: S-3ASR (FORM S-3ASR)

tv486103-s3asr - none - 2.7227608s
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 27, 2018
Registration No.    ​
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
LEXINGTON REALTY TRUST
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland
13-3717318
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
See Additional Registrant Table
One Penn Plaza, Suite 4015
New York, NY 10119
(212) 692-7200
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
T. Wilson Eglin
President and Chief Executive Officer
One Penn Plaza, Suite 4015
New York, NY 10119-4015
(212) 692-7200
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service):
Copies to:
Elizabeth H. Noe
Paul Hastings LLP
1170 Peachtree Street, N.E. Suite 100
Atlanta, GA 30309
(404) 815-2287
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service):
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, please check the following box and list the Securities Act of 1933 registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of  “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☒
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☐ (Do not check if smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of each class of securities to be registered
Amount to be
registered(1)(2)(3)
Proposed
maximum
offering
price per
unit(1)(2)(3)
Proposed
maximum
aggregate
offering
price(1)(2)(3)
Amount of
registration
fee(3)
Shares of beneficial interest classified as common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
               $ 0
Shares of beneficial interest classified as preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share
$ 0
Debt securities
$ 0
Guarantees of debt securities(4)
Depositary shares representing preferred shares of beneficial interest, par value $0.0001 per share(5)
$ 0
Warrants
$ 0
Subscription Rights
$ 0
Units(6) $ 0
(1)
Omitted pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.E.
(2)
An unspecified number or amount of shares of beneficial interest classified as common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“common shares”), shares of beneficial interest classified as preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“preferred shares”), debt securities, depositary shares representing preferred shares of beneficial interest, par value $0.0001 per share (“depositary shares”), warrants, subscription rights and units is being registered as may from time to time be issued at indeterminate prices. This Registration Statement also includes such indeterminable amount of  (i) securities of each identified class as may be issued from time to time upon exercise of warrants or conversion or exchange of convertible or exchangeable securities being registered hereunder and (ii) additional securities as may be issued to prevent dilution from stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933.
(3)
Deferred in reliance upon Rule 456(b) and Rule 457(r). In connection with the securities offered hereby, the registrant will pay “pay-as-you-go registration fees” in accordance with Rule 456(b).
(4)
Pursuant to Rule 457(n), no separate fee will be payable with respect to the guarantees of debt securities.
(5)
Each depositary share will be issued under a deposit agreement, will represent an interest in a fractional preferred share and will be evidenced by a depositary receipt.
(6)
Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will represent an interest in one or more common shares, preferred shares, debt securities, subscription rights, depositary shares, warrants and any combination of such securities.
ADDITIONAL REGISTRANT TABLE
Exact Name of Registrant Guarantor as Specified in its Charter
State or
Other
Jurisdiction
of Incorporation
or Organization
Primary
Standard
Industrial
Classification
Code Number
I.R.S.
Employer
Identification
Number
Address, Including Zip Code
and Telephone Number,
Including Area Code,
of Registrant’s Principal
Executive Offices
Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P.
Delaware 6500 13-3779859
One Penn Plaza, Suite 4015,
New York, NY 10119-4015
(212) 692-7200

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PROSPECTUS
Lexington Realty Trust
Common Shares of Beneficial Interest Classified as Common Stock
Preferred Shares of Beneficial Interest Classified as Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Guarantees of Debt Securities
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Subscription Rights
Units
We are Lexington Realty Trust, a self-managed and self-administered real estate investment trust formed under the laws of the State of Maryland, that acquires, owns and manages a diversified portfolio of equity investments in single-tenant commercial properties. A majority of these properties are subject to net or similar leases, where the tenant bears all or substantially all of the costs, including cost increases, for real estate taxes, utilities, insurance and ordinary repairs. Our executive offices are located at One Penn Plaza, Suite 4015, New York, NY 10119-4015, and our telephone number is (212) 692-7200.
This prospectus contains a general description of the equity and debt securities that we may offer for sale. We may from time to time offer, in one or more series or classes, separately or together, the following:

common shares of beneficial interest classified as common stock (“common shares”);

preferred shares of beneficial interest classified as preferred stock (“preferred shares”);

debt securities which may be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities (“debt securities”);

Guarantees of debt securities;

depositary shares representing preferred shares (“depositary shares”);

warrants;

subscription rights; or

units consisting of combinations of any of the foregoing (“units”).
We will offer our securities in amounts, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time we offer those securities. The debt securities we offer may potentially be guaranteed by our subsidiary, Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P. We will provide the specific terms of the securities in supplements to this prospectus. We are organized and conduct our operations so as to qualify as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for federal income tax purposes. The specific terms of the securities may include limitations on actual, beneficial or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities that may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT. To ensure that we maintain our qualification as a REIT under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, among other purposes, ownership of our equity securities by any person is subject to certain limitations. See “Restrictions on Transfers of Capital Stock and Anti-Takeover Provisions,” in this prospectus.
The securities may be offered on a delayed or continuous basis directly by us, through agents, underwriters or dealers as designated from time to time, through a combination of these methods or any other method as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest.
In addition, certain selling shareholders to be identified from time to time in a prospectus supplement may sell our securities that they own. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our securities by selling shareholders.
Our common shares and our 6.50% Series C Cumulative Convertible Preferred Stock, or Series C Preferred Shares, are traded on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbols “LXP” and “LXPPRC”, respectively. On February 22, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common shares, as reported on The New York Stock Exchange, was $8.15 per share.
INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. IN OUR FILINGS WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, WHICH ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE IN THIS PROSPECTUS, WE IDENTIFY AND DISCUSS RISK FACTORS THAT YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES. SEE “RISKS FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS. INVESTING IN THESE SECURITIES INVOLVES CERTAIN RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” SECTION BEGINNING ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS. BEFORE BUYING OUR SECURITIES, YOU SHOULD READ AND CONSIDER THE RISK FACTORS INCLUDED IN OUR PERIODIC REPORTS, IN THE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENTS OR ANY OFFERING MATERIAL RELATING TO ANY SPECIFIC OFFERING, AND IN OTHER INFORMATION THAT WE FILE WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION WHICH IS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE IN THIS PROSPECTUS. SEE “WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION.”
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
The date of this prospectus is February 27, 2018

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC or the Commission, using a “shelf” registration process or continuous offering process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings and selling securityholders may from time to time offer such securities owned by them. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities that may be offered by us and/or selling securityholders. We may also file, from time to time, a prospectus supplement or an amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part containing additional information about us and/or selling securityholders and the terms of the offering of the securities. That prospectus supplement or amendment may include additional risk factors or other special considerations applicable to the securities. Any prospectus supplement or amendment may also add, update or change information in this prospectus. If there is any supplement or amendment, you should rely on the information in that prospectus supplement or amendment.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For further information, we refer you to the registration statement and any amendments to such registration statement, including its exhibits and schedules. Statements contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement about the provisions or contents of any agreement or other document are not necessarily complete. If the SEC’s rules and regulations require that an agreement or document be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, please refer to the actual exhibit for a complete description of these matters.
You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.” Federal securities laws and the SEC’s rules and regulations require us to file reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) (including annual, quarterly and current reports) for both Lexington Realty Trust and our guarantor subsidiary, Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P., as further described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Information incorporated by reference from filings with the SEC after the date of this prospectus or after the date of any prospectus supplement, or information included in any prospectus supplement or an amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, may add, update or change information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. Any statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or in any document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be amended, modified or superseded for the purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or a later document that is or is considered to be incorporated by reference herein amends, modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statements so amended, modified or superseded will not be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus, except as so amended, modified or superseded. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the respective covers of this prospectus and any such prospectus supplement.
We have not authorized anyone else to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement as if we had authorized it. This prospectus and any prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate. Nor does this prospectus or any prospectus supplement constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.
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All references to the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” in this prospectus mean Lexington Realty Trust and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P. and its consolidated subsidiaries, except as otherwise provided or where it is made clear that the term means only Lexington Realty Trust. All references to “the operating partnership” or “LCIF” in this prospectus mean Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P. When we use the term “LXP” in this prospectus, we are referring to Lexington Realty Trust by itself and not including any of its subsidiaries. References to “common shares” or similar references refer to the shares of beneficial interest classified as common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of LXP, and references to “OP units” or similar references refer to the limited partnership units of LCIF. The term “you” refers to a prospective investor.
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act,” and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and include this statement for purposes of complying with these safe harbor provisions. Forward-looking statements, which are based on certain assumptions and describe our future plans, strategies and expectations, are generally identifiable by use of the words “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “projects,” “may,” “plans,” “predicts,” “will,” “will likely result” or similar expressions. Readers should not rely on forward-looking statements since they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which are, in some cases, beyond our control and which could materially affect actual results, performances or achievements. In particular, among the factors that could cause actual results, performances or achievements to differ materially from current expectations, strategies or plans include, among others:

changes in economic conditions generally and the real estate market specifically;

adverse developments with respect to our tenants;

impairments in the value of our real estate investments;

failure to consummate the transactions described in this prospectus or the failure of any transactions to perform to our expectations;

legislative/regulatory/accounting changes, including changes to laws governing and policies and guidelines applicable to the taxation of REITs;

any material legal proceedings;

availability of debt and equity capital;

increases in real estate construction costs;

competition;

changes in interest rates;

supply and demand for properties in our current and proposed market areas;

a downgrade in our credit ratings; and

the other risk factors set forth in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 27, 2018, the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 5 of this prospectus and the other documents incorporated by reference herein, including documents that we file with the SEC in the future that are incorporated by reference herein.
These risks and uncertainties should be considered in evaluating any forward-looking statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We caution you that any forward-looking statement reflects only our belief at the time the statement is made. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee our future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly release the results of any revisions to these forward-looking statements which may be made to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. Accordingly, there is no assurance that our expectations will be realized.
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OUR COMPANY
LXP is a REIT formed under the laws of the state of Maryland as a real estate investment trust that owns a diversified portfolio of equity investments in single-tenant commercial properties. A majority of these properties are subject to net or similar leases, where the tenant bears all or substantially all of the costs, including cost increases, for real estate taxes, utilities, insurance and ordinary repairs. However, certain leases provide that the landlord is responsible for certain operating expenses.
LCIF, our operating partnership, was formed as a limited partnership on March 14, 1986 under the laws of the State of Delaware to invest in existing real estate properties net leased to corporations or other entities.
The purpose of LCIF includes the conduct of any business that may be conducted lawfully by a limited partnership organized under the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act, or the Delaware Act, except that the partnership agreement of LCIF requires business to be conducted in such a manner that will permit LXP to continue to be classified as a REIT under the Code, unless LXP ceases to qualify as a REIT for reasons other than the conduct of the business of LCIF.
LXP is the sole equity owner of  (1) Lex GP-1 Trust, or Lex GP, a Delaware statutory trust, which is the general partner of LCIF and (2) Lex LP-1 Trust, or Lex LP, a Delaware statutory trust. LXP, through Lex GP and Lex LP, holds, as of December 31, 2017, approximately, 96.0% of the outstanding OP units in LCIF. The remaining OP units in LCIF are beneficially owned by E. Robert Roskind, Chairman of LXP, and certain non-affiliated investors. As the sole equity owner of the general partner of LCIF, LXP has the ability to control all of the day-to-day operations of LCIF subject to the terms of LCIF’s partnership agreement.
The business of LCIF is substantially the same as the business of LXP and includes investment in single-tenant assets, except that LCIF is dependent on LXP for management of its operations and future investments. LCIF does not have any employees, any executive officers or a board of directors. LXP also invests in assets and conducts business directly and through other subsidiaries. LXP allocates investments to itself and its other subsidiaries or to LCIF as it deems appropriate and in accordance with certain obligations under the LCIF partnership agreement with respect to allocations of nonrecourse liabilities.
Neither LXP nor Lex GP receives any compensation for Lex GP’s services as the general partner of LCIF. Lex GP and Lex LP, however, as partners in LCIF, have the same right to allocations and distributions as other partners of LCIF. In addition, LCIF reimburses Lex GP and LXP for all expenses incurred by them related to the ownership and operation of, or for the benefit of, LCIF. In the event that certain expenses are incurred for the benefit of LCIF and other entities (including LXP and its other subsidiaries), such expenses are allocated by LXP, as sole equity owner of Lex GP, the general partner of LCIF, to LCIF in proportion to gross rental revenue. LXP has guaranteed the obligations of LCIF in connection with the redemption of OP units pursuant to the LCIF partnership agreement.
The principal executive offices for LXP and LCIF are located at One Penn Plaza, Suite 4015, New York, New York 10119-4015; our telephone number is (212) 692-7200.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves risks and uncertainties that could affect us and our business as well as the real estate industry generally. You should carefully consider the risks described and discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” included in LXP’s and LCIF’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, filed on February 27, 2018, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including without limitation any updated risks included in our subsequent periodic reports incorporated by reference herein. These risks could materially affect our business, results of operations or financial condition and cause the value of our securities to decline. You could lose all or part of your investment. These risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by risk factors contained in any prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment we may file or in other reports we file with the Commission in the future. In addition, new risks may emerge at any time and we cannot predict such risks or estimate the extent to which they may affect our financial performance.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise described in any applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from our sale of the securities for general corporate purposes, which may include the repayment of outstanding indebtedness, the improvement of certain properties already in our portfolio or the acquisition of additional assets. Unless otherwise described in any applicable prospectus supplement, we will not receive the proceeds of sales by selling securityholders, if any. Further details relating to the use of net proceeds from any specific offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES AND EARNINGS TO
COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERRED SHARE DIVIDENDS
The following table sets forth the ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred share dividends of LXP and LCIF for each of the last five fiscal years. The ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred share dividends were computed by dividing earnings by fixed charges and preferred share dividends. For these purposes, “earnings” consist of income (loss) before provision for income taxes, noncontrolling interest, equity in earnings (losses) of non-consolidated entities and discontinued operations, plus fixed charges (excluding capitalized interest) and cash received from joint ventures. “Fixed charges” consist of interest expense, including capitalized interest and the amortization expense on debt issuance costs. This information is given on an historical basis.
LXP:
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
Ratio of Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges and
Preferred Share Dividends(1)
1.96 1.80 2.00 1.37 N/A
(1)
Ratio is below 1.0, deficit of  $28.9 million existed at December 31, 2013.
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges(1)
2.12 1.93 2.13 1.46 N/A
(1)
Ratio is below 1.0, deficit of  $19.1 million existed at December 31, 2013.
LCIF:
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges(1)
1.18 N/A 2.43 2.43 1.70
(1)
Ratio is below 1.0, deficit of  $4.8 million existed at December 31, 2016.
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DESCRIPTION OF OUR COMMON SHARES
The following summary of the material terms and provisions of our common shares does not purport to be complete and is subject to the detailed provisions of our Declaration of Trust and our By-Laws, each as supplemented, amended or restated, and each of which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should carefully read each of these documents in order to fully understand the terms and provisions of our common shares. For information on incorporation by reference, and how to obtain copies of these documents, see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus.
This summary is also subject to and qualified by reference to the descriptions of the particular terms of our securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
General
Under our Declaration of Trust, we have the authority to issue up to 1,000,000,000 shares of beneficial interest, par value $0.0001 per share, of which 400,000,000 shares are classified as common shares, 500,000,000 are classified as excess stock, or excess shares, and 100,000,000 shares are classified as preferred shares. As of February 22, 2018, we had issued and outstanding 240,767,878 common shares.
Terms
Subject to the preferential rights of any other shares or class or series of our equity securities and to the provisions of our Declaration of Trust regarding excess shares, holders of common shares are entitled to receive dividends on such common shares if, as and when authorized by our board of trustees and declared by us out of assets legally available therefor and to share ratably in those of our assets legally available for distribution to our shareholders in the event that we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, after payment of, or adequate provision for, all of our known debts and liabilities and the amount to which holders of any class of shares having a preference on distributions in liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us will be entitled.
Subject to the provisions of our Declaration of Trust regarding excess shares, each outstanding common share entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders, including the election of trustees and, except as otherwise required by law or except as otherwise provided in our Declaration of Trust with respect to any other class or series of shares, the holders of common shares will possess exclusive voting power. In uncontested elections of trustees at a meeting duly called at which a quorum is present, the affirmative vote of a majority of the total votes cast by shareholders entitled to vote is sufficient to elect a trustee nominee. In contested elections at a meeting duly called at which a quorum is present, a plurality of votes cast by shareholders entitled to vote is required for the election of a trustee. A majority of the votes cast means that the number of shares voted “for” a trustee nominee must exceed the number of votes cast “against” or “withheld” with respect to such trustee nominee. Votes “against” or “withheld” with respect to a nominee will count as votes cast with respect to that nominee, but “abstentions” and broker non-votes with respect to that nominee will not count as votes cast with respect to that nominee. There is no cumulative voting in the election of trustees, which means that the holders of a majority of our outstanding common shares can elect all of the trustees then standing for election, and the holders of the remaining common shares will not be able to elect any trustees.
Subject to the provisions of our Declaration of Trust regarding excess shares, holders of common shares have no conversion, sinking fund or redemption rights or preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities.
We furnish our shareholders with annual reports containing audited consolidated financial statements and an opinion thereon expressed by an independent registered public accounting firm.
Subject to the provisions of our Declaration of Trust regarding excess shares, all of the common shares have equal dividend, distribution, liquidation and other rights and generally have no preference, appraisal or exchange rights.
Restrictions on Ownership
For us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, among other things, not more than 50% in value of its outstanding shares of capital stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as
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defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year. To assist us in meeting this requirement, among other purposes, our Declaration of Trust contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our shares. See “Restrictions on Transfers of Shares of Capital Stock and Anti-Takeover Provisions.”
Transfer Agent
As of the date of this prospectus, the transfer agent and registrar for the common shares is Computershare Shareowner Services, or Computershare.
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DESCRIPTION OF OUR PREFERRED SHARES
The following summary of the material terms and provisions of our preferred shares does not purport to be complete and is subject to the detailed provisions of our Declaration of Trust (including any applicable articles supplementary, amendment or annex to our Declaration of Trust designating the terms of a series of preferred shares) and our By-Laws, each as supplemented, amended or restated, and each of which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should carefully read each of these documents in order to fully understand the terms and provisions of our preferred shares. For information on incorporation by reference, and how to obtain copies of these documents, see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus.
General
Under our Declaration of Trust, we have the authority to issue up to 100,000,000 preferred shares, of which 3,100,000 shares are classified as Series C Preferred Shares. As of the date of this prospectus, we have issued and outstanding 1,935,400 Series C Preferred Shares and have no other outstanding series of preferred shares.
Subject to limitations prescribed by Maryland law and our Declaration of Trust, our board of trustees is authorized to classify and reclassify any unissued shares and to set the number of shares constituting each class or series of preferred shares and the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption. The preferred shares will, when issued against payment therefor, be fully paid and nonassessable and will not be subject to preemptive rights, unless determined by our board of trustees. Our board of trustees could authorize the issuance of preferred shares with terms and conditions that could have the effect of discouraging a takeover or other transaction that holders of common shares might believe to be in their best interests or in which holders of common shares might receive a premium for their common shares over the then-current market price of their shares.
Terms
Reference is made to the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the preferred shares offered thereby for specific terms, including:
(1)
the title and stated value of the preferred shares;
(2)
the number of preferred shares offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the preferred shares;
(3)
the voting rights, if any, of the holders of the preferred shares;
(4)
the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the preferred shares;
(5)
the date from which dividends on the preferred shares will accumulate, if applicable;
(6)
the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred shares;
(7)
the provisions for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred shares;
(8)
any listing of the preferred shares on any securities exchange;
(9)
the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred shares will be convertible into common shares, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);
(10)
a discussion of material federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred shares;
(11)
the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred shares as to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs;
(12)
any limitations on issuance of any series of preferred shares ranking senior to or on a parity with the preferred shares as to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs;
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(13)
any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership of our securities and restrictions on transfer of our securities, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT; and
(14)
any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred shares.
Rank
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred shares rank, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up: (i) senior to all classes or series of common shares, and to all equity securities ranking junior to the preferred shares; (ii) on a parity with all equity securities the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred shares; and (iii) junior to all equity securities the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the preferred shares. As used in this prospectus, the term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.
Dividends
Subject to any preferential rights of any outstanding securities or series of securities, the holders of preferred shares will be entitled to receive dividends, when, as and if authorized by our board of trustees and declared by us, out of assets legally available for payment. Dividends will be paid at such rates and on such dates as will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record of preferred shares as they appear on our share transfer books at the close of business on the applicable record dates fixed by our board of trustees. Dividends on any series of our preferred shares may be cumulative or non-cumulative, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Redemption
If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred shares offered thereby will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms and conditions, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.
Liquidation Preference
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs, and before any distribution or payment will be made to the holders of any common shares or any other class or series of shares ranking junior to our preferred shares as to rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our preferred shares will be entitled to receive, after payment or provision for payment of our debts and other liabilities, out of our assets legally available for distribution to shareholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share, if any, set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, plus an amount equal to all dividends accrued and unpaid thereon, which will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods. After payment of the full amount of the liquidating distributions to which they are entitled, the holders of preferred shares will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. In the event that, upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs, the legally available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all of our outstanding preferred shares and the corresponding amounts payable on all of our other outstanding equity securities ranking on a parity with the preferred shares in the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs, then the holders of our preferred shares and the holders of such other outstanding equity securities will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be respectively entitled.
If liquidating distributions are made in full to all holders of our preferred shares, our remaining assets will be distributed among the holders of any other classes or series of equity securities ranking junior to the preferred shares in the distribution of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs, according to their respective rights and preferences and in each case according to their respective number of shares.
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If we consolidate, convert or merge with or into, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our property or business to, any corporation, trust or other entity, such transaction will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs.
Voting Rights
Unless otherwise from time to time required by law, or as otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of our preferred shares will not have any voting rights.
Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, upon which our preferred shares are convertible into common shares will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Such terms will include the number of common shares into which the preferred shares are convertible, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of the preferred shares or at our option, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of such preferred shares.
Restrictions on Ownership
For us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, among other things, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding shares of capital stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year. To assist us in meeting this requirement, among other purposes, our Declaration of Trust contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our shares, including our preferred shares, and the prospectus supplement relating to a class or series of preferred shares may contain additional provisions restricting the ownership and transfer of such class or series of preferred shares. See “Restrictions on Transfers of Capital Stock and Anti-Takeover Provisions.”
Transfer Agent
As of the date of this prospectus, the transfer agent and registrar for our Series C Preferred Shares is Computershare. The transfer agent and registrar for our other series of preferred shares will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Terms of Our 6.50% Series C Cumulative Convertible Preferred Stock
General.   In December 2004 and January 2005, we sold an aggregate 3,100,000 Series C Preferred Shares. The Series C Preferred Shares are convertible into common shares and are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “LXPPRC.” As of the date of this prospectus, 1,935,400 Series C Preferred Shares remain outstanding.
Dividends.   Subject to the preferential rights of the holders of any class or series of shares ranking senior to the Series C Preferred Shares as to dividends, the holders of the Series C Preferred Shares are entitled to receive, when, as and if authorized by the board of trustees and declared by us, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends at a rate of 6.50% per annum of the $50.00 liquidation preference per share (equivalent to $3.25 per year per share).
Liquidation Preference.   Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of us, holders of the Series C Preferred Shares (and of the excess shares converted from Series C Preferred Shares, if any) will have the right to be paid out of our assets legally available for distribution to our shareholders $50.00 per share, plus accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not declared) to and including the date of payment, before any payments are made to the holders of common shares and any other shares ranking junior to the Series C Preferred Shares as to liquidation rights. The rights of the holders of the Series C Preferred Shares to receive their liquidation preference will be subject to the proportionate rights of each other series or class of our capital shares ranking, as to liquidation rights, on a parity with the Series C Preferred Shares. The consolidation or merger of LXP with or into any other trust, corporation or entity, or the sale, lease, transfer or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or business, will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of us.
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Redemption.   We may not redeem the Series C Preferred Shares unless necessary to preserve our status as a REIT.
Conversion Rights.   The Series C Preferred Shares may be converted by the holder, at its option (the “Optional Conversion”), into common shares, at a conversion rate of 2.4339 common shares per $50.00 liquidation preference, as of the date of this prospectus, which is equivalent to a conversion price of approximately $20.54 per common share (subject to adjustment in certain events).
Company Conversion Option.   We may, at our option, cause the Series C Preferred Shares to be automatically converted into that number of common shares that are issuable at the then prevailing conversion rate (the “Company Conversion Option”) in the following circumstances. We may exercise our conversion right only if, for at least twenty (20) trading days within any period of thirty (30) consecutive trading days (including the last trading day of such period), the closing price of the common shares equals or exceeds 125% of the then prevailing conversion price of the Series C Preferred Shares. In addition, if there are fewer than 25,000 Series C Preferred Shares outstanding, we may, at our option, cause all of the outstanding Series C Preferred Shares to be automatically converted into that number of common shares equal to $50.00 divided by the lesser of the then prevailing conversion price and the current market price for the five trading day period ending on the second trading day immediately prior to the conversion date.
Settlement.   Upon conversion (whether pursuant to an Optional Conversion or the Company Conversion Option), we may choose to deliver the conversion value to investors in cash, common shares or a combination of cash and common shares.
We can elect at any time to obligate ourselves to satisfy solely in cash, the portion of the conversion value that is equal to 100% of the liquidation preference amount of the Series C Preferred Shares, with any remaining amount of the conversion value to be satisfied in cash, common shares or a combination of cash and common shares. If we elect to do so, we will notify holders at any time that we intend to settle in cash the portion of the conversion value that is equal to the liquidation preference amount of the Series C Preferred Shares. This notification, once provided to holders, will be irrevocable and will apply to future conversions of the Series C Preferred Shares even if the shares cease to be convertible but subsequently become convertible again.
Payment of Dividends Upon Conversion.   With respect to an Optional Conversion, upon delivery of the Series C Preferred Shares for conversion, those Series C Preferred Shares will cease to accumulate dividends as of the end of the day immediately preceding the conversion date and a holder of such converted Series C Preferred Shares will not receive any cash payment representing accrued and unpaid dividends on the Series C Preferred Shares, whether or not in arrears, except in certain limited circumstances. With respect to the Company Conversion Option, a holder of such converted Series C Preferred Shares will receive a cash payment for all unpaid dividends in arrears. If we exercise the Company Conversion Option and the conversion date is on or after the record date for payment of dividends and before the corresponding dividend payment date, such holder will also receive a cash payment for the dividend payable for such period. If we exercise the Company Conversion Option and the conversion date is prior to the record date for payment of dividends, such holder will not receive payment for any portion of the dividend payable for such period.
Conversion Rate Adjustments.   The conversion rate is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events, including if we distribute in any quarter to all or substantially all holders of common shares, any cash, including quarterly cash dividends, in excess of an amount per common share (subject to adjustment), which is currently approximately $0.38.
Fundamental Change.   Upon the occurrence of certain fundamental changes in LXP, a holder may require us to purchase for cash all or part of its Series C Preferred Shares at a price equal to 100% of their liquidation preference plus accrued and unpaid dividends, if any, up to, but not including, the fundamental change purchase date.
Rank.   With respect to the payment of dividends and amounts upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the Series C Preferred Shares rank (i) senior to all classes or series of common shares and to all equity securities ranking junior to the Series C Preferred Shares, (ii) on a parity with all equity securities the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the Series C Preferred Shares, and (iii) junior to all equity securities the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the Series C Preferred Shares.
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Voting Rights.   Holders of the Series C Preferred Shares generally have no voting rights. However, if we do not pay dividends on the Series C Preferred Shares for six or more quarterly periods (whether or not consecutive), the holders of the Series C Preferred Shares voting together as a class with all other classes or series of our equity securities ranking on parity with the Series C Preferred Shares which are entitled to similar voting rights, will be entitled to vote at the next annual meeting of our shareholders and at each subsequent annual meeting for the election of two additional trustees to serve on our board of trustees until all unpaid cumulative dividends have been paid or declared and set apart for payment. The holders of Series C Preferred Shares and all other classes or series of our equity securities ranking on parity with the Series C Preferred Shares which are entitled to similar voting rights will be entitled to one vote per $25.00 of liquidation preference (i.e., two votes for each Series C Preferred Share). In addition, the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the Series C Preferred Shares, and all other classes or series of our equity securities ranking on parity with the Series C Preferred Shares which are entitled to similar voting rights, voting together as a class, is required for us (i) to authorize, create or increase the authorized or issued amount of any class or series of shares ranking senior to the Series C Preferred Shares with respect to payment of dividends or the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolutions or winding up of our affairs or (ii) to amend our Declaration of Trust (whether by merger, consolidation, transfer or conveyance of all or substantially all of its assets or otherwise) in a manner that materially and adversely affects the rights of the Series C Preferred Shares; provided, however, with respect to the occurrence of any event described in clause (ii) above, so long as the Series C Preferred Shares remain outstanding with the terms thereof materially unchanged (taking into account that, upon the occurrence of such an event, we may not be the surviving entity), the occurrence of such an event will not be deemed to materially and adversely affect the rights of the Series C Preferred Shares and holders of Series C Preferred Shares will not have any voting rights with respect to the occurrence of the event or the holders thereof.
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DESCRIPTION OF OUR DEBT SECURITIES AND RELATED GUARANTEES
The following description contains general terms and provisions of the debt securities and, as applicable, related guarantees to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the debt securities and related guarantees offered by any prospectus supplement and the extent, if any, to which such general provisions may not apply to the debt securities so offered will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities and related guarantees. For more information, please refer to the senior indentures we have entered into with U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee, relating to the issuance of the senior notes, and the subordinated indenture we will enter into with a trustee to be selected, relating to issuance of the subordinated notes. Forms of these documents are filed as exhibits to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus. Any such notes may or may not be guaranteed by one or more of our Subsidiaries.
As used in this prospectus, the term indentures refers to both the senior indentures and the subordinated indenture. The senior indenture is and the subordinated indenture will be qualified under and governed by the Trust Indenture Act. As used in this prospectus, the term trustee refers to either the senior trustee or the subordinated trustee, as applicable.
The following are summaries of material provisions of the senior indenture and provisions that are anticipated to be included in the senior indentures and the subordinated indenture. As summaries, they do not purport to be complete or restate the indentures in their entirety and are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all provisions of the indentures and the debt securities and related guarantees. We urge you to read the indentures applicable to a particular series of debt securities because they, and not this description, define your rights as the holders of the debt securities and related guarantees. Except as otherwise indicated, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are identical.
Debt Securities
Reference is made to the applicable prospectus supplement for the following terms of the debt securities (if applicable):

title and aggregate principal amount;

whether the securities are subject to subordination and applicable subordination provisions, if any;

conversion or exchange into any securities or property;

percentage or percentages of principal amount at which such securities will be issued;

issuance date;

maturity date(s);

interest rate(s) or the method for determining the interest rate(s);

dates on which interest will accrue or the method for determining dates on which interest will accrue and dates on which interest will be payable;

whether interest will be payable in cash or in additional debt securities of the same series, or will accrue and increase the aggregate principal amount outstanding of such series (including if the debt securities were originally issued at a discount);

redemption or early repayment provisions;

authorized denominations;

form;

amount of discount or premium, if any, with which such securities will be issued;

whether such securities will be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities;

identity of the depositary(ies) for global securities;
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whether a temporary security is to be issued with respect to such series and whether any interest payable prior to the issuance of definitive securities of the series will be credited to the account of the persons entitled thereto;

the terms upon which beneficial interests in a temporary global security may be exchanged in whole or in part for beneficial interests in a definitive global security or for individual definitive securities;

any covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued;

any defaults and events of default applicable to the particular debt securities being issued;

currency, currencies or currency units in which the purchase price for, the principal of and any premium and any interest on such securities will be payable;

securities exchange(s) on which the securities will be listed, if any;

our obligation or right to redeem, purchase or repay securities under a sinking fund, amortization or analogous provision;

provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance of securities of the series;

provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

provisions, if any, granting special rights upon the occurrence of specified events;

any restriction of transferability of the series; and

additional terms not inconsistent with the provisions of the indenture.
In addition, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe whether any underwriter will act as a market maker for the securities, and the extent to which a secondary market for the securities is or is not expected to develop.
General
The debt securities may consist of debentures, notes, bonds or other types of indebtedness. One or more series of debt securities may be sold at a substantial discount below its stated principal amount, bearing no interest or interest at a rate which at the time of issuance is below market rates. One or more series of debt securities may be variable rate debt securities that may be exchanged for fixed rate debt securities.
United States federal income tax consequences and special considerations, if any, applicable to any such series will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Debt securities may be issued where the amount of principal and/or interest payable is determined by reference to one or more currency or other indices or other formulas. Holders of such securities may receive a principal amount or a payment of interest that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending upon the value of the applicable currency or other reference factor. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest, if any, payable on any date, the currency or other reference factor to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain additional United States federal income tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The term “debt securities” includes debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars or, if specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any other freely transferable currency or currency unit.
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We expect most debt securities to be issued in fully registered form without coupons and in denominations of  $1,000 and any integral multiples thereof. Subject to the limitations provided in the indenture and in the applicable prospectus supplement, debt securities that are issued in registered form may be transferred or exchanged at the corporate office of the trustee or the principal corporate trust office of the trustee, without the payment of any service charge, other than any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.
Global Securities
The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Global securities will be issued in registered form and in either temporary or definitive form. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual debt securities, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary for such global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by such depositary or any such nominee to a successor of such depositary or a nominee of such successor. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any debt securities of a series and the rights of and limitations upon owners of beneficial interests in a global security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Guarantees
Each prospectus supplement will describe guarantees of debt securities for the benefit of the series of debt securities to which they relate, if any guarantees will be offered for a particular series of debt. If so provided in a prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be guaranteed by each of the guarantors named in such prospectus supplement. The obligations of a guarantor under its guarantee will be limited to the extent necessary to prevent the obligations of such guarantor from constituting a fraudulent conveyance or fraudulent transfer under federal or state law.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York.
4.25% Senior Notes due 2023
On June 10, 2013, we issued $250.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 4.25% Senior Notes due 2023, which we refer to as the “2023 Notes.” The 2023 Notes were issued by us at an initial offering price of 99.026% of their face value.
The terms of the 2023 Notes are governed by an indenture, dated as of June 10, 2013, as supplemented by the first supplemental indenture, dated September 30, 2013, which we collectively refer to as the 2023 Indenture, by and among us, as issuer, LCIF, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The 2023 Notes mature on June 15, 2023, and accrue interest at a rate of 4.25% per annum, payable semi-annually on June 15 and December 15 of each year. Interest payments commenced on December 15, 2013.
Prior to March 15, 2023, we may redeem the 2023 Notes, in whole at any time or in part from time to time, at our option, at a redemption price equal to the greater of  (1) 100% of the aggregate principal amount of the 2023 Notes being redeemed and (2) the sum of the present values of the remaining scheduled payments of principal and interest thereon (not including any portion of such payments of interest accrued as of the date of redemption) discounted to its present value, on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) at an adjusted treasury rate plus 35 basis points, plus, in each case, accrued and unpaid interest thereon to the date of redemption. At any time on or after March 15, 2023, the 2023 Notes will be redeemable, in whole at any time or in part from time to time, at our option, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2023 Notes to be redeemed plus accrued and unpaid interest on the amount being redeemed to, but not including, the date of redemption.
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The Indenture under which the 2023 Notes were issued (the “2023 Indenture”) contains certain covenants that, among other things, limit our ability to consummate a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of its assets, and incur secured and unsecured indebtedness.
Subject to the terms of the 2023 Indenture and the 2023 Notes, upon certain events of default, including, but not limited to, failure to comply with any of our other agreements in the 2023 Notes or the 2023 Indenture, upon receipt by us of notice of such default from the trustee or from holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the 2023 Notes then outstanding and our failure to cure (or obtain a waiver of) such default within 60 days after we receive such notice, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding 2023 Notes may declare the principal and accrued and unpaid interest on all of the 2023 Notes to be due and payable immediately by written notice to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders). Upon certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of us, our operating partnership, or any other significant subsidiary, the principal (or such portion thereof) of and accrued and unpaid interest on all of the 2023 Notes will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holders.
Certain of our payment obligations with respect to the 2023 Notes are required to be guaranteed by LCIF under certain circumstances, including if LCIF is an obligor under the Principal Credit Agreement (as defined in the 2023 Indenture). If LCIF is not an obligor under the Principal Credit Agreement, LCIF will automatically be released from its guaranty.
In addition, the 2023 Notes are cross-defaulted with certain of our indebtedness.
In connection with the issuance and sale of the 2023 Notes, we also entered into a registration rights agreement with Wells Fargo Securities, LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, in their capacity as representatives of the initial purchasers, dated as of June 10, 2013, which we refer to as the Registration Rights Agreement. Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, on March 4, 2014, we completed the offer to exchange notes for an issue of registered notes with terms identical to the 2023 Notes.
4.40% Senior Notes due 2024
On May 20, 2014, we issued $250.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 4.40% Senior Notes due 2024, which we refer to as the “2024 Notes.” The 2024 Notes were issued by us at an initial offering price of 99.883% of their face value.
The terms of the 2024 Notes are governed by an indenture, dated as of May 9, 2014, as supplemented by the first supplemental indenture, dated May 20, 2014, which we collectively refer to as the 2024 Indenture, by and among us, as issuer, LCIF, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The 2024 Notes mature on June 15, 2024, and accrue interest at a rate of 4.40% per annum, payable semi-annually on June 15 and December 15 of each year. Interest payments commenced on December 15, 2014.
Prior to March 15, 2024, we may redeem the 2024 Notes, in whole at any time or in part from time to time, at our option, at a redemption price equal to the greater of  (1) 100% of the aggregate principal amount of the 2024 Notes being redeemed and (2) the sum of the present values of the remaining scheduled payments of principal and interest thereon (not including any portion of such payments of interest accrued as of the date of redemption) discounted to its present value, on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) at an adjusted treasury rate plus 35 basis points, plus, in each case, accrued and unpaid interest thereon to the date of redemption. At any time on or after March 15, 2024, the 2024 Notes will be redeemable, in whole at any time or in part from time to time, at our option, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2024 Notes to be redeemed plus accrued and unpaid interest on the amount being redeemed to, but not including, the date of redemption.
The 2024 Indenture contains certain covenants that, among other things, limit our ability to consummate a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of its assets, and incur secured and unsecured indebtedness.
Subject to the terms of the 2024 Indenture and the 2024 Notes, upon certain events of default, including, but not limited to, failure to comply with any of our other agreements in the 2024 Notes or the
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2024 Indenture, upon receipt by us of notice of such default from the trustee or from holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the 2024 Notes then outstanding and our failure to cure (or obtain a waiver of) such default within 60 days after we receive such notice, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding 2024 Notes may declare the principal and accrued and unpaid interest on all of the 2024 Notes to be due and payable immediately by written notice to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders). Upon certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of us, our operating partnership, or any other significant subsidiary, the principal (or such portion thereof) of and accrued and unpaid interest on all of the 2024 Notes will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holders.
Certain of our payment obligations with respect to the 2024 Notes are required to be guaranteed by LCIF under certain circumstances, including if LCIF is an obligor under the Principal Credit Agreement (as defined in the 2024 Indenture). If LCIF is not an obligor under the Principal Credit Agreement, LCIF will automatically be released from its guaranty.
In addition, the 2024 Notes are cross-defaulted with certain of our indebtedness.
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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES
The following description summarizes general terms and provisions of the depositary shares to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the depositary shares offered by any prospectus supplement and the extent, if any, to which such general provisions may not apply to the depositary shares so offered will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such securities. For more information, please refer to the provisions of the deposit agreement and depositary receipts we will enter into with a depositary to be selected, our Declaration of Trust, including the form of articles supplementary for the applicable series of preferred shares. For information on incorporation by reference, and how to obtain copies of these documents, see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus. This summary also is subject to and qualified by reference to the descriptions of the particular terms of the securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement and by the terms of the applicable deposit agreement and depositary receipts.
General
We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares rather than full preferred shares. In the event such option is exercised, each of the depositary shares will represent ownership of and entitlement to all rights and preferences of a fraction of a preferred share of a specified series (including dividend, voting, redemption and liquidation rights). The applicable fraction will be specified in a prospectus supplement. The preferred shares represented by the depositary shares will be deposited with a depositary named in the applicable prospectus supplement, under a deposit agreement, among us, the depositary and the holders of the certificates evidencing depositary shares, or depositary receipts. Depositary receipts will be delivered to those persons purchasing depositary shares in the offering. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.
Dividends
The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of the series of preferred shares represented by the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary receipts in proportion to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, which will be the same date as the record date fixed by us for the applicable series of preferred shares. The depositary, however, will distribute only such amount as can be distributed without attributing to any depositary share a fraction of one cent, and any balance not so distributed will be added to and treated as part of the next sum received by the depositary for distribution to record holders of depositary receipts then outstanding.
In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary receipts entitled thereto, in proportion, as nearly as may be practicable, to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, unless the depositary determines (after consultation with us) that it is not feasible to make such distribution, in which case the depositary may (with our approval) adopt any other method for such distribution as it deems equitable and appropriate, including the sale of such property (at such place or places and upon such terms as it may deem equitable and appropriate) and distribution of the net proceeds from such sale to such holders.
Liquidation Preference
In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of the Company, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of each depositary share will be entitled to the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred shares as set forth in the prospectus supplement.
Redemption
If the series of preferred shares represented by the applicable series of depositary shares is redeemable, such depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of preferred shares held by the depositary. Whenever we redeem any
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preferred shares held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing the preferred shares so redeemed. The depositary will mail the notice of redemption promptly upon receipt of such notice from us and not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption of the preferred shares and the depositary shares to the record holders of the depositary receipts.
Voting
Promptly upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the series of preferred shares represented by the applicable series of depositary shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in such notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts as of the record date for such meeting. Each such record holder of depositary receipts will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of preferred shares represented by such record holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote such preferred shares represented by such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will agree to take all action which may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will abstain from voting any of the preferred shares to the extent that it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary receipts.
Withdrawal of Preferred Shares
Upon surrender of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, upon payment of any unpaid amount due the depositary, and subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, the owner of the depositary shares evidenced thereby is entitled to delivery of the number of whole preferred shares and all money and other property, if any, represented by such depositary shares. Fractional preferred shares will not be issued. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole preferred shares to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to such holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing such excess number of depositary shares. Holders of preferred shares thus withdrawn will not thereafter be entitled to deposit such shares under the deposit agreement or to receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.
Amendment and Termination of Deposit Agreement
The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time and from time to time be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment which materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders (other than any change in fees) of depositary shares will not be effective unless such amendment has been approved by the holders of at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding. No such amendment may impair the right, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, of any owner of any depositary shares to surrender the depositary receipt evidencing such depositary shares with instructions to the depositary to deliver to the holder of preferred shares and all money and other property, if any, represented thereby, except in order to comply with mandatory provisions of applicable law.
The deposit agreement will be permitted to be terminated by us upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice to the applicable depositary if  (i) such termination is necessary to preserve our qualification as a REIT or (ii) a majority of each series of preferred shares affected by such termination consents to such termination, whereupon such depositary will be required to deliver or make available to each holder of depositary receipts, upon surrender of the depositary receipts held by such holder, such number of whole or fractional preferred shares as are represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipts together with any other property held by such depositary with respect to such depositary receipts. In addition, the deposit agreement will automatically terminate if  (i) all outstanding depositary shares thereunder will have been redeemed, (ii) there will have been a final distribution in respect of the related preferred shares in connection with any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of Lexington Realty Trust and such distribution will have been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares representing such preferred shares or (iii) each preferred share will have been converted into shares of Lexington Realty Trust not so represented by depositary shares.
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Charges of Depositary
We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred shares and initial issuance of the depositary shares, and redemption of the preferred shares and all withdrawals of preferred shares by owners of depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and certain other charges as are provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. In certain circumstances, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, may withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipt if such charges are not paid.
Miscellaneous
The depositary will forward to the holders of depositary receipts all reports and communications from us which are delivered to the depositary and which we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred shares. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications received from us which are received by the depositary as the holder of preferred shares.
Neither we nor the depositary assumes any obligation or will be subject to any liability under the deposit agreement to holders of depositary receipts other than for the depositary’s negligence or willful misconduct. Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if the depositary is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. The obligations of the Company and the depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of their duties thereunder, and they will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred shares unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely on written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by holders of the depositary receipts or other persons believed in good faith to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties. In the event the depositary will receive conflicting claims, requests or instructions from any holders of depositary receipts, on the one hand, and us, on the other hand, the depositary will be entitled to act on such claims, requests or instructions received from us.
Resignation and Removal of Depositary
The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the depositary, any such resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. Such successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice for resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States of America and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $150,000,000.
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. Because it is a summary, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants we may offer, you should also read the applicable prospectus supplement which will describe the particular terms of any warrants that we may offer in more detail. For information on incorporation by reference, and how to obtain copies of these documents, see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus. This summary also is subject to and qualified by reference to the descriptions of the particular terms of the securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement and the terms of the applicable final warrants and warrant agreement.
We may issue warrants for the purchase of debt or equity securities described in this prospectus. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any offered securities and may be attached to or separate from such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement we will enter into with a warrant agent specified in the agreement. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants of that series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.
A prospectus supplement relating to any series of warrants being offered will include specific terms relating to the offering. They will include, where applicable:

the title of the warrants;

the aggregate number of warrants;

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

the currencies in which the price or prices of the warrants may be payable;

the designation, amount and terms of the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

the designation and terms of the other offered securities, if any, with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with the security;

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be separately transferable;

the price or prices at which, and currency or currencies in which, the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

any listing of warrants on any securities exchange;

if appropriate, a discussion of federal income tax consequences; and

any other material term of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.
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DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS
The following is a general description of the terms of the subscription rights we may issue from time to time. Particular terms of any subscription rights we offer will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such subscription rights. The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription rights certificate or subscription rights agreement, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. This summary also is subject to and qualified by reference to the descriptions of the particular terms of the securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement and the terms of the applicable final subscription rights agreement and subscription rights certificate.
We may issue subscription rights to purchase our common shares. These subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the shareholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of any offering of subscription rights for which this prospectus is being delivered, including the following:

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

the exercise price payable for each common share upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

the number of subscription rights issued to each shareholder;

the number and terms of the common shares which may be purchased per each subscription right;

the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights will commence, and the date on which the subscription rights will expire;

the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities; and

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of one or more common shares, preferred shares, debt securities, subscription rights, depositary shares, warrants or any combination of such securities.
The applicable prospectus supplement will specify the following terms of any units in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:

the terms of the units and of any of the common shares, preferred shares, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights or depositary shares comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be traded separately;

a description of the terms of any unit agreement governing the units; and

a description of the provisions for the payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units.
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RESTRICTIONS ON TRANSFERS OF CAPITAL STOCK AND ANTI-TAKEOVER PROVISIONS
Restrictions Relating To REIT Status
For us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, among other things, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares of our capital stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of a taxable year, and such shares of our capital stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year (in each case, other than the first such year). To assist us in continuing to remain a qualified REIT, among other purposes, our Declaration of Trust, subject to certain exceptions, provides that no holder may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% in value of our equity shares, defined as common shares or preferred shares. We refer to this restriction as the Ownership Limit. Our board of trustees may exempt a person from the Ownership Limit if upon receipt of a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service or an opinion of counsel or other evidence satisfactory to our board of trustees is presented that the exemption will not result in us having fewer than 100 beneficial owners or in us being “closely held.” Any transfer of equity shares or any security convertible into equity shares that would create a direct or indirect ownership of equity shares in excess of the Ownership Limit or that would result in the equity shares being owned by fewer than 100 persons or result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code, will be null and void, and the intended transferee will acquire no rights to such equity shares. The foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of trustees determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT.
In addition, equity shares owned, or deemed to be owned, or transferred to a shareholder in excess of the Ownership Limit or that would cause us to become “closely held” within the meaning of the Code, will automatically be converted into an equal number of excess shares that will be transferred, by operation of law, to us as trustee of a trust for the exclusive benefit of the transferees to whom such shares of beneficial interest in us may be ultimately transferred without violating the Ownership Limit. While the excess shares are held in trust, they will not be entitled to vote (except as required by Maryland law), they will not be considered for purposes of any shareholder vote or the determination of a quorum for such vote and, except upon liquidation, they will not be entitled to participate in dividends or other distributions. Any dividend or distribution paid on excess shares prior to our discovery that equity shares have converted for excess shares will be repaid to us upon demand. The excess shares are not treasury shares, but rather constitute a separate class of our issued and outstanding shares. The original transferee-shareholder may, at any time the excess shares are held by us in trust, transfer the interest in the trust representing the excess shares to any individual whose ownership of the equity shares exchanged into such excess shares would be permitted under our Declaration of Trust, at a price not in excess of the price paid by the original transferee-shareholder for the equity shares that were exchanged into excess shares, or, if the transferee-shareholder did not give value for such shares, a price not in excess of the market price (as determined in the manner set forth in our Declaration of Trust) on the date of the purported transfer. Immediately upon the transfer to the permitted transferee, the excess shares will automatically be converted into equity shares of the class from which they were converted. If the foregoing transfer restrictions are determined to be void or invalid by virtue of any legal decision, statute, rule or regulation, then the intended transferee of any excess shares may be deemed, at our option, to have acted as an agent on our behalf in acquiring the excess shares and to hold the excess shares on our behalf.
In addition to the foregoing transfer restrictions, we will have the right, for a period of 90 days during the time any excess shares are held by us in trust, to purchase all or any portion of the excess shares from the original transferee-shareholder for the lesser of the price paid for the equity shares by the original transferee-shareholder or the market price (as determined in the manner set forth in our Declaration of Trust) on the date we exercise our option to purchase. The 90-day period begins on the later of the date of the transfer that resulted in excess stock or the date on which our board of trustees determines in good faith that a transfer resulting in excess shares has occurred, if we do not receive written notice of the transfer or other event resulting in the exchange of equity shares for excess shares.
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Any person who acquires or attempts to acquire equity shares in violation of the foregoing restrictions, or any person who is a transfree such that excess shares resulted from such transfer, will be required to give written notice immediately to us of such event and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such transfer, or attempted transfer, on our status as a REIT.
All persons who own, directly or indirectly, (i) more than 5% of the outstanding equity shares, (ii) more than 1% of the outstanding equity shares during any period in which the number of beneficial or constructive owners is fewer than 2,000 or (iii) such lower percentages as required pursuant to regulations under the Code must, within 30 days after January 1 of each year, provide to us a written statement or affidavit stating the name and address of such direct or indirect owner, the number of equity shares owned directly or indirectly, and a description of how such shares are held. In addition, each direct or indirect shareholder shall provide to us such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limitation.
This Ownership Limit may have the effect of precluding an acquisition of control unless our board of trustees determines that maintenance of REIT status is no longer in our best interests.
Authorized Capital
Under our Declaration of Trust, we have authority to issue up to 1,000,000,000 shares of beneficial interest, par value $0.0001 per share, of which 400,000,000 shares are classified as common shares, 500,000,000 shares are classified as excess stock and 100,000,000 shares are classified as preferred shares. We may issue such shares from time to time in the discretion of our board of trustees to raise additional capital, acquire assets, including additional real properties, redeem or retire debt or for any other business purpose. In addition, the undesignated preferred shares may be issued in one or more additional classes or series with such designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights including, without limitation, preferential dividend or voting rights, and rights upon liquidation, as will be fixed by our board of trustees. Our board of trustees is authorized to classify and reclassify any of our unissued shares of beneficial interest by setting or changing, in any one or more respects, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of such shares. This authority includes, without limitation, subject to the provisions of our Declaration of Trust, authority to classify or reclassify any unissued shares into a class or classes of preferred shares, preference shares, special shares or other shares, and to divide and reclassify shares of any class into one or more series of that class.
In some circumstances, the issuance of preferred shares, or the exercise by our board of trustees of its right to classify or reclassify shares, could have the effect of deterring individuals or entities from making tender offers for our common shares or seeking to change incumbent management.
Maryland Law
Our Board of Trustees.   Our Declaration of Trust and By-laws provide that the number of our trustees may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of the entire board of trustees.
Removal of Trustees.   Our Declaration of Trust provides that, subject to the rights of the holders of any class separately entitled to elect one or more trustees, a trustee may be removed, but only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of trustees.
Extraordinary Actions, Amendment of Declaration of Trust.   Under the Maryland REIT Law, a Maryland real estate investment trust generally cannot amend its declaration of trust or merge with, or convert into, another entity unless advised by its board of trustees and approved by the affirmative vote of shareholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a different percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in its declaration of trust. Our Declaration of Trust provides that those actions, with the exception of certain amendments to our Declaration of Trust for which a higher vote requirement has been set, will be
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valid and effective if authorized by holders of a majority of the total number of shares of all classes outstanding and entitled to vote thereon. Under our Declaration of Trust, our dissolution and termination requires the affirmation of shareholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Amendment to Our By-laws.   Our By-laws may be repealed, altered, amended or rescinded (a) by our shareholders only by the affirmative vote of at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of trustees or (b) by vote of two-thirds of our board of trustees.
Meetings of Shareholders.   Under our By-laws, annual meetings of shareholders are held on the first day of May in each year, or at such other time on such other day falling on or before the 30th day thereafter as shall be set by our board of trustees. Special meetings of shareholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of trustees, our president or a majority of our board of trustees. Subject to the provisions of our By-laws, a special meeting of our shareholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered by our shareholders will also be called by our secretary upon the written request of the shareholders entitled to cast not less than 25% of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting. Only matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.
Advance Notice of Trustee Nominations and New Business.   Our By-laws provide that in order to make nominations of individuals for election as trustees or proposals of business to be considered by shareholders at any annual meeting, shareholders generally must provide notice to our secretary not less than 120 days in advance of the release date of our proxy statement to shareholders in connection with the preceding year’s annual meeting. A shareholder’s notice must contain certain information specified by our By-laws about the shareholder and any proposed business or nominee for election as a trustee, including information about the economic interest of the shareholder and any proposed nominee.
Proxy Access Procedures for Qualifying Shareholders.   Our By-laws permit a shareholder, or a group of up to 20 shareholders, that owns 3% or more of the our common shares continuously for at least three years to nominate and include in our proxy materials candidates for election as trustees, subject to certain terms and conditions. Such shareholder(s) or group(s) of shareholders may nominate trustee candidates constituting up to the greater of two persons or 20% of our board of trustees, provided that the shareholder(s) and the trustee nominee(s) satisfy the eligibility, notice and other requirements specified in the By-laws.
Business Combinations.   Under Maryland law, certain “business combinations” between a Maryland real estate investment trust and an “interested shareholder” or an affiliate of an interested shareholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested shareholder became an interested shareholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested shareholder is defined as:

any person who beneficially owns ten percent or more of the voting power of the trust’s shares; or

an affiliate or associate of the trust who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of ten percent or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting shares of the trust.
A person is not an interested shareholder under the statute if the board of trustees approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested shareholder. However, in approving a transaction, the board of trustees may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms or conditions determined by the board of trustees.
After the five-year prohibition, any such business combination between the Maryland real estate investment trust and an interested shareholder generally must be recommended by the board of trustees of the trust and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

eighty percent of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding voting shares of the trust; and
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two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting shares of the trust other than shares held by the interested shareholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested shareholder.
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the trust’s common shareholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested shareholder for its shares.
The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the board of trustees prior to the time that the interested shareholder becomes an interested shareholder.
Our board of trustees has exempted Vornado Realty Trust and its affiliates, to a limited extent, from these restrictions.
The business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.
Control Share Acquisitions.   Maryland law provides that holders of  “control shares” of a Maryland real estate investment trust acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to the control shares except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquiror, by officers or by employees who are trustees of the trust are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. Control shares are voting shares which, if aggregated with all other shares owned by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing trustees within one of the following ranges of voting power:

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

a majority or more of all voting power.
Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained shareholder approval. A control share acquisition means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel the board of trustees of the trust to call a special meeting of shareholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the trust may itself present the question at any shareholders meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the trust may redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. The right of the trust to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or of any meeting of shareholders at which the voting rights of the shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a shareholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other shareholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the trust is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the declaration of trust or bylaws of the trust.
Our By-Laws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our shares. There can be no assurance that this provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.
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Certain Elective Provisions of Maryland Law.   Maryland law provides that a Maryland real estate investment trust with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act, and that has at least three independent trustees, may elect by provision of its declaration or bylaws or by resolution adopted by its board of trustees to be subject to all or any of the following provisions, notwithstanding any contrary provisions contained in its existing declaration of trust or bylaws and without shareholder approval:

a classified board;

a two-thirds vote of outstanding shares to remove a trustee;

a requirement that the number of trustees be fixed only by vote of the board of trustees;

a requirement that a vacancy on the board of trustees be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining trustees and that such trustee filling the vacancy serve for the remainder of the full term of the class of trustees in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is duly elected and qualifies; and

a provision that a special meeting of shareholders must be called upon the written request of shareholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting.
We have not elected to be governed by any of these specific provisions. However, our Declaration of Trust and/or By-Laws, as applicable, already provide for an 80% shareholder vote to remove trustees and then only for cause, and that the number of trustees may be determined by a resolution of our Board, subject to a minimum number. In addition, we can elect to be governed by any or all of the foregoing provisions of Maryland law at any time in the future.
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UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a summary of federal income tax considerations relating to our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common shares that may be relevant to prospective investors. Paul Hastings LLP has acted as our tax counsel and, subject to the limitations expressed herein, is of the opinion that the statements in this summary, to the extent they constitute summaries of legal matters, are accurate summaries in all material respects. You should be aware that an opinion of counsel is not binding on the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, or the courts. Prospective investors are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the tax considerations relating to an investment in our shares and our qualification and taxation as a REIT in light of their particular circumstances.
The following discussion summarizes the material United States federal income tax considerations to you as a prospective holder of our common shares and assumes that you will hold such shares as capital assets (within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code). This summary does not give a detailed discussion of any state, local or foreign tax considerations. In addition, this discussion is intended to address only those federal income tax considerations that are generally applicable to all of our shareholders. It does not discuss all of the aspects of federal income taxation that may be relevant to you in light of your particular circumstances or to certain types of shareholders who are subject to special treatment under the federal income tax laws including, without limitation, regulated investment companies, insurance companies, tax-exempt entities, financial institutions or broker-dealers, expatriates, persons subject to the alternative minimum tax and partnerships or other pass through entities.
The information in this section is based on the Code, existing, temporary and proposed regulations under the Code, the legislative history of the Code, current administrative rulings and practices of the IRS and court decisions, all as of the date hereof. No assurance can be given that future legislation, regulations, administrative interpretations and court decisions will not significantly change current law or adversely affect existing interpretations of current law. Any such change could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. In addition, we have not received, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS. Thus no assurance can be provided that the statements set forth herein (which do not bind the IRS or the courts) will not be challenged by the IRS or that such statements will be sustained by a court if so challenged.
PROSPECTIVE HOLDERS OF OUR COMMON SHARES ARE ADVISED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS REGARDING THE FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL AND FOREIGN TAX CONSEQUENCES OF INVESTING IN OUR COMMON SHARES IN LIGHT OF THEIR PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES.
Taxation of the Company
General.   We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1993. We believe that we have been organized, and have operated, in such a manner so as to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code and intend to conduct our operations so as to continue to qualify for taxation as a REIT. No assurance, however, can be given that we have operated in a manner so as to qualify or will be able to operate in such a manner so as to remain qualified as a REIT. Qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual annual operating results, the required distribution levels, diversity of share ownership and the various qualification tests imposed under the Code discussed below, the results of which will not be reviewed by counsel. Given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs, the ongoing importance of factual determinations, and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any one taxable year have satisfied or will continue to satisfy such requirements.
In the opinion of Paul Hastings LLP, based on certain assumptions and our factual representations that are described in this section and in officer’s certificates provided by us, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1993, we have been organized and operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification as a REIT and our current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. It must be emphasized that this opinion is
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based on various assumptions and is conditioned upon certain representations made by us as to factual matters including, but not limited to, those set forth herein, and those concerning our business and properties as set forth in this prospectus. An opinion of counsel is not binding on the IRS or the courts.
The following is a general summary of the Code provisions that govern the federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its shareholders. These provisions of the Code are highly technical and complex. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof, all of which are subject to change prospectively or retroactively.
If we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to federal corporate income taxes on our net income that is currently distributed to shareholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” (at the corporate and shareholder levels) that generally results from investment in a corporation. However, we will be subject to federal income tax as follows:

First, we will be taxed at regular corporate rates on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.

Second, under certain circumstances, we may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” on our items of tax preference.

Third, if we have (a) net income from the sale or other disposition of  “foreclosure property,” which is, in general, property acquired on foreclosure or otherwise on default on a loan secured by such real property or a lease of such property, which is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (b) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be subject to tax at the highest corporate rate on such income.

Fourth, if we have net income from prohibited transactions such income will be subject to a 100% tax. Prohibited transactions are, in general, certain sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business other than foreclosure property.

Fifth, if we should fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test (as discussed below), but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements have been met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on an amount equal to (a) the gross income attributable to the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the amount by which 95% of our gross income exceeds the amount of income qualifying under the 95% gross income test multiplied by (b) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

Sixth, if we should fail to satisfy the asset tests (as discussed below) but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements have been met and we do not qualify for a de minimis exception, we may be subject to a tax that would be the greater of  (a) $50,000; or (b) an amount determined by multiplying the highest rate of tax for corporations by the net income generated by the assets for the period beginning on the first date of the failure and ending on the day we dispose of the non-qualifying assets (or otherwise satisfy the requirements for maintaining REIT qualification).

Seventh, if we should fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the 95% and 75% gross income tests and other than the asset tests, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements have been met, we may be subject to a $50,000 penalty for each failure.

Eighth, if we should fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of  (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year, and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we would be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the amounts actually distributed.
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Ninth, if we acquire any asset from a C corporation (i.e., a corporation generally subject to full corporate level tax) in a transaction in which the basis of the asset in our hands is determined by reference to the basis of the asset (or any other property) in the hands of the C corporation and we do not elect to be taxed at the time of the acquisition, we would be subject to tax at the highest corporate rate if we dispose of such asset during the five-year period (or other statutorily prescribed period) beginning on the date that we acquired that asset, to the extent of such property’s “built-in gain” (the excess of the fair market value of such property at the time of our acquisition over the adjusted basis of such property at such time) (we refer to this tax as the “Built-in Gains Tax”).

Tenth, we will incur a 100% excise tax on transactions with a taxable REIT subsidiary that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis.

Finally, if we own a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or “REMIC,” we will be taxable at the highest corporate rate on the portion of any excess inclusion income that we derive from the REMIC residual interests equal to the percentage of our shares that is held in record name by “disqualified organizations.” Similar rules apply if we own an equity interest in a taxable mortgage pool. A “disqualified organization” includes the United States, any state or political subdivision thereof, any foreign government or international organization, any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing, any rural electrical or telephone cooperative and any tax-exempt organization (other than a farmer’s cooperative described in Section 521 of the Code) that is exempt from income taxation and from the unrelated business taxable income provisions of the Code. However, to the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a taxable REIT subsidiary, we will not be subject to this tax. See the heading “Requirements for Qualification” below.
Requirements for Qualification.   A REIT is a corporation, trust or association (1) that is managed by one or more trustees or directors, (2) the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest, (3) that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, (4) that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to certain provisions of the Code, (5) that has the calendar year as its taxable year, (6) the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons, (7) during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities), and (8) that meets certain other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets. The Code provides that conditions (1) through (5), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (6) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of twelve (12) months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than twelve (12) months.
We may redeem, at our option, a sufficient number of shares or restrict the transfer thereof to bring or maintain the ownership of the shares in conformity with the requirements of the Code. In addition, our Declaration of Trust includes restrictions regarding the transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy requirements (6) and (7). Moreover, if we comply with regulatory rules pursuant to which we are required to send annual letters to our shareholders requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our shares, and we do not know, or exercising reasonable diligence would not have known, whether we failed to meet requirement (7) above, we will be treated as having met the requirement.
The Code allows a REIT to own wholly-owned corporate subsidiaries which are “qualified REIT subsidiaries.” The Code provides that a qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all of its assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT. Thus, in applying the requirements described herein, our qualified REIT subsidiaries will be ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of such subsidiaries will be treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit.
A REIT may also hold any direct or indirect interest in a corporation that qualifies as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as long as the REIT’s aggregate holdings of taxable REIT subsidiary securities do not exceed 20% of the value of the REIT’s total assets at the close of each quarter. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a fully
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taxable corporation that generally is permitted to engage in businesses (other than certain activities relating to lodging and health care facilities), own assets, and earn income that, if engaged in, owned, or earned by the REIT, might jeopardize REIT status or result in the imposition of penalty taxes on the REIT. To qualify as a taxable REIT subsidiary, the subsidiary and the REIT must make a joint election to treat the subsidiary as a taxable REIT subsidiary. A taxable REIT subsidiary also includes any corporation (other than a REIT or a qualified REIT subsidiary) in which a taxable REIT subsidiary directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value. See “Asset Tests” below. A taxable REIT subsidiary will pay tax at regular corporate income tax rates on any taxable income it earns. Moreover, the Code contains rules, including rules requiring the imposition of taxes on a REIT at the rate of 100% on certain reallocated income and expenses, to ensure that contractual arrangements between a taxable REIT subsidiary and its parent REIT are at arm’s-length.
In the case of a REIT which is a partner in a partnership, Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of each of the assets of the partnership and will be deemed to be entitled to the income of the partnership attributable to such share for purposes of satisfying the gross income and assets tests (as discussed below). In addition, the character of the assets and items of gross income of the partnership will retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our proportionate share (based on equity capital) of the assets, liabilities, and items of gross income of the partnerships in which we own an interest are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of gross income for purposes of applying the requirements described herein. The treatment described above also applies with respect to the ownership of interests in limited liability companies or other entities that are treated as partnerships for tax purposes.
A significant number of our investments are held through partnerships. If any such partnerships were treated as an association, the entity would be taxable as a corporation and therefore would be subject to an entity level tax on its income. In such a situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and might preclude us from qualifying as a REIT. We believe that each partnership in which we hold a material interest (either directly or indirectly) is properly treated as a partnership for tax purposes (and not as an association taxable as a corporation).
Special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a taxable mortgage pool. An entity or portion thereof may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool under the Code if:

substantially all of the assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgage loans or interests in real estate mortgage loans as of specified testing dates;

the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.
Under Treasury Regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or the portion thereof) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a taxable mortgage pool.
An entity or portion thereof that is classified as a taxable mortgage pool is generally treated as a taxable corporation for federal income tax purposes. However, the portion of the REIT’s assets, held directly or through a qualified REIT subsidiary, that qualifies as a taxable mortgage pool is treated as a qualified REIT subsidiary that is not subject to corporate income tax and therefore the taxable mortgage pool classification does not change that treatment. The classification of a REIT, qualified REIT subsidiary or portion thereof as a taxable mortgage pool could, however, result in taxation of a REIT and certain of its shareholders as described below.
IRS guidance indicates that a portion of income from a taxable mortgage pool arrangement, if any, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” Excess inclusion income is an amount, with respect to any calendar quarter, equal to the excess, if any, of  (i) income allocable to the holder of a REMIC residual interest or taxable mortgage pool interest over (ii) the sum of an amount for each day in the calendar
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quarter equal to the product of  (a) the adjusted issue price at the beginning of the quarter multiplied by (b) 120% of the long-term federal rate (determined on the basis of compounding at the close of each calendar quarter and properly adjusted for the length of such quarter). Under such guidance, such income would be allocated among our shareholders in proportion to dividends paid and, generally, may not be offset by net operating losses of the shareholder, would be taxable to tax exempt shareholders who are subject to the unrelated business income tax rules of the Code and would subject non-U.S. shareholders to a 30% withholding tax (without exemption or reduction of the withholding rate). To the extent that excess inclusion income is allocated from a taxable mortgage pool to any disqualified organizations that hold our shares, we may be taxable on this income at the highest applicable corporate tax rate (currently 21%). Because this tax would be imposed on the REIT, all of the REIT’s shareholders, including shareholders that are not disqualified organizations, would bear a portion of the tax cost associated with the classification of any portion of our assets as a taxable mortgage pool.
If we own less than 100% of the ownership interests in a subsidiary that is a taxable mortgage pool, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the subsidiary would be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes and would potentially be subject to corporate income tax. In addition, this characterization would affect our REIT income and asset test calculations and could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.
In the past, we have held certain investments which give rise to excess inclusion income. Currently, we do not hold and do not intend to make investments or enter into financing and securitization transactions that are expected to give rise to our being considered to own an interest, directly or indirectly, in one or more taxable mortgage pools. However, if we were to make such investments or enter into such transactions, the foregoing consequences could apply. Prospective holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the tax consequences of the taxable mortgage pool rules to them in light of their particular circumstances.
Income Tests.   In order to maintain qualification as a REIT, we must satisfy annually certain gross income requirements. First, at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions) for each taxable year must be derived directly or indirectly from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property (including “rents from real property;” gain from the sale of real property other than property held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business; dividends from, and gain from the sale of shares of, other qualifying REITs; certain interest described further below; and certain income derived from a REMIC) or from certain types of qualified temporary investments. Second, at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions) for each taxable year must be derived from income that qualifies under the foregoing 75% gross income test, other types of dividends and interest, gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities and certain other specified sources. Any income from a hedging transaction that is clearly and timely identified and hedges indebtedness incurred or to be incurred to acquire or carry real estate assets will not constitute gross income, rather than being treated as qualifying or nonqualifying income, for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. A hedging transaction also includes a transaction entered into to manage foreign currency risks with respect to items of income and gain (or any property which generates such income or gain) that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income tests, but only if such transaction is clearly identified before the close of the day it was acquired, originated or entered into. In addition, certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests.
Rents received by us will qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if several conditions are met. First, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Second, the Code provides that rents received from a tenant will not qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income tests if we, or an owner of 10% or more of our shares, actually or constructively own 10% or more of such tenant. Third, if rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to such personal property (based on the ratio of fair market value of personal and real property) will not qualify as “rents
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from real property.” Finally, in order for rents received to qualify as “rents from real property,” we generally must not operate or manage the property (subject to a de minimis exception as described below) or furnish or render services to the tenants of such property, other than through an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue or through a taxable REIT subsidiary. We may, however, directly perform certain services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property (“Permissible Services”).
Rents received generally will qualify as rents from real property notwithstanding the fact that we provide services that are not Permissible Services so long as the amount received for such services meets a de minimis standard. The amount received for “impermissible services” with respect to a property (or, if services are available only to certain tenants, possibly with respect to such tenants) cannot exceed one percent of all amounts received, directly or indirectly, by us with respect to such property (or, if services are available only to certain tenants, possibly with respect to such tenants). The amount that we will be deemed to have received for performing “impermissible services” will be the greater of the actual amounts so received or 150% of the direct cost to us of providing those services.
We believe that substantially all of our rental income will be qualifying income under the gross income tests, and that our provision of services will not cause the rental income to fail to be qualifying income under those tests.
Generally, interest on debt secured by a mortgage on real property or interests in real property qualifies for purposes of satisfying the 75% gross income test described above. However, if the highest principal amount of a loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property securing the loan as of the date the REIT agreed to originate or acquire the loan, a proportionate amount of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. In addition, any interest amount that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person does not qualify for purposes of the foregoing 75% and 95% income tests except (a) amounts that are based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales and (b) amounts that are based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt from leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by the REIT.
If a loan contains a provision that entitles a REIT to a percentage of the borrower’s gain upon the sale of the real property securing the loan or a percentage of the appreciation in the property’s value as of a specific date, income attributable to that loan provision will be treated as gain from the sale of the property securing the loan, which is generally qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests.
If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for such year if such failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and we file a schedule describing each item of our gross income for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations, so long as any incorrect information on the schedule was not due to fraud with intent to evade tax). It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of this relief provision. Even if this relief provision applied, a 100% penalty tax would be imposed on the amount by which we failed the 75% gross income test or the amount by which 95% of our gross income exceeds the amount of income qualifying under the 95% gross income test (whichever amount is greater), multiplied by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
Subject to certain safe harbor exceptions, any gain realized by us on the sale of any property held as inventory or other property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax. Such prohibited transaction income may also have an adverse effect upon our ability to qualify as a REIT. We have not sought and do not intend to seek a ruling from the IRS regarding any dispositions. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not successfully assert a contrary position with respect to our dispositions. If all or a significant portion of our dispositions were treated as prohibited transactions, we would incur a significant U.S. federal tax liability, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
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We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. However, gross income from foreclosure property will qualify under the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Foreclosure property is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property (1) that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid on such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured; (2) for which the related loan was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and (3) for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property.
A REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor. Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, unless a longer extension is granted by the Secretary of the Treasury or the grace period terminates earlier due to certain nonqualifying income or activities generated with respect to the property.
Asset Tests.   At the close of each quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy the following tests relating to the nature of our assets. At least 75% of the value of our total assets, including our allocable share of assets held by partnerships in which we own an interest, must be represented by real estate assets, stock or debt instruments held for not more than one year purchased with the proceeds of an offering of equity securities or a long-term (at least five years) public debt offering by us, cash, cash items (including certain receivables) and government securities. For this purpose, real estate assets include interests in real property, such as land, buildings, leasehold interests in real property, stock of other corporations that qualify as REITs, and certain kinds of mortgage-backed securities (including regular or residual interests in a REMIC to the extent provided in the Code) and mortgage loans. In addition, not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by securities other than those in the 75% asset class. Not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries (as defined above under “Requirements for Qualification”). Except for investments included in the 75% asset class, securities in a taxable REIT subsidiary or qualified REIT subsidiary and certain partnership interests and debt obligations, (1) not more than 5% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities of any one issuer (the “5% asset test”), (2) we may not hold securities that possess more than 10% of the total voting power of the outstanding securities of a single issuer (the “10% voting securities test”) and (3) we may not hold securities that have a value of more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer (the “10% value test”).
The following assets are not treated as “securities” held by us for purposes of the 10% value test (i) “straight debt” meeting certain requirements, unless we hold (either directly or through our “controlled” taxable REIT subsidiaries) certain other securities of the same corporate or partnership issuer that have an aggregate value greater than 1% of such issuer’s outstanding securities; (ii) loans to individuals or estates; (iii) certain rental agreements calling for deferred rents or increasing rents that are subject to Section 467 of the Code, other than with certain related persons; (iv) obligations to pay us amounts qualifying as “rents from real property” under the 75% and 95% gross income tests; (v) securities issued by a state or any political subdivision of a state, the District of Columbia, a foreign government, any political subdivision of a foreign government, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, but only if the determination of any payment received or accrued under the security does not depend in whole or in part on the profits of any person not described in this category, or payments on any obligation issued by such an entity; (vi) securities issued by another qualifying REIT; and (vii) other arrangements identified in Treasury Regulations (which have not yet been issued or proposed). In addition, any debt instrument issued by a partnership will not be treated as a “security” under the 10% value test if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions) is derived from sources meeting the requirements of the 75% gross income test. If the partnership fails to meet the 75% gross income test, then the debt instrument issued by the partnership nevertheless will not be treated as a “security” to the extent of our interest as a partner in
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the partnership. Also, in looking through any partnership to determine our allocable share of any securities owned by the partnership, our share of the assets of the partnership, solely for purposes of applying the 10% value test will correspond not only to our interest as a partner in the partnership but also to our proportionate interest in certain debt securities issued by the partnership.
We may hold mezzanine loans that are secured by equity interests in a non-corporate entity that directly or indirectly owns real property. IRS Revenue Procedure 2003-65 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan to such a non-corporate entity, if it meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. Moreover, not all of the mezzanine loans that we hold meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. We have invested, and intend to continue to invest, in mezzanine loans in a manner that will enable us to continue to satisfy the gross income and asset tests.
We may also hold certain participation interests, or “B-Notes,” in mortgage loans and mezzanine loans originated by other lenders. A B-Note is an interest created in an underlying loan by virtue of a participation or similar agreement, to which the originator of the loan is a party, along with one or more participants. The borrower on the underlying loan is typically not a party to the participation agreement. The performance of a participant’s investment depends upon the performance of the underlying loan, and if the underlying borrower defaults, the participant typically has no recourse against the originator of the loan. The originator often retains a senior position in the underlying loan, and grants junior participations, which will be a first loss position in the event of a default by the borrower. The appropriate treatment of participation interests for federal income tax purposes is not entirely certain. We believe that we have invested, and intend to continue to invest, in participation interests that qualify as real estate assets for purposes of the asset tests, and that generate interest that will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test, but no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge our treatment of these participation interests.
We believe that substantially all of our assets consist of  (1) real properties, (2) stock or debt investments that earn qualified temporary investment income, (3) other qualified real estate assets and (4) cash, cash items and government securities. We also believe that the value of our securities in our taxable REIT subsidiaries will not exceed 20% of the value of our total assets. We may also invest in securities of other entities, provided that such investments will not prevent us from satisfying the asset and income tests for REIT qualification set forth above. If any interest we hold in any REIT or other category of permissible investment described above does not qualify as such, we would be subject to the 5% asset test and the 10% voting securities and value tests with respect to such investment.
After initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we inadvertently fail one or more of the asset tests at the end of a calendar quarter because we acquire securities or other property during the quarter, we can cure this failure by disposing of sufficient non qualifying assets within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose. If we were to fail any of the asset tests at the end of any quarter without curing such failure within 30 days after the end of such quarter, we would fail to qualify as a REIT, unless we were to qualify under certain relief provisions. Under one of these relief provisions, if we were to fail the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities test, or the 10% value test, we nevertheless would continue to qualify as a REIT if the failure was due to the ownership of assets having a total value not exceeding the lesser of 1% of our assets at the end of the relevant quarter or $10,000,000, and we were to dispose of such assets (or otherwise meet such asset tests) within six months after the end of the quarter in which the failure was identified. If we were to fail to meet any of the REIT asset tests for a particular quarter, but we did not qualify for the relief for de minimis failures that is described in the preceding sentence, then we would be deemed to have satisfied the relevant asset test if: (i) following our identification of the failure, we were to file a schedule with a description of each asset that caused the failure; (ii) the failure was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect; (iii) we were to dispose of the non-qualifying asset (or otherwise meet the relevant asset test) within six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure was identified, and (iv) we were to pay a penalty tax equal to the greater of  $50,000, or the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income
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generated by the non-qualifying asset during the period beginning on the first date of the failure and ending on the date we dispose of the asset (or otherwise cure the asset test failure). It is not possible to predict whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions.
Annual Distribution Requirement.   With respect to each taxable year, we must distribute to our shareholders as dividends (other than capital gain dividends) at least 90% of our taxable income. Specifically, we must distribute an amount equal to (1) 90% of the sum of our “REIT taxable income” (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and by excluding any net capital gain), and any after-tax net income from foreclosure property, minus (2) the sum of certain items of  “excess noncash income” such as income attributable to leveled stepped rents, cancellation of indebtedness and original issue discount. REIT taxable income is generally computed in the same manner as taxable income of ordinary corporations, with several adjustments, such as a deduction allowed for dividends paid, but not for dividends received.
We will be subject to tax on amounts not distributed at regular United States federal corporate income tax rates. In addition, a nondeductible 4% excise tax is imposed on the excess of  (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year plus 95% of capital gain net income for the year and the undistributed portion of the required distribution for the prior year over (2) the actual distribution to shareholders during the year (if any). Net operating losses generated by us may be carried forward but not carried back and used by us for 20 years to reduce REIT taxable income and the amount that we will be required to distribute in order to remain qualified as a REIT. As a REIT, our net capital losses may be carried forward for five years (but not carried back) and used to reduce capital gains.
In general, a distribution must be made during the taxable year to which it relates to satisfy the distribution test and to be deducted in computing REIT taxable income. However, we may elect to treat a dividend declared and paid after the end of the year (a “subsequent declared dividend”) as paid during such year for purposes of complying with the distribution test and computing REIT taxable income, if the dividend is (1) declared before the regular or extended due date of our tax return for such year and (2) paid not later than the date of the first regular dividend payment made after the declaration, but in no case later than 12 months after the end of the year. For purposes of computing the nondeductible 4% excise tax, a subsequent declared dividend is considered paid when actually distributed. Furthermore, any dividend that is declared by us in October, November or December of a calendar year, and payable to shareholders of record as of a specified date in such quarter of such year will be deemed to have been paid by us (and received by shareholders) on December 31 of such calendar year, but only if such dividend is actually paid by us in January of the following calendar year.
For purposes of complying with the distribution test for a taxable year as a result of an adjustment in certain of our items of income, gain or deduction by the IRS or us, we may be permitted to remedy such failure by paying a “deficiency dividend” in a later year together with interest. Such deficiency dividend may be included in our deduction of dividends paid for the earlier year for purposes of satisfying the distribution test. For purposes of the nondeductible 4% excise tax, the deficiency dividend is taken into account when paid, and any income giving rise to the deficiency adjustment is treated as arising when the deficiency dividend is paid.
The IRS has published guidance providing that a publicly-traded REIT may satisfy the annual distribution requirement with distributions consisting of its stock and at least a minimum percentage of cash. Pursuant to this IRS guidance, a REIT may treat the entire amount of a distribution consisting of both stock and cash as a qualifying distribution for purposes of the annual distribution requirement provided that the following requirements are met: (1) the distribution is made by the REIT to its shareholders with respect to its stock; (2) stock of the REIT is publicly traded on an established securities market in the United States; (3) the distribution is declared on or after August 11, 2017; (4) pursuant to such declaration, each shareholder may elect to receive its proportionate share of the declared distribution in either cash or stock of the REIT of equivalent value, subject to a limitation on the amount of cash to be distributed in the aggregate to all shareholders (the “Cash Limitation”), provided that — (a) such Cash Limitation is not less than 20% of the aggregate declared distribution, and (b) if too many shareholders elect to receive cash, each shareholder electing to receive cash will receive a pro rata amount of cash corresponding to the shareholder’s respective entitlement under the declaration, but in no event will any
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shareholder electing to receive cash receive less than 10% of the shareholder’s entire entitlement under the declaration in cash; (5) the calculation of the number of shares to be received by any shareholder will be determined, as close as practicable to the payment date, based upon a formula utilizing market prices that is designed to equate in value the number of shares to be received with the amount of cash that could be received instead; and (6) with respect to any shareholder participating in a dividend reinvestment plan (“DRIP”), the stock received by that shareholder pursuant to the DRIP is treated as received in exchange for cash received in the distribution.
We believe that we have distributed and intend to continue to distribute to our shareholders in a timely manner such amounts sufficient to satisfy the annual distribution requirements. However, it is possible that timing differences between the accrual of income and its actual collection, and the need to make nondeductible expenditures (such as capital improvements or principal payments on debt) may cause us to recognize taxable income in excess of our net cash receipts, thus increasing the difficulty of compliance with the distribution requirement. In addition, excess inclusion income, if any, might be non-cash accrued income, or “phantom” taxable income, which could therefore adversely affect our ability to satisfy our distribution requirements. In order to meet the distribution requirement, we might find it necessary to arrange for short-term, or possibly long-term, borrowings.
Failure to Qualify.   Commencing with our taxable year beginning January 1, 2005, if we were to fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than an asset or income test violation of a type for which relief is otherwise available as described above, we would retain our REIT qualification if the failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and if we were to pay a penalty of  $50,000 for each such failure. It is not possible to predict whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of this relief provision. If we fail to qualify as a REIT for any taxable year, and if certain relief provisions of the Code do not apply, we would be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. Distributions to shareholders in any year in which we fail to qualify will not be deductible from our taxable income nor will they be required to be made. As a result, our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our shareholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, all distributions to shareholders will be taxable as ordinary income, to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. Subject to certain limitations of the Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction and shareholders taxed as individuals may be eligible for a reduced tax rate on “qualified dividend income” from regular C corporations.
If our failure to qualify as a REIT is not due to reasonable cause but results from willful neglect, we would not be permitted to elect REIT status for the four taxable years after the taxable year for which such disqualification is effective. In the event we were to fail to qualify as a REIT in one year and subsequently requalify in a later year, we may elect to recognize taxable income based on the net appreciation in value of our assets as a condition to requalification. In the alternative, we may be taxed on the net appreciation in value of our assets if we sell properties within ten years of the date we requalify as a REIT under federal income tax laws.
Taxation of Shareholders
As used herein, the term “U.S. shareholder” means a beneficial owner of our common shares who (for United States federal income tax purposes) (1) is a citizen or resident of the United States, (2) is a corporation or other entity treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or of any political subdivision thereof, (3) is an estate the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source or (4) is a trust whose administration is subject to the primary supervision of a United States court and which has one or more United States persons who have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or a trust that has a valid election to be treated as a U.S. person pursuant to applicable Treasury Regulations. As used herein, the term “non U.S. shareholder” means a beneficial owner of our common shares who is not a U.S. shareholder or a partnership.
If a partnership (including any entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) is a shareholder, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A shareholder that is a partnership and the partners in such partnership should consult their own tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of our common shares.
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Taxation of Taxable U.S. Shareholders
As long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions made to our U.S. shareholders out of current or accumulated earnings and profits (and not designated as capital gain dividends) will be taken into account by them as ordinary income and corporate shareholders will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction as to such amounts. For purposes of computing our earnings and profits, depreciation for depreciable real estate will be computed on a straight-line basis over a 40-year period. For purposes of determining whether distributions on the shares constitute dividends for tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to the Series C Preferred Shares and all other series of preferred shares that are equal in rank as to distributions and upon liquidation with the Series C Preferred Shares, and second to distributions with respect to our common shares. There can be no assurance that we will have sufficient earnings and profits to cover distributions on any common shares. Certain “qualified dividend income” received by domestic non-corporate shareholders may be eligible for preferential dividend rates. Dividends paid by a REIT generally do not qualify as “qualified dividend income” because a REIT is not generally subject to federal income tax on the portion of its REIT taxable income distributed to its shareholders. Therefore, our dividends will continue to be subject to tax at ordinary income rates, subject to two narrow exceptions. Under the first exception, dividends received from a REIT may be treated as “qualified dividend income” eligible for reduced tax rates to the extent that the REIT itself has received qualified dividend income from other corporations (such as taxable REIT subsidiaries) in which the REIT has invested. Under the second exception, dividends paid by a REIT in a taxable year may be treated as qualified dividend income in an amount equal to the sum of  (i) the excess of the REIT’s “REIT taxable income” for the preceding taxable year over the corporate-level federal income tax payable by the REIT for such preceding taxable year and (ii) the excess of the REIT’s income that was subject to the Built-in Gains Tax (as described above) in the preceding taxable year over the tax payable by the REIT on such income for such preceding taxable year. We do not expect to distribute a material amount of qualified dividend income, if any.
Recent tax reform legislation formerly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act created a new 20% deduction for certain amounts earned by non-corporate taxpayers through certain pass-through entities as well as REIT ordinary dividends earned by non-corporate taxpayers. As corporations, regulated investment companies are not eligible for the qualified business income deduction. The deduction for REIT ordinary dividends is not subject to limitations applicable to pass-through income generally. The application of the 20% qualified business income deduction is still uncertain. Prospective investors should consult with their own tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Distributions that are properly designated as capital gain dividends will be taxed as gains from the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than one year (to the extent they do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year) without regard to the period for which the shareholder has held its shares. However, corporate shareholders may be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income under the Code. Capital gain dividends, if any, will be allocated among different classes of shares in proportion to the allocation of earnings and profits discussed above.
Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will constitute a non-taxable return of capital to a shareholder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted basis of the shareholder’s shares, and will result in a corresponding reduction in the shareholder’s basis in the shares. Any reduction in a shareholder’s tax basis for its shares will increase the amount of taxable gain or decrease the deductible loss that will be realized upon the eventual disposition of the shares. We will notify shareholders at the end of each year as to the portions of the distributions which constitute ordinary income, capital gain or a return of capital. Any portion of such distributions that exceeds the adjusted basis of a U.S. shareholder’s shares will be taxed as capital gain from the disposition of shares, provided that the shares are held as capital assets in the hands of the U.S. shareholder.
Aside from the different income tax rates applicable to ordinary income and capital gain dividends for noncorporate taxpayers, regular and capital gain dividends from us will be treated as dividend income for most other federal income tax purposes. In particular, such dividends will be treated as “portfolio” income for purposes of the passive activity loss limitation and shareholders generally will not be able to offset any “passive losses” against such dividends. Capital gain dividends and qualified dividend income may be
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treated as investment income for purposes of the investment interest limitation contained in Section 163(d) of the Code, which limits the deductibility of interest expense incurred by noncorporate taxpayers with respect to indebtedness attributable to certain investment assets.
In general, dividends paid by us will be taxable to shareholders in the year in which they are received, except in the case of dividends declared at the end of the year, but paid in the following January, as discussed above.
In general, a U.S. shareholder will realize capital gain or loss on the disposition of shares equal to the difference between (1) the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on such disposition and (2) the shareholder’s adjusted basis of such shares. Such gain or loss will generally be short-term capital gain or loss if the shareholder has not held such shares for more than one year and will be long-term capital gain or loss if such shares have been held for more than one year. Loss upon the sale or exchange of shares by a shareholder who has held such shares for six months or less (after applying certain holding period rules) will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of distributions from us required to be treated by such shareholder as long-term capital gain.
We may elect to retain and pay income tax on net long-term capital gains. If we make such an election, you, as a holder of shares, will (1) include in your income as long-term capital gains your proportionate share of such undistributed capital gains, (2) be deemed to have paid your proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such undistributed capital gains and thereby receive a credit or refund for such amount and (3) in the case of a U.S. shareholder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS. As a holder of shares you will increase the basis in your shares by the difference between the amount of capital gain included in your income and the amount of tax you are deemed to have paid. Our earnings and profits will be adjusted appropriately.
Net Investment Income Tax
Certain U.S. shareholders that are individuals, estates or certain trusts are generally subject to a 3.8% tax on “net investment income,” which includes, among other things, interest, dividends on and gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, and rents from certain passive activities. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the applicability of this tax to any income and gain in respect to our shares.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Shareholders
The following discussion is only a summary of the rules governing United States federal income taxation of non-U.S. shareholders such as nonresident alien individuals and foreign corporations. Prospective non-U.S. shareholders should consult with their own tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state and local income tax laws with regard to an investment in shares, including any reporting requirements.
Distributions.   Distributions that are not attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of “United States real property interests” or otherwise effectively connected with the non-U.S. shareholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business and that are not designated by us as capital gain dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to a withholding tax equal to 30% of the gross amount of the distribution unless an applicable tax treaty reduces or eliminates that tax. Certain tax treaties limit the extent to which dividends paid by a REIT can qualify for a reduction of the withholding tax on dividends. Our dividends that are attributable to excess inclusion income, if any, will be subject to 30% U.S. withholding tax without reduction under any otherwise applicable tax treaty. See “— Taxation of the Company-Requirements for Qualification” above. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. shareholder to the extent that they do not exceed the adjusted basis of the shareholder’s shares, but rather will reduce the adjusted basis of such shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the adjusted basis of a non-U.S. shareholder’s shares, they will give rise to tax liability if the non-U.S. shareholder would otherwise be subject to tax on any gain from the sale or disposition of its shares, as described below. If a distribution is treated as effectively
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connected with the non-U.S. shareholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. shareholder generally will be subject to federal income tax on the distribution at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. shareholders are taxed with respect to such distribution, and a non-U.S. shareholder that is a corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or lower rate under an applicable tax treaty if any) with respect to the distribution.
For withholding tax purposes, we are generally required to treat all distributions as if made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits and thus intend to withhold at the rate of 30% (or a reduced treaty rate if applicable) on the amount of any distribution (other than distributions designated as capital gain dividends) made to a non-U.S. shareholder. We would not be required to withhold at the 30% rate on distributions we reasonably estimate to be in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. If it cannot be determined at the time a distribution is made whether such distribution will be in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits, the distribution will be subject to withholding at the rate applicable to ordinary dividends. However, the non-U.S. shareholder may seek a refund of such amounts from the IRS if it is subsequently determined that such distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, and the amount withheld exceeded the non-U.S. shareholder’s United States tax liability, if any, with respect to the distribution.
For any year in which we qualify as a REIT, distributions to non-U.S. shareholders (other than certain investors including “qualified foreign pension funds”) who own more than 10% of our shares and that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests will be taxed under the provisions of the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”). Under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. shareholder is taxed as if such gain were effectively connected with a United States business. Non-U.S. shareholders who own more than 10% of our shares would thus be taxed at the normal capital gain rates applicable to U.S. shareholders (subject to alternative minimum tax, if applicable,). Also, distributions made to non-U.S. shareholders who own more than 10% of our shares may be subject to a 30% branch profits tax (or lower rate under an applicable tax treaty if any) in the hands of a corporate non-U.S. shareholder. We are required by applicable regulations to withhold the highest applicable corporate tax rate (currently 21%) of any distribution that could be designated by us as a capital gain dividend regardless of the amount actually designated as a capital gain dividend. This amount is creditable against the non-U.S. shareholder’s FIRPTA tax liability.
A “qualified foreign pension fund” is any trust, corporation, or other organization or arrangement (i) which is created or organized under the laws of a country other than the United States; (ii) which is established to provide retirement or pension benefits to current or former employees (or their designees) of one or more employers in consideration for services rendered; (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary entitled to more than 5% of its assets or income; (iv) which is subject to government regulation and provides annual information reporting about its beneficiaries to the relevant tax authorities in the country in which it is established or operates; and (v) as to which, under the laws of the country in which it is established or operates: (a) contributions to that trust, corporation, organization or arrangement which would otherwise be subject to tax under those laws are deductible or excluded from the gross income of the entity or taxed at a reduced rate, or (b) taxation of any investment income of the trust, corporation, organization or arrangement is deferred or that income is taxed at a reduced rate.
Distributions made to REIT shareholders, that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges of United States real property interests will retain their character as gain subject to the rules of FIRPTA discussed above when distributed by such REIT shareholders to their respective shareholders.
If a non-U.S. shareholder does not own more than 10% of our shares during the one-year period prior to a distribution attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, such distribution will not be considered to be gain effectively connected with a U.S. business as long as the class of shares continues to be regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States. As such, a non-U.S. shareholder who does not own more than 10% of our shares would not be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return by reason of receiving such a distribution. In this case, the distribution will be treated as a REIT dividend to that non-U.S. shareholder and taxed as a REIT dividend that is not a capital gain distribution as described above. In addition, the branch profits tax will not apply to such
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distributions. If our common shares cease to be regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States, all non-U.S. shareholders of our common shares would be subject to taxation under FIRPTA with respect to capital gain distributions attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of United States real property interests.
Dispositions.   Gain recognized by a non-U.S. shareholder upon a sale or disposition of our common shares generally will not be taxed under FIRPTA if we are a “domestically controlled REIT,” defined generally as a REIT in which at all times during a specified testing period less than 50% in value of our shares was held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. persons. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we have been a “domestically controlled REIT.” However, because our shares are publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled REIT.”
Notwithstanding the general FIRPTA exception for sales of domestically controlled REIT stock discussed above, a disposition of domestically controlled REIT stock will be taxable if the disposition occurs in a wash sale transaction relating to a distribution on such stock. In addition, FIRPTA taxation will apply to substitute dividend payments received in securities lending transactions or sale-repurchase transactions of domestically controlled REIT stock to the extent such payments are made to shareholders in lieu of distributions that would have otherwise been subject to FIRPTA taxation. The foregoing rules regarding wash sales and substitute dividend payments with respect to domestically controlled REIT stock will not apply to stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market within the United States and held by a non-U.S. shareholder that held 10% or less of such stock during the one-year period prior to the related distribution.
In addition, a non-U.S. shareholder that owns, actually or constructively, 10% or less of a class of our shares through a specified testing period, whether or not our shares are domestically controlled, will not be subject to tax on the sale of its shares under FIRPTA if the shares are regularly traded on an established securities market. If the gain on the sale of shares were to be subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. shareholder would be subject to the same treatment as U.S. shareholders with respect to such gain (subject to alternative minimum tax, if applicable and possible application of the 30% branch profits tax in the case of foreign corporations) and the purchaser would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.
Gain not subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. shareholder if  (1) investment in the shares is effectively connected with the non-U.S. shareholder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. shareholder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. shareholders with respect to such gain, or (2) the non-U.S. shareholder is a nonresident alien individual who was present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and such nonresident alien individual has a “tax home” in the United States, in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gain.
Taxation of Tax — Exempt Shareholders
Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts (“Exempt Organizations”), generally are exempt from federal income taxation. However, they are subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”). While investments in real estate may generate UBTI, the IRS has issued a published ruling to the effect that dividend distributions by a REIT to an exempt employee pension trust do not constitute UBTI, provided that the shares of the REIT are not otherwise used in an unrelated trade or business of the exempt employee pension trust. Based on that ruling, amounts distributed by us to Exempt Organizations generally should not constitute UBTI. However, if an Exempt Organization finances its acquisition of our shares with debt, a portion of its income from us, if any, will constitute UBTI pursuant to the “debt-financed property” rules under the Code. In addition, our dividends that are attributable to excess inclusion income, if any, will constitute UBTI for most Exempt Organizations. See “Taxation of the Company-Requirements for Qualification” above. Furthermore, social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, and qualified group legal services plans that are exempt from taxation under specified provisions of the Code are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions from us as UBTI.
In addition, a pension trust that owns more than 10% of our shares is required to treat a percentage of the dividends from us as UBTI (the “UBTI Percentage”) in certain circumstances. The UBTI Percentage is
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our gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business (determined as if we were a pension trust) divided by our total gross income for the year in which the dividends are paid. The UBTI rule applies only if  (i) the UBTI Percentage is at least 5%, (ii) we qualify as a REIT by reason of the modification of the 5/50 Rule that allows the beneficiaries of the pension trust to be treated as holding our shares in proportion to their actuarial interests in the pension trust, and (iii) either (A) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our shares or (B) a group of pension trusts individually holding more than 10% of the value of our capital shares collectively owns more than 50% of the value of our capital shares.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
U.S. Shareholders
We will report to U.S. shareholders and the IRS the amount of dividends paid during each calendar year, and the amount of tax withheld, if any, with respect thereto. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. shareholder may be subject to backup withholding, currently at a rate of 24%, with respect to dividends paid unless such holder (a) is a corporation or comes within certain other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact, or (b) provides a taxpayer identification number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding and otherwise complies with the applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. A U.S. shareholder who does not provide us with its correct taxpayer identification number also may be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Amounts withheld as backup withholding will be creditable against the shareholder’s income tax liability if proper documentation is supplied. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions made to any shareholders who fail to certify their non-foreign status to us.
Non-U.S. Shareholders
Generally, we must report annually to the IRS the amount of dividends paid to a non-U.S. shareholder, such holder’s name and address, and the amount of tax withheld, if any. A similar report is sent to the non-U.S. shareholder. Pursuant to tax treaties or other agreements, the IRS may make its reports available to tax authorities in the non-U.S. shareholder’s country of residence. Payments of dividends or of proceeds from the disposition of stock made to a non-U.S. shareholder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless such holder establishes an exemption, for example, by properly certifying its non-United States status on an IRS Form W-8BEN-E, W-8BEN or another appropriate version of IRS FormW-8. Notwithstanding the foregoing, backup withholding and information reporting may apply if either we have or our paying agent has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that a non-U.S. shareholder is a United States person.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Rather, the United States income tax liability of persons subject to backup withholding will be reduced by the amount of tax withheld. If withholding results in an overpayment of taxes, a refund or credit may be obtained, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code and the U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder (“FATCA”) impose certain increased certification requirements and information reporting for Non-U.S. Shareholders. In the event of noncompliance with FATCA, a 30% withholding tax could be imposed on payments of interest or other fixed or determinable annual or periodic income and, after December 31, 2018, gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of the Interests. FATCA should not apply to Non-U.S. Shareholders who are individuals and provide a properly completed Form W-8. However, payments in respect of Interests to Non-U.S. Shareholders who are individuals could be affected by this withholding if such Non-U.S. Shareholders hold shares through a non-US person (e.g., a foreign bank or broker) that fails to comply with these requirements (even if payments to the Non-U.S. Shareholders would not otherwise have been subject to FATCA withholding). We will not pay any additional amounts to Non-U.S. Shareholders in respect of any amounts withheld. Non-U.S. Shareholders are encouraged to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in shares.
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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS
Information about the selling securityholders may be added to this prospectus pursuant to a prospectus supplement.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
General.   We and/or the selling securityholders may sell the securities being offered by this prospectus in one or more of the following ways from time to time:

to/or through underwriters or dealers;

to/or through agents;

in “at the market offerings” to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, or a securities exchange or otherwise;

directly to one or more purchasers; or

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.
A distribution of the securities offered by this prospectus may also be effected through the issuance of derivative securities, including without limitation, warrants, subscriptions, exchangeable securities, forward delivery contracts and the writing of options. In addition, the manner in which we and/or the selling securityholders may sell some or all of the securities covered by this prospectus includes, without limitation, through:

a block trade in which a broker-dealer will attempt to sell as agent, but may position or resell a portion of the block, as principal, in order to facilitate the transaction;

purchases by a broker-dealer, as principal, and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker solicits purchasers; or

privately negotiated transactions.
We may also enter into hedging transactions. For example, we may:

enter into transactions with a broker-dealer or affiliate thereof in connection with which such broker-dealer or affiliate will engage in short sales of the common shares pursuant to this prospectus, in which case such broker-dealer or affiliate may use common shares received from us to close out its short positions;

sell securities short and redeliver such shares to close out our short positions;

enter into option or other types of transactions that require us to deliver common shares to a broker-dealer or an affiliate thereof, who will then resell or transfer the common shares under this prospectus; or

loan or pledge the common shares to a broker-dealer or an affiliate thereof who may sell the loaned shares or, in an event of default in the case of a pledge, sell the pledged shares pursuant to this prospectus.
In addition, we may enter into derivative or hedging transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. In connection with such a transaction, the third parties may sell securities covered by and pursuant to this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be. If so, the third party may use securities borrowed from us or others to settle such sales and may use securities received from us to close out any related short positions. We may also loan or pledge securities covered by this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement to third parties, who may sell the loaned securities or, in an event of default in the case of a pledge, sell the pledged securities pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be.
A prospectus supplement with respect to each series of securities will state the terms of the offering of the securities, including:

the terms of the offering;

the name or names of any underwriters or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them, if any;
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the public offering price or purchase price of the securities and the net proceeds to be received by us from the sale;

any delayed delivery arrangements;

the terms of any subscription rights;

any initial public offering price;

any underwriting discounts or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

any securities exchange on which the securities may be listed.
The offer and sale of the securities described in this prospectus by us, the selling securityholders, the underwriters or the third parties described above may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including privately negotiated transactions, either:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, including in “at the market offerings”;

at prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
Selling Shareholders.   The selling securityholders may offer our securities in one or more offerings, and if required by applicable law or in connection with an underwritten offering, pursuant to one or more prospectus supplements, and any such prospectus supplement will set forth the terms of the relevant offering as described above. To the extent our securities offered pursuant to a prospectus supplement or otherwise remain unsold, the selling securityholders may offer those securities on different terms pursuant to another prospectus supplement or in a private transaction. Sales by the selling securityholders may not require the provision of a prospectus supplement.
In addition to the foregoing, each of the selling securityholders may offer our securities at various times in one or more of the following transactions: through short sales, derivative and hedging transactions; by pledge to secure debts and other obligations; through offerings of securities exchangeable, convertible or exercisable for our securities; under forward purchase contracts with trusts, investment companies or other entities (which may, in turn, distribute their own securities); through distribution to its members, partners or shareholders; in exchange or over-the-counter market transactions; and/or in private transactions.
Each of the selling securityholders also may resell all or a portion of our securities that it owns in open market transactions in reliance upon Rule 144 under the Securities Act, or any other available exemption from required registration under the Securities Act, provided it meets the criteria and conforms to the requirements of Rule 144.
Underwriting Compensation.   Any public offering price and any fees, discounts, commissions, concessions or other items constituting compensation allowed or re allowed or paid to underwriters, dealers, agents or remarketing firms may be changed from time to time. Underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms that participate in the distribution of the offered securities may be “underwriters” as defined in the Securities Act. Any discounts or commissions they receive from us and/or the selling securityholders and any profits they receive on the resale of the offered securities may be treated as underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. We will identify any underwriters, agents or dealers and describe their fees, commissions or discounts in the applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be.
Underwriters and Agents.   If underwriters are used in a sale, they will acquire the offered securities for their own account. The underwriters may resell the offered securities in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. We and/or the selling securityholders may offer the securities to the public either
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through an underwriting syndicate represented by one or more managing underwriters or through one or more underwriter(s). The underwriters in any particular offering will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be.
Unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the offered securities will be subject to certain conditions contained in an underwriting agreement that we and/or the selling securityholders will enter into with the underwriters at the time of the sale to them. The underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities of the series offered if any of the securities are purchased, unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities. Any initial offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed, re allowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time.
We and/or selling securityholders may designate agents to sell the offered securities. Unless otherwise specified in connection with any particular offering of securities, the agents will agree to use their best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of their appointment. We and/or selling securityholders may also sell the offered securities to one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us and/or selling securityholders. These firms will remarket the offered securities upon purchasing them in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to the terms of the offered securities. A prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be, will identify any remarketing firm and will describe the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and/or selling securityholders and its compensation.
In connection with offerings made through underwriters or agents, we and/or selling securityholders may enter into agreements with such underwriters or agents pursuant to which we and/or selling securityholders receive our outstanding securities in consideration for the securities being offered to the public for cash. In connection with these arrangements, the underwriters or agents may also sell securities covered by this prospectus to hedge their positions in these outstanding securities, including in short sale transactions. If so, the underwriters or agents may use the securities received from us and/or selling securityholders under these arrangements to close out any related open borrowings of securities.
Dealers.   We and/or selling securityholders may sell the offered securities to dealers as principals. We and/or selling securityholders may negotiate and pay dealers’ commissions, discounts or concessions for their services. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public either at varying prices to be determined by the dealer or at a fixed offering price agreed to with us and/or selling securityholders at the time of resale. Dealers engaged by us and/or selling securityholders may allow other dealers to participate in resales.
Direct Sales.   We and/or selling securityholders may choose to sell the offered securities directly to multiple purchasers or a single purchaser. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved.
Institutional Purchasers.   We and/or selling securityholders may authorize agents, dealers or underwriters to solicit certain institutional investors to purchase offered securities on a delayed delivery basis pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified future date. The applicable prospectus supplement or pricing supplement, as the case may be, will provide the details of any such arrangement, including the offering price and commissions payable on the solicitations.
We and/or selling securityholders may enter into such delayed contracts only with institutional purchasers that we and/or selling securityholders approve. These institutions may include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions.
Subscription Offerings.   Direct sales to investors or our shareholders may be accomplished through subscription offerings or through shareholder subscription rights distributed to shareholders. In connection with subscription offerings or the distribution of shareholder subscription rights to shareholders, if all of the underlying securities are not subscribed for, we may sell any unsubscribed securities to third parties directly or through underwriters or agents. In addition, whether or not all of the underlying securities are subscribed for, we may concurrently offer additional securities to third parties directly or through underwriters or agents. If securities are to be sold through shareholder subscription rights, the shareholder
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subscription rights will be distributed as a dividend to the shareholders for which they will pay no separate consideration. The prospectus supplement with respect to the offer of securities under shareholder subscription rights will set forth the relevant terms of the shareholder subscription rights, including:

whether common shares, preferred shares, or warrants for those securities will be offered under the shareholder subscription rights;

the number of those securities or warrants that will be offered under the shareholder subscription rights;

the period during which and the price at which the shareholder subscription rights will be exercisable;

the number of shareholder subscription rights then outstanding;

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price of the shareholder subscription rights; and

any other material terms of the shareholder subscription rights.
Indemnification; Other Relationships.   We and/or selling securityholders may agree to indemnify underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and to make contribution to them in connection with those liabilities. Underwriters, dealers, agents and remarketing firms, and their affiliates, may engage in transactions with, or perform services for us and our affiliates, in the ordinary course of business, including commercial banking transactions and services.
Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions.   Each series of securities offered by us will be a new issue of securities and may have no established trading market other than our common shares and outstanding preferred shares which are currently listed on the NYSE. Any underwriters to whom we and/or selling securityholders sell securities for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange, and any such listing if pursued will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
To facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover the over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters, including the legality of certain of the securities covered by this prospectus, will be passed upon for us by Paul Hastings LLP. Certain legal matters under Maryland law, including the legality of certain of the securities covered by this prospectus, will be passed on for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements, and the related financial statement schedule, of Lexington Realty Trust incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from the Lexington Realty Trust and Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P. Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, and the effectiveness of Lexington Realty Trust’s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
The consolidated financial statements, and the related financial statement schedule, of Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P. incorporated in this Prospectus by reference from the Lexington Realty Trust and Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and financial statement schedule have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
The consolidated financial statements and the related financial statement schedule of LXP and subsidiaries for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2016 have been incorporated by reference herein and in the Registration Statement in reliance upon the reports of KPMG LLP (“KPMG”), independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
INTERESTS OF NAMED EXPERTS AND COUNSEL
The Company has agreed to indemnify and hold KPMG LLP harmless against and from any and all legal costs and expenses incurred by KPMG LLP in successful defense of any legal action or proceeding that arises as a result of KPMG LLP’s consent to the inclusion (or incorporation by reference) of its audit report on the Company’s past financial statements included (or incorporated by reference) in this registration statement. LCIF has agreed to indemnify and hold KPMG LLP harmless against and from any and all legal costs and expenses incurred by KPMG LLP in successful defense of any legal action or proceeding that arises as a result of KPMG LLP’s consent to the inclusion (or incorporation by reference) of its audit report on LCIF’s past financial statements included (or incorporated by reference) in this registration statement.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
LXP and LCIF file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements (as applicable) and other information with the SEC. Our filings with the SEC are available to the public on the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document that we file with the SEC at its Public Reference Room 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room and its copy charges. We also maintain a website at http://www.lxp.com through which you can obtain copies of documents that we file with the SEC. The contents of that website are not incorporated by reference in or otherwise a part of this prospectus.
The SEC allows LXP and LCIF to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC, which means we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference herein is an important part of this prospectus. Any statement contained herein or in a prospectus supplement hereto or in any document incorporated by reference will be
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deemed to be amended, modified or superseded for the purpose of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or a later document that is or is considered to be incorporated by reference herein amends, modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statements so amended, modified or superseded will not be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus, except as so amended, modified or superseded.
LXP and LCIF incorporate by reference in this prospectus the documents listed below and any future filings that LXP and LCIF may make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the termination of the offering under this prospectus; provided, however, that we are not incorporating, in each case, any documents or information deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2018;

LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 19, 2018;

the description of LXP’s common shares in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on November 21, 2013; and

LXP’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on December 8, 2004.
To receive a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents), write us at the following address or callus at the telephone number listed below:
Lexington Realty Trust
One Penn Plaza
Suite 4015
Attention: Investor Relations
New York, New York 10119-4015
(212) 692-7200
We also maintain a website at http://www.lxp.com through which you can obtain copies of documents that we file with the SEC. The contents of that website are not incorporated by reference in or otherwise a part of this prospectus.
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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
Set forth below are the expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, to be incurred by the registrant in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All amounts set forth below are estimated.
SEC Registration Fee
$ *
Trustees’ Registrars, Transfer Agents’ and Depositories’ Fees and Expenses
**
Legal Fees and Expenses
**
Printing and Engraving Expenses
**
Accounting Fees and Expenses
**
Miscellaneous Fees and Expenses
**
Total
$     **
*
To be deferred pursuant to Rule 456(b) and calculated in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement pursuant to Rule 457(r).
**
These fees and expenses are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time. An estimate of the aggregate amount of these fees and expenses will be reflected in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
The Maryland REIT law and Section 2-418 of the Maryland General Corporation Law generally permits indemnification of any trustee or officer made a party to any proceedings by reason of service as a trustee or officer unless it is established that (i) the act or omission of such person was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty; or (ii) such person actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or (iii) in the case of any criminal proceeding, such person had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. The indemnity may include judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by the trustee or officer in connection with the proceeding; but, if the proceeding is one by or in the right of the company, indemnification is not permitted with respect to any proceeding in which the trustee or officer has been adjudged to be liable to the company, or if the proceeding is one charging improper personal benefit to the trustee or officer, whether or not involving action in the trustee’s or officer’s official capacity, indemnification of the trustee or officer is not permitted if the trustee or officer was adjudged to be liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. The termination of any proceeding by conviction or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, or any entry of an order of probation prior to judgment creates a rebuttable presumption that the trustee or officer did not meet the requisite standard of conduct required for permitted indemnification. The termination of any proceeding by judgment, order or settlement, however, does not create a presumption that the trustee or officer failed to meet the requisite standard of conduct for permitted indemnification.
LXP’s Declaration of Trust limits the liability of its trustees and officers for money damages, except for liability resulting from:

actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or

a final judgment based upon a finding of active and deliberate dishonesty by the trustees or officers that was material to the cause of action adjudicated.
LXP’s Declaration of Trust obligates LXP to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, to indemnify, and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to, any trustees or officers, whether serving LXP or at its request any other entity, who is made a party to a proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity. LXP’s Declaration of Trust permits LXP to indemnify and advance expenses to any employee or agent of LXP, whether serving LXP or at its request any other entity.
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Maryland law require LXP, as a condition to advancing expenses, to obtain:

a written affirmation by the trustee or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification; and

a written undertaking to repay the amount reimbursed if the standard of conduct is not met.
Section 17-108 of the Delaware Act provides that a limited partnership may indemnify any partner or other person from and against any and all claims and demands by reason of such person being or having been a partner, employee or agent to the partnership. The Delaware Act provides that Section 17-108 is not exclusive of other rights to which those seeking indemnification may be entitled under any partnership agreement.
The LCIF partnership agreement provides that LCIF will indemnify Lex GP, as general partner of LCIF, and LXP, as the sole equity owner of Lex GP, their respective directors, trustees, officers and such other persons as Lex GP and LXP may from time to time designate to the fullest extent permitted under the Delaware Act.
The foregoing reference is necessarily subject to the complete text of LXP’s Declaration of Trust, and partnership agreements and the statutes referred to above and is qualified in its entirety by reference thereto.
We have also purchased liability insurance for our trustees and officers, which also covers our subsidiaries, including LCIF. LXP has also entered into indemnification agreements with certain officers and trustees for the purpose of indemnifying such persons from certain claims and actions in their capacities as such.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to trustees, directors, officers or persons controlling the registrants pursuant to the foregoing provisions, the registrants have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
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Item 16. Exhibits.
Exhibit No.
Description
1.1
Form of Underwriting Agreement(2)
Articles of Merger and Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust of LXP, dated December 31, 2006 (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 8, 2007 (the “01/08/07 8-K”))(1)
Articles Supplementary Relating to the Reclassification of 8.05% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 7.55% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (filed as Exhibit 3.4 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed November 21, 2013)(1)
Amended and Restated By-laws of LXP (filed as Exhibit 3.2 to the 01/08/07 8-K)(1)
First Amendment to Amended and Restated By-laws of LXP (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed November 20, 2009)(1)
Second Amendment to the Amended and Restated By-laws of LXP (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed April 3, 2017)(1)
Sixth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of LCIF, dated as of December 30, 2013 (filed as Exhibit 3.25 to LXP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed February 26, 2014)(1)
Specimen of Common Shares Certificate of LXP (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to LXP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2006)(1)
Form of 6.50% Series C Cumulative Convertible Preferred Stock certificate (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to LXP’s Registration Statement on Form 8A filed December 8, 2004)(1)
Amended and Restated Trust Agreement, dated March 21, 2007, among LXP, The Bank of New York Trust Company, National Association, The Bank of New York (Delaware), the Administrative Trustees (as named therein) and the several holders of the Preferred Securities from time to time (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 27, 2007 (the “03/27/07 8-K”))(1)
Junior Subordinated Indenture, dated as of March 21, 2007, between LXP and The Bank of New York Trust Company, National Association (filed as Exhibit 4.2 to the 03/27/07 8-K)(1)
Indenture (Senior Debt), dated as of June 10, 2013, among LXP, certain subsidiaries of the LXP signatories thereto, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 13, 2013)(1)
First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of September 30, 2013, among LXP, certain subsidiaries of the LXP signatories thereto, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee (filed as Exhibit 4.2 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 3, 2013)(1)
Indenture (Senior Debt), dated as of May 9, 2014, among LXP, LCIF and U.S. Bank, as trustee (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 13, 2014)(1)
First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of May 20, 2014 among LXP, LCIF and U.S. Bank, as trustee (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 20, 2014)(1)
Form of Subordinated Debt Indenture(3)
 4.16
Form of Indenture Security issued under the Senior Debt Indenture(2)
 4.17
Form of Indenture Security issued under the Subordinated Debt Indenture(2)
 4.18
Form of Deposit Agreement relating to the Depositary Shares (including Form of Depositary Receipt)(2)
 4.19
Form of Warrant Agreement(2)
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Exhibit No.
Description
 4.20
Form of Warrant Certificate(2)
 4.21
Form of Unit Agreement(2)
 4.22
Form of Unit Certificate(2)
 4.23
Form of Subscription Rights Agreement(2)
 4.24
Form of Subscription Rights Certificate(2)
 4.25
Articles Supplementary Classifying and Designating a Series of Preferred Stock(2)
 4.26
Form of Guarantee relating to the Debt Security(2)
Opinion of Paul Hastings LLP(3)
Opinion of Venable LLP(3)
Opinion of Paul Hastings LLP regarding tax matters(3)
10.1 
1994 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (filed as Exhibit D to LXP’s Definitive Proxy Statement dated April 12, 1994)(1)(4)
LXP’s Amended and Restated 2011 Equity-Based Award Plan (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 18, 2017)(1)(4)
Form of Compensation Agreement (Long-Term Compensation) between LXP and each of the following officers: Richard J. Rouse and Patrick Carroll (filed as Exhibit 10.15 to LXP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2004, filed on March 16, 2005 (the “2004 10-K”))(1)(4)
Form of Compensation Agreement (Bonus and Long-Term Compensation) between LXP and each of the following officers: E. Robert Roskind and T. Wilson Eglin (filed as Exhibit 10.16 to the 2004 10-K)(1)(4)
Form of Share Option Award Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed on November 24, 2010)(1)(4)
Form of 2010 Share Option Award Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed November 24, 2010)(1)(4)
Form of December 2010 Share Option Award Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 6, 2011)(1)(4)
Amended and Restated Rabbi Trust Agreement, originally dated January 26, 1999 (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 2, 2009)(1)(4)
Retirement Agreement, dated January 18, 2018, between LXP and Richard J. Rouse (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 19, 2018 (the “1/19/18 8-K”))(1)(4)
Retirement Agreement, dated January 18, 2018, between LXP and E. Robert Roskind (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the 1/19/18 8-K)(1)(4)
Lexington Realty Trust Executive Severance Plan with related Severance Policy Agreements with E. Robert Roskind, T. Wilson Eglin, Patrick Carroll, Joseph S. Bonventre and Beth Boulerice (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to the 1/19/18 8-K)(1)(4)
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 11, 2014, and effective as of January 15, 2015, between LXP and T. Wilson Eglin (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2014 filed November 7, 2014 (the “09/30/14 10-Q”))(1)(4)
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 11, 2014, and effective as of January 15, 2015, between LXP and E. Robert Roskind (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the 09/30/14 10-Q)(1)(4)
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 11, 2014, and effective as of January 15, 2015, between LXP and Richard J. Rouse (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to the 09/30/14 10-Q)(1)(4)
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Exhibit No.
Description
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 11, 2014, and effective as of January 15, 2015, between LXP and Patrick Carroll (filed as Exhibit 10.4 to the 09/30/14 10-Q)(1)(4)
Form of Long-Term Retention Nonvested Share Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 11, 2013)(1)(4)
Form of 2015 Nonvested Share Agreement (Performance and Service) (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 9, 2015)(1)(4)
Form of 2017 Nonvested Share Agreement (Performance and Service) (filed as Exhibit 10.17 to LXP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 filed on February 28, 2017)(1)(4)
Form of Amended and Restated Indemnification Agreement between LXP and certain officers and trustees (filed as Exhibit 10.20 to LXP’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2008)(1)
Funding Agreement, dated as of July 23, 2006, by and among LCIF, LCIF II and LXP (filed as Exhibit 99.4 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 24, 2006)(1)
Letter Agreement among LXP (as successor by merger), Apollo Real Estate Investment Fund III, L.P., NKT Advisors LLC, Vornado Realty Trust, VNK Corp., Vornado Newkirk LLC, Vornado MLP GP LLC and WEM-Brynmawr Associates LLC (filed as Exhibit 10.15 to Amendment No. 5 to Newkirk Registration Statement on Form S-11/A filed October 28, 2005 (“Amendment No. 5 to NKT’s S-11”))(1)
Amendment to the Letter Agreement among LXP (as successor by merger), Apollo Real Estate Investment Fund III, L.P., NKT Advisors LLC, Vornado Realty Trust, Vornado Realty L.P., VNK Corp., Vornado Newkirk LLC, Vornado MLP GP LLC, and WEM-Brynmawr Associates LLC (filed as Exhibit 10.25 to Amendment No. 5 to NKT’s S-11)(1)
Second Amended and Restated Ownership Limit Waiver Agreement (Vornado), dated as of December 6, 2010, between LXP and Vornado Realty, L.P. (together with certain affiliates) (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 6, 2010)(1)
Credit Agreement, dated as of September 1, 2015, among LXP and LCIF, as borrowers, each of the financial institutions initially a signatory thereto together with their assignees pursuant to 12/5 therein, and KeyBank National Association, as agent (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 1, 2015)(1)
First Amendment to Credit Agreement and Agreement Regarding Revolving Line Commitment and Term Loan Increases, dated as of September 29, 2017, among LXP and LCIF, as borrowers, and KeyBank National Association, as agent (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 2, 2017)(1)
Ownership Limitation Waiver Agreement (BlackRock), dated as of November 18, 2010 (filed as of Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 24, 2010 (the “11/24/10 8-K”))(1)
First Amendment to Ownership Limitation Waiver Agreement (BlackRock), dated April 25, 2014 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 29, 2014)(1)
Ownership Limitation Waiver Agreement (Cohen & Steers), dated as of November 18, 2010 (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the 11/24/10 8-K)(1)
First Amendment to Ownership Limitation Waiver Agreement (Cohen & Steers), dated as of April 19, 2011 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 25, 2011)(1)
Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of November 3, 2008, between LXP and Vornado Realty, L.P. and Vornado LXP LLC (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed November 6, 2008)(1)
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Exhibit No.
Description
Statement of Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges and Preferred Share Dividends and Ratio of Earnings for LXP(3)
Statement of Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges(3)
Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP re: LXP(3)
Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP re: LCIF(3)
Consent of KPMG LLP re: LXP(3)
Consent of KPMG LLP re: LCIF(3)
Power of Attorney (included in the signature pages to this registration statement)(3)
Statement of Eligibility of U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee, on Form T-1 to act as trustee under the Senior Debt Indenture(3)
25.2
Statement of Eligibility of U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee, on Form T-1 to act as trustee under the Subordinated Debt Indenture(2)
(1)
Incorporated by reference.
(2)
To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of the offered securities.
(3)
Filed herewith.
(4)
Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.
Item 17. Undertakings.
(a)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
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(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment will be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time will be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)
If the registrant is relying on Rule 430B:
(A)
Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) will be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(B)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 will be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date will be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time will be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or
(ii)
If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, will be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.
(5)
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:
The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
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(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)
The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement will be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time will be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(d)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to supplement the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transactions by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.
(e)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
(f)
That:
(1)
For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b) (1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act will be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and
(2)
For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus will be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time will be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, the State of New York, on February 27, 2018.
LEXINGTON REALTY TRUST
By:
/s/ T. Wilson Eglin
T. Wilson Eglin
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
Each person whose signature appears below authorizes T. Wilson Eglin and Patrick Carroll, and each of them, each of whom may act without joinder of the other, as his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities to execute in the name of each such person who is then an officer or trustee of Lexington Realty Trust, and to file any amendments (including post effective amendments) to this Registration Statement and any registration statement for the same offering filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ E. Robert Roskind
E. Robert Roskind
Chairman
February 27, 2018
/s/ T. Wilson Eglin
T. Wilson Eglin
Chief Executive Officer, President and Trustee
(principal executive officer)
February 27, 2018
/s/ Patrick Carroll
Patrick Carroll
Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice President and Treasurer
(principal financial officer)
February 27, 2018
/s/ Beth Boulerice
Beth Boulerice
Executive Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
(principal accounting officer)
February 27, 2018
/s/ Harold First
Harold First
Trustee
February 27, 2018
/s/ Richard S. Frary
Richard S. Frary
Trustee
February 27, 2018
/s/ Lawrence L. Gray
Lawrence L. Gray
Trustee
February 27, 2018
/s/ Jamie Handwerker
Jamie Handwerker
Trustee
February 27, 2018
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Signature
Title
Date
/s/ Claire A. Koeneman
Claire A. Koeneman
Trustee
February 27, 2018
/s/ Howard Roth
Howard Roth
Trustee
February 27, 2018
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, the State of New York, on February 27, 2018.
LEPERCQ CORPORATE INCOME FUND L.P.
By:
Lex GP-1 Trust, its General Partner
By:
/s/ T. Wilson Eglin
T. Wilson Eglin
President
POWER OF ATTORNEY
Each person whose signature appears below authorizes T. Wilson Eglin and Patrick Carroll, and each of them, each of whom may act without joinder of the other, as his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities to execute in the name of each such person who is then an officer or trustee of Lex GP-1 Trust, as the general partner of Lepercq Corporate Income Fund L.P., and to file any amendments (including post effective amendments) to this Registration Statement and any registration statement for the same offering filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or their substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ T. Wilson Eglin
T. Wilson Eglin
President and Trustee of Lex GP-1 Trust
(principal executive officer)
February 27, 2018
/s/ Patrick Carroll
Patrick Carroll
Chief Financial Officer and Trustee
of Lex GP-1 Trust
(principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)
February 27, 2018
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EXHIBIT INDEX
Exhibit No.
Description
1.1
Form of Underwriting Agreement(2)
Articles of Merger and Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust of LXP, dated December 31, 2006 (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 8, 2007 (the “01/08/07 8-K”))(1)
Articles Supplementary Relating to the Reclassification of 8.05% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 7.55% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (filed as Exhibit 3.4 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed November 21, 2013)(1)
Amended and Restated By-laws of LXP (filed as Exhibit 3.2 to the 01/08/07 8-K)(1)
First Amendment to Amended and Restated By-laws of LXP (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed November 20, 2009)(1)
Second Amendment to the Amended and Restated By-laws of LXP (filed as Exhibit 3.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed April 3, 2017)(1)
Sixth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of LCIF, dated as of December 30, 2013 (filed as Exhibit 3.25 to LXP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed February 26, 2014)(1)
Specimen of Common Shares Certificate of LXP (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to LXP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2006)(1)
Form of 6.50% Series C Cumulative Convertible Preferred Stock certificate (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to LXP’s Registration Statement on Form 8A filed December 8, 2004)(1)
Amended and Restated Trust Agreement, dated March 21, 2007, among LXP, The Bank of New York Trust Company, National Association, The Bank of New York (Delaware), the Administrative Trustees (as named therein) and the several holders of the Preferred Securities from time to time (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 27, 2007 (the “03/27/07 8-K”))(1)
Junior Subordinated Indenture, dated as of March 21, 2007, between LXP and The Bank of New York Trust Company, National Association (filed as Exhibit 4.2 to the 03/27/07 8-K)(1)
Indenture (Senior Debt), dated as of June 10, 2013, among LXP, certain subsidiaries of the LXP signatories thereto, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 13, 2013)(1)
First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of September 30, 2013, among LXP, certain subsidiaries of the LXP signatories thereto, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee (filed as Exhibit 4.2 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 3, 2013)(1)
Indenture (Senior Debt), dated as of May 9, 2014, among LXP, LCIF and U.S. Bank, as trustee (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 13, 2014)(1)
First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of May 20, 2014 among LXP, LCIF and U.S. Bank, as trustee (filed as Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 20, 2014)(1)
Form of Subordinated Debt Indenture(3)
 4.16
Form of Indenture Security issued under the Senior Debt Indenture(2)
 4.17
Form of Indenture Security issued under the Subordinated Debt Indenture(2)
 4.18
Form of Deposit Agreement relating to the Depositary Shares (including Form of Depositary Receipt)(2)
 4.19
Form of Warrant Agreement(2)
 4.20
Form of Warrant Certificate(2)
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Exhibit No.
Description
  4.21
Form of Unit Agreement(2)
  4.22
Form of Unit Certificate(2)
  4.23
Form of Subscription Rights Agreement(2)
  4.24
Form of Subscription Rights Certificate(2)
  4.25
Articles Supplementary Classifying and Designating a Series of Preferred Stock(2)
  4.26
Form of Guarantee relating to the Debt Security(2)
Opinion of Paul Hastings LLP(3)
Opinion of Venable LLP(3)
Opinion of Paul Hastings LLP regarding tax matters(3)
10.1
1994 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (filed as Exhibit D to LXP’s Definitive Proxy Statement dated April 12, 1994)(1)(4)
LXP’s Amended and Restated 2011 Equity-Based Award Plan (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 18, 2017)(1)(4)
Form of Compensation Agreement (Long-Term Compensation) between LXP and each of the following officers: Richard J. Rouse and Patrick Carroll (filed as Exhibit 10.15 to LXP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2004, filed on March 16, 2005 (the “2004 10-K”))(1)(4)
Form of Compensation Agreement (Bonus and Long-Term Compensation) between LXP and each of the following officers: E. Robert Roskind and T. Wilson Eglin (filed as Exhibit 10.16 to the 2004 10-K)(1)(4)
Form of Share Option Award Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed on November 24, 2010)(1)(4)
Form of 2010 Share Option Award Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed November 24, 2010)(1)(4)
Form of December 2010 Share Option Award Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 6, 2011)(1)(4)
Amended and Restated Rabbi Trust Agreement, originally dated January 26, 1999 (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 2, 2009)(1)(4)
Retirement Agreement, dated January 18, 2018, between LXP and Richard J. Rouse (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 19, 2018 (the “1/19/18 8-K”))(1)(4)
Retirement Agreement, dated January 18, 2018, between LXP and E. Robert Roskind (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the 1/19/18 8-K)(1)(4)
Lexington Realty Trust Executive Severance Plan with related Severance Policy Agreements with E. Robert Roskind, T. Wilson Eglin, Patrick Carroll, Joseph S. Bonventre and Beth Boulerice (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to the 1/19/18 8-K)(1)(4)
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 11, 2014, and effective as of January 15, 2015, between LXP and T. Wilson Eglin (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2014 filed November 7, 2014 (the “09/30/14 10-Q”))(1)(4)
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 11, 2014, and effective as of January 15, 2015, between LXP and E. Robert Roskind (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the 09/30/14 10-Q)(1)(4)
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 11, 2014, and effective as of January 15, 2015, between LXP and Richard J. Rouse (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to the 09/30/14 10-Q)(1)(4)
Employment Agreement, dated as of September 11, 2014, and effective as of January 15, 2015, between LXP and Patrick Carroll (filed as Exhibit 10.4 to the 09/30/14 10-Q)(1)(4)
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Exhibit No.
Description
Form of Long-Term Retention Nonvested Share Agreement (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 11, 2013)(1)(4)
Form of 2015 Nonvested Share Agreement (Performance and Service) (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 9, 2015)(1)(4)
Form of 2017 Nonvested Share Agreement (Performance and Service) (filed as Exhibit 10.17 to LXP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 filed on February 28, 2017)(1)(4)
Form of Amended and Restated Indemnification Agreement between LXP and certain officers and trustees (filed as Exhibit 10.20 to LXP’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2008)(1)
Funding Agreement, dated as of July 23, 2006, by and among LCIF, LCIF II and LXP (filed as Exhibit 99.4 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 24, 2006)(1)
Letter Agreement among LXP (as successor by merger), Apollo Real Estate Investment Fund III, L.P., NKT Advisors LLC, Vornado Realty Trust, VNK Corp., Vornado Newkirk LLC, Vornado MLP GP LLC and WEM-Brynmawr Associates LLC (filed as Exhibit 10.15 to Amendment No. 5 to Newkirk Registration Statement on Form S-11/A filed October 28, 2005 (“Amendment No. 5 to NKT’s S-11”))(1)
Amendment to the Letter Agreement among LXP (as successor by merger), Apollo Real Estate Investment Fund III, L.P., NKT Advisors LLC, Vornado Realty Trust, Vornado Realty L.P., VNK Corp., Vornado Newkirk LLC, Vornado MLP GP LLC, and WEM-Brynmawr Associates LLC (filed as Exhibit 10.25 to Amendment No. 5 to NKT’s S-11)(1)
Second Amended and Restated Ownership Limit Waiver Agreement (Vornado), dated as of December 6, 2010, between LXP and Vornado Realty, L.P. (together with certain affiliates) (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 6, 2010)(1)
Credit Agreement, dated as of September 1, 2015, among LXP and LCIF, as borrowers, each of the financial institutions initially a signatory thereto together with their assignees pursuant to 12/5 therein, and KeyBank National Association, as agent (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 1, 2015)(1)
First Amendment to Credit Agreement and Agreement Regarding Revolving Line Commitment and Term Loan Increases, dated as of September 29, 2017, among LXP and LCIF, as borrowers, and KeyBank National Association, as agent (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 2, 2017)(1)
Ownership Limitation Waiver Agreement (BlackRock), dated as of November 18, 2010 (filed as of Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 24, 2010 (the “11/24/10 8-K”))(1)
First Amendment to Ownership Limitation Waiver Agreement (BlackRock), dated April 25, 2014 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 29, 2014)(1)
Ownership Limitation Waiver Agreement (Cohen & Steers), dated as of November 18, 2010 (filed as Exhibit 10.2 to the 11/24/10 8-K)(1)
First Amendment to Ownership Limitation Waiver Agreement (Cohen & Steers), dated as of April 19, 2011 (filed as Exhibit 10.1 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 25, 2011)(1)
Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of November 3, 2008, between LXP and Vornado Realty, L.P. and Vornado LXP LLC (filed as Exhibit 10.3 to LXP’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed November 6, 2008)(1)
Statement of Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges and Preferred Share Dividends and Ratio of Earnings for LXP(3)
Statement of Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Combined Fixed Charges for LCIF(3)
Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP re: LXP(3)
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Exhibit No.
Description
Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP re: LCIF(3)
Consent of KPMG LLP re: LXP(3)
Consent of KPMG LLP re: LCIF(3)
Power of Attorney (included in the signature pages to this registration statement)(3)
Statement of Eligibility of U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee, on Form T-1 to act as trustee under the Senior Debt Indenture(3)
25.2
Statement of Eligibility of U.S. Bank National Association, as Trustee, on Form T-1 to act as trustee under the Subordinated Debt Indenture(2)
(1)
Incorporated by reference.
(2)
To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of the offered securities.
(3)
Filed herewith.
(4)
Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.
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Section 2: EX-4.15 (EXHIBIT 4.15)

 

Exhibit 4.15

 

LEXINGTON REALTY TRUST

 

Issuer

 

AND

 

[                       ]

 

Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [               ]

 

Subordinated Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents*

 

    Page
ARTICLE I.
DEFINITIONS
   
Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
  “Authenticating Agent” 1
  “Bankruptcy Law” 1
  “Board of Directors” 1
  “Board Resolution” 2
  “Business Day” 2
  “Certificate” 2
  “Company” 2
  “Corporate Trust Office” 2
  “Custodian” 2
  “Default” 2
  “Defaulted Interest” 2
  “Depositary” 2
  “Event of Default” 2
  “Exchange Act” 2
  “Global Security” 2
  “Governmental Obligations” 3
  “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” 3
  “Indenture” 3
  “Interest Payment Date” 3
  “Officer’s Certificate” 3
  “Opinion of Counsel” 3
  “Outstanding” 3
  “Person” 4
  “Predecessor Security” 4
  “Responsible Officer” 4
  “Securities” 4
  “Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder” 4
  “Security Register” and “Security Registrar” 4
  “Subsidiary” 4
  “Trustee” 4
  “Trust Indenture Act” 5
  “Voting Stock” 5
ARTICLE II.
ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES
   
Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 5
     
Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 7
     
Section 2.03 Denominations; Provisions for Payment 8

 

*This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

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(continued)

 

    Page
     
Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications 9
     
Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 10
     
Section 2.06 Temporary Securities 11
     
Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 11
     
Section 2.08 Cancellation 12
     
Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 12
     
Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent 13
     
Section 2.11 Global Securities 13
     
ARTICLE III.
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS
   
Section 3.01 Redemption 14
     
Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption 14
     
Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 16
     
Section 3.04 Sinking Fund 16
     
Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 16
     
Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 17
     
ARTICLE IV.
CERTAIN COVENANTS
   
Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 17
     
Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 17
     
Section 4.03 Paying Agents 18
     
Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 19
     
Section 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions 19
     
ARTICLE V.
SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE
   
Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 19
     
Section 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders 19
     
Section 5.03 Reports by the Company 20
     
Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 21
     
ARTICLE VI.
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
   
Section 6.01 Events of Default 21

 

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(continued)

 

    Page
     
Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 23
     
Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 24
     
Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits 25
     
Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 26
     
Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders 26
     
Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 27
     
ARTICLE VII.
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
   
Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 27
     
Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 28
     
Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities 30
     
Section 7.04 May Hold Securities 30
     
Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 30
     
Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 30
     
Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate 31
     
Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 31
     
Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 31
     
Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 32
     
Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 33
     
Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 34
     
Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 34
     
Section 7.14 Notice of Default 35
     
ARTICLE VIII.
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
   
Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 35
     
Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 35
     
Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 36
     
Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 36
     
Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 36
     
ARTICLE IX.
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
   
Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 37

 

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    Page
     
Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 38
     
Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 40
     
Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 40
     
Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 40
     
ARTICLE X.
SUCCESSOR CORPORATION
   
Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc 41
     
Section 10.02 Successor Corporation Substituted 41
     
Section 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc to Trustee 42
     
ARTICLE XI.
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
   
Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 42
     
Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 43
     
Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 43
     
Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 43
     
Section 11.05 Repayment to Company 43
     
ARTICLE XII.
IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS
   
Section 12.01 No Recourse 44
     
ARTICLE XIII.
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
   
Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 44
     
Section 13.02 Actions by Successor 44
     
Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 44
     
Section 13.04 Notices 45
     
Section 13.05 Governing Law 45
     
Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 45
     
Section 13.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions 45
     
Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days 46
     
Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 46
     
Section 13.10 Counterparts 46
     
Section 13.11 Separability 46

 

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Table of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page
     
Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates 46
     
ARTICLE XIV.  
SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES  
   
Section 14.01 Subordination Terms 47

 

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INDENTURE, dated as of [     ], 20[  ], among Lexington Realty Trust, a Maryland real estate investment trust (the “Company”), and [                  ], a [                  ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of subordinated debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

Article I.

 

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01         Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act or that are by reference in such Trust Indenture Act defined in the Securities Act (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

 

 

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

“Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer, the treasurer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

 

“Company” means Lexington Realty Trust, a real estate investment trust duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Maryland, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [     ], except that whenever a provision herein refers to an office or agency of the Trustee in the City of [                   ], [                   ], such office is located, at the date hereof, at [               ].

 

“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

“Default” means any event, act or condition that with notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

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“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

“herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

“Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

“Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by two of the following officers: the President, any Senior Vice President, any Executive Vice President, any Vice President, the Treasurer, any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, if any, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article Three provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

 3 

 

 

“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint-venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

 

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

“Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means the chairman of its board of directors, the chief executive officer, the president, any vice president or assistant vice president, the secretary or any assistant secretary, the treasurer, any trust officer or financial services officer, any corporate trust officer or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

“Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered on the books of the Company kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings set forth in Section 2.05.

 

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

“Trustee” means [                ], acting not in its individual capacity but solely as Trustee under the Indenture, and subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

 4 

 

 

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

“Voting Stock”, as applied to stock of any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

Article II.

 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION

REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01         Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a)          The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1)         the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

(2)         any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3)         the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable, any original issue discount that may apply to the Securities of that series upon their issuance, the principal amount due at maturity, and the place(s) of payment;

 

(4)         the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

(5)         the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates;

 

(6)         the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of such extension;

 

 5 

 

 

(7)         the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(8)         the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund, mandatory redemption, or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in participation of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(9)         the subordination terms of the Securities of the series;

 

(10)        the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

 

(11)        if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(12)        any and all other terms (including terms, to the extent applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities) with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(13)        whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity for the Depositary for such series;

 

(14)        whether the Securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities of the Company or any other Person and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, and the applicable conversion or exchange period;

 

(15)        if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(16)        any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants (which may include, among other restrictions, restrictions on the Company’s ability or the ability of the Company’s Subsidiaries to: incur additional indebtedness; issue additional securities; create liens; pay dividends or make distributions in respect of the capital stock of the Company or the Company’s Subsidiaries; redeem capital stock; place restrictions on the Company’s Subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets; make investments or other restricted payments; sell or otherwise dispose of assets; enter into sale-leaseback transactions; engage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates; issue or sell stock of the Company’s Subsidiaries; or effect a consolidation or merger) or financial covenants (which may include, among other financial covenants, financial covenants that require the Company and its Subsidiaries to maintain specified interest coverage, fixed charge, leverage, cash flow-based, asset-based or other financial ratios) provided for with respect to the Securities of the series;

 

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(17)        if other than dollars, the coin or currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated (including, but not limited to, foreign currency);

 

(18)        the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

(19)        if applicable, the terms of any mortgage, pledge or security that will be provided for a series of Securities, including any provisions regarding the circumstances under which collateral may be released or substituted;

 

(20)        if applicable, the terms of any guaranties for the Securities and any circumstances under which there may be additional obligors on the Securities; and

 

(21)        any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates. Unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened for issuances of additional Securities of such series.

 

Section 2.02         Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution of the Company and as set forth in an Officer’s Certificate of the Company and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

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Section 2.03         Denominations; Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(10). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(16), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1)         The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date and shall be no longer payable pursuant to the following clause (2).

 

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(2)         The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

Section 2.04         Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by two of its officers, under its corporate seal attested by its secretary or one of its assistant secretaries. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an officer thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such officer of the Company. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile of such seal and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

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At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by two of its officers and the Trustee shall in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

Section 2.05         Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a)          Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the City of [                  ], the State of [                   ], for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b)          The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the City of [                   ], the State of [                  ], or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

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(c)          Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, the second paragraph of Section 3.03 and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

(d)          The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

Section 2.06         Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the City of [                  ], the State of [                   ], and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

Section 2.07         Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) in connection therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

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Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.08         Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.09         Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities (and, with respect to the provisions of Article Fourteen, the holders of Senior Indebtedness) any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities (and, with respect to the provisions of Article Fourteen, the holders of Senior Indebtedness).

 

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Section 2.10         Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding, there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities, which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

Section 2.11         Global Securities.

 

(a)          If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.” Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any supplement hereto, so long as a series of Securities is a Global Security, the parties hereto will be bound at all times by the applicable procedures of the Depositary with respect to such series.

 

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(b)          Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

(c)          If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

Article III.

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND

SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

Section 3.01         Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

Section 3.02         Notice of Redemption.

 

(a)          In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

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Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the City of [                  ], the State of [                   ], upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

(b)          If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 35 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

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Section 3.03         Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a)          If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

(b)          Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 3.04         Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.05         Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

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Section 3.06         Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 35 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

Article IV.

 

CERTAIN COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01         Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account (such wire transfer to be made only to a Securityholder of an aggregate principal amount of Securities of the applicable series in excess of U.S. $2,000,000 and only if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date). Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account (such a wire transfer to be made only to a Securityholder of an aggregate principal amount of Securities of the applicable series in excess of U.S. $2,000,000 and only if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date).

 

Section 4.02         Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the City of [                   ], the State of [                   ], with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as hereinabove authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.

 

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Section 4.03         Paying Agents.

 

(a)          If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1)         that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2)         that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3)         that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

(4)         that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

(b)          If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

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(c)          Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

Section 4.04         Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

Section 4.05         Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.

 

The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other Person unless the provisions of Article Ten hereof are complied with.

 

Article V.

 

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS

BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 5.01         Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) on a monthly basis on each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

Section 5.02         Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

 

(a)          The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

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(b)          The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c)          Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(d)          Every holder of Securities, by receiving and holding the same, agrees with the Company and the Trustee that neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any agent of either of them shall be held accountable by reason of the disclosure of information as to the names and address of the Securityholders made pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 5.03         Reports by the Company.

 

(a)          The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee, after the Company files the same with the Securities and Exchange Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Securities and Exchange Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company files with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Securities and Exchange Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Securities and Exchange Commission; and provided further, so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Securities and Exchange Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR) or any successor system thereto, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes of this Section 5.03 without any further action required by the Company.

 

(b)          The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Securities and Exchange Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Securities and Exchange Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

 

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(c)          The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable over-night delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Section 5.04         Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a)          If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b)          The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(c)          A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

 

Article VI.

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND

SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 6.01         Events of Default.

 

(a)          Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

(1)         the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto, shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

(2)         the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

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(3)         the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 60 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

(4)         the Company, pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law, (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

(5)         a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of their respective property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

 

(b)          In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

 

(c)          At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

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No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d)          In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

Section 6.02         Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a)          The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 30 days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b)          If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

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(c)          In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

(d)          All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.03         Application of Moneys Collected.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

 

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SECOND: To the payment of all Senior Indebtedness of the Company if and to the extent required by Article Fourteen;

 

THIRD: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 6.04         Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

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Section 6.05         Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a)          Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b)          No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

Section 6.06         Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

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Section 6.07         Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Article VII.

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01         Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a)          The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

 

(b)          No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(1)         prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(i)          the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

(ii)         in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;

 

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(2)         the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(3)         the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

 

(4)         none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

Section 7.02         Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a)          The Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b)          Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company, by two of the following officers: the President, any Senior Vice President, any Executive Vice President, any Vice President, the Treasurer, any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

(c)          The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d)          The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders, pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived) to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs;

 

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(e)          The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f)          The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand; and

 

(g)          The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

(h)          The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of the capacities it may be appointed to hereunder, and to each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder.

 

(i)          the Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture, which Officers’ Certificate may be signed by any Person authorized to sign an Officers’ Certificate, including any Person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded.

 

(j)          Whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, rely upon an Officers’ Certificate;

 

In addition, the Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default except (1) any Event of Default occurring pursuant to Sections 6.01(a)(1) and 6.01(a)(2) or (2) any Default or Event of Default of which the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge. Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate).

 

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Section 7.03         Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

 

(a)          The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

 

(b)          The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

(c)          The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

Section 7.04         May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

Section 7.05         Moneys Held in Trust.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

Section 7.06         Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a)          The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust), as the Company, and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability, claim, action, suit, cost or expense of any kind and nature whatsoever incurred without negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim of liability in the premises.

 

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(b)          The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such.

 

Section 7.07         Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 7.08         Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.09         Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Securities and Exchange Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

 

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

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Section 7.10         Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a)          The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b)          In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(1)         the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(2)         the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

(3)         the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation, then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, unless the Trustee’s duty to resign is stayed as provided herein, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c)          The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

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(d)          Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

(e)          Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

Section 7.11         Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

 

(a)          In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

(b)          In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (2) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

 

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(c)          Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

(d)          No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

(e)          Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

Section 7.12         Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

 

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

Section 7.13         Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

 

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

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Section 7.14         Notice of Default.

 

If any Default or any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Default or Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Default or Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Default or Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

 

Article VIII.

 

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 8.01         Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

 

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in Person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

 

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

Section 8.02         Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

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(a)          The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

(b)          The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

(c)          The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

Section 8.03         Who May be Deemed Owners.

 

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

Section 8.04         Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

 

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

Section 8.05         Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

 

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

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Article IX.

 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 9.01         Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

 

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(a)          to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein, or in the Securities of any series;

 

(b)          to comply with Article Ten