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Section 1: 10-K (10-K)

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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
Form 10-K
þ
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
 
 
OR
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the transition period from          to          
Commission file number 1-33579
INTERDIGITAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Pennsylvania
 
23-1882087
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
200 Bellevue Parkway, Suite 300
 Wilmington, Delaware
 
19809
(Zip Code)
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (302) 281-3600
_____________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock (par value $0.01 per share)
(title of class)
 
NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(name of exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
____________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes þ    No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o    No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  þ  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes þ     No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer R
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes o  No þ
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $2,654,386,865 as of June 30, 2017.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock was 34,627,324 as of February 20, 2018.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant's 2018 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Form 10-K.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
__________
In this Form 10-K, the words “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company” and “InterDigital” refer to InterDigital, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries, individually and/or collectively, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires. InterDigital® is a registered trademark of InterDigital, Inc. Creating the Living Network, oneMPOWER, oneTRANSPORT and XCellAir are trademarks of InterDigital. All other trademarks, service marks and/or trade names appearing in this Form 10-K are the property of their respective holders.



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PART I

Item 1.
BUSINESS.
Overview
InterDigital, Inc. ("InterDigital") designs and develops advanced technologies that enable and enhance wireless communications and capabilities. Since our founding in 1972, our engineers have designed and developed a wide range of innovations that are used in digital cellular and wireless products and networks, including 2G, 3G, 4G and IEEE 802-related products and networks. We are a leading contributor of innovation to the wireless communications industry.
Given our long history and focus on advanced research and development, InterDigital has one of the most significant patent portfolios in the wireless industry. As of December 31, 2017, InterDigital's wholly owned subsidiaries held a portfolio of approximately 19,000 patents and patent applications related to a range of technologies including the fundamental technologies that enable wireless communications. In that portfolio are a number of patents and patent applications that we believe are or may be essential or may become essential to cellular and other wireless standards, including 3G, 4G and the IEEE 802 suite of standards, as well as patents and patent applications that we believe may become essential to 5G standards that are under development. That portfolio has largely been built through internal development, supplemented by joint development projects with other companies as well as select acquisitions of patents and companies. Products incorporating our patented inventions include: mobile devices, such as cellular phones, tablets, notebook computers and wireless personal digital assistants; wireless infrastructure equipment, such as base stations; components, dongles and modules for wireless devices; and IoT devices and software platforms.
InterDigital derives revenues primarily from patent licensing, with contributions from patent sales, product sales, technology solutions licensing and sales and engineering services. In 2017, our total revenues were $532.9 million, a decrease of $132.9 million compared to 2016. Our recurring revenues, consisting of current patent royalties and current technology solutions revenue, were $370.0 million in 2017, an increase of $13.9 million compared to 2016. Additional information about our revenues, profits and assets, as well as additional financial data, is provided in the selected financial data in Part II, Item 6, and in the financial statements and accompanying Notes in Part II, Item 8, of this Form 10-K.
Our Strategy
Our objective is to continue to be a leading designer and developer of technology solutions and innovation for the mobile industry and to monetize those solutions and innovations through a combination of licensing, sales and other revenue opportunities.
To execute our strategy, we intend to:
Develop and source innovative technologies related to wireless. We intend to grow or maintain a leading position in advanced mobile technology, the Internet of Things (IoT) and other related technology areas by leveraging our expertise to guide internal research and development capabilities, direct our efforts in partnering with leading inventors and industry players to source new technologies and pursue select acquisitions of technologies, businesses and/or companies.
Establish and grow our patent-based revenue. We intend to grow our licensing revenue base by adding licensees, expanding into adjacent technology areas that align with our intellectual property position and leveraging the continued growth of the overall mobile technology market. Those licensing efforts can be self-driven or executed in conjunction with licensing partnerships, trusts and other efforts, and may involve the vigorous defense of our intellectual property through litigation and other means. We also believe that our ongoing research efforts and associated patenting activities enable us to sell patent assets that are not vital to our core licensing programs, as well as to execute patent swaps that can strengthen our overall portfolio.
Pursue commercial opportunities for our advanced platforms and solutions.  We intend to pursue the commercialization of technology platforms and solutions that arise from our research efforts. As part of our ongoing research and development efforts, InterDigital often builds out entire functioning platforms in various technology areas. We seek to bring those technologies, as well as other technologies we may develop or acquire, to market through various methods including technology licensing, stand-alone commercial initiatives, joint ventures and partnerships.
Maintain a collaborative relationship with key industry players and worldwide standards bodies.   We intend to continue contributing to the ongoing process of defining mobile standards and other industry-wide efforts and incorporating our inventions into those technology areas. Those efforts, and the knowledge gained through them,

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support internal development efforts and also help guide technology and intellectual property sourcing through partners and other external sources
Technology Research and Development
InterDigital pursues a diversified approach to sourcing the innovations that underpin our business. That approach incorporates internally driven research and development efforts by InterDigital Labs, as well as externally focused efforts by our Innovation Partners group and select acquisitions of technology innovations, businesses and/or companies. Our efforts are guided by our vision of the future of mobile communications - Creating the Living NetworkTM - which is articulated around the variables of content, context and connectivity, and how the interplay of these elements drives future technology capabilities and needs.    
As of December 31, 2017, our patent portfolio consisted of approximately 2,400 U.S. patents (approximately 300 of which were issued in 2017) and approximately 11,500 non-U.S. patents (approximately 1,100 of which were issued in 2017). As of the same date, we also had numerous patent applications pending worldwide, with approximately 1,400 applications pending in the United States and approximately 3,900 pending non-U.S. applications. The patents and applications comprising our portfolio relate predominantly to digital wireless radiotelephony technology (including, without limitation, 3G, 4G and 5G technologies). Issued patents expire at differing times ranging from 2018 through 2036. We operate nine research and development facilities in five countries: Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA; Buffalo and Melville, New York, USA; Rockville, Maryland, USA; San Diego, California, USA; Montreal, Canada; London, UK; Berlin, Germany; and Seoul, South Korea.
InterDigital Labs    
As an early and ongoing participant in the digital wireless market, InterDigital developed pioneering solutions for the primary cellular air interface technologies in use today, TDMA and CDMA. That early involvement, our continued development of those advanced digital wireless technologies and innovations in OFDM/OFDMA and MIMO technologies have enabled us to create our significant worldwide portfolio of patents. In addition, InterDigital was among the first companies to participate in standardization and platform development efforts related to Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications and IoT technology. In conjunction with our participation in certain standards bodies, we have filed declarations stating that we have patents that we believe are or may be essential or may become essential to cellular and other mobile industry standards and that, with respect to our essential patents, we are prepared to grant licenses on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms or similar terms consistent with the requirements of the respective standards organizations.
Our capabilities in the development of advanced mobile technologies are based on the efforts of a highly specialized engineering team, leveraging leading-edge equipment and software platforms. As of December 31, 2017, InterDigital employed approximately 190 engineers, approximately 80% of whom hold advanced degrees (including 70 doctorate degrees). Over the last three years, investment in development has ranged from $68.7 million to $72.7 million, and the largest portion of this expense has been personnel costs. Additional information about our development expenses is provided in the results of operations, under the heading "Operating Expenses," in Part II, Item 7, of this Form 10-K.
Our current research efforts are focused on a variety of areas related to mobile technology and devices, including cellular wireless technology, Internet of Things ("IoT") technology, advanced video encoding and transmission, and advanced sensor and sensor fusion technology.
Cellular Wireless Technology
We have a long history of developing cellular technologies, including those related to CDMA and TDMA and, more recently, OFDM/OFDMA and MIMO. A number of our inventions are being used in all 2G, 3G and 4G wireless networks and mobile terminal devices. We led the industry in establishing TDMA-based TIA/EIA/IS-54 as a U.S. digital wireless standard in the 1980s and developed a substantial portfolio of TDMA-based patented inventions. These inventions include or relate to fundamental elements of TDMA-based systems in use around the world. We have also developed and patented innovative CDMA and OFDM/OFDMA technology solutions and, today, we hold a significant worldwide portfolio of patents and patent applications for these technologies. Similar to our TDMA inventions, we believe that a number of our CDMA and OFDM/OFDMA inventions are, may be or may become essential to the implementation of CDMA and OFDM/OFDMA-based systems in use today.
We also continue to be engaged in development efforts to build and enhance our technology portfolio in areas including LTE, LTE-Advanced, and emerging 5G technologies for 3GPP. Some of our LTE inventions include or relate to MIMO technologies for reducing interference and increasing data rates; power control; hybrid-ARQ for fast error correction; control channel structures for efficient signaling; multi-carrier operation; low-complexity devices; vehicular-centric communications (V2X); and other areas. We also continue to develop additional technologies in response to existing or perceived challenges of connectivity, many of them within the scope of our efforts to define future generations of wireless,

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including 5G. These include air interface enhancements, policy-driven bandwidth management, cognitive radio and optimized data delivery. We are developing technologies that will enable efficient multimedia content delivery across heterogeneous devices and networks, and creating evolved system architectures that enable operation in small cells and additional frequency bands and improved cell-edge performance as well as device-to-device communications.
Our strong wireless background includes engineering and corporate development activities that focus on solutions that apply to other wireless market segments. These segments primarily fall within the continually expanding scope of the IEEE 802, IETF and ETSI standards. We are building a portfolio of technology related to Wi-Fi, WLAN, WMAN and WRAN that includes, for example, improvements to the IEEE 802.11 PHY and MAC to increase peak data rates (802.11ax, 802.11ay), the use of lower frequency bands for IoT and other new use cases such as TV-Whitespace (802.11af) and fast initial link setup (802.11ai) to enhance hotspot operation (WFA HOTSPOT 2.0).
IoT Technology
In the field of IoT applications, we are developing technologies to enable seamless interconnection for multiple access types (cellular, WLAN, LPWA) and IoT service frameworks that can be managed by a customer and leveraged by a diverse set of vertical applications. These technologies build on our expertise in developing platforms and contributing technologies towards the advancement of global M2M and IoT standards. As part of, and in addition to, InterDigital’s standards-focused development, we have two solutions that are being made available commercially.
In October 2017, we launched our Smart City-focused Chordant™ business. The Chordant platform, which was originally introduced in 2015 as the oneMPOWER™ platform, enables interoperability and scalability focusing specifically on the Smart Cities industry segment. This secure and scalable horizontal platform helps businesses launch and manage IoT data and applications, and features a comprehensive suite of application enabling services that span connectivity, device, data, security, and transaction management. The Chordant platform is compliant with oneM2M, the global standard for horizontal IoT platforms, and is designed for interoperability across diverse vertical markets, networks, and devices. The solution is based on an open standard with a long-term features roadmap, which interworks with many existing industry protocols and alliances. In February 2018, we announced the launch in the U.K of the oneTRANSPORT™ data marketplace, which operates on the Chordant platform.  This commercial service provides a common interface to multiple service providers, allowing public authorities to control and monetize, and companies to access, IoT data in a simpler fashion via a real-time, low-latency service-oriented architecture.
Video Encoding and Transmission Technology
An important and growing segment of wireless traffic is devoted to video streaming, and InterDigital has been active for a number of years in developing advanced technologies that address the challenges of video as it relates to mobile. Specifically, in the area of video research and standards, we have been actively engaged in video standards development work in the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG), the ITU-T Video Coding Expert Group (VCEG), the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) and the Joint Video Expert Team (JVET). Those efforts have focused on H.265/HEVC versions 1 to 4 and MPEG DASH, as well as FVC/H.266 and the MPEG Immersive (MPEG-I) standards suite going forward.
Sensor Technology
In December 2016, InterDigital acquired Hillcrest Laboratories, Inc. ("Hillcrest Labs"), a pioneer in sensor processing technology. Sensor processing and sensor fusion is an important emerging technology area, with multiple applications in IoT, augmented and virtual reality, robotics, and other areas. Through this acquisition, we acquired Hillcrest Labs' strong product and technology offerings and intellectual property portfolio, reflecting their pioneering position in this technology segment, and we are working to further these efforts.
Other Technology Areas and Sources
Because mobile technology today and into the future encompasses a very broad range of areas, we are also developing a range of technologies in the areas of security and analytics, as well as other areas. Some of those efforts are related to technology standards.
In addition, to supplement our own development efforts, our Innovation Partners group pursues an external technology sourcing model based around partnerships with leading inventors and research organizations, particularly in the areas of augmented/virtual reality, haptics and the connected home and vehicle verticals of IoT. Innovation Partners currently has relationships with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, McGill University (Canada), the Institute for Management Cybernetics (IfU) in Germany, the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), igolgi, Inc., Southwest Research Institute (San Antonio, Texas), Gachon University in South Korea, and Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO).    

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Our Revenue Sources
Patent-Based Revenue
We believe that companies making, importing, using or selling products compliant with the standards covered by our patent portfolio, including all manufacturers of mobile handsets, tablets and other devices, require a license under our patents and will require licenses under patents that may issue from our pending patent applications. We have successfully entered into license agreements with many of the leading mobile communications companies globally, including Apple Inc. (“Apple”), HTC Corporation, Huawei Investment & Holding Co., Ltd. (“Huawei”), Kyocera Corporation (“Kyocera”), LG Electronics, Inc. (“LG”), Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (“Samsung”) and Sony Corporation of America (“Sony”), among others.
Most of our patent license agreements are structured on a royalty-bearing basis, while others are structured on a paid-up basis or a combination thereof. Upon entering into a new patent license agreement, the licensee typically agrees to pay consideration for sales made prior to the effective date of the license agreement (i.e., past patent royalties) and also agrees to pay royalties or license fees on licensed products sold during the term of the agreement. We expect that, for the most part, new license agreements will follow this model. Almost all of our patent license agreements provide for the payment of royalties based on sales of licensed products designed to operate in accordance with particular standards (convenience-based licenses), as opposed to the payment of royalties if the manufacture, sale or use of the licensed product infringes one of our patents (infringement-based licenses).
Some of our patent licenses are paid up, requiring no additional payments relating to designated sales under agreed upon conditions. Those conditions can include paid-up licenses for a period of time (fixed-fee agreements), for a class of products, for a number of products sold, under certain patents or patent claims, for sales in certain countries or a combination thereof. Licenses become paid-up based on the payment of fixed amounts or after the payment of royalties for a term.
Some of our patent license agreements provide for the non-refundable prepayment of royalties that are usually made in exchange for prepayment discounts. As the licensee reports sales of covered products, the royalties are calculated and either applied against any prepayment or become payable in cash or other consideration. Additionally, royalties on sales of licensed products under the license agreement become payable or applied against prepayments based on the royalty formula applicable to the particular license agreement. These formulas include flat dollar rates per unit, a percentage of sales, a percentage of sales with a per-unit cap and other similar measures. The formulas can also vary by other factors, including territory, covered standards, quantity and dates sold. Our license agreements typically contain provisions that give us the right to audit our licensees' books and records to ensure compliance with the licensees' reporting and payment obligations under those agreements. From time to time, these audits reveal underreporting or underpayments under the applicable agreements. In such cases, we seek payment for the amount owed and enter into negotiations with the licensee to resolve the discrepancy.
For a discussion of our revenue recognition policies with respect to patent license agreements, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview - Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates - Revenue Recognition - Patent License Agreements.”
In addition, in 2013, InterDigital formed the Signal Trust for Wireless Innovation (the “Signal Trust”). The goal of the Signal Trust is to monetize a large patent portfolio related to cellular infrastructure. More than 500 patents and patent applications were transferred from InterDigital to the Signal Trust, focusing primarily on 3G and LTE technologies and developed by InterDigital's engineers and researchers over more than a decade. A number of these innovations have been contributed to the worldwide standards process, resulting in a portfolio that includes patents for pioneering inventions that we believe are used pervasively in the cellular wireless industry. InterDigital is the primary beneficiary of the Signal Trust. The distributions from the Signal Trust will support continued research related to cellular wireless technologies. A small portion of the proceeds from the Signal Trust will be used to fund, through the Signal Foundation for Wireless Innovation, scholarly analysis of intellectual property rights and the technological, commercial and creative innovations they facilitate.
In third quarter 2016, InterDigital joined Avanci, the industry’s first marketplace for the licensing of cellular standards-essential technology for the IoT. The licensing platform brings together some of InterDigital’s peers in standards-essential technology leadership, and makes 2G, 3G and 4G standards-essential patents available to IoT players in specific product segments with one flat-rate license. The Avanci licensing programs in specific product segments for the IoT industry will provide access to the entire applicable standards-essential wireless patent portfolios held by all of the platform participants, as well as any additions to their portfolios during the term of the license. In December 2017, Avanci announced that it had signed a patent license agreement with BMW Group.
We also pursue, on occasion, targeted sales of portions of our patent portfolio. This strategy is based on the expectation that our portfolio and continued research efforts extend well beyond the requirements for a successful licensing program. In addition, the strategy leverages the desire from new entrants in the mobile technology space to build strong intellectual property positions to support their businesses.

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Other Potential Revenue Opportunities
Our strong technology expertise and research and development team also form the basis for other potential revenue opportunities, focused around areas such as engineering services, research joint ventures and the continued development, commercialization and licensing of research and development projects that have progressed to a pre-commercial or commercial phase. We also currently recognize revenue from the licensing of technology that has been developed by our engineering teams and is integrated into other companies’ technology products.
In all of its technology areas, InterDigital works to incubate and commercialize market-ready technologies. These include technologies that were developed as part of our standards development efforts, as well as technologies developed outside the scope of those efforts. Those commercial efforts sometimes include the establishment of a separate commercial initiative focused on the specific opportunity. Although these initiatives are in their early stages, they are potential revenue opportunities for the Company. Similarly, in addition to research and development in the area of sensor technology, Hillcrest Labs adds a potential revenue stream in the form of product and technology sales and licensing to their customers in the Smart TV, AR/VR, wearables and gaming areas, among others.
In 2012, we formed of a joint venture with Sony called Convida Wireless. The joint venture combined InterDigital's advanced M2M research capabilities with Sony's consumer electronics expertise with the purpose of driving new research in IoT communications and other connectivity areas. In 2015, this joint venture was renewed, and its focus was expanded to include advanced research and development into 5G and future wireless technologies.
Wireless Communications Industry Overview
The wireless communications industry continues to experience rapid growth worldwide, as well as an expansion of device types entering the market. In smartphones alone, the market continues to see growth, with growth focused on higher-end 4G devices. In addition, new markets are emerging related to wireless connectivity. IoT is an important new market in the technology field, which is expected to result in a significant increase in the number of connections, and unlock new business capabilities. IoT is currently in its earliest stages, and estimates vary broadly as far as how many connections it will yield, but by some estimates there could be as many as 120 billion connected devices by 2030, a significant portion of which will comprise 3G and 4G cellular IoT devices.
To achieve economies of scale and support interoperability among different participants, products for the wireless industry have typically been designed to operate in accordance with certain standards. Wireless communications standards are formal guidelines for engineers, designers, manufacturers and service providers that regulate and define the use of the radio frequency spectrum in conjunction with providing detailed specifications for wireless communications products. A primary goal of the standards is to ensure interoperability of products marketed by multiple companies. A large number of international and regional wireless Standards Development Organizations (“SDOs”), including the ITU, ETSI, TIA (USA), IEEE, ATIS (USA), TTA (Korea), ARIB (Japan) and ANSI, have responsibility for the development and administration of wireless communications standards. New standards are typically adopted with each new generation of products, are often compatible with previous generations and are defined to ensure equipment interoperability and regulatory compliance.
Standards have evolved in response to consumer demand for services and expanded capabilities of mobile devices. Cellular standards have evolved from voice-oriented services to multimedia services that exploit the higher speeds offered by newer technologies, such as LTE. The wireless communications industry has also made significant advances in non-cellular wireless technologies.
SDOs typically ask participating companies to declare formally whether they believe they hold patents or patent applications essential to a particular standard and whether they are willing to license those patents on either a royalty-bearing basis on fair, reasonable and nondiscriminatory terms or on a royalty-free basis. To manufacture, have made, sell, offer to sell or use such products on a non-infringing basis, a manufacturer or other entity doing so must first obtain a license from the holder of essential patent rights. The SDOs do not have enforcement authority against entities that fail to obtain required licenses, nor do they have the ability to protect the intellectual property rights of holders of essential patents.
InterDigital often publicly characterizes aspects of its business, including license agreements and development projects, as pertaining to broad mobile industry standards such as, for example, 3G, 4G, 5G and Wi-Fi. In doing this, we generally rely on the positions of the applicable standards-setting organizations in defining the relevant standards. However, the definitions may evolve or change over time, including after we have characterized certain transactions.
Business Activities
2017 Patent Licensing Activity

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During second quarter 2017, we renewed our worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-bearing patent license agreement with Panasonic Mobile Communications Co., Ltd., covering 4G technologies, including LTE and LTE-Advanced.
During third quarter 2017, we entered into an agreement to extend our worldwide, non-exclusive, patent license agreement with u-blox AG (“u-blox”) covering the sale by u-blox of its 2G, 3G and 4G products for a defined term.
During fourth quarter 2017, we entered into a multi-year, worldwide, non-exclusive patent license with LG (the “LG PLA”), a global leader and technology innovator in consumer electronics, mobile communications and home appliances. The LG PLA covers the 3G, 4G and 5G terminal unit products of LG and its affiliates and sets forth a royalty of cash payments to InterDigital as well as a process for the transfer of patents from LG to InterDigital. The deal also commits the parties to explore cooperation for projects related to the research and development of video and sensor technology for connected and autonomous vehicles. In addition, the parties also agreed to terms for dismissal by InterDigital of the outstanding litigation among the parties and their affiliates.

Customers Generating Revenues Exceeding 10% of Total 2017 Revenues

Apple, Huawei, Samsung and Blackberry comprised approximately 21%, 14%, 13% and 13% of our total 2017 revenues, respectively.
In 2016, we entered into a multi-year, royalty-bearing, worldwide and non-exclusive patent license agreement with Apple (the “Apple PLA”). The agreement sets forth terms covering the sale by Apple of its products and services, including, but not limited to, its 3G, 4G and future generation cellular and wireless-enabled products. The Apple PLA gives Apple the right to terminate certain rights and obligations under the license for the period after September 30, 2021, but has the potential to provide a license to Apple for a total of up to six years. During 2017, we recognized a total of $111.7 million of revenue associated with the Apple PLA.
In 2016, we entered into a multi-year, worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-bearing patent license agreement with Huawei (the "Huawei PLA"). A portion of the consideration for the agreement was in the form of patents from Huawei. We received the first portion of the patents in third quarter 2016, and the remaining patents during third quarter 2017. The Huawei PLA is scheduled to expire at the end of 2018. During 2017, we recognized a total of $76.4 million of revenue associated with the Huawei PLA, which included $8.4 million of past sales.
In 2014, we entered into a patent license agreement with Samsung (the “Samsung PLA”). The royalty-bearing license agreement sets forth terms covering the sale by Samsung of 3G, 4G and certain future generation wireless products. The Samsung PLA provided Samsung the right to terminate certain rights and obligations under the license for the period after 2017 but had the potential to provide a license to Samsung for a total of ten years, including 2013. Samsung did not elect to terminate such rights and obligations, and the period for such election has expired. Accordingly, the term of our patent license agreement with Samsung ends on December 31, 2022. During 2017, we recognized a total of $69.0 million of revenue associated with the Samsung PLA.
In 2003, we entered into a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-bearing patent license agreement with Research In Motion Limited (now known as Blackberry Limited, or “Blackberry”) covering certain 2G products, and, in 2007, the agreement was amended to extend the term for a multi-year period and to add coverage for certain 3G products. In 2012, the agreement was amended again to extend the term for a multi-year period and to add coverage for 4G products, including LTE and LTE-Advanced products (the “Blackberry PLA”). The Blackberry PLA expired at the end of 2017. During 2017, we recognized a total of $71.6 million of revenue associated with the Blackberry PLA.

Patent Infringement and Declaratory Judgment Proceedings
From time to time, if we believe a party is required to license our patents in order to manufacture, use and/or sell certain products and such party refuses to do so, we may agree with such party to have royalty rates, or other terms, set by third party adjudicators (such as arbitrators) or, in certain circumstances, we may institute legal action against them. This legal action has typically taken the form of a patent infringement lawsuit or an administrative proceeding such as a Section 337 proceeding before the United States International Trade Commission (“USITC” or the "Commission"). In a patent infringement lawsuit, we would typically seek damages for past infringement and an injunction against future infringement. In a USITC proceeding, we would seek an exclusion order to bar infringing goods from entry into the United States, as well as a cease and desist order to bar further sales of infringing goods that have already been imported into the United States. Parties may bring administrative and/or judicial challenges to the validity, enforceability, essentiality and/or applicability of our patents to their products. Parties may also allege that our efforts to enter into a license with that party do not comply with any obligations we may have in connection with our participation in standards-setting organizations, and therefore that we are not entitled to the relief that we seek. For example, a party may allege that we have not complied with an obligation to offer a

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license to that party on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions, and may also file antitrust claims or regulatory complaints on that or other bases, and may seek damages or other relief based on such claims. In addition, a party might file a declaratory judgment action to seek a court's declaration that our patents are invalid, unenforceable, not infringed by the other party's products or are not essential. Our response to such a declaratory judgment action may include claims of infringement. When we include claims of infringement in a patent infringement lawsuit, a favorable ruling for the Company can result in the payment of damages for past patent royalties, the setting of a royalty for future sales or issuance by the court of an injunction enjoining the infringer from manufacturing, using and/or selling the infringing product.
Contractual Arbitration Proceedings
We and our licensees, in the normal course of business, may have disagreements as to the rights and obligations of the parties under applicable agreements. For example, we could have a disagreement with a licensee as to the amount of reported sales and royalties. Our patent license agreements typically provide for audit rights as well as private arbitration as the mechanism for resolving disputes, and we may attempt to resolve such disputes in arbitration. In arbitration, licensees may seek to assert various claims, defenses, or counterclaims, such as claims based on waiver, promissory estoppel, breach of contract, fraudulent inducement to contract, antitrust, and unfair competition. Arbitration proceedings can be resolved through an award rendered by the arbitrators or by settlement between the parties. Parties to arbitration might have the right to have the award reviewed in a court of competent jurisdiction. However, based on public policy favoring the use of arbitration, it is generally difficult to have arbitration awards vacated or modified. The party securing an arbitration award may seek to have that award confirmed as a judgment through an enforcement proceeding. The purpose of such a proceeding is to secure a judgment that can be used for, if need be, seizing assets of the other party.
Competition
With respect to our technology development activities and resulting commercialization efforts, we face competition from companies, including in-house development teams at other wireless device companies and semiconductor companies and wireless operators, developing other and similar technologies that are competitive with our products and solutions that we may market or set forth into the standards-setting arena.
Due to the exclusionary nature of patent rights, we do not compete, in a traditional sense, with other patent holders for patent licensing relationships or sale transactions. Other patent holders do not have the same rights to the inventions and technologies encompassed by our patent portfolio. In any device or piece of equipment that contains intellectual property, the manufacturer may need to obtain licenses from multiple holders of intellectual property. In licensing our patent portfolio, we compete with other patent holders for a share of the royalties that certain licensees may argue to be the total royalty that is supported by a certain product or products, which may face practical limitations. We believe that licenses under a number of our patents are required to manufacture and sell 3G, 4G and other wireless products. However, numerous companies also claim that they hold 3G, 4G and other wireless patents that are or may be essential or may become essential to cellular and other wireless standards. To the extent that multiple parties all seek royalties on the same product, the manufacturers could claim to have difficulty in meeting the financial requirements of each patent holder. In the past, certain manufacturers have sought antitrust exemptions to act collectively on a voluntary basis. In addition, certain manufacturers have sought to limit aggregate licensing fees or rates for essential patents. Similarly, potential purchasers of our patents often amass patent portfolios for defensive and/or cross-licensing purposes and could choose to acquire patent assets within the same general technology space from other patent holders.
Employees
As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately 350 employees. As of the same date, none of our employees were represented by a collective bargaining unit.
Geographic Concentrations
See Note 4, "Geographic/Customer Concentration," in the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, of this Form 10-K for financial information about geographic areas for the last three years.
Corporate Information
The ultimate predecessor company of InterDigital, Inc. was incorporated in 1972 under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and conducted its initial public offering in November 1981. Our corporate headquarters and administrative offices are located in Wilmington, Delaware, USA. We have research and technology development centers in the following locations: Conshohocken, PA; Buffalo and Melville, NY; Rockville, MD; San Diego, CA; Montreal, Quebec, Canada; London, England, United Kingdom; Berlin, Germany; and Seoul, South Korea. We also have regulatory and government relations offices in Washington, D.C. and Brussels, Belgium.

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Our Internet address is www.interdigital.com, where, in the “Investors” section, we make available, free of charge, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, certain other reports and filings required to be filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), and all amendments to those reports or filings as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. The information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
Item 1A.      RISK FACTORS.
We face a variety of risks that may affect our business, financial condition, operating results, the trading price of our common stock, or any combination thereof. You should carefully consider the following information and the other information in this Form 10-K in evaluating our business and prospects and before making an investment decision with respect to our common stock. If any of these risks were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties we describe below are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business.
Risks Related to Our Business
Potential patent and litigation reform legislation, potential USPTO and international patent rule changes, potential legislation affecting mechanisms for patent enforcement and available remedies, and potential changes to the intellectual property rights (“IPR”) policies of worldwide standards bodies, as well as rulings in legal proceedings, may affect our investments in research and development and our strategies for patent prosecution, licensing and enforcement and could have a material adverse effect on our licensing business as well as our business as a whole.     
Potential changes to certain U.S. and international patent laws, rules and regulations may occur in the future, some or all of which may affect our research and development investments, patent prosecution costs, the scope of future patent coverage we secure, the number of forums in which we can seek to enforce our patents, the remedies that we may be entitled to in patent litigation, and attorneys’ fees or other remedies that could be sought against us, and may require us to reevaluate and modify our research and development activities and patent prosecution, licensing and enforcement strategies. Similarly, legislation designed to reduce the jurisdiction and remedial authority of the United States International Trade Commission (the “USITC”) has periodically been introduced in Congress.
Any potential changes in the law, the IPR policies of standards bodies or other developments that reduce the number of forums available or the type of relief available in such forums (such as injunctive relief), restrict permissible licensing practices (such as our ability to license on a worldwide portfolio basis) or that otherwise cause us to seek alternative forums (such as arbitration or state court), would make it more difficult for us to enforce our patents, whether in adversarial proceedings or in negotiations.  Because we have historically depended on the availability of certain forms of legal process to enforce our patents and obtain fair and adequate compensation for our investments in research and development and the unauthorized use of our intellectual property, developments that undermine our ability to do so could have a negative impact on future licensing efforts.
Rulings in our legal proceedings as well as those of third parties may affect our strategies for patent prosecution, licensing and enforcement.  For example, in recent years, the USITC and U.S. courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, have taken some actions that have been viewed as unfavorable to patentees, including the Company. Decisions that occur in U.S. or in international forums may change the law applicable to various patent law issues, such as, for example, patentability, validity, claim construction, patent exhaustion, patent misuse, permissible licensing practices, available forums, and remedies such as damages and injunctive relief, in ways that are detrimental to the abilities of patentees to enforce patents and obtain suitable relief.
We continue to monitor and evaluate our strategies for prosecution, licensing and enforcement with regard to these developments; however, any resulting change in such strategies may have an adverse impact on our business and financial condition.
Setbacks in defending our patent licensing practices could cause our cash flow and revenue to decline and could have an adverse effect on our licensing business.
Adverse decisions in litigation or regulatory actions relating to our licensing practices, including, but not limited to, findings that we have not complied with our FRAND commitments and/or engaged in anticompetitive or unfair licensing activities or that any of our license agreements are void or unenforceable, could have an adverse impact on our cash flow and revenue. Regulatory bodies may assess fines in the event of adverse findings, and in court or arbitration proceedings, an adverse decision could lead to a judgment requiring us to pay damages (including the possibility of treble damages for antitrust

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claims). In addition, to the extent that legal decisions find patent license agreements to be void or unenforceable in whole or in part, that could lead to a decrease in the revenue associated with and cash flow generated by such agreements, and, depending on the damages requested, could lead to the refund of certain payments already made. Finally, adverse legal decisions related to our licensing practices could have an adverse effect on our ability to enter into license agreements, which, in turn, could cause our cash flow and revenue to decline.
Our plans to broaden our revenue opportunities through acquiring or developing technology in new or expanded areas, such as technologies in the IoT space, and enhanced intellectual property sourcing and joint ventures, may not be successful and could materially adversely affect our long-term business, financial condition and operating results.
As part of our business strategy, we are seeking to broaden our revenue opportunities through targeted acquisitions, research partnerships, joint ventures and the continued development of new technologies. Increasingly, our future growth in part depends on developing or acquiring technology in new or expanded areas and adjacent industry segments outside of traditional cellular industries (such as the IoT, including the connected home and smart cities, automotive, mobile computing, mobile health and sensor technology), and on third parties incorporating our technology and solutions into device types used in these areas and industry segments. There is no guarantee that we will succeed in acquiring or developing technology and patents or partnering with inventors and research organizations to create new revenue opportunities and/or add new dimensions to our existing portfolio of intellectual property and potentially create new patent licensing programs. Also, our development activities may experience delays, which could reduce our opportunities for patent licensing or other avenues of revenue generation related to such development activities. In the event that any of these risks materialize, our long-term business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected.
Setbacks in defending and enforcing our patent rights could cause our revenue and cash flow to decline.
Some third parties have challenged, and we expect will continue to challenge, the infringement, validity and enforceability of certain of our patents. In some instances, certain of our patent claims could be substantially narrowed or declared invalid, unenforceable, not essential or not infringed. We cannot ensure that the validity and enforceability of our patents will be maintained or that our patents will be determined to be applicable to any particular product or standard. Moreover, third parties could attempt to circumvent certain of our patents through design changes. Any significant adverse finding as to the validity, infringement, enforceability or scope of our patents and/or any successful design-around of our patents could result in the loss of patent licensing revenue from existing licensees, through termination or modification of agreements or otherwise, and could substantially impair our ability to secure new patent licensing arrangements, either at all or on beneficial terms.
Royalty rates, or other terms, under our patent license agreements could be subject to determination through arbitration or other third party adjudications or regulatory proceedings, and arbitrators or other third party adjudicators or regulators could determine that our patent royalty rates should be at levels lower than our agreed or historical rates or otherwise make determinations resulting in less favorable terms and conditions under our patent license agreements.
Historically, the terms of our patent license agreements, including our royalty rates, have been reached through arms-length bilateral negotiations with our licensees. We could agree, as we did with Huawei pursuant to our December 2013 settlement agreement, to have royalty rates, or other terms, set by third party adjudicators (such as arbitrators) and it is also possible that courts or regulators could decide to set or otherwise determine the fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (“FRAND”) consistency of such terms or the manner in which such terms are determined. Changes to or clarifications of our obligations to be prepared to offer licenses to standards-essential patents on FRAND terms and conditions could require such terms, including our royalty rates, to be determined through third party adjudications. Finally, certain of our current and prospective licensees have instigated, and others could in the future instigate, legal proceedings or regulatory proceedings requesting third party adjudicators or regulators, such as China's National Development and Reform Commission and Taiwan's Fair Trade Commission, to set FRAND terms and conditions for, or determine the FRAND-consistency of current terms and conditions in, our patent license agreements. To the extent that our patent royalty rates for our patent license agreements are determined through arbitration or other third party adjudications or regulatory proceedings rather than through bilateral negotiations, because such proceedings are inherently unpredictable and uncertain and there are currently few precedents for such determinations, it is possible that royalty rates may be lower than our agreed or historical rates, and this could also have a negative impact on royalties we are able to obtain from future licensees, which may have an adverse effect on our revenue and cash flow. In addition, to the extent that other terms and conditions for our patent license agreements are determined through such means, such terms and conditions could be less favorable than our historical terms and conditions, which may have an adverse effect on our licensing business.
Due to the nature of our business, we could continue to be involved in a number of costly litigation, arbitration and administrative proceedings to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights and to defend our licensing practices.

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While some companies seek licenses before they commence manufacturing and/or selling devices that use our patented inventions, most do not. Consequently, we approach companies and seek to establish license agreements for using our inventions. We expend significant time and effort identifying users and potential users of our inventions and negotiating license agreements with companies that may be reluctant to take licenses. However, if we believe that a third party is required to take a license to our patents in order to manufacture, sell, offer for sale, import or use products, we have in the past commenced, and may in the future, commence legal or administrative action against the third party if they refuse to enter into a license agreement with us. In turn, we have faced, and could continue to face, counterclaims and other legal proceedings that challenge the essential nature of our patents, or that claim that our patents are invalid, unenforceable or not infringed. Litigation adversaries may allege that we have not complied with certain commitments to standards-setting organizations and therefore that we are not entitled to the relief that we seek. For example, a party may allege that we have not complied with an obligation to offer a license to a party on FRAND terms and conditions, and may also file antitrust claims, unfair competition claims or regulatory complaints on that or other bases, and may seek damages and other relief based on such claims. Litigation adversaries have also filed against us, and other third parties may in the future file, validity challenges such as inter partes proceedings in the USPTO, which can lead to delays of our patent infringement actions as well as potential findings of invalidity.
Litigation may be also required to enforce our intellectual property rights, protect our trade secrets, enforce patent license and confidentiality agreements or determine the validity, enforceability and scope of proprietary rights of others.
Third parties could commence litigation against us seeking to invalidate our patents or obtain a determination that our patents are not infringed, are not essential, are invalid or are unenforceable. In addition, current and prospective licensees have initiated proceedings against us claiming, and others in the future may claim, that we have not complied with our FRAND licensing commitments and/or engaged in anticompetitive or unfair licensing activities.
The cost of enforcing and defending our intellectual property and of defending our licensing practices has been and may continue to be significant. As a result, we could be subject to significant legal fees and costs, including in certain jurisdictions the costs and fees of opposing counsel if we are unsuccessful. In addition, litigation, arbitration and administrative proceedings require significant key employee involvement for significant periods of time, which could divert these employees from other business activities.
Our commercialization, licensing and/or mergers and acquisitions (“M&A”) activities could lead to patent exhaustion or implied license issues that could materially adversely affect our business.
The legal doctrines of patent exhaustion and implied license may be subject to different judicial interpretations. Our commercialization or licensing of certain technologies and/or our M&A activities could potentially lead to patent exhaustion or implied license issues that could adversely affect our patent licensing program(s) and limit our ability to derive licensing revenue from certain patents under such program(s). In the event of successful challenges by current or prospective licensees based on these doctrines that result in a material decrease to our patent licensing revenue, our financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected.
Royalty rates could decrease for future license agreements due to downward product pricing pressures and competition over a finite pool of patent royalties.
Royalty payments to us under future license agreements could be lower than anticipated. Certain licensees and others in the wireless industry, individually and collectively, are demanding that royalty rates for patents be lower than historic royalty rates and/or that such rates should be applied to royalty bases smaller than the selling price of an end product (such as the “smallest salable patent practicing unit”). There is also increasing downward pricing pressure on certain wireless products, including handsets, that we believe implement our patented inventions, and some of our royalty rates are tied to the pricing of handsets. In addition, a number of other companies also claim to hold patents that are essential with respect to products for the cellular market. Demands by certain licensees to reduce royalties due to pricing pressure or the number of patent holders seeking royalties on their cellular technologies, could result in a decrease in the royalty rates we receive for use of our patented inventions, thereby decreasing future revenue and cash flow.
Increased scrutiny by antitrust authorities may affect our strategies for patent prosecution, licensing and enforcement and may increase our costs of doing business and/or lead to monetary fines, penalties or other remedies or sanctions.
Domestic and foreign antitrust authorities have increased their scrutiny of the use of standards-essential patents in the mobile wireless industry, including the enforcement of such patents against competitors and others. Such scrutiny has resulted in, and may lead to additional, inquiries that may lead to enforcement actions against the Company and/or impact the availability of injunctive and monetary relief, which may adversely affect our strategies for patent prosecution, licensing and enforcement and increase our costs of operation. Such inquiries and/or enforcement actions could result in monetary fines, penalties or other remedies or sanctions that could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

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Our technologies may not become patented, adopted by wireless standards or widely deployed.
We invest significant resources in the development of advanced technology and related solutions. However, certain of our inventions that we believe will be employed in current and future products, including 4G, 5G and beyond, are the subject of patent applications where no patent has been issued to us yet by the relevant patent issuing authorities. There is no assurance that these applications will issue as patents, either at all or with claims that would be required by products in the market currently or in the future. Our investments may not be recoverable or may not result in meaningful revenue if a sufficient number of our technologies are not patented and adopted by the relevant standards or if products based on the technologies in which we invest are not widely deployed. Competing technologies could reduce the opportunities for the adoption or deployment of technologies we develop. In addition, it is possible that in certain technology areas, such as in the IoT space, the adoption of proprietary systems could compete with or replace standards-based technology. If the technologies in which we invest do not become patented or are not adopted by the relevant standards or are not adopted by and deployed in the mainstream markets, at all or at the rate or within time periods we expect, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
We have in the past and may in the future make acquisitions or engage in other strategic transactions that could result in significant changes, costs and/or management disruption and that may fail to enhance shareholder value or produce the anticipated benefits.
We have in the past and may in the future acquire companies, businesses, technology and/or intellectual property, enter into joint ventures or other strategic transactions. Acquisitions or other strategic transactions may increase our costs, including but not limited to accounting and legal fees, and may not generate financial returns or result in increased adoption or continued use of our technologies or of any technologies we may acquire.
Achieving the anticipated benefits of acquisitions depends in part upon our ability to integrate the acquired companies, businesses and/or assets in an efficient and effective manner. The integration of acquired companies or businesses may result in significant challenges, including, among others: successfully integrating new employees, technology and/or products; consolidating research and development operations; minimizing the diversion of management’s attention from ongoing business matters; and consolidating corporate and administrative infrastructures. As a result, we may be unable to accomplish the integration smoothly or successfully.
In addition, we cannot be certain that the integration of acquired companies, businesses, technology and/or intellectual property with our business will result in the realization of the full benefits we anticipate to result from such acquisitions. Our plans to integrate and/or expand upon research and development programs and technologies obtained through acquisitions may result in products or technologies that are not adopted by the market, or the market may adopt solutions competitive to our products or technologies. We may not derive any commercial value from the acquired technology or intellectual property or from future technologies or products based on the acquired technology and/or intellectual property. In addition, to the extent we are separately seeking a patent license from a customer or customers of an acquired entity, the acquired entity may lose such customers. Following the completion of the acquisition, we may be subject to liabilities that are not covered by, or exceed the coverage under, the indemnification protection we may obtain, and we may encounter patent validity, infringement or enforcement issues or unforeseen expenses not uncovered during our diligence process. Any acquired company or business would be subject to its own risks that may or may not be the same as the risks already disclosed herein.
We have in the past and may in the future make investments that may fail to enhance shareholder value or produce the anticipated benefits.
We have in the past and may in the future make investments in other entities by purchasing minority equity interests or corporate bonds/notes in publicly traded or privately held companies. Most strategic investments entail a high degree of risk and may not become liquid for a period of time, if ever. In some cases, strategic investments may serve as consideration for a license in lieu of cash royalties. In addition, other investments may not generate financial returns or may result in losses due to market volatility, the general level of interest rates and inflation expectations. We have made in the past and may make in the future strategic investments in early-stage companies, which require us to consolidate or record our share of the earnings or losses of those companies. Our share of any such losses may adversely affect our financial results until we exit from or reduce our exposure to these investments.
Challenges relating to our ability to enter into new license agreements could cause our revenue and cash flow to decline.
We face challenges in entering into new patent license agreements. One of the most significant challenges we face is that most potential licensees do not voluntarily seek to enter into license agreements with us before they commence manufacturing and/or selling devices that use our patented inventions. As a result, we must approach companies that are reluctant to take licenses and attempt to establish license agreements with them. The process of identifying potential users of our inventions and negotiating license agreements with reluctant prospective licensees requires significant time, effort and

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expense. Once discussions with unlicensed companies have commenced, we face the additional challenges imposed by the significant negotiation issues that arise from time to time. Given these challenges relating to our ability to enter into new license agreements, we cannot ensure that all prospective licensees will be identified or, if they are identified, will be persuaded during negotiations to enter into a patent license agreement with us, either at all or on terms acceptable to us, and, as a result, our revenue and cash flow could materially decline. The length of time required to negotiate a license agreement also leads to delays in the receipt of the associated revenue stream, which could also cause our revenue and cash flow to decline.
In addition, as discussed more fully above in these Risk Factors, we are currently operating in a challenging regulatory and judicial environment, which may, under certain circumstances, lead to delays in the negotiation of and entry into new patent license agreements. Also, as discussed below in these Risk Factors and in Item 3, Legal Proceedings, in this Form 10-K, we are also currently, and may in the future be, involved in legal proceedings with potential licensees, with whom we do not yet have a patent license agreement. Any such delays in the negotiation or entry into new patent license agreements and receipt of the associated revenue stream could cause our revenue and cash flow to decline.
Our revenues are derived primarily from a limited number of licensees or customers.
We earn a significant amount of our revenues from a limited number of licensees or customers, and we expect that a significant portion of our revenues will continue to come from a limited number of licensees or customers for the foreseeable future. For example, in 2017, Apple, Huawei and Samsung accounted for approximately 21%, 14% and 13% of our total revenues, respectively. In the event that we are unable to renew one or more of such license agreements upon expiration, our future revenue and cash flow could be materially adversely affected. In addition, in the event that one or more of our significant licensees or customers fail to meet their payment or reporting obligations (for example, due to a credit issue or in connection with a legal dispute or similar proceeding) under their respective license agreements, our future revenue and cash flow could be materially adversely affected. In addition, in the event that there is a material decrease in shipments of licensed products by one of our significant per-unit licensees, our revenues from such licensee could significantly decline and our future revenue and cash flow could be adversely affected.
Our plans to expand our revenue opportunities through commercializing our market-ready technologies and acquiring and/or developing new technology with commercial applicability may not be successful and could materially adversely affect our long-term business, financial condition and operating results.
As part of our business strategy, we are seeking to expand our revenue opportunities through the continued development, commercialization and licensing of technology projects, including in the IoT space. Our technology development and acquisition activities may experience delays, or the markets for our technology solutions may fail to materialize to the extent or at the rate we expect, if at all, each of which could reduce our opportunities for technology sales and licensing. In addition, there could be fewer applications for our technology and products than we expect. Technology markets also could be affected by general economic conditions, customer buying patterns, timeliness of equipment development, and the availability of capital for, and the high cost of, infrastructure improvements. Additionally, investing in technology development is costly and may require structural changes to the organization that could require additional costs, including without limitation legal and accounting fees. Furthermore, delays or failures to enter into additional partnering relationships to facilitate technology development efforts and secure support for our technologies or delays or failures to enter into technology licensing agreements to secure integration of additional functionality could impair our ability to introduce into the market portions of our technology and resulting products, cause us to miss critical market windows, or decrease our ability to remain competitive.
Our investments in new commercial initiatives may not be successful or generate meaningful revenues.
We have invested, and may continue to invest, in new businesses focused on commercializing technology that we have developed, incubated internally and/or acquired. Commercial success depends on many factors, including the demand for the technology, the highly competitive markets for our technology products, regulatory issues associated with such technology products, and effective marketing and licensing or product sales. In addition, our new technology offerings may require robust ecosystems of customers and service providers that may fail to materialize. Further, the establishment and operation of these commercial initiatives requires significant support, including technical, legal and financial resources. It is possible that these commercial initiatives will not be successful and/or will not achieve meaningful revenues for a number of years, if at all. Further, we may attempt to develop technologies or services that we believe we would be able to sell or license commercially using inside or outside technical, legal and financial resources. If our new commercial initiatives are not successful, or are not successful in the timeframe we anticipate, we may incur significant costs, our business may not grow as anticipated and/or our reputation may be harmed. In the event that any of these risks materialize, our long-term business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected.
Our strategy to diversify our patent-based revenue by pursuing alternative patent licensing arrangements and patent sales may not be successful.

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There is no guarantee that we will succeed in our pursuit of select patent licensing arrangements or patent sales, and, if we are successful, there is no guarantee that the revenue and cash flow generated through such alternative licensing arrangements (such as the Signal Trust and the Avanci licensing platform) or patent sales will be greater than the revenue and cash flow we would have generated if we had retained and/or licensed the patents ourselves. In addition, potential licensees may be reluctant to enter into new patent license agreements, and current licensees may be reluctant to renew their agreements, either at all or on terms acceptable to the Company, based on the fact that we have sold portions of our patent portfolio or the belief that we plan to sell or transfer some of the patents we are asking them to license.    
A portion of our revenue and cash flow are dependent upon our licensees' sales and market conditions and other factors that are beyond our control or are difficult to forecast.
A portion of our licensing revenues is running royalty-based and dependent on sales by our licensees that are outside our control and that could be negatively affected by a variety of factors, including global, regional and/or country-specific economic conditions, country-specific natural disasters impacting licensee manufacturing and sales, buying patterns of end users, which are often driven by replacement and innovation cycles, competition for our licensees' products and any decline in the sale prices our licensees receive for their covered products. In addition, our operating results also could be affected by general economic and other conditions that cause a downturn in the market for the licensees of our products or technologies. Our revenue and cash flow also could be affected by (i) the unwillingness of any licensee to satisfy all of their royalty obligations on the terms or within the timeframe we expect, (ii) a decline in the financial condition of any licensee or (iii) the failure of sales to meet market forecasts due to global or regional economic conditions, political instability, natural disasters, competitive technologies or otherwise. It is also difficult to predict the timing, nature and amount of licensing revenue associated with past infringement and new licenses, strategic relationships and the resolution of legal proceedings. The foregoing factors are difficult to forecast and could adversely affect both our quarterly and annual operating results and financial condition. In addition, some of our patent license agreements provide for upfront fixed payments or prepayments that cover our licensees' future sales for a specified period and reduce future cash receipts from those licensees. As a result, our cash flow has historically fluctuated from period to period. Depending upon the payment structure of any new patent license agreements into which we may enter, such cash flow fluctuations may continue in the future.
Our revenue may be affected by the deployment of future-generation wireless standards in place of 3G and 4G technologies, by the timing of such deployment, or by the need to extend or modify certain existing license agreements to cover subsequently issued patents.
Although we own an evolving portfolio of issued and pending patents related to 3G, 4G and 5G cellular technologies and non-cellular technologies, our patent portfolio licensing program for future-generation wireless standards may not be as successful in generating licensing income as our current licensing programs. Although we continue to participate in worldwide standards bodies and contribute our intellectual property to future-generation wireless standards, including standards that will define 5G, our technologies might not be adopted by the relevant standards. In addition, we may not be as successful in the licensing of future-generation products as we have been in licensing 3G and 4G products, or we may not achieve a level of royalty revenues on such products that is comparable to that which we have historically received on 3G and 4G products. Furthermore, if there is a delay in the standardization and/or deployment of 5G, our business and revenue could be negatively impacted.     
The licenses that we grant under our patent license agreements typically only cover products designed to operate in accordance with specified cellular technologies and that were manufactured or deployed or anticipated to be manufactured or deployed at the time of entry into the agreement. Also, we have patent license agreements with licensees that now offer for sale types of products that were not sold by such licensees at the time the patent license agreements were entered into and, thus, are not licensed by us. We do not derive patent licensing revenue from the sale of products by our licensees that are not covered by a patent license agreement. In order to grant a patent license for any such products, we will need to extend or modify our patent license agreements or enter into new license agreements with such licensees. We may not be able to extend or modify these license agreements, or enter into new license agreements, on financial terms acceptable to us, without affecting the other material terms and conditions of our license agreements with such licensees or at all. Further, such extensions, modifications or new license agreements may adversely affect our revenue on the sale of products covered by the license prior to any extension, modification or new license.
Delays in renewing or an inability to renew existing license agreements could cause our revenue and cash flow to decline.
Many of our license agreements have fixed terms. Although we endeavor to renew license agreements with fixed terms prior to the expiration of the license agreements, due to various factors, including the technology and business needs and competitive positions of our licensees and, at times, reluctance on the part of our licensees to participate in renewal discussions, we may not be able to renegotiate the license agreements on acceptable terms before the expiration of the license agreement, on acceptable terms after the expiration of the license agreement, or at all. If there is a delay in renegotiating and renewing a license agreement prior to its expiration, there could be a gap in time during which we may be unable to recognize revenue

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from that licensee or we may be forced to renegotiate and renew the license agreement on terms that are more favorable to such licensee, and, as a result, our revenue and cash flow could be materially adversely affected. In addition, if we fail to renegotiate and renew our license agreements at all, we could lose existing licensees, and our revenue and cash flow could be materially adversely affected.
We depend on key senior management, engineering, patent and licensing resources.
Our future success depends largely upon the continued service of our executive officers and other key management and technical personnel, as well as on our ability to put in place adequate succession plans for such key personnel, and/or organizational strategies related to the departure of such key personnel. Our success also depends in part on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel with specialized patent, licensing, engineering and other skills. The market for such talent in our industry is extremely competitive. In particular, competition exists for qualified individuals with expertise in patents and in licensing and with significant engineering experience in cellular and air interface technologies. Our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel could be affected by any adverse decisions in any litigation, arbitration or regulatory proceeding, by our ability to offer competitive cash and equity compensation and work environment conditions and by the geographic location of our various offices. The failure to attract and retain such persons with relevant and appropriate experience or to have in place adequate succession plans and/or organizational strategies related to the departure of certain key personnel could interfere with our ability to enter into new license agreements and undertake additional technology and product development efforts, as well as our ability to meet our strategic objectives.
We may experience difficulties with our new enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system.
We recently implemented a new enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system designed to efficiently maintain our books and records and provide information important to the operation of our business to our management team. We have committed significant resources to this new system, to which we converted in first quarter 2018, and realizing the full functionality of the system is complex. As a result of the conversion process and during our initial use of the new system, we may experience delays or disruptions in the integration of our new systems, procedures or controls. We may also encounter errors in data and security or technical reliability issues. Significant system failures could lead to a delay or error in recording and reporting financial information on a timely and accurate basis or impact our internal control compliance efforts, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Our industry is subject to rapid technological change, uncertainty and shifting market opportunities.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to define and keep pace with changes in industry standards, technological developments and varying customer requirements. Changes in industry standards and needs could adversely affect the development of, and demand for, our technology, rendering our technology currently under development obsolete and unmarketable. The patents and applications comprising our portfolio have fixed terms, and, if we fail to anticipate or respond adequately to these changes through the development or acquisition of new patentable inventions, patents or other technology, we could miss a critical market opportunity, reducing or eliminating our ability to capitalize on our patents, technology solutions or both.
We face risks from doing business and maintaining offices in international markets.
A significant portion of our licensees, potential licensees and customers are international, and our licensees, potential licensees and customers sell their products to markets throughout the world. In addition, in recent years, we have expanded, and we may continue to expand, our international operations, opening offices in the United Kingdom, South Korea, Belgium and Germany. Accordingly, we are subject to the risks and uncertainties of operating internationally and could be affected by a variety of uncontrollable and changing factors, including, but not limited to: difficulty in protecting our intellectual property in foreign jurisdictions; enforcing contractual commitments in foreign jurisdictions or against foreign corporations; government regulations, tariffs and other applicable trade barriers; biased enforcement of foreign laws and regulations to promote industrial or economic policies at our expense; currency control regulations and variability in the value of the U.S. dollar against foreign currency; export license requirements and restrictions on the use of technology; social, economic and political instability; natural disasters, acts of terrorism, widespread illness and war; potentially adverse tax consequences; general delays in remittance of and difficulties collecting non-U.S. payments; foreign labor regulations; anti-corruption laws; and difficulty in staffing and managing operations remotely. In addition, we also are subject to risks specific to the individual countries in which we and our licensees, potential licensees and customers do business.    
Concentration and consolidation in the wireless communications industry could adversely affect our business.
There is some concentration among participants in the wireless communications industry, and the industry has experienced consolidation of participants and sales of participants or their businesses, and these trends may continue. For example, in 2017, Samsung, Apple and Huawei collectively accounted for approximately 40% of worldwide shipments of 3G and 4G handsets and for close to 50% of worldwide smartphone shipments. Any further concentration or sale within the

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wireless industry among handset providers and/or original design manufacturers ("ODMs") may reduce the number of licensing opportunities or, in some instances, result in the reduction, loss or elimination of existing royalty obligations. In addition, acquisitions of or consolidation among ODMs could cause handset providers who outsource manufacturing to make supply chain changes, which in turn could result in the reduction, loss or elimination of existing royalty obligations (for example, if manufacturing is moved from an ODM with which we have a patent license agreement to an ODM with which we do not). Further, if wireless carriers consolidate with companies that utilize technologies that are competitive with our technologies or that are not covered by our patents, we could lose market opportunities, which could negatively impact our revenues and financial condition.
Our use of open source software could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Certain of our technology and our suppliers’ technology may contain or may be derived from “open source” software, which, under certain open source licenses, may offer accessibility to a portion of a product’s source code and may expose related intellectual property to adverse licensing conditions. Licensing of such technology may impose certain obligations on us if we were to distribute derivative works of the open source software. For example, these obligations may require us to make source code for derivative works available or license such derivative works under a particular type of license that is different from what we customarily use to license our technology. While we believe we have taken appropriate steps and employ adequate controls to protect our intellectual property rights, our use of open source software presents risks that, if we inappropriately use open source software, we may be required to re-engineer our technology, discontinue the sale of our technology, release the source code of our proprietary technology to the public at no cost or take other remedial actions, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. There is a risk that open source licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our solutions, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, developing open source products, while adequately protecting the intellectual property rights upon which our licensing business depends, may prove burdensome and time-consuming under certain circumstances, thereby placing us at a competitive disadvantage.
Changes to our tax assets or liabilities could have an adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
The calculation of tax assets and liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. We are subject to examinations by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and other taxing jurisdictions on various tax matters, including challenges to various positions we assert in our filings and foreign tax liability and withholding. Pursuant to the guidance for accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, certain tax contingencies are recognized when they are determined to be more likely than not to occur. Although we believe we have adequately recorded tax assets and accrued for tax contingencies that meet this criterion, we may not fully recover our tax assets or may be required to pay taxes in excess of the amounts we have accrued. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, there were certain tax contingencies that did not meet the applicable criteria to record an accrual. In the event that the IRS or another taxing jurisdiction levies an assessment in the future, it is possible the assessment could have an adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
It can be difficult for us to verify royalty amounts owed to us under our per-unit licensing agreements, and this may cause us to lose potential revenue.    
The standard terms of our per-unit license agreements require our licensees to document the sale of licensed products and report this data to us on a quarterly basis. Although our standard license terms give us the right to audit books and records of our licensees to verify this information, audits can be expensive, time consuming, incomplete and subject to dispute. From time to time, we audit certain of our licensees to verify independently the accuracy of the information contained in their royalty reports in an effort to decrease the likelihood that we will not receive the royalty revenues to which we are entitled under the terms of our license agreements, but we cannot give assurances that these audits will be numerous enough and/or effective to that end.
Changes in financial accounting standards or policies may affect our reported financial condition or results of operations and, in certain cases, could cause a decline and/or fluctuations in the price of our common stock.
From time to time the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) and the Staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") change their guidance governing the form and content of our external financial statements. In addition, accounting standard setters and those who interpret U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), such as the FASB and the SEC, may change or even reverse their previous interpretations or positions with regard to how these standards should be applied. A change in accounting principles or their interpretation can have a significant effect on our reported results. In certain cases, we could be required to apply new or revised guidance retroactively or apply existing guidance differently. Potential changes in reporting standards could substantially change our reporting practices in a number of

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areas, including revenue recognition and recording of assets and liabilities, and affect our reported financial condition or results of operations.
For example, in May 2014, the FASB and International Accounting Standards Board issued revenue guidance, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, that the Company has adopted effective January 1, 2018, which impacts our recognition of revenue from both our fixed-fee and per-unit license agreements. See Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations -- Overview -- New Accounting Guidance. Such changes to our reporting practices could significantly affect our reported financial condition and results of operations going forward, causing the amount of revenue we recognize to vary dramatically from quarter to quarter, and even year to year, depending on the timing of entry into license agreements and whether such agreements are dynamic or static fixed-fee agreements or have per-unit royalty terms. In addition, these changes to our reporting practices and the resulting fluctuations in our reported revenue could cause a decline and/or fluctuations in the price of our common stock.
The high amount of capital required to obtain radio frequency licenses, deploy and expand wireless networks and obtain new subscribers could slow the growth of the wireless communications industry and adversely affect our business.
Our growth is dependent upon the increased use of wireless communications services that utilize our technology. In order to provide wireless communications services, wireless operators must obtain rights to use specific radio frequencies. The allocation of frequencies is regulated in the United States and other countries throughout the world, and limited spectrum space is allocated to wireless communications services. Industry growth may be affected by the amount of capital required to obtain licenses to use new frequencies, deploy wireless networks to offer voice and data services, expand wireless networks to grow voice and data services and obtain new subscribers. The significant cost of licenses, wireless networks and subscriber additions may slow the growth of the industry if wireless operators are unable to obtain or service the additional capital necessary to implement or expand advanced wireless networks. The growth of our business could be adversely affected if this occurs.
Market projections and data are forward-looking in nature.
Our strategy is based on our own projections and on analyst, industry observer and expert projections, which are forward-looking in nature and are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties. The validity of their and our assumptions, the timing and scope of wireless markets, economic conditions, customer buying patterns, timeliness of equipment development, pricing of products, growth in wireless telecommunications services that would be delivered on wireless devices and availability of capital for infrastructure improvements could affect these predictions. In addition, market data upon which we rely is based on third party reports that may be inaccurate. The inaccuracy of any of these projections and/or market data could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We face competition from companies developing other or similar technologies.
We face competition from companies developing other and similar technologies that are competitive with our products and solutions that we may market or set forth into the standards-setting arena. Due to competing products and solutions, our products and solutions may not find a viable commercial marketplace or, where applicable, be adopted by the relevant standards. In addition, in licensing our patent portfolio, we may compete with other companies, many of whom also claim to hold essential patents, for a share of the royalties that certain licensees may argue to be the total royalty that is supported by a certain product or products. In any device or piece of equipment that contains intellectual property, the manufacturer may need to obtain a license from multiple holders of intellectual property. To the extent that multiple parties all seek royalties on the same product, the manufacturers could claim to have difficulty in meeting the financial requirements of each patent holder.
Our technology development activities may experience delays.
We may experience technical, financial, resource or other difficulties or delays related to the further development of our technologies. Delays may have adverse financial effects and may allow competitors with comparable technology offerings to gain an advantage over us in the marketplace or in the standards setting arena. There can be no assurance that we will continue to have adequate staffing or that our development efforts will ultimately be successful. Moreover, certain of our technologies have not been fully tested in commercial use, and it is possible that they may not perform as expected. In such cases, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected, and our ability to secure new licensees and other business opportunities could be diminished.
We rely on relationships with third parties to develop and deploy technology solutions.
Successful exploitation of our technology solutions is partially dependent on the establishment and success of relationships with equipment producers and other industry participants. Delays or failure to enter into licensing or other relationships to facilitate technology development efforts or delays or failure to enter into technology licensing agreements to secure integration of additional functionality could impair our ability to introduce into the market portions of our technology and resulting products, cause us to miss critical market windows or impair our ability to remain competitive.

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Our business may be adversely affected if third parties assert that we violate their intellectual property rights with respect to products and/or solutions that we sell or license.
Third parties may claim that we or our customers are infringing upon their intellectual property rights with respect to products and/or solutions we sell or license. Even if we believe that such claims are without merit, they can be time-consuming and costly to defend against and may divert management’s attention and resources away from our business. Furthermore, third parties making such claims may be able to obtain injunctive or other equitable relief that could block our ability to further develop or commercialize some of our technologies or services in the United States and abroad and could cause us to stop selling, delay shipments of, or redesign our products. Claims of intellectual property infringement also might require us to enter into costly settlement or license agreements or pay costly damage awards. Even if we have an agreement that provides for a third party to indemnify us against such costs, the indemnifying party may be unable or unwilling to perform its contractual obligations. If we cannot use valid intellectual property that we infringe at all or on reasonable terms, or substitute similar non-infringing technology from another source, our business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows could be adversely affected.
We may be subject to warranty and/or product liability claims with respect to our products, which could be time-consuming and costly to defend and could expose us to loss and reputational damage.
We may be subject to claims if customers of our product offerings are injured or experience failures or other quality issues. We may from time to time be subject to warranty and product liability claims with regard to product performance and our services. We could incur losses as a result of warranty, support, repair or replacement costs in response to customer complaints or in connection with the resolution of contemplated or actual legal proceedings relating to such claims. In addition to potential losses arising from claims and related legal proceedings, warranty and product liability claims could affect our reputation and our relationship with customers.
Our engineering services business could subject us to specific costs and risks that we might fail to manage adequately.
We derive a portion of our revenues from engineering services. Any mismanagement of, or negative development in, a number of areas, including, among others, the perceived value of our intellectual property portfolio, our ability to convince customers of the value of our engineering services and our reputation for performance under our service contracts, could cause our revenues from engineering services to decline, damage our reputation and harm our ability to attract future licensees, which would in turn harm our operating results. If we fail to deliver as required under our service contracts, we could lose revenues and become subject to liability for breach of contract. We need to monitor these services adequately in order to ensure that we do not incur significant expenses without generating corresponding revenues. Our failure to monitor these services adequately may harm our business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Currency fluctuations could negatively affect future product sales or royalty revenues or increase the U.S. dollar cost of our activities and international strategic investments.
We are exposed to risk from fluctuations in currencies, which may change over time as our business practices evolve, that could impact our operating results, liquidity and financial condition. We operate and invest globally. Adverse movements in currency exchange rates may negatively affect our business due to a number of situations, including the following:
If the effective price of products sold by our licensees were to increase as a result of fluctuations in the exchange rate of the relevant currencies, demand for the products could fall, which in turn would reduce our royalty revenues.
Assets or liabilities of our consolidated subsidiaries may be subject to the effects of currency fluctuations, which may affect our reported earnings. Our exposure to foreign currencies may increase as we expand into new markets.
Certain of our operating and investing costs, such as foreign patent prosecution, are based in foreign currencies. If these costs are not subject to foreign exchange hedging transactions, strengthening currency values in selected regions could adversely affect our near-term operating expenses, investment costs and cash flows. In addition, continued strengthening of currency values in selected regions over an extended period of time could adversely affect our future operating expenses, investment costs and cash flows.
If as a result of tax treaty procedures, the U.S. government reaches an agreement with certain foreign governments to whom we have paid foreign taxes, resulting in a partial refund of foreign taxes paid with a related reduction in our foreign tax credits, such agreement could result in foreign currency gain or loss.

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Our business and operations could suffer in the event of security breaches and our business is subject to a variety of domestic and international laws, rules and policies and other obligations regarding data protection.
Attempts by others to gain unauthorized access to information technology systems are becoming more sophisticated. These attempts, which in some cases could be related to industrial or other espionage, include covertly introducing malware to computers and networks and impersonating authorized users, among others. We seek to detect and investigate all security incidents and to prevent their recurrence, but, in some cases, we might be unaware of an incident or its magnitude and effects. While we have not identified any material incidents of unauthorized access to date, the theft, unauthorized use or publication of our intellectual property and/or confidential business or personal information (whether through a breach of our own systems or the breach of a system of a third party that provides services to us) could harm our competitive or negotiating positions, reduce the value of our investment in research and development and other strategic initiatives, compromise our patent enforcement strategies or outlook, damage our reputation or otherwise adversely affect our business. In addition, to the extent that any future security breach results in inappropriate disclosure of our employees’, licensees’, or customers’ confidential and /or personal information, we may incur liability or additional costs to remedy any damages caused by such breach.
We could also be impacted by existing and proposed laws and regulations, as well as government policies and practices related to cybersecurity, privacy and data protection. For example, the European General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) adopted by the European Commission will become effective in May 2018, and China adopted a new cybersecurity law as of June 2017. Complying with the GDPR and other existing and emerging and changing requirements could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices. Non-compliance could result in monetary penalties or significant legal liability.
If wireless handsets are perceived to pose health and safety risks, demand for products of our licensees could decrease.
Media reports and certain studies have suggested that radio frequency emissions from wireless handsets may be linked to health concerns, such as brain tumors, other malignancies and genetic damage to blood, and may interfere with electronic medical devices, such as pacemakers, telemetry and delicate medical equipment. Growing concerns over radio frequency emissions, even if unfounded, could discourage the use of wireless handsets and cause a decrease in demand for the products of our licensees. In addition, concerns over safety risks posed by the use of wireless handsets while driving and the effect of any resulting legislation could reduce demand for the products of our licensees.
Risks Relating to Our Common Stock and the 2020 Notes
The price of our common stock is volatile and may decline regardless of our operating performance.
Historically, we have had large fluctuations in the price of our common stock, and such fluctuations could continue. From January 4, 2016 to February 21, 2018, the trading price of our common stock has ranged from a low of $41.01 per share to a high of $102.30 per share. The market price for our common stock is volatile and may fluctuate significantly in response to a number of factors, most of which we cannot control, including:
the public's response to press releases or other public announcements by us or third parties, including our filings with the SEC and announcements relating to licensing, technology development, litigation, arbitration and other legal proceedings in which we are involved and intellectual property impacting us or our business;
announcements concerning strategic transactions, such as commercial initiatives, joint ventures, strategic investments, acquisitions or divestitures;
financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections or our failure to meet these projections;
changes in GAAP, including new accounting standards that may materially affect our revenue recognition;
changes in financial estimates or ratings by any securities analysts who follow our common stock, our failure to meet these estimates or failure of those analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of our common stock;
investor perceptions as to the likelihood of achievement of near-term goals;
changes in market share of significant licensees;
changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other wireless communications companies generally; and
market conditions or trends in our industry or the economy as a whole.
In the past, shareholders have instituted securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were involved in securities litigation, we could incur substantial costs and our resources and the attention of management could be diverted from our business.

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Our indebtedness could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to meet our payment obligations under such indebtedness.
Our total indebtedness as of December 31, 2017, was approximately $316.0 million. This level of debt could have significant consequences on our future operations, including:
making it more difficult for us to meet our payment and other obligations under our 1.50% Senior Convertible Notes due 2020 (the "2020 Notes");
reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes, and limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for these purposes;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, and increasing our vulnerability to, changes in our business, the industry in which we operate and the general economy; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt or are less leveraged.
Any of the above-listed factors could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to meet our payment obligations under the 2020 Notes.
Our ability to meet our payment and other obligations under the 2020 Notes depends on our ability to generate significant cash flow in the future. This, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot be certain that our business will generate cash flow from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us, in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations under the 2020 Notes and to fund other liquidity needs. If we are not able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations, we may need to refinance or restructure our debt, including the 2020 Notes, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. If we are unable to implement one or more of these alternatives, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations under the 2020 Notes, and this default could cause us to be in default on any other currently existing or future outstanding indebtedness.
Our shareholders may not receive the level of dividends provided for in our dividend policy or any dividend at all, and any decrease in or suspension of the dividend could cause our stock price to decline.
Our current dividend policy, contemplates the payment of a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.35 per share on our outstanding common stock. We expect to continue to pay quarterly cash dividends on our common stock at the rate set forth in our current dividend policy. However, the dividend policy and the payment and timing of future cash dividends under the policy are subject to the final determination each quarter by our Board of Directors that (i) the dividend will be made in compliance with laws applicable to the declaration and payment of cash dividends, including Section 1551(b) of the Pennsylvania Business Corporation Law, and (ii) the policy remains in our best interests, which determination will be based on a number of factors, including our earnings, financial condition, capital resources and capital requirements, alternative uses of capital, restrictions imposed by any existing debt, economic conditions and other factors considered relevant by the Board of Directors. Given these considerations, our Board of Directors may increase or decrease the amount of the dividend at any time and may also decide to vary the timing of or suspend or discontinue the payment of cash dividends in the future. Any decrease in the amount of the dividend, or suspension or discontinuance of payment of a dividend, could cause our stock price to decline.
If securities or industry analysts fail to continue publishing research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
The convertible note hedge transactions and warrant transactions that we entered into in connection with the offering of the 2020 Notes may affect the value of the 2020 Notes and the market price of our common stock.
In connection with each offering of the 2020 Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions with certain financial institutions (the “option counterparties”) and sold warrants to the option counterparties. These transactions will be accounted for as an adjustment to our shareholders’ equity. The convertible note hedge transactions are expected to reduce the potential equity dilution upon conversion of the 2020 Notes. The warrants will have a dilutive effect on our earnings per share to the extent that the market price of our common stock exceeds the applicable strike price of the warrants on any expiration date of the warrants.

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In connection with establishing their initial hedge of these transactions, the option counterparties (and/or their affiliates) purchased our common stock in open market transactions and/or privately negotiated transactions and/or entered various cash-settled derivative transactions with respect to our common stock concurrently with, or shortly after, the pricing of the 2020 Notes. These activities could have the effect of increasing (or reducing the size of any decrease in) the price of our common stock concurrently with or following the pricing of the 2020 Notes. In addition, the option counterparties (and/or their affiliates) may modify their respective hedge positions from time to time (including during any observation period related to a conversion of the 2020 Notes) by entering into or unwinding various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock and/or by purchasing or selling our common stock in open market transactions and/or privately negotiated transactions.
The potential effect, if any, of any of these transactions and activities on the market price of our common stock will depend in part on market conditions and cannot be ascertained at this time, but any of these activities could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Future sales or other dilution of our equity could depress the market price of our common stock.
Sales of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could negatively impact the market price of our common stock. We also have several institutional shareholders that own significant blocks of our common stock. If one or more of these shareholders were to sell large portions of their holdings in a relatively short time, for liquidity or other reasons, the prevailing market price of our common stock could be negatively affected.
Under certain circumstances, shares of our common stock could be issued upon conversion of the 2020 Notes, which would dilute the ownership interest of our existing shareholders. In addition, the issuance of additional common stock, or issuances of securities convertible into or exercisable for our common stock or other equity linked securities, including preferred stock or warrants, would dilute the ownership interest of our common shareholders and could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
Approved stock repurchase programs may not result in a positive return of capital to shareholders.
Our board-approved stock repurchase program may not return value to shareholders because the market price of the stock may decline significantly below the levels at which we repurchased shares of stock. Stock repurchase programs are intended to deliver shareholder value over the long term, but stock price fluctuations can reduce the effectiveness of such programs.
Provisions of the 2020 Notes could discourage an acquisition of us by a third party.
Certain provisions of the 2020 Notes could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. Upon the occurrence of certain transactions constituting a fundamental change, holders of the 2020 Notes will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase all of their 2020 Notes or any portion of the principal amount of such 2020 Notes in integral multiples of $1,000. We may also be required to issue additional shares upon conversion in the event of certain fundamental change transactions. These provisions could limit the price that some investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the convertible note hedge transactions.
The option counterparties are financial institutions or affiliates of financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that the option counterparties may default under the respective convertible note hedge transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the option counterparties is not secured by any collateral. Recent global economic conditions have resulted in the actual or perceived failure or financial difficulties of many financial institutions. If an option counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under the convertible note hedge transactions. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, the increase in our exposure will be correlated to the increase in our common stock market price and in volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by an option counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and dilution with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurance as to the financial stability or viability of the option counterparties.
The accounting method for convertible debt securities, such as the 2020 Notes, could have a material adverse effect on our reported financial results.
In May 2008, the FASB, issued ASC 470-20. Under ASC 470-20, an entity must separately account for the liability and equity components of convertible debt instruments, such as the 2020 Notes, that may be settled partially in cash upon conversion in a manner that reflects the issuer’s economic interest cost. ASC 470-20 requires the fair value of the conversion option of the 2020 Notes be reported as a component of shareholders’ equity and included in the additional paid-in-capital on our consolidated balance sheet. The value of the conversion option of the 2020 Notes will be reported as discount to the 2020

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Notes. We will report lower net income in our financial results because ASC 470-20 will require interest to include both the current period’s amortization of the debt discount (non-cash interest) and the instrument’s cash interest, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, the trading price of our common stock and the trading price of the 2020 Notes.

Item 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.
Item 2.
PROPERTIES.
Our headquarters are located in Wilmington, Delaware, USA. Our research and development activities are conducted primarily in facilities located in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA; Melville, New York, USA; Rockville, Maryland, USA; San Diego, California, USA; and Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The following table sets forth information with respect to our principal properties:
Location
Approximate Square Feet
Principal Use
Lease Expiration Date
Melville, New York
44,800
Office and research space
February 2020
Wilmington, Delaware
36,200
Corporate headquarters
November 2022
Conshohocken, Pennsylvania
30,300
Office and research space
September 2026
Montreal, Quebec
17,300
Office and research space
June 2021
Rockville, Maryland
16,700
Office and research space
August 2019
San Diego, California
11,800
Office and research space
April 2018*
                             
* In April 2018, the personnel and activities performed in this office are expected to re-locate to new office space in San Diego measuring approximately 10,600 square feet, pursuant to a lease scheduled to expire in September 2025.
We are also a party to leases for several smaller spaces, including our offices in Buffalo, New York, USA; Berlin, Germany; Brussels, Belgium; London, England, United Kingdom; and Seoul, South Korea, that contain research and/or office space. In addition, we own a building in Washington, District of Columbia, USA, that houses administrative office space.
We believe that the facilities described above are suitable and adequate for our present purposes and our needs in the near future.

Item 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

ARBITRATIONS AND COURT PROCEEDINGS (OTHER THAN DE DISTRICT COURT ACTIONS RELATED TO USITC PROCEEDINGS)
Huawei China Proceedings
On February 21, 2012, InterDigital was served with two complaints filed by Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. in the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court in China on December 5, 2011. The first complaint named as defendants InterDigital, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries InterDigital Technology Corporation and InterDigital Communications, LLC (now InterDigital Communications, Inc.), and alleged that InterDigital had abused its dominant market position in the market for the licensing of essential patents owned by InterDigital by engaging in allegedly unlawful practices, including differentiated pricing, tying and refusal to deal. The second complaint named as defendants the Company's wholly owned subsidiaries InterDigital Technology Corporation, InterDigital Communications, LLC (now InterDigital Communications, Inc.), InterDigital Patent Holdings, Inc. and IPR Licensing, Inc. and alleged that InterDigital had failed to negotiate on FRAND terms with Huawei. Huawei asked the court to determine the FRAND rate for licensing essential Chinese patents to Huawei and also sought compensation for its costs associated with this matter.

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On February 4, 2013, the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court issued rulings in the two proceedings. With respect to the first complaint, the court decided that InterDigital had violated the Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law by (i) making proposals for royalties from Huawei that the court believed were excessive, (ii) tying the licensing of essential patents to the licensing of non-essential patents, (iii) requesting as part of its licensing proposals that Huawei provide a grant-back of certain patent rights to InterDigital and (iv) commencing a USITC action against Huawei while still in discussions with Huawei for a license. Based on these findings, the court ordered InterDigital to cease the alleged excessive pricing and alleged improper bundling of InterDigital's Chinese essential and non-essential patents, and to pay Huawei 20.0 million RMB (approximately $3.2 million) in damages related to attorneys’ fees and other charges, without disclosing a factual basis for its determination of damages. The court dismissed Huawei's remaining allegations, including Huawei's claim that InterDigital improperly sought a worldwide license and improperly sought to bundle the licensing of essential patents on multiple generations of technologies. With respect to the second complaint, the court determined that, despite the fact that the FRAND requirement originates from ETSI's Intellectual Property Rights policy, which refers to French law, InterDigital's license offers to Huawei should be evaluated under Chinese law. Under Chinese law, the court concluded that the offers did not comply with FRAND. The court further ruled that the royalties to be paid by Huawei for InterDigital's 2G, 3G and 4G essential Chinese patents under Chinese law should not exceed 0.019% of the actual sales price of each Huawei product.
On March 11, 2013, InterDigital filed notices of appeal with respect to the judgments in both proceedings, seeking reversal of the court’s February 4, 2013 rulings. On October 16, 2013, the Guangdong Province High Court issued a ruling affirming the ruling of the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court in the second proceeding, and on October 21, 2013, issued a ruling affirming the ruling of the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court in the first proceeding.
InterDigital believes that the decisions are seriously flawed both legally and factually. For instance, in determining a purported FRAND rate, the Chinese courts applied an incorrect economic analysis by evaluating InterDigital’s lump-sum 2007 patent license agreement with Apple (the “2007 Apple PLA”) in hindsight to posit a running royalty rate. Indeed, the ALJ in USITC Inv. No. 337-TA-800 rejected that type of improper analysis. Moreover, the Chinese courts had an incomplete record and applied incorrect facts, including with respect to the now-expired and superseded 2007 Apple PLA, which had been found in an arbitration between InterDigital and Apple to be limited in scope.
On April 14, 2014, InterDigital filed a petition for retrial of the second proceeding with the Chinese Supreme People’s Court (“SPC”), seeking dismissal of the judgment or at least a higher, market-based royalty rate for a license to InterDigital’s Chinese standards-essential patents (“SEPs”).  The petition for retrial argues, for example, that (1) the lower court improperly determined a Chinese FRAND running royalty rate by using as a benchmark the 2007 Apple lump sum fixed payment license agreement, and looking in hindsight at the unexpectedly successful sales of Apple iPhones to construct an artificial running royalty rate that neither InterDigital nor Apple could have intended and that would have varied significantly depending on the relative success or failure in hindsight of Apple iPhone sales; (2) the 2007 Apple PLA was also an inappropriate benchmark because its scope of product coverage was significantly limited as compared to the license that the court was considering for Huawei, particularly when there are other more comparable license agreements; and (3) if the appropriate benchmarks had been used, and the court had considered the range of royalties offered by other similarly situated SEP holders in the wireless telecommunications industry, the court would have determined a FRAND royalty that was substantially higher than 0.019%, and would have found, consistent with findings of the ALJ’s initial determination in the USITC 337-TA-800 proceeding, that there was no proof that InterDigital’s offers to Huawei violated its FRAND commitments.
The SPC held a hearing on October 31, 2014, regarding whether to grant a retrial and requested that both parties provide additional information regarding the facts and legal theories underlying the case. The SPC convened a second hearing on April 1, 2015 regarding whether to grant a retrial. If the retrial is granted, the SPC will likely schedule one or more additional hearings before it issues a decision on the merits of the case. The SPC retrial proceeding was excluded from the dismissal provisions of the August 2016 patent license agreement between Huawei and InterDigital, and a decision in this proceeding is still pending.
ZTE China Proceedings
On July 10 and 11, 2014, InterDigital was served with two complaints filed by ZTE Corporation in the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court in China on April 3, 2014. The first complaint names as defendants the Company's wholly owned subsidiaries InterDigital Technology Corporation, InterDigital Communications, Inc., InterDigital Patent Holdings, Inc. and IPR Licensing, Inc. This complaint alleges that InterDigital has failed to comply with its FRAND obligations for the licensing of its Chinese standards-essential patents. ZTE is asking the court to determine the FRAND rate for licensing InterDigital’s standards-essential Chinese patents to ZTE and also seeks compensation for its litigation costs associated with this matter. The second complaint names as defendants InterDigital, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries InterDigital Technology Corporation and InterDigital Communications, Inc. This complaint alleges that InterDigital has a dominant market position in China and the United States in the market for the licensing of essential patents owned by InterDigital, and abused its dominant market position in violation of the Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law by engaging in allegedly unlawful practices, including excessively

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high pricing, tying, discriminatory treatment, and imposing unreasonable trading conditions.  ZTE seeks relief in the amount of 20.0 million RMB (approximately $3.1 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2017), an order requiring InterDigital to cease the allegedly unlawful conduct and compensation for its litigation costs associated with this matter.
On August 7, 2014, InterDigital filed petitions challenging the jurisdiction of the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court to hear the actions. On August 28, 2014, the court denied InterDigital’s jurisdictional challenge with respect to the anti-monopoly law case. InterDigital filed an appeal of this decision on September 26, 2014. On September 28, 2014, the court denied InterDigital’s jurisdictional challenge with respect to the FRAND case, and InterDigital filed an appeal of that decision on October 27, 2014. On December 18, 2014, the Guangdong High Court issued decisions on both appeals upholding the Shenzhen Intermediate Court’s decisions that it had jurisdiction to hear these cases. On February 10, 2015, InterDigital filed a petition for retrial with the Supreme People’s Court regarding its jurisdictional challenges to both cases.
The Shenzhen Court held hearings on the anti-monopoly law case on May 11, 13, 15 and 18, 2015. At the May hearings, ZTE withdrew its claims alleging discriminatory treatment and the imposition of unfair trading conditions and increased its damages claim to 99.8 million RMB (approximately $15.3 million based on the exchange rate as of December 31, 2017). The Shenzhen Court held hearings in the FRAND case on July 29-31, 2015 and held a second hearing on the anti-monopoly law case on October 12, 2015. Both cases remain pending. It is possible that the court may schedule further hearings in these cases before issuing its decisions.
The Company has not recorded any accrual at December 31, 2017 for contingent losses associated with these matters based on its belief that losses, while reasonably possible, are not probable in accordance with accounting guidance.
Pegatron Actions
In first quarter 2015, we learned that on or about February 3, 2015, Pegatron Corporation (“Pegatron”) filed a civil suit in Taiwan Intellectual Property Court against InterDigital, Inc. and certain of its subsidiaries alleging breach of the Taiwan Fair Trade Act (the “Pegatron Taiwan Action”). Pegatron and InterDigital entered into a patent license agreement in April 2008 (the “Pegatron PLA”). Pegatron was a subsidiary of Asustek Computer Incorporated until the completion of its spin-off from Asustek in June 2010. On May 26, 2015, InterDigital, Inc. received a copy of the civil complaint filed by Pegatron in the Taiwan Intellectual Property Court. The complaint named as defendants InterDigital, Inc. as well as InterDigital’s wholly owned subsidiaries InterDigital Technology Corporation and IPR Licensing, Inc. (together, for purposes of this discussion, “InterDigital”). The complaint alleged that InterDigital abused its market power by improperly setting, maintaining or changing the royalties Pegatron is required to pay under the Pegatron PLA, and engaging in unreasonable discriminatory treatment and other unfair competition activities in violation of the Taiwan Fair Trade Act. The complaint sought minimum damages in the amount of approximately $52 million, which amount could be expanded during the litigation, and that the court order multiple damages based on its claim that the alleged conduct was intentional. The complaint also sought an order requiring InterDigital to cease enforcing the royalty provisions of the Pegatron PLA, as well as all other conduct that allegedly violates the Fair Trade Act.
On June 5, 2015, InterDigital filed an Arbitration Demand with the American Arbitration Association’s International Centre for Dispute Resolution (“ICDR”) seeking declaratory relief denying all of the claims in Pegatron’s Taiwan Action and for breach of contract. On or about June 10, 2015, InterDigital filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, San Jose Division (the “CA Northern District Court”) seeking a Temporary Restraining Order, Preliminary Injunction, and Permanent Anti-suit Injunction against Pegatron prohibiting Pegatron from prosecuting the Pegatron Taiwan Action. The complaint also sought specific performance by Pegatron of the dispute resolution procedures set forth in the Pegatron PLA and compelling arbitration of the disputes in the Pegatron Taiwan Action. On June 29, 2015, the court granted InterDigital’s motion for a temporary restraining order and preliminary injunction requiring Pegatron take immediate steps to dismiss the Taiwan Action without prejudice. On July 1, 2015, InterDigital was informed that Pegatron had withdrawn its complaint in the Taiwan Intellectual Property Court and that the case had been dismissed without prejudice.
On August 3, 2015, Pegatron filed an answer and counterclaims to InterDigital’s CA Northern District Court complaint. Pegatron accused InterDigital of violating multiple sections of the Taiwan Fair Trade Act, violating Section Two of the Sherman Act, breaching ETSI, IEEE, and ITU contracts, promissory estoppel (pled in the alternative), violating Section 17200 of the California Business & Professions Code, and violating the Delaware Consumer Fraud Act. These counterclaims stemmed from Pegatron’s accusation that InterDigital violated FRAND obligations. As relief, Pegatron sought a declaration regarding the appropriate FRAND terms and conditions for InterDigital’s “declared essential patents,” a declaration that InterDigital’s standard essential patents are unenforceable due to patent misuse, an order requiring InterDigital to grant Pegatron a license on FRAND terms, an order enjoining InterDigital’s alleged ongoing breaches of its FRAND commitments, and damages in the amount of allegedly excess non-FRAND royalties Pegatron has paid to InterDigital, plus interest and treble damages. On August 7, 2015, Pegatron responded to InterDigital’s arbitration demand, disputing the arbitrability of Pegatron’s

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claims. On September 24, 2015, InterDigital moved to compel arbitration and dismiss Pegatron’s counterclaims or, in the alternative, stay the counterclaims pending the parties’ arbitration. Pegatron’s opposition to this motion was filed on October 22, 2015, and InterDigital’s reply was filed on November 12, 2015. On January 20, 2016, the court granted InterDigital’s motion to compel arbitration of Pegatron’s counterclaims and to stay the counterclaims pending the arbitrators’ determination of their arbitrability. On January 27, 2016, the parties stipulated to stay all remaining aspects of the CA Northern District case pending such an arbitrability determination. On the same day, the court granted the stay and administratively closed the case.
On October 14, 2016, Pegatron filed in the arbitration a motion to dismiss for lack of jurisdiction, arguing that Pegatron’s counterclaims and InterDigital’s corresponding declaratory judgment claims were not arbitrable. Following briefing and an oral argument, on September 18, 2017, the tribunal issued a Partial Final Award and determined by majority decision that none of Pegatron’s counterclaims, nor InterDigital’s related claim for declaratory relief, are arbitrable.
In light of the arbitral award regarding jurisdiction, Pegatron’s claims returned to the CA Northern District Court. InterDigital answered and denied all of Pegatron’s counterclaims and filed a counterclaim-in-reply on December 1, 2017. On December 22, 2017, Pegatron answered and denied InterDigital’s counterclaim-in-reply.
On January 16, 2018, InterDigital entered into an amended patent license agreement and settlement agreement with Pegatron, pursuant to which the parties agreed to terms for dismissal of all outstanding litigation and other proceedings among them. On January 22, 2018, the parties filed a stipulation of dismissal of the CA Northern District case. On the same day, the court granted the stipulation and dismissed the case with prejudice. The parties also terminated the arbitration on January 22, 2018.
Asustek Actions
On April 15, 2015, Asustek Computer Incorporated (“Asus”) filed a complaint in the CA Northern District Court against InterDigital, Inc., and its subsidiaries InterDigital Communications, Inc., InterDigital Technology Corporation, IPR Licensing, Inc., and InterDigital Patent Holdings, Inc. The complaint asserted the following causes of action: violation of Section Two of the Sherman Act, violation of Section 17200 of the California Business and Professions Code, breach of contract resulting from ongoing negotiations, breach of contract leading to and resulting in the parties’ April 2008 patent license agreement (the “2008 Asus PLA”), promissory estoppel, waiver, and fraudulent inducement to contract. Among other allegations, Asus alleged that InterDigital breached its FRAND commitment. As relief, Asus sought a judgment that the 2008 Asus PLA is void or unenforceable, damages in the amount of excess royalties Asus paid under the 2008 Asus PLA plus interest, a judgment setting the proper FRAND terms and conditions for InterDigital’s patent portfolio, an order requiring InterDigital to grant Asus a license on FRAND terms and conditions, and punitive damages and other relief.
In response, on May 30, 2015, InterDigital filed an Arbitration Demand with the ICDR. InterDigital claimed that Asus breached the 2008 Asus PLA’s dispute resolution provision by filing its CA Northern District Court lawsuit and sought declaratory relief that it is not liable for any of the claims in Asus’s complaint. On June 2, 2015, InterDigital filed in the CA Northern District Court a motion to compel arbitration on each of Asus’s claims. On August 25, 2015, the court granted InterDigital’s motion for all of Asus’s claims except its claim for breach of contract resulting from ongoing negotiations. Aside from this claim, the court ruled that the issue of arbitrability should be decided by an arbitrator, and stayed the proceedings pending that determination.
Asus asserted counterclaims in the arbitration that mirrored its CA Northern District Court claims, except that it did not assert the breach of contract claim that the court determined was not arbitrable and it added a claim of violation of the Delaware Consumer Fraud Act. Asus also contended that its counterclaims were not arbitrable. InterDigital added a claim for breach of the 2008 Asus PLA’s confidentiality provision.
On July 14, 2016, Asus filed a motion to lift the stay in the CA Northern District Court proceeding along with a notice of the arbitral tribunal’s decision on arbitrability, informing the court of the arbitrators’ decision that, other than InterDigital’s breach of contract claims and Asus’s fraudulent inducement claim, no other claim or counterclaim is arbitrable. Asus then filed in the CA Northern District Court an amended complaint on August 18, 2016. This amended complaint includes all of the claims in Asus’s first CA Northern District Court complaint except fraudulent inducement and adds a claim of violation of the Delaware Consumer Fraud Act. It seeks the same relief as its first CA Northern District Court complaint, but also seeks a ruling that each of InterDigital’s patents “declared [to standards-setting organizations] to be essential or potentially essential” is unenforceable and any contracts InterDigital entered into in furtherance of its unlawful conduct are void. On September 8, 2016, InterDigital filed its answer and counterclaims to Asus’s amended complaint. It denied Asus’s claims and filed a counterclaim for declaratory judgment that Asus’s tort claims are invalid or preempted as applied under the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, the Patent Clause of the U.S. Constitution, and Title 35 of the U.S. Code. On September 28, 2016, Asus

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answered and denied InterDigital’s counterclaims. On December 16, 2016, the court set a case schedule that includes a May 2019 trial date.
With respect to its arbitration counterclaim for fraudulent inducement, Asus stated in its pleadings that it was seeking return of excess royalties (which totaled close to $63 million as of the August 2016 date referenced in the pleadings and had increased with additional royalty payments made by Asus since such time), plus interest, costs and attorneys’ fees. The evidentiary hearing in the arbitration was held in January 2017, and the parties presented oral closing arguments on March 22, 2017. On August 2, 2017, the arbitral tribunal issued its Final Award. The tribunal fully rejected Asus’s counterclaim, finding that InterDigital did not fraudulently induce Asus to enter into the 2008 Asus PLA. Accordingly, the tribunal dismissed Asus’s fraudulent inducement counterclaim in its entirety. The tribunal also dismissed InterDigital’s claims that Asus breached the confidentiality provisions and the dispute resolution provisions of the 2008 Asus PLA. On October 20, 2017, InterDigital and Asus jointly moved to confirm both the tribunal’s Final Award and the Interim Award on Jurisdiction in the CA Northern District. The court confirmed both awards on October 25, 2017.
REGULATORY PROCEEDINGS
Investigation by National Development and Reform Commission of China
On September 23, 2013, counsel for InterDigital was informed by China’s National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) that the NDRC had initiated a formal investigation into whether InterDigital has violated China’s Anti-Monopoly Law (“AML”) with respect to practices related to the licensing of InterDigital’s standards-essential patents to Chinese companies. Companies found to violate the AML may be subject to a cease and desist order, fines and disgorgement of any illegal gains. On March 3, 2014, the Company submitted to NDRC, pursuant to a procedure set out in the AML, a formal application for suspension of the investigation that included proposed commitments by the Company. On May 22, 2014, NDRC formally suspended its investigation of the Company based on the commitments proposed by the Company. The Company’s commitments with respect to the licensing of its patent portfolio for wireless mobile standards to Chinese manufacturers of cellular terminal units (“Chinese Manufacturers”) are as follows:
1.
Whenever InterDigital engages with a Chinese Manufacturer to license InterDigital’s patent portfolio for 2G, 3G and 4G wireless mobile standards, InterDigital will offer such Chinese Manufacturer the option of taking a worldwide portfolio license of only its standards-essential wireless patents, and comply with F/RAND principles when negotiating and entering into such licensing agreements with Chinese Manufacturers.
2. 
As part of its licensing offer, InterDigital will not require that a Chinese Manufacturer agree to a royalty-free, reciprocal cross-license of such Chinese Manufacturer's similarly categorized standards-essential wireless patents.
3. 
Prior to commencing any action against a Chinese Manufacturer in which InterDigital may seek exclusionary or injunctive relief for the infringement of any of its wireless standards-essential patents, InterDigital will offer such Chinese Manufacturer the option to enter into expedited binding arbitration under fair and reasonable procedures to resolve the royalty rate and other terms of a worldwide license under InterDigital's wireless standards-essential patents.  If the Chinese Manufacturer accepts InterDigital's binding arbitration offer or otherwise enters into an agreement with InterDigital on a binding arbitration mechanism, InterDigital will, in accordance with the terms of the arbitration agreement and patent license agreement, refrain from seeking exclusionary or injunctive relief against such company.
The commitments contained in item 3 above will expire five years from the effective date of the suspension of the investigation, or May 22, 2019.
USITC PROCEEDINGS AND RELATED DELAWARE DISTRICT COURT PROCEEDINGS
2013 USITC Proceeding (337-TA-868) and Related ZTE Delaware District Court Proceeding
USITC Proceeding (337-TA-868)
On January 2, 2013, the Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries InterDigital Communications, Inc., InterDigital Technology Corporation, IPR Licensing, Inc. and InterDigital Holdings, Inc. filed a complaint with the United States International Trade Commission (the “USITC” or “Commission”) against Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Samsung Electronics America, Inc. and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC, Nokia Corporation and Nokia Inc., Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., Huawei Device USA, Inc. and FutureWei Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Huawei Technologies (USA) and ZTE Corporation and ZTE (USA) Inc. (collectively, the “337-TA-868 Respondents”), alleging violations of Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 in that they engaged in unfair trade practices by selling for importation into the United States, importing into the United States

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and/or selling after importation into the United States certain 3G and 4G wireless devices (including WCDMA-, cdma2000- and LTE-capable mobile phones, USB sticks, mobile hotspots, laptop computers and tablets and components of such devices) that infringe one or more of up to seven of InterDigital’s U.S. patents. The complaint also extended to certain WCDMA and cdma2000 devices incorporating Wi-Fi functionality. InterDigital’s complaint with the USITC sought an exclusion order that would bar from entry into the United States infringing 3G or 4G wireless devices (and components), including LTE devices, that are imported by or on behalf of the 337-TA-868 Respondents, and also sought a cease-and-desist order to bar further sales of infringing products that have already been imported into the United States. Certain of the asserted patents were also asserted against Nokia, Huawei and ZTE in earlier pending USITC proceedings (including the Nokia, Huawei and ZTE 2011 USITC Proceeding (337-TA-800) and the Nokia 2007 USITC Proceeding (337-TA-613), as set forth below) and therefore were not asserted against those 337-TA-868 Respondents in this investigation.
On December 23, 2013, InterDigital and Huawei reached a settlement agreement to enter into binding arbitration to resolve their global patent licensing disputes.  Pursuant to the settlement agreement, InterDigital and Huawei moved to dismiss all litigation matters pending between the parties except the action filed by Huawei in China to set a fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (“FRAND”) rate for the licensing of InterDigital’s Chinese standards-essential patents (discussed above under “Huawei China Proceedings”), the decision in which InterDigital is permitted to further appeal. As a result, effective February 12, 2014, the Huawei Respondents were terminated from the 337-TA-868 investigation.
From February 10 to February 20, 2014, ALJ Essex presided over the evidentiary hearing in this investigation. The patents in issue in this investigation as of the hearing were U.S. Patent Nos. 7,190,966 (the “’966 patent”) and 7,286,847 (the “’847 patent”) asserted against ZTE and Samsung, and U.S. Patent No. 7,941,151 (the “’151 patent”) asserted against ZTE, Samsung and Nokia.
On June 3, 2014, InterDigital and Samsung filed a joint motion to terminate the investigation as to Samsung on the basis of settlement. The ALJ granted the joint motion by initial determination issued on June 9, 2014, and the USITC determined not to review the initial determination on June 30, 2014.
On June 13, 2014, the ALJ issued an Initial Determination (“ID”) in the 337-TA-868 investigation. In the ID, the ALJ found that no violation of Section 337 had occurred in connection with the importation of 3G/4G devices by ZTE or Nokia, on the basis that the accused devices do not infringe asserted claims 1-6, 8-9, 16-21 or 23-24 of the ’151 patent, claims 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, or 11 of the ’966 patent, or claims 3 or 5 of the ’847 patent. The ALJ also found that claim 16 of the ’151 patent was invalid as indefinite. Among other determinations, the ALJ further determined that InterDigital did not violate any FRAND obligations, a conclusion also reached by the ALJ in the 337-TA-800 investigation, and that Respondents have engaged in patent “hold out.”

On June 30, 2014, InterDigital filed a Petition for Review with the USITC seeking review and reversal of certain of the ALJ’s conclusions in the ID. On the same day, Respondents filed a Conditional Petition for Review urging alternative grounds for affirmance of the ID’s finding that Section 337 was not violated and a Conditional Petition for Review with respect to FRAND issues.
In June 2014, Microsoft Mobile Oy (“MMO”) was added as a respondent in the investigation.
On August 14, 2014, the Commission determined to review in part the June 13, 2014 ID but terminated the investigation with a finding of no violation.
On October 10, 2014, InterDigital filed a petition for review with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (the “Federal Circuit”), appealing certain of the adverse determinations in the Commission’s August 8, 2014 final determination including those related to the ’966 and ’847 patents. On June 2, 2015, InterDigital moved to voluntarily dismiss the Federal Circuit appeal, because, even if it were to prevail, it did not believe there would be sufficient time following the court’s decision and mandate for the USITC to complete its proceedings on remand such that the accused products would be excluded before the ’966 and ’847 patents expire in June 2016. The court granted the motion and dismissed the appeal on June 18, 2015.
Related Delaware District Court Proceeding
On January 2, 2013, the Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries InterDigital Communications, Inc., InterDigital Technology Corporation, IPR Licensing, Inc. and InterDigital Holdings, Inc. filed four related district court actions in the Delaware District Court against the 337-TA-868 Respondents. The proceedings against Huawei, Samsung and Nokia were subsequently dismissed, as discussed below. The remaining complaint alleges that ZTE infringes the same patents with respect to the same products alleged in the complaint filed by InterDigital in USITC Proceeding (337-TA-868). The complaint seeks a permanent injunction and compensatory damages in an amount to be determined, as well as enhanced damages based on willful infringement, and recovery of reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs.

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On January 31, 2013, ZTE filed its answer and counterclaims to InterDigital’s Delaware District Court complaint; ZTE asserted counterclaims for breach of contract, equitable estoppel, waiver of right to enjoin and declarations that InterDigital has not offered ZTE licenses on FRAND terms, declarations seeking the determination of FRAND terms and declarations of noninfringement, invalidity and unenforceability. In addition to the declaratory relief specified in its counterclaims, ZTE seeks specific performance of InterDigital's purported contracts with ZTE and standards-setting organizations, appropriate damages in an amount to be determined at trial, reasonable attorneys’ fees and such other relief as the court may deem appropriate.    
On March 21, 2013, pursuant to stipulation, the Delaware District Court granted InterDigital leave to file an amended complaint against ZTE to assert allegations of infringement of the ’244 patent. On March 22, 2013, ZTE filed its answer and counterclaims to InterDigital’s amended Delaware District Court complaint. On April 9, 2013, InterDigital filed a motion to dismiss ZTE’s counterclaims relating to its FRAND allegations. On July 12, 2013, the Delaware District Court held a hearing on InterDigital’s motion to dismiss. By order issued the same day, the Delaware District Court granted InterDigital’s motion, dismissing ZTE's counterclaims for equitable estoppel and waiver of the right to injunction or exclusionary relief with prejudice. It further dismissed the counterclaims for breach of contract and declaratory relief related to InterDigital’s FRAND commitments with leave to amend.
On August 6, 2013, ZTE filed its answer and amended counterclaims for breach of contract and for declaratory judgment seeking determination of FRAND terms. The counterclaims also continue to seek declarations of noninfringement, invalidity, and unenforceability. On August 30, 2013, InterDigital filed a motion to dismiss the declaratory judgment counterclaim relating to the request for determination of FRAND terms. On May 28, 2014, the court granted InterDigital’s motion and dismissed ZTE's FRAND-related declaratory judgment counterclaim, ruling that such declaratory judgment would serve no useful purpose.
On December 30, 2013, InterDigital and Huawei filed a stipulation of dismissal on account of the confidential settlement agreement and agreement to arbitrate their disputes in this action. On the same day, the Delaware District Court granted the stipulation of dismissal and dismissed the action against Huawei.
On February 11, 2014, the Delaware District Court judge entered an InterDigital, Nokia, and ZTE stipulated Amended Scheduling Order that bifurcated issues relating to damages, FRAND-related affirmative defenses, and any FRAND-related counterclaims.
On August 28, 2014, the court granted in part a motion by InterDigital for summary judgment that the asserted ’151 patent is not unenforceable by reason of inequitable conduct, holding that only one of the references forming the basis of defendants’ allegations would remain in issue, and granted a motion by InterDigital for summary judgment that the asserted claims of the ’966 and ’847 patents are not invalid for lack of enablement.
On August 5, 2014, InterDigital and Samsung filed a stipulation of dismissal in light of the parties’ settlement agreement. On the same day, the court granted the stipulation of dismissal and dismissed the action against Samsung with prejudice.
By order dated August 28, 2014, MMO was joined in the case against Nokia as a defendant.
The ZTE trial addressing infringement and validity of the ’966, ’847, ’244 and ’151 patents was held from October 20 to October 27, 2014. During the trial, the judge determined that further construction of certain claim language of the ’151 patent was required, and the judge decided to hold another trial as to ZTE's infringement of the ’151 patent at a later date. On October 28, 2014, the jury returned a unanimous verdict in favor of InterDigital, finding that the ’966, ’847 and ’244 patents are all valid and infringed by ZTE 3G and 4G cellular devices. The court issued formal judgment to this effect on October 29, 2014.
On November 26, 2014, ZTE filed a motion for judgment as a matter of law that the asserted claims of the ’966, ’847 and ’244 patents are not infringed and, in the alternative, for a new trial. InterDigital filed an opposition on December 15, 2014, and ZTE filed a reply on January 7, 2015.
The ZTE trial addressing infringement of the ’151 patent was held from April 20 to April 22, 2015. On April 22, 2015, the jury returned a verdict in favor of ZTE, finding that the ’151 patent is not infringed by ZTE 3G and 4G cellular devices.
On May 29, 2015, the court entered a new scheduling order for damages and FRAND-related issues, scheduling the ZTE trial related to damages and FRAND-related issues for October 2016.

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On September 14, 2015, a panel of Administrative Law Judges of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent Trial and Appeal Board (the “PTAB”) issued a final written decision in two Inter Partes Review (“IPR”) cases concerning the ’244 patent. These IPR proceedings were commenced on petitions filed by ZTE Corporation and ZTE (USA) Inc. and by Microsoft Corporation, respectively. Specifically, the panel determined that a number of claims of the ’244 patent are unpatentable as obvious. IPR Licensing, Inc. appealed to the Federal Circuit seeking review of the PTAB’s decision. Oral argument in the appeal was heard on April 7, 2017. On April 20, 2017, the Federal Circuit affirmed the PTAB’s decision that most of the challenged claims of the ’244 patent are unpatentable as obvious. However, the court vacated and remanded the PTAB’s obviousness finding as to claim 8, which returned the matter to the PTAB for further proceedings as to that claim. The PTAB remand proceeding as to claim 8 remains pending.  On July 28, 2017, IPR Licensing, Inc., filed a petition for a writ of certiorari with the U.S. Supreme Court seeking to appeal the Federal Circuit decision, arguing that the petition should be held pending the Supreme Court’s decision in Oil States Energy Services, LLC v. Greene’s Energy Group, LLC, which will determine whether the IPR process as a whole is unconstitutional.  On October 2, 2017, ZTE filed a response to the petition for a writ of certiorari in which ZTE agreed that the petition should be held pending the Court’s decision in Oil States and then disposed of as appropriate in light of that decision.  The petition for a writ of certiorari remains pending.
On December 21, 2015, the court entered another scheduling order that vacated the October 2016 date for the ZTE trial related to damages and FRAND-related issues as set forth in the May 2015 scheduling order.
On March 18, 2016, the court denied ZTE’s motion for judgment as a matter of law, or in the alternative for a new trial, with respect to the ’966 and ’847 patents. The court postponed its ruling on ZTE’s motion as to the ’244 patent pending the Federal Circuit’s decision on InterDigital’s appeal of the September 14, 2015 PTAB ruling and administratively closed that portion of the motion.
On April 18, 2016, ZTE filed a stipulated request for dismissal with prejudice of its counterclaims for breach of contract and patent unenforceability based on FRAND and withdrew its corresponding FRAND-related affirmative defenses. The court granted this request the same day. Also on April 18, 2016, ZTE filed a motion under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 54(b) seeking certification of partial final judgment on the claims for infringement of the ’966 and ’847 patents to allow ZTE to file an immediate appeal as to those patents. The motion was granted on June 7, 2016, and a partial final judgment was entered on June 20, 2016. On July 18, 2016, ZTE filed its notice of appeal with the Federal Circuit regarding the Delaware District Court’s judgment against ZTE with respect to the ’966 and ’847 patents. Oral argument on ZTE’s appeal was heard on October 4, 2017. On November 3, 2017, the Federal Circuit issued its decision affirming the Delaware District Court judgment finding that the ’966 and ’847 patents are not invalid and are infringed by ZTE 3G and 4G cellular devices. On December 4, 2017, ZTE filed a petition for panel rehearing of the Federal Circuit’s decision. The Federal Circuit denied ZTE’s petition on December 20, 2017, and the court’s mandate issued on December 27, 2017.
On May 15, 2017, InterDigital and Nokia/MMO filed a stipulation of dismissal of the case against MMO, Nokia Corporation and Nokia, Inc. pursuant to a Settlement Agreement and Release of Claims among InterDigital, Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft Mobile, Inc., and MMO, dated May 9, 2017, (the “Microsoft Settlement Agreement”). On May 16, 2017, the Delaware District Court granted the stipulation and dismissed the case against MMO, Nokia Corporation and Nokia, Inc. with prejudice.
The case against ZTE remains pending. On January 16, 2018, InterDigital and ZTE filed a joint status report that informed the court of the Federal Circuit’s decision regarding the ’966 and ’847 patents and that the PTAB proceedings regarding the ’244 patent remained pending. The parties jointly requested that the case be stayed for an additional 90 days so that the portion of the case related to damages potentially owed by ZTE as to the three patents-in-suit may be coordinated. The court granted this request on January 17, 2018.
2011 USITC Proceeding (337-TA-800) and Related ZTE and LG Delaware District Court Proceeding
USITC Proceeding (337-TA-800)
On July 26, 2011, InterDigital’s wholly owned subsidiaries InterDigital Communications, LLC (now InterDigital Communications, Inc.), InterDigital Technology Corporation and IPR Licensing, Inc. filed a complaint with the USITC against Nokia Corporation and Nokia Inc., Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. and FutureWei Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Huawei Technologies (USA) and ZTE Corporation and ZTE (USA) Inc. (collectively, the “337-TA-800 Respondents”), alleging violations of Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 in that they engaged in unfair trade practices by selling for importation into the United States, importing into the United States and/or selling after importation into the United States certain 3G wireless devices (including WCDMA- and cdma2000-capable mobile phones, USB sticks, mobile hotspots and tablets and components of such devices) that infringe several of InterDigital’s U.S. patents. The action also extended to certain WCDMA and cdma2000 devices incorporating WiFi functionality. InterDigital’s complaint with the USITC sought an exclusion order that would bar

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from entry into the United States any infringing 3G wireless devices (and components) that are imported by or on behalf of the 337-TA-800 Respondents, and also sought a cease-and-desist order to bar further sales of infringing products that have already been imported into the United States. In May 2012, Huawei Device USA, Inc. was added as a 337-TA-800 Respondent.
The ALJ held an evidentiary hearing from February 12-21, 2013. The patents in issue as of the hearing were U.S. Patent Nos. 8,009,636 (the “’636 patent”), 7,706, 830 (the “’830 patent”), 7,502,406 (the “’406 patent”), 7,616,970 (the “’970 patent”), 7,706,332 (the “’332 patent”), 7,536,013 (the “’013 patent”) and 7,970,127 (the “’127 patent”). The ALJ’s Initial Determination (“ID”) issued on June 28, 2013, finding no violation because the asserted patents were not infringed and/or invalid. Among other determinations, with respect to the 337-TA-800 Respondents’ FRAND and other equitable defenses, the ALJ found that Respondents had failed to prove either that InterDigital violated any FRAND obligations, that InterDigital failed to negotiate in good faith, or that InterDigital’s licensing offers were discriminatory. The ALJ also found that InterDigital is not precluded from seeking injunctive relief based on any alleged FRAND commitments.
Petitions for review of the ID to the Commission were filed by InterDigital and the 337-TA-800 Respondents on July 15, 2013. On September 4, 2013, the Commission determined to review the ID in its entirety.
On December 19, 2013, the Commission issued its final determination. The Commission adopted, with some modification, the ALJ’s finding of no violation of Section 337 as to Nokia, Huawei, and ZTE. The Commission did not rule on any other issue, including FRAND and domestic industry, and stated that all other issues remain under review.
On December 20, 2013, InterDigital filed in the Federal Circuit a petition for review seeking reversal of the Commission’s final determination. On February 18, 2015, the Federal Circuit issued a decision affirming the USITC’s determinations that the claims of the ’830, ’636, ’406 and ’332 patents were not infringed, that the claims of the ’970 patent are invalid, and that the Respondents did not violate Section 337. On April 6, 2015, InterDigital filed a combined petition for panel rehearing and rehearing en banc as to the ’830 and ’636 patents. The petition was denied on May 12, 2015, and the court’s mandate issued on May 19, 2015.
Related Delaware District Court Proceeding
On July 26, 2011, the same date that InterDigital filed USITC Proceeding (337-TA-800), it filed a parallel action in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware against the 337-TA-800 Respondents alleging infringement of the same asserted patents identified in USITC Proceeding (337-TA-800). The Delaware District Court complaint seeks a permanent injunction and compensatory damages in an amount to be determined, as well as enhanced damages based on willful infringement, and recovery of reasonable attorneys' fees and costs. On September 23, 2011, the defendants in the Delaware District Court complaint filed a motion to stay the Delaware District Court action pending the parallel proceedings in the USITC. Because the USITC has instituted USITC Proceeding (337-TA-800), the defendants have a statutory right to a mandatory stay of the Delaware District Court proceeding pending a final determination in the USITC. On October 3, 2011, InterDigital amended the Delaware District Court complaint, adding LG as a defendant and adding the same additional patent that InterDigital requested be added to USITC Proceeding (337-TA-800). On October 11, 2011, the Delaware District Court granted the defendants' motion to stay. The case is currently stayed through March 12, 2018.
On January 14, 2014, InterDigital and Huawei filed a stipulation of dismissal of their disputes in this action on account of the confidential settlement agreement mentioned above. On the same day, the Delaware District Court granted the stipulation of dismissal.
On May 15, 2017, InterDigital and Nokia filed a stipulation of dismissal of their dispute pursuant to the Microsoft Settlement Agreement discussed above. On May 16, 2017, the Delaware District Court granted the stipulation and dismissed the case with prejudice with respect to Nokia Corporation and Nokia Inc.
In December 2017, InterDigital entered into a patent license agreement with LG, pursuant to which the parties agreed to terms for dismissal by InterDigital of the outstanding litigation among the parties and their affiliates. Accordingly, on December 5, 2017, InterDigital and LG filed a stipulation of dismissal of the case against LG. On the same day, the Delaware District Court granted the stipulation and dismissed the case against LG with prejudice.
The case remains pending with respect to ZTE.
OTHER
We are party to certain other disputes and legal actions in the ordinary course of business, including arbitrations and legal proceedings with licensees regarding the terms of their agreements and the negotiation thereof. We do not currently believe that these matters, even if adversely adjudicated or settled, would have a material adverse effect on our financial

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condition, results of operations or cash flows. None of the above matters have met the requirements for accrual or disclosure of a potential range as of December 31, 2017.


Item 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Market Information
The NASDAQ Stock Market (“NASDAQ”) is the principal market for our common stock, which is traded under the symbol "IDCC." The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices of our common stock for each quarterly period in 2017 and 2016, as reported by NASDAQ.
2017
High
 
Low
First quarter
$
102.30

 
$
83.15

Second quarter
93.00

 
77.20

Third quarter
81.85

 
67.55

Fourth quarter
78.10

 
70.60

2016
High
 
Low
First quarter
$
55.85

 
$
41.01

Second quarter
59.83

 
51.97

Third quarter
79.92

 
52.33

Fourth quarter
98.00

 
68.10

Holders
As of February 20, 2018, there were 558 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends
Cash dividends on outstanding common stock declared in 2017 and 2016 were as follows (in thousands, except per share data):
2017
Per Share
 
Total
 
Cumulative by Fiscal Year
First quarter
$
0.30

 
$
10,404

 
$
10,404

Second quarter
0.30

 
10,413

 
20,817

Third quarter
0.35

 
12,149

 
32,966

Fourth quarter
0.35

 
12,156

 
45,122

 
$
1.30

 
$
45,122

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
 
 
 
 
First quarter
$
0.20

 
$
6,923

 
$
6,923

Second quarter
0.20

 
6,861

 
13,784

Third quarter
0.30

 
10,285

 
24,069

Fourth quarter
0.30

 
10,290

 
34,359

 
$
1.00

 
$
34,359

 
 
In September 2017, we announced that our Board of Directors had approved an increase in the Company’s quarterly cash dividend to $0.35 per share. We currently expect to continue to pay dividends comparable to our quarterly $0.35 per share cash dividend in the future; however, continued payment of cash dividends and changes in the Company's dividend policy will depend on the Company's earnings, financial condition, capital resources and capital requirements, alternative uses of capital, restrictions imposed by any existing debt, economic conditions and other factors considered relevant by our Board of Directors.

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Performance Graph
The following graph compares five-year cumulative total returns of the Company, the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Stock Index. The graph assumes $100 was invested in the common stock of InterDigital and each index as of December 31, 2012 and that all dividends were re-invested. Such returns are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance.
COMPARISON OF 5-YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
among InterDigital, Inc., the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index

392296770_charta01.jpg
 
12/12
12/13
12/14
12/15
12/16
12/17
InterDigital, Inc.
100.00
72.31
131.77
124.05
234.67
198.65
NASDAQ Composite
100.00
141.63
162.09
173.33
187.19
242.29
NASDAQ Telecommunications
100.00
141.28
145.43
140.97
150.94
184.81
                             
The above performance graph shall not be deemed "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any filing of InterDigital under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Repurchase of Common Stock
The following table provides information regarding Company purchases of its common stock during fourth quarter 2017.
    

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Period
Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased (1)
 
Average Price Paid Per Share (or Unit)
 
Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchases as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (2)
 
Maximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of Shares (or Units) That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (3)
October 1, 2017 - October 31, 2017
8,361

 
$
72.00

 
8,361

 
$
185,668,028

November 1, 2017 - November 30, 2017
99,101

 
$
71.52

 
99,101

 
$
178,578,011

December 1, 2017 - December 31, 2017

 
$

 

 
$
178,578,011

Total
107,462

 
$
71.56

 
107,462

 
$
178,578,011

                                 
(1) Total number of shares purchased during each period reflects share purchase transactions that were completed (i.e., settled) during the period indicated.
(2) Shares were purchased pursuant to the Company’s $500 million share repurchase program (the “2014 Repurchase Program”), $300 million of which was authorized by the Company’s Board of Directors on June 11, 2014 and announced on June 12, 2014, $100 million of which was authorized by the Company’s Board of Directors and announced on June 11, 2015, and $100 million of which was authorized by the Company's Board of Directors and announced on September 14, 2017. The 2014 Repurchase Program has no expiration date. The Company may repurchase shares under the 2014 Repurchase Program through open market purchases, pre-arranged trading plans, or privately negotiated purchases.
(3) Amounts shown in this column reflect the amounts remaining under the 2014 Repurchase Program.    
Item 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.

The following data should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements, related Notes and other financial information contained in this Form 10-K.

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2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(in thousands except per share data)
Consolidated statements of operations data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenues (a)
$
532,938

 
$
665,854

 
$
441,435

 
$
415,821

 
$
325,361

Income from operations
$
301,495

 
$
437,306

 
$
208,549

 
$
168,960

 
$
84,756

Income tax provision (b)
$
(121,676
)
 
$
(116,791
)
 
$
(64,621
)
 
$
(52,108
)
 
$
(25,836
)
Net income applicable to InterDigital, Inc. common shareholders
$
174,293

 
$
309,001

 
$
119,225

 
$
104,342

 
$
38,165

Net income per common share — basic
$
5.04

 
$
8.95

 
$
3.31

 
$
2.65

 
$
0.93

Net income per common share — diluted
$
4.87

 
$
8.78

 
$
3.27

 
$
2.62

 
$
0.92

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding — basic
34,605

 
34,526

 
36,048

 
39,420

 
41,115

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding — diluted
35,779

 
35,189

 
36,463

 
39,879

 
41,424

Cash dividends declared per common share (c)
$
1.30

 
$
1.00

 
$
0.80

 
$
0.70

 
$
0.40

Consolidated balance sheets data:
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
$
433,014

 
$
404,074

 
$
510,207

 
$
428,567

 
$
497,714

Short-term investments
724,981

 
548,687

 
423,501

 
275,361

 
200,737

Working capital
1,019,353

 
795,639

 
610,994

 
582,688

 
703,576

Total assets
1,854,420

 
1,727,853

 
1,474,485

 
1,192,962

 
1,110,251

Total debt
285,126

 
272,021

 
486,769

 
216,206

 
205,881

Total InterDigital, Inc. shareholders’ equity
855,267

 
739,709

 
510,519

 
468,328

 
528,650

Noncontrolling interest
17,881

 
14,659

 
11,376

 
7,349

 
5,170

Total shareholders’ equity
$
873,148

 
$
754,368

 
$
521,895

 
$
475,677

 
$
533,820

                              

(a)
In 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, our revenues included $162.9 million, $309.7 million, $65.8 million, $125.0 million and $127.0 million of past sales, respectively.
(b)
In 2017, our income tax provision was impacted by the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Reform Act”) as discussed in our results of operations. For more information, refer to Note 10, "Taxes" in the Notes to Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, of this Form 10-K. In 2016, our income tax provision included the impact of a $23.6 million net tax benefit primarily related to domestic activity production deductions for prior years. In 2014, our income tax provision included the impact of a $4.2 million net tax benefit, primarily attributable to available U.S. federal research and development tax credits for prior years, which was partially offset by an audit settlement.
(c)
In September 2017, we announced that our Board of Directors had approved an increase in the Company’s quarterly cash dividend to $0.35 per share. In September 2016, we announced that our Board of Directors had approved an increase in the Company’s quarterly cash dividend to $0.30 per share. In June 2014, we announced that our Board of Directors had approved a 100% increase in the Company's quarterly cash dividend, to $0.20 per share.

Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

OVERVIEW
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Selected Financial Data, the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto contained in this Form 10-K.
Throughout the following discussion and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, we refer to “recurring revenues” and “past sales.”  Recurring revenues are comprised of “current patent royalties” and “current technology solutions revenue.”  Past sales are comprised of “past patent royalties” and “past technology solutions revenue.”
In addition, the following discussion presents revenue information in accordance with the revenue recognition accounting guidance in effect as of December 31, 2017. Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted FASB Accounting Standards Codification 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"), which will impact our recognition of revenue from both our fixed-fee and per-unit license agreements beginning in first quarter 2018. See "New Accounting Guidance - Accounting Standards

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Update: Revenue Recognition," in this Overview section for a discussion of the expected impact to certain revenue information presented herein as a result of the adoption of the new guidance.
Business
InterDigital designs and develops advanced technologies that enable and enhance wireless communications and capabilities. Since our founding in 1972, our engineers have designed and developed a wide range of innovations that are used in digital cellular and wireless products and networks, including 2G, 3G, 4G and IEEE 802-related products and networks. We are a leading contributor of innovation to the wireless communications industry.
Given our long history and focus on advanced research and development, InterDigital has one of the most significant patent portfolios in the wireless industry. As of December 31, 2017, InterDigital's wholly owned subsidiaries held a portfolio of approximately 19,000 patents and patent applications related to a range of technologies including the fundamental technologies that enable wireless communications. In that portfolio are a number of patents and patent applications that we believe are or may be essential or may become essential to cellular and other wireless standards, including 3G, 4G and the IEEE 802 suite of standards, as well as patents and patent applications that we believe may become essential to 5G standards that are under development. That portfolio has largely been built through internal development, supplemented by joint development projects with other companies as well as select acquisitions of patents and companies. Products incorporating our patented inventions include: mobile devices, such as cellular phones, tablets, notebook computers and wireless personal digital assistants; wireless infrastructure equipment, such as base stations; components, dongles and modules for wireless devices; and IoT devices and software platforms.
InterDigital derives revenues primarily from patent licensing, with contributions from patent sales, product sales, technology solutions licensing and sales and engineering services. In 2017, 2016, and 2015, our total revenues were $532.9 million, $665.9 million and $441.4 million, respectively. Our recurring revenues in 2017, 2016 and 2015 were $370.0 million, $356.2 million and $372.8 million, respectively. In each of the years presented, we recognized between $68.6 million and $309.7 million of past patent royalties as more fully discussed below.
In 2017, fixed-fee royalties accounted for approximately 82% of our recurring revenues. These fixed-fee revenues are not affected by the related licensees’ success in the market or the general economic climate. The majority of the remaining portion of our recurring revenue was variable in nature due to the per-unit structure of the related license agreements.
Refer to "New Accounting Guidance" below for a discussion regarding our adoption of ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018.
Revenue
Recurring revenue in 2017 of $370.0 million increased 4% from the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by contributions from our technology solutions customers as well the signing, in fourth quarter 2017, of our patent license agreement with LG. During 2017, we recognized $162.9 million of past sales revenue, primarily attributable to the LG agreement, the recognition of a prepayment balance remaining under a patent license agreement that expired in fourth quarter 2017 and our second quarter 2017 settlement agreement with Microsoft Corporation, as compared to $309.7 million of past sales recognized in 2016.
Refer to "Results of Operations -- 2017 Compared with 2016" for further discussion of our 2017 revenue.
New Agreements
During fourth quarter 2017, we entered into a multi-year, worldwide, non-exclusive patent license with LG (the “LG PLA”), a global leader and technology innovator in consumer electronics, mobile communications and home appliances. The LG PLA covers the 3G, 4G and 5G terminal unit products of LG and its affiliates and sets forth a royalty of cash payments to InterDigital as well as a process for the transfer of patents from LG to InterDigital.  The deal also commits the parties to explore cooperation for projects related to the research and development of video and sensor technology for connected and autonomous vehicles.  In addition, the parties also agreed to terms for dismissal by InterDigital of the outstanding litigation among the parties and their affiliates.
Our agreement with LG is a multiple-element arrangement for accounting purposes. We recognized $42.4 million of revenue under this patent license agreement during 2017, including $34.5 million of past sales. We will recognize future revenue under the agreement on a straight-line basis over its term. A portion of the consideration for the agreement was in the form of patents from LG. Refer to Note 2, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," for additional information related to the estimates and methods used to determine the fair value of the patents acquired.
Consistent with the revenue recognition policy disclosed in Note 2, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," we identified each element of the LG PLA, estimated its relative value for purposes of allocating the arrangement consideration

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and determined when each of those elements should be recognized. Using the accounting guidance applicable to multiple-element revenue arrangements, we allocated the consideration to each element for accounting purposes using our best estimate of the term and value of each element. The development of a number of these inputs and assumptions in the models requires a significant amount of management judgment and is based upon a number of factors, including the assumed royalty rates, sales volumes, discount rate and other relevant factors. Changes in any of a number of these assumptions could have had a substantial impact on the relative fair value assigned to each element for accounting purposes. These inputs and assumptions represent management's best estimates at the time of the transaction.    
Expiration of License Agreements
Our patent license agreements with two licensees expired in whole or in part during 2017.  Collectively, these agreements accounted for $14.4 million, or approximately 4%, of our recurring revenue in 2017.  Additionally, one of these agreements had a non-refundable prepaid balance of $70.7 million remaining at the end of the license term that was recognized as past patent royalties in fourth quarter 2017. In addition, certain royalty obligations under one of our technology solutions licenses terminated during 2017.  The royalties associated with such obligations accounted for $15.1 million, or 4%, of our recurring revenue in 2017.
Our patent license agreement with Huawei is scheduled to expire at the end of 2018, and upon expiration Huawei will become unlicensed as to all products covered under the agreement.  Huawei contributed $68.0 million, or approximately 18%, of our recurring revenue in 2017.  Because our patent license agreement with Huawei is a static fixed-fee agreement, under the new revenue recognition rules that became effective for the Company January 1, 2018, we will not recognize any revenues under this agreement in 2018.  Refer to "New Accounting Guidance" below for a discussion regarding our adoption of ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018.
Including Huawei, our patent license agreements with three licensees are scheduled to expire during 2018.  Collectively, these agreements accounted for $88.0 million, or approximately 24%, of our recurring revenue in 2017. Similar to Huawei, one of these two additional agreements is a static fixed-fee agreement for which we will not recognize any revenue in 2018 under ASC 606; we recognized $18.5 million of recurring revenue under that agreement in 2017.
Income Tax Reform
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Reform Act was signed into law. The Tax Reform Act significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax regime by, among other things: lowering the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018; imposing a 13.125% tax rate on income that qualifies as Foreign Derived Intangible Income ("FDII"); repealing the deduction for domestic production activities; implementing a territorial tax system; and imposing a repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries. GAAP requires that the impact of tax legislation be recognized in the period in which the law was enacted.
As a result of the Tax Reform Act, we recorded a tax charge of approximately $42.6 million in 2017 due to a re-measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities, and we do not expect a material repatriation tax liability to be owed. We will continue to monitor as additional guidance is released. The tax charge represents provisional amounts and the Company’s current best estimates. Any adjustments recorded to the provisional amounts through fourth quarter 2018 will be included in net income as an adjustment to tax expense. The provisional amounts incorporate assumptions made based upon our current interpretation of the Tax Reform Act and may change as the Company receives additional clarification and implementation guidance. On a go-forward basis, we currently expect a significant portion of our income to qualify as FDII and thus be subject to the 13.125% tax rate.
Cash and Short-Term Investments
At December 31, 2017, we had $1.2 billion of cash and short-term investments and up to an additional $833.7 million of payments due under signed agreements, including $216.7 million recorded in accounts receivable that is due within twelve months of the balance sheet date. A substantial portion of our cash and short-term investments relates to fixed and prepaid royalty payments we have received that relate to future sales of our licensees’ products. As a result, our future cash receipts from existing licenses subject to fixed and prepaid royalties will be lower than if the royalty payments were structured to coincide with the underlying sales. During 2017, we recorded $509.1 million of cash receipts related to patent licensing and technology solutions agreements as follows (in thousands):

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Cash In
Fixed-fee royalty payments
$
391,598

Per-unit royalties
47,786

Past patent royalties
48,020

Technology solutions
21,676

 
$
509,080

Under GAAP in effect as of December 31, 2017, approximately $525.0 million of our $616.8 million deferred revenue balance as of December 31, 2017 related to fixed-fee royalty payments that were scheduled to amortize as follows (in thousands):
2018
$
307,142

2019
210,128

2020
2,618

2021
1,760

2022
1,245

Thereafter
2,133

 
$
525,026

The remaining $91.8 million of deferred revenue primarily relates to prepaid royalties that would have been recorded as revenue under GAAP in effect as of December 31, 2017, as our licensees report their sales of covered products or at the conclusion of the related license agreement.
Refer to "New Accounting Guidance" below for a discussion regarding our adoption of ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018.
Repurchase of Common Stock
In June 2014, our Board of Directors authorized a $300 million share repurchase program (the “2014 Repurchase Program”). In June 2015, our Board of Directors authorized a $100 million increase to the program, and in September 2017, our Board of Directors authorized another $100 million increase to the program, bringing the total amount of the 2014 Repurchase Program to $500 million. The Company may repurchase shares under the 2014 Repurchase Program through open market purchases, pre-arranged trading plans or privately negotiated purchases.
The table below sets forth the total number of shares repurchased and the dollar value of shares repurchased under the 2014 Repurchase Program, in thousands.
 
 
2014 Repurchase Program
 
 
# of Shares
 
Value
2017

107

 
$
7,693

2016

1,304

 
64,685

2015

1,836

 
96,410

2014
 
3,554

 
152,625

Total

6,801


$
321,413

Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement
If we believe a party is required to license our patents in order to manufacture, use and/or sell certain products and such party refuses to do so, we may agree with such party to have royalty rates, or other terms, set by third party adjudicators (such as arbitrators) or, in certain circumstances, we may institute legal action against them to enforce our patent rights. This legal action has typically taken the form of a patent infringement lawsuit or an administrative proceeding. In addition, we and our licensees, in the normal course of business, might seek to resolve disagreements as to the rights and obligations of the parties under the applicable license agreement through arbitration or litigation.

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In 2017, our intellectual property enforcement costs decreased to $15.2 million from $16.5 million and $31.8 million in 2016 and 2015, respectively. These costs represented 14% of our 2017 total patent administration and licensing costs of $111.2 million. Intellectual property enforcement costs will vary depending upon activity levels, and it is likely they will continue to be a significant expense for us in the future.
Comparability of Financial Results
When comparing 2017 financial results against the financial results of other periods, the following items should be taken into consideration:
Our 2017 revenue includes $162.9 million of past sales primarily attributable to the LG agreement, the recognition of a prepayment balance remaining under a patent license agreement that expired in fourth quarter 2017 and our second quarter 2017 settlement agreement with Microsoft Corporation.
Our 2017 operating expenses include a $1.2 million severance charge related to on-going efforts to optimize our cost structure.
Our 2017 income tax provision includes:
a $42.6 million tax charge primarily due to a re-measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities as a result of the Tax Reform Act;
a discrete benefit of $12.1 million for excess tax benefits related to our current year adoption of ASU 2016-09, “Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting,” as discussed below in New Accounting Guidance; and
discrete benefits of $8.0 million primarily related to the decrease of uncertain tax positions associated with domestic production activities refund claims and interest income on refunds.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are based on the selection and application of GAAP, which require us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in both our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Future events and their effects cannot be determined with absolute certainty. Therefore, the determination of estimates requires the exercise of judgment. Actual results could differ from these estimates and any such differences may be material to the financial statements. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 to our Consolidated Financial Statements and are included in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K. We believe the accounting policies that are of particular importance to the portrayal of our financial condition and results and that may involve a higher degree of complexity and judgment in their application compared to others are those relating to revenue recognition, compensation and income taxes. If different assumptions were made or different conditions existed, our financial results could have been materially different.

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Revenue Recognition
The discussion that follows below is a description of our revenue recognition practices in effect as of December 31, 2017. As discussed in more detail below under “New Accounting Guidance," the FASB issued guidance on revenue from contracts with customers that superseded most revenue recognition guidance in effect as of year-end 2017, including industry-specific guidance, which is effective for the Company January 1, 2018.
We derive the vast majority of our revenue from patent licensing. The timing and amount of revenue recognized from each licensee depends upon a variety of factors, including the specific terms of each agreement and the nature of the deliverables and obligations. Such agreements are often complex and include multiple elements. These agreements can include, without limitation, elements related to the settlement of past patent infringement liabilities, up-front and non-refundable license fees for the use of patents and/or know-how, patent and/or know-how licensing royalties on covered products sold by licensees, cross-licensing terms between us and other parties, the compensation structure and ownership of intellectual property rights associated with contractual technology development arrangements, advanced payments and fees for service arrangements and settlement of intellectual property enforcement. For agreements entered into or materially modified prior to 2011, due to the inherent difficulty in establishing reliable, verifiable, and objectively determinable evidence of the fair value of the separate elements of these agreements, the total revenue resulting from such agreements has often been recognized over the performance period. Since January 2011, we have accounted for all new or materially modified agreements under the FASB revenue recognition guidance, "Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables." This guidance requires consideration to be allocated to each element of an agreement that has standalone value using the relative fair value method. In other circumstances, such as those agreements involving consideration for past and expected future patent royalty obligations, after consideration of the particular facts and circumstances, the appropriate recording of revenue between periods may require the use of judgment. In all cases, revenue is only recognized after all of the following criteria are met: (1) written agreements have been executed; (2) delivery of technology or intellectual property rights has occurred or services have been rendered; (3) fees are fixed or determinable; and (4) collectibility of fees is reasonably assured.
We establish a receivable for payments expected to be received within twelve months from the balance sheet date based on the terms in the license. Our reporting of such payments often results in an increase to both accounts receivable and deferred revenue. Deferred revenue associated with fixed-fee royalty payments is classified on the balance sheet as short-term when it is scheduled to be amortized within twelve months from the balance sheet date. All other deferred revenue is classified as long-term, as amounts to be recognized over the next twelve months are not known.
Patent License Agreements
Upon signing a patent license agreement, we provide the licensee permission to use our patented inventions in specific applications. We account for patent license agreements in accordance with the guidance for revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables. We have elected to utilize the leased-based model for revenue recognition, with revenue being recognized over the expected period of benefit to the licensee. Under our patent license agreements, we typically receive one or a combination of the following forms of payment as consideration for permitting our licensees to use our patented inventions in their applications and products:
Consideration for Past Patent Royalties:  Consideration related to a licensee’s product sales from prior periods may result from a negotiated agreement with a licensee that utilized our patented inventions prior to signing a patent license agreement with us or from the resolution of a disagreement or arbitration with a licensee over the specific terms of an existing license agreement. We may also receive consideration for past patent royalties in connection with the settlement of patent litigation where there was no prior patent license agreement. In each of these cases, we record the consideration as revenue when we have obtained a signed agreement, identified a fixed or determinable price and determined that collectibility is reasonably assured.
Fixed-Fee Royalty Payments:  These are up-front, non-refundable royalty payments that fulfill the licensee’s obligations to us under a patent license agreement for a specified time period or for the term of the agreement for specified products, under certain patents or patent claims, for sales in certain countries, or a combination thereof — in each case for a specified time period (including for the life of the patents licensed under the agreement). We recognize revenues related to Fixed-Fee Royalty Payments on a straight-line basis over the effective term of the license. We utilize the straight-line method because we cannot reliably predict in which periods, within the term of a license, the licensee will benefit from the use of our patented inventions.
Prepayments:  These are up-front, non-refundable royalty payments towards a licensee’s future obligations to us related to its expected sales of covered products in future periods. Our licensees’ obligations to pay royalties typically extend beyond the exhaustion of their Prepayment balance. Once a licensee exhausts its Prepayment balance, we may provide them with the opportunity to make another Prepayment toward future sales or it will be required to make Current Royalty Payments.

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Current Royalty Payments:  These are royalty payments covering a licensee’s obligations to us related to its sales of covered products in the current contractual reporting period.
Licensees that either owe us Current Royalty Payments or have Prepayment balances are obligated to provide us with quarterly royalty reports that summarize their sales of covered products and their related royalty obligations to us. We typically receive these royalty reports subsequent to the period in which our licensees’ underlying sales occurred. As a result, it is impractical for us to recognize revenue in the period in which the underlying sales occur, and, in most cases, we recognize revenue in the period in which the royalty report is received and other revenue recognition criteria are met due to the fact that without royalty reports from our licensees, our visibility into our licensees’ sales is very limited. When a licensee is required to gross-up their royalty payment to cover applicable foreign withholding tax requirements, the additional consideration is recorded as revenue.
The exhaustion of Prepayments and Current Royalty Payments are often calculated based on related per-unit sales of covered products. From time to time, licensees will not report revenues in the proper period, most often due to legal disputes. When this occurs, the timing and comparability of royalty revenue could be affected. In cases where we receive objective, verifiable evidence that a licensee has discontinued sales of products covered under a patent license agreement with us, we recognize any related deferred revenue balance in the period that we receive such evidence.
Patent Sales
During 2012, we expanded our business strategy of monetizing our intellectual property to include the sale of select patent assets. As patent sales executed under this strategy represent a component of our ongoing major or central operations and activities, we will record the related proceeds as revenue. We will recognize the revenue when there is persuasive evidence of a sales arrangement, fees are fixed or determinable, delivery has occurred and collectibility is reasonably assured. These requirements are generally fulfilled upon closing of the patent sale transaction.
Technology Solutions
Technology solutions revenue consists primarily of revenue from royalty payments. We recognize revenue from royalty payments using the same methods described above under our policy for recognizing revenue from patent license agreements. Technology solutions revenues also consist of revenues from software licenses, engineering services and product sales. Software license revenues are recognized in accordance with the original and revised guidance for software revenue recognition. When the arrangement with a customer includes significant production, modification, or customization of the software, we recognize the related revenue using the percentage-of-completion method in accordance with the accounting guidance for construction-type and certain production-type contracts. Under this method, revenue and profit are recognized throughout the term of the contract, based on actual labor costs incurred to date as a percentage of the total estimated labor costs related to the contract. Changes in estimates for revenues, costs and profits are recognized in the period in which they are determinable. When such estimates indicate that costs will exceed future revenues and a loss on the contract exists, a provision for the entire loss is recognized at that time.
We recognize revenues associated with engineering service arrangements that are outside the scope of the accounting guidance for construction-type and certain production-type contracts on a straight-line basis, unless evidence suggests that the revenue is earned in a different pattern, over the contractual term of the arrangement or the expected period during which those specified services will be performed, whichever is longer. In such cases we often recognize revenue using proportional performance and measure the progress of our performance based on the relationship between incurred labor hours and total estimated labor hours or other measures of progress, if available. Our most significant cost has been labor and we believe both labor hours and labor cost provide a measure of the progress of our services. The effect of changes to total estimated contract costs is recognized in the period in which such changes are determined. We recognize revenues associated with product sales in the period in which the sales of the underlying units occur.     
Multiple Element Arrangements
During 2017, we signed one agreement that was considered a multiple-element arrangement for accounting purposes. In accordance with our revenue recognition policy, we identified each element of the arrangement, estimated its relative fair value for purposes of allocating the arrangement consideration and determined when each of those elements should be recognized. Using the accounting guidance applicable to multiple-element revenue arrangements, we allocated the consideration to each element for accounting purposes using our best estimate of the term and value of each element. The development of a number of these inputs and assumptions in the model requires a significant amount of management judgment and is based upon a number of factors, including the assumed royalty rates, sales volumes, discount rate and other relevant factors. Changes in any of a number of these assumptions could have had a substantial impact on the relative fair value

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assigned to each element for accounting purposes. These inputs and assumptions represent management's best estimates at the time of the transaction.
The impact that a five percent change in the aggregate amount allocated to past patent royalties under this agreement would have had on 2017 revenue is summarized in the following table (in thousands):
 
Change in amount allocated
Allocation to past patent royalties

+5%
 
-%5
Change in Revenue
$
6,355

 
$
(6,355
)
Revenue from Non-financial Sources

During 2017, 2016, and 2015, our patent licensing royalties were derived from patent license agreements ("PLAs") with 27, 26, and 24 independent licensees, respectively. We recognized revenue from five, four and four PLAs in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively, for which patents comprised less than one-third of the total consideration paid or due to us under those agreements. In addition, during 2017, 2016 and 2015 we recognized revenue from one PLA that was executed in 2014 in connection with a patent purchase agreement ("PPA") with the licensee. Total cash paid to our licensee under this PPA is approximately 56% of the total cash due to us under this licensee's PLA. During 2017, 2016, and 2015, approximately 4%, 3%, and 5%, respectively, of our total revenue was based on the estimated fair value of the patents in the above transactions. We estimated the fair value of the patents in the above transactions primarily by a combination of a discounted cash flow analysis (the income approach) and an analysis of comparable market transactions (the market approach). For the income approach, the inputs and assumptions used to develop these estimates were based on a market participant perspective and included estimates of projected royalties, discount rates, economic lives and income tax rates, among others. For the market approach, judgment was applied as to which market transactions were most comparable to this transaction. The development of a number of these inputs and assumptions requires a significant amount of management judgment and is based upon a number of factors, including the selection of industry comparables, assumed royalty rates, sales volumes, economic lives of the patents and other relevant factors. Changes in any of a number of these assumptions could have had a substantial impact on the fair value assigned to the patents for accounting purposes. These inputs and assumptions represent management's best estimates at the time of the transaction. The impact that a five percent change in the estimated aggregate value of the patents acquired would have had on 2017 revenue, patent amortization and pre-tax income is summarized in the following table (in thousands):
 
Change in estimate
Estimated value of patents acquired in connection with PLAs
+5%
 
-%5
Revenue
$
875

 
$
(875
)
Less: Patent amortization
605

 
(605
)
Pre-tax income
$
270

 
$
(270
)
Compensation Programs
We use a variety of compensation programs to both attract and retain employees, and to more closely align employee compensation with company performance. These programs include, but are not limited to, short-term incentive awards tied to performance goals and cash awards to inventors for filed patent applications and patent issuances, as well as stock option awards, time-based restricted stock unit (“RSU”) awards and performance-based awards under our long-term compensation program ("LTCP"). Our LTCP typically includes annual RSU grants with three- to five-year vesting periods; as a result, in any one year, we are typically accounting for at least three active LTCP cycles.
The aggregate amount of performance compensation expense we record in a period, under both short-term and long-term performance compensation programs, requires the input of subjective assumptions and is a function of our estimated progress toward performance compensation goals at the beginning of the period, and our estimated progress or final assessment of progress toward performance compensation goals at the end of the period. Our estimated progress toward goals under performance equity grants is based on meeting a minimum confidence level in accordance with accounting rules for share-based compensation. Achievement rates can vary by performance cycle and from period to period, resulting in variability in our compensation expense.
If we had accrued all performance compensation cost throughout 2017 on the assumption that all plans and active cycles thereunder would be paid out at 100%, we would have recorded $0.3 million less in compensation expense in 2017 than

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we actually recorded. There are three LTCP cycles the vesting period for which will continue into 2018. If we were to record the performance-based incentive components of these three cycles at current accrual rates during 2018, we estimate that we would record $2.9 million in performance-based incentive compensation for those cycles in 2018.
We account for compensation costs associated with share-based transactions based on the fair value of the instruments issued. The estimated value of stock options includes assumptions around expected life, stock volatility and dividends. The expected life of our stock option awards are based on the simplified method as prescribed by Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 14. In all periods, our policy has been to set the value of RSUs and restricted stock awards equal to the value of our underlying common stock on the date of measurement. For grants with graded vesting, we amortize the associated unrecognized compensation cost using an accelerated method. For grants that cliff vest, we amortize the associated unrecognized compensation cost on a straight-line basis over their vesting term.
As described in Note 2, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," certain elements of our accounting for compensation costs associated with share-based transactions changed upon our adoption of ASC 2016-09 in first quarter 2017. We no longer account for these costs net of estimated award forfeitures. Instead, we adjust compensation expense recognized to date in the event of canceled awards as they occur. Additionally, tax windfalls and shortfalls related to the tax effects of employee share-based compensation no longer reside within additional paid-in-capital. Rather, these windfalls and shortfalls are included in our tax provision. We have also adjusted our disclosures included within our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. Tax windfalls and shortfalls related to employee share-based compensation awards are included within operating activities and cash paid to tax authorities for shares withheld are included within financing activities. Although these changes have no impact on the amount of share-based compensation expense we ultimately recognize, the inclusion of windfalls and shortfalls in the tax provision could increase our earnings volatility between periods.
The below table summarizes our performance-based and other share-based compensation expense for 2017, 2016 and 2015, in thousands:

2017
 
2016
 
2015
Short-term incentive compensation
$
13,994

 
$
20,516

 
$
19,098

Time-based awards (a)
6,958

 
7,847

 
7,874

Performance-based awards (a) (b)
6,883

 
12,812

 
5,340

Other share-based compensation
4,999

 
1,899

 
2,090

Total performance-based and other share-based compensation expense
$
32,834

 
$
43,074

 
$
34,402

                             
(a) For 2017, 2016 and 2015, approximately 6%, 2%, and 1%, respectively, of the aggregate expense associated with time-based and performance-based awards related to cash awards.
(b) Includes a charge of $0.4 million, $3.0 million and $1.1 million in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively, to increase the accrual rates under our LTCP driven by the Company's success toward achieving goals for the related cycles.
Income Taxes
As discussed above, the Tax Reform Act was signed into law on December 22, 2017. Pursuant to the Securities and Exchange Commission Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("SAB 118"), given the amount and complexity of the changes in tax law resulting from the Tax Reform Act, we have not yet finalized the accounting for the income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act. This includes the re-measurement of deferred taxes and transition tax on unrepatriated foreign earnings. Furthermore, we are in the process of analyzing the effects of new taxes due on certain foreign income. Currently, we expect a significant portion of our income to qualify as FDII (foreign-derived intangible income) and thus be subject to the 13.125% tax rate. We are still in the process of evaluating the impact that other provisions of the Tax Reform Act, such as those relating to GILTI (global intangible low-taxed income), BEAT (base-erosion anti-abuse tax), and limitations on interest expense deductions (if certain conditions apply) that are effective starting in fiscal 2018, will have on the Company. As a result of the Tax Reform Act, we recorded a tax charge of approximately $42.6 million in 2017 primarily due to a re-measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities, and we do not expect a material repatriation tax liability to be owed. The impact of the Tax Reform Act may differ from this estimate during the one-year measurement period due to, among other things, further refinement of the Company’s calculations, changes in interpretations and assumptions the Company has made, guidance that may be issued and actions the Company may take as a result of the Tax Reform Act.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and operating loss and tax credit carry

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forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Income in the period in which the change was enacted. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the carrying amounts of deferred tax assets if management has determined that it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized.
In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws. We are subject to examinations by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and other taxing jurisdictions on various tax matters, including challenges to various positions we assert in our filings. In the event that the IRS or another taxing jurisdiction levies an assessment in the future, it is possible the assessment could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
The financial statement recognition of the benefit for a tax position is dependent upon the benefit being more likely than not to be sustainable upon audit by the applicable tax authority. If this threshold is met, the tax benefit is then measured and recognized at the largest amount that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. In the event that the IRS or another taxing jurisdiction levies an assessment in the future, it is possible the assessment could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
Between 2006 and 2017, we paid approximately $422.3 million in foreign taxes for which we have claimed foreign tax credits against our U.S. tax obligations. Of this amount, $275.2 million relates to taxes paid to foreign governments that have tax treaties with the U.S. It is possible that as a result of tax treaty procedures, the U.S. government may reach an agreement with the related foreign governments that will result in a partial refund of foreign taxes paid with a related reduction in our foreign tax credits. Due to both foreign currency fluctuations and differences in the interest rate charged by the U.S. government compared to the interest rates, if any, used by the foreign governments, any such agreement could result in net interest expense and/or foreign currency gain or loss.     
During 2017 and 2016, we recorded an estimated benefit for domestic production activities deduction of $5.1 million and $8.3 million, respectively, net of any unrecognized tax benefits. Additionally, we included an estimated benefit for research and development credits of $2.3 million, $2.1 million and $2.1 million, net of any unrecognized tax benefits, in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
During 2016, we completed a study for certain domestic production activities for the periods from 2010 to 2015 and amended our United States federal income tax returns for the periods from 2011 through 2014 to claim deductions related to domestic production activities for those periods. After all periods were amended and the 2015 federal income tax return was filed, we recognized a net benefit after consideration of any unrecognized tax benefits from the deductions in the amount of $23.6 million.
In 2015, the IRS concluded their audit of tax years 2010 through 2012 of the refund related to research and development tax credits, and upon completion of the review by the Joint Committee on Taxation, we reversed our related reserve for unrecognized tax benefits of $0.6 million. During 2016, we filed amended returns for 2011 through 2014 related to the manufacturing deduction and received notice from the IRS in 2016 that the amended years, along with the originally filed return for 2015, were open to examination. The examination concluded and the refund claims were confirmed by the Joint Committee on Taxation in 2017. We decreased our reserve for unrecognized tax benefits in the amount of $8.0 million in 2017.
New Accounting Guidance
Accounting Standards Update: Stock Compensation
In March 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the "FASB") issued ASU No. 2016-09, "Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting." ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of the accounting for employee share-based payment transactions for both public and nonpublic entities, including the accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, and statutory tax withholding requirements, as well as classification in the statement of cash flows. We applied the standard beginning in first quarter 2017. Certain elements of our accounting for compensation costs associated with share-based transactions changed upon adoption of ASU 2016-09. We no longer account for these costs net of estimated award forfeitures. Instead, we adjust expense recognized to date in the event of canceled awards as they occur. The elimination of estimated forfeitures did not have a material impact on our financial statements for 2017. Additionally, tax windfalls and shortfalls related to the tax effects of employee share-based compensation no longer reside within additional paid-in-capital. Rather, these windfalls and shortfalls are included in our tax provision. We also adjusted our disclosures included within our condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. Tax windfalls and shortfalls related to employee share-based compensation awards are included within operating activities on a prospective basis and cash paid to tax authorities for shares withheld is included within financing activities retrospectively. Although these changes have no impact on the amount of

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share-based compensation expense we ultimately recognize, the inclusion of windfalls and shortfalls in the tax provision could increase our earnings volatility between periods.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, "Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting." ASU 2017-09 provides clarity and reduces complexity in applying the guidance in Topic 718 to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. We adopted this guidance early, in second quarter 2017, and it had no immediate impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Update: Revenue Recognition
In May 2014, the FASB issued guidance on revenue from contracts with customers that superseded most revenue recognition guidance in effect at December 31, 2017, including industry-specific guidance. The underlying principle is that an entity will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance also requires enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from an entity’s contracts with customers. The guidance is effective for the interim and annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2017. The guidance permits the use of either a retrospective or cumulative effect transition method.
The new guidance will affect our recognition of revenue from both our fixed-fee and per-unit license agreements beginning in first quarter 2018. For accounting purposes under this new guidance, we will separate our fixed-fee license agreements into two categories: (i) those agreements that provide rights, over the term of the license, to future technologies that are highly interdependent or highly interrelated to the technologies provided at the inception of the agreement (“Dynamic Fixed-Fee Agreements”) and (ii) those agreements that do not provide for rights to such future technologies (“Static Fixed-Fee Agreements”). Under our current accounting practices, after the fair value allocation between the past and future components of the agreement, we recognize the future components of revenue from all fixed-fee license agreements on a straight-line basis over the term of the related license agreement. Upon adoption of the new guidance, we expect to continue to recognize revenue from Dynamic Fixed-Fee Agreements on a straight-line basis over the term of the related license agreement, while we expect to recognize most or all of the revenue from Static Fixed-Fee Agreements in the quarter the license agreement is signed. We will not recognize any revenue post adoption from Static Fixed-Fee Agreements already in existence at the time the guidance is adopted. Based on our preliminary classifications of fixed-fee license agreements as either “Dynamic” or "Static," in 2017, approximately 70% of our fixed-fee revenue was derived from Dynamic Fixed-Fee Agreements, with the remainder coming from Static Fixed-Fee Agreements. Additionally, in the event a significant financing component is determined to exist in any of our agreements, we may recognize more or less revenue and corresponding interest expense or income, as appropriate. See below for a preliminary summary of expected adjustments related to our adoption of ASC 606.
In addition, under our current accounting practices, we recognize revenue from our per-unit license agreements in the period in which we receive the related royalty report, generally one quarter in arrears from the period in which the underlying sales occur (i.e. on a "quarter-lag"). Upon adoption of the new guidance, we will be required to record per-unit royalty revenue in the same period in which the licensee’s underlying sales occur. Because we do not expect to receive the per-unit licensee royalty reports for sales during a given quarter within the time frame necessary to adequately review the reports and include the actual amounts in our quarterly results for such quarter, we expect to accrue the related revenue based on estimates of our licensees’ underlying sales, subject to certain constraints on our ability to estimate such amounts. As a result of accruing revenue for the quarter based on such estimates, adjustments will likely be required in the following quarter to true-up revenue to the actual amounts reported by our licensees. In addition, to the extent we receive prepayments related to per-unit license agreements that do not provide rights, over the term of the license, to future technologies that are highly interdependent or highly interrelated to the technologies provided at the inception of the agreement, we will recognize such prepayments as revenue in the period in which all remaining revenue recognition criteria have been met.
We adopted the new guidance effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective transition method. This will result in a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings. This adjustment is primarily the result of the recognition of deferred revenue balances related to our Static Agreements, the recognition of a significant financing component in certain of our Dynamic Fixed-Fee agreements, and related tax effects. The following table presents our preliminary estimate of the expected impact of these adjustments (in thousands). We will finalize and report the final adjustments in conjunction with the filing of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018.

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December 31, 2017
 
Static Fixed-Fee Agreements
Static Prepayment Agreements
Elimination of Quarter-Lag Reporting
Significant Financing Component
Related Tax Effects and Other Balance Sheet Impact
 
Total Adjustments
 
January 1, 2018
Accounts Receivable
$
216,293

 
$
6,000

$

$
10,957

$

$
(30,000
)
 
$
(13,043
)
 
$
203,250

Deferred Tax Assets
84,582

 




(42,362
)
 
(42,362
)
 
42,220

Taxes Payable
14,881

 




(1,184
)
 
(1,184
)
 
13,697

Deferred Revenue
(616,813
)
 
99,466

85,146


3,235

30,000

 
217,847

 
(398,966
)
Retained Earnings
(1,249,091
)
 
(105,466
)
(85,146
)
(10,957
)
(3,235
)
43,546

 
(161,258
)
 
(1,410,349
)
We expect that as a result of our adoption of ASC 606, our January 1, 2018 deferred revenue balance will be $399.0 million, including $392.3 million related to Dynamic Fixed-Fee royalty payments. Under GAAP in effect as of December 31, 2017, approximately $525.0 million of our $616.8 million of deferred revenue balance as of December 31, 2017 related to Fixed-Fee arrangements.  Our Fixed-Fee royalty payments are scheduled to amortize as follows (in thousands) under GAAP as of December 31, 2017 and under ASC 606, respectively:
 
GAAP as of December 31, 2017
 
ASC 606
2018
$
307,142

 
$
184,272

2019
210,128

 
93,237

2020
2,618

 
69,047

2021
1,760

 
45,769

2022
1,245

 

Thereafter
2,133

 

 
$
525,026

 
$
392,325

Under ASC 606, the remaining $6.7 million of $399.0 million of deferred revenue is expected to be recorded when all revenue recognition criteria have been met.
Accounting Standards Update: Leases
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)," which outlines a comprehensive lease accounting model and supersedes the current lease guidance. The new guidance requires lessees to recognize lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use assets for all leases with lease terms of greater than 12 months. It also changes the definition of a lease and expands the disclosure requirements of lease arrangements. The new guidance must be adopted using the modified retrospective approach and will be effective for the Company starting in first quarter 2020. Early adoption is permitted. We are in the process of determining the effect the adoption will have on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Update: Clarifying the Definition of a Business
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business." ASU 2017-01 narrows the existing definition of a business and provides a framework for evaluating whether a transaction should be accounted for as an acquisition (or disposal) of assets or a business. The guidance requires an entity to evaluate whether substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets; if so, the set of transferred assets and activities (collectively, the "set") is not a business. To be considered a business, the set would need to include an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs, as defined by the ASU.  We adopted this guidance early, in first quarter 2017, and it had no immediate impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Update: Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, "Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment," which eliminates the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill impairment charge (Step 2) from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, an impairment charge will equal the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the amount of goodwill allocated to the

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reporting unit. We adopted this guidance early, in first quarter 2017, and it had no immediate impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Update: Statement of Cash Flows
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, "Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments," which eliminates the diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. We adopted this guidance early, in second quarter 2017, and it had no immediate impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Update: Financial Instruments
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, "Financial Instruments (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities," which amends certain measurement, presentation, and disclosure requirements for financial instruments. The new guidance must be adopted by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet in the year of adoption and will be effective for the Company starting in first quarter 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Update: Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, "Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income," which allow a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Reform Act. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted. We expect to early adopt this guidance in first quarter 2018 and it is not expected to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
Legal Proceedings
We are routinely involved in disputes associated with enforcement and licensing activities regarding our intellectual property, including litigations, arbitrations and other proceedings. These litigations, arbitrations and other proceedings are important means to enforce our intellectual property rights. We are a party to other disputes and legal actions not related to our intellectual property, but also arising in the ordinary course of our business. Refer to Part I, Item 3, of this Form 10-K for a description of our material legal proceedings.
FINANCIAL POSITION, LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, as well as cash generated from operations. We believe we have the ability to obtain additional liquidity through debt and equity financings. Based on our past performance and current expectations, we believe our available sources of funds, including cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments and cash generated from our operations, will be sufficient to finance our operations, capital requirements, debt obligations, existing stock repurchase program and dividend program for the next twelve months.
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments
At December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had the following amounts of cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments (in thousands):
 
December 31, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
 
Increase /
(Decrease)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
433,014

 
$
404,074

 
$
28,940

Short-term investments
724,981

 
548,687

 
176,294

Total cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments
$
1,157,995

 
$
952,761

 
$
205,234

The increase in cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments was primarily attributable to $315.8 million of cash provided by operating activities. This increase was partially offset by cash used in financing activities of $66.6 million and capitalized patent costs and patent acquisitions of $34.9 million. See below for further discussion.
Cash flows from operations
We generated the following cash flows from our operating activities in 2017 and 2016 (in thousands):

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For the Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
Increase / (Decrease)
Cash flows provided by operating activities
$
315,800

 
$
434,159

 
$
(118,359
)
Our cash flows provided by operating activities are principally derived from cash receipts from patent license and technology solutions agreements offset by cash operating expenses and income tax payments. The decrease in cash flows provided by operating activities of $118.4 million was primarily attributable to a decrease in cash receipts of $210.9 million. This decrease in cash receipts was primarily attributable to fewer receipts from new agreements signed during 2017 as compared to 2016. The table below provides the significant items comprising our cash flows provided by operating activities during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 (in thousands).
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
Increase / (Decrease)
Cash Receipts:
 
 
 
 
 
Fixed-fee royalty payments
$
391,598

 
$
231,562

 
$
160,036

Per-unit royalties
47,786

 
162,445

 
(114,659
)
Past patent royalties
48,020

 
320,632

 
(272,612
)
Technology solutions
21,676

 
5,300

 
16,376

Total cash receipts
$
509,080

 
$
719,939

 
$
(210,859
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash Outflows:
 
 
 
 
 
Cash operating expenses (a)
(156,328
)
 
(153,955
)
 
(2,373
)
Income taxes paid (b)
(66,793
)
 
(108,635
)
 
41,842

Total cash outflows
(223,121
)
 
(262,590
)
 
39,469

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other working capital adjustments (c)
29,841

 
(23,190
)
 
53,031

 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows provided by operating activities
$
315,800

 
$
434,159

 
$
(118,359
)
                             
(a) Cash operating expenses include operating expenses less depreciation of fixed assets, amortization of patents, and non-cash compensation.
(b) Income taxes paid include foreign withholding taxes.
(c) Other working capital adjustments for the year ended December 31, 2017 includes approximately $27.0 million of tax refunds collected.
Working capital
We believe that working capital, adjusted to exclude cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments and to include current deferred revenue provides additional information about non-cash assets and liabilities that might affect our near-term liquidity. While we believe cash and short-term investments are important measures of our liquidity, the remaining components of our current assets and current liabilities, with the exception of deferred revenue, could affect our near-term liquidity and/or cash flow. We have no material obligations associated with our deferred revenue, and the amortization of deferred revenue has no impact on our future liquidity and/or cash flow. Our adjusted working capital, a non-GAAP financial measure, reconciles to working capital, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, at December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 (in thousands) as follows:

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For the Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
Increase / (Decrease)
Current assets
$
1,395,794

 
$
1,221,119

 
$
174,675

Less: current liabilities
376,441

 
425,480

 
(49,039
)
Working capital
1,019,353

 
795,639

 
223,714

Subtract:
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
433,014

 
404,074

 
28,940

Short-term investments
724,981

 
548,687

 
176,294

Add:
 
 
 
 
 
Current deferred revenue
307,142

 
360,192

 
(53,050
)
Adjusted working capital
$
168,500

 
$
203,070

 
$
(34,570
)
The $34.6 million net decrease in adjusted working capital in 2017 compared to 2016 is primarily attributable to collections of accounts receivable and a partial collection of the tax refund recorded during 2016.
Cash used in or provided by investing and financing activities
We used net cash in investing activities of $220.3 million and $219.0 million, respectively, in 2017 and 2016. We purchased $178.7 million and $125.6 million, net of sales, of short-term marketable securities in 2017 and 2016, respectively. Investment costs associated with capitalized patent costs and acquisition of patent costs decreased to $34.9 million in 2017 from $37.6 million in 2016 due to decreased patent acquisition activity. Additionally, long-term investments increased by $2.6 million due to an increase in strategic investment activity. Another use of cash during fourth quarter 2016 was the acquisition of Hillcrest Labs for $48.0 million as more fully discussed in Note 15, "Business Combinations."
Net cash used in financing activities for 2017 was $66.6 million, a $254.7 million change from $321.3 million in 2016. This change was primarily attributable to the $230.0 million repayment in first quarter 2016 of our senior convertible notes due 2016 (the "2016 Notes") and a $57.0 million decrease in repurchases of common stock in 2017. These decreases were partially offset by a $19.4 million increase in payroll taxes upon the vesting of restricted stock units and a $12.1 million increase in dividends paid in 2017.
Other
Our combined short-term and long-term deferred revenue balance at December 31, 2017 was approximately $616.8 million, a decrease of $4.4 million from December 31, 2016. We have no material obligations associated with such deferred revenue. The decrease in deferred revenue was primarily due to $394.7 million of deferred revenue recognized which was partially offset by a gross increase in deferred revenue of $390.4 million primarily associated with $357.9 million of cash collected and $32.5 million of non-cash consideration received from fixed-fee agreements signed in 2016 and 2017. The deferred revenue recognized was comprised of $301.6 million of amortized fixed-fee royalty payments, $72.0 million of past patent royalties and $21.1 million in per-unit exhaustion of prepaid royalties (based upon royalty reports provided by our licensees).
Based on current license agreements and under GAAP in effect as of December 31, 2017, we expect the amortization of fixed-fee royalty payments to reduce the December 31, 2017 deferred revenue balance of $616.8 million by $307.1 million over the next twelve months. Additional reductions to deferred revenue over the next twelve months will be dependent upon the level of per-unit royalties our licensees report against prepaid balances.
Refer to "New Accounting Guidance" above for a discussion regarding our adoption of ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018.
Convertible Notes
Our 1.50% Senior Convertible Notes due 2020 (the "2020 Notes") are included in the dilutive earnings per share calculation using the treasury stock method. Under the treasury stock method, we must calculate the number of shares of common stock issuable under the terms of the 2020 Notes based on the average market price of our common stock during the applicable reporting period, and include that number in the total diluted shares figure for the period. At the time we issued the 2020 Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge and warrant agreements that together were designed to have the economic effect of reducing the net number of shares that will be issued in the event of conversion of the 2020 Notes by, in effect, increasing the conversion price of the 2020 Notes from our economic standpoint. However, under GAAP, since the impact of

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the convertible note hedge agreements is anti-dilutive, we exclude from the calculation of fully diluted shares the number of shares of our common stock that we would receive from the counterparties to these agreements upon settlement.
During periods in which the average market price of the Company's common stock is above the applicable conversion price of the 2020 Notes ($72.12 per share as of December 31, 2017) or above the strike price of the warrants ($88.03 per share as of December 31, 2017), the impact of conversion or exercise, as applicable, would be dilutive and such dilutive effect is reflected in diluted earnings per share. As a result, in periods where the average market price of the Company's common stock is above the conversion price or strike price, as applicable, under the treasury stock method, the Company calculates the number of shares issuable under the terms of the 2020 Notes and the warrants based on the average market price of the stock during the period, and includes that number in the total diluted shares outstanding for the period.
Under the treasury stock method, changes in the price per share of our common stock can have a significant impact on the number of shares that we must include in the fully diluted earnings per share calculation. As described in Note 6, "Obligations," it is our current intent and policy to settle all conversions of the 2020 Notes through a combination settlement of cash and shares of common stock, with a specified dollar amount of $1,000 per $1,000 principal amount of the 2020 Notes and any remaining amounts in shares ("net share settlement"). Assuming net share settlement upon conversion, the following table illustrates how, based on the $316.0 million aggregate principal amount of 2020 Notes outstanding as of December 31, 2017 and the approximately 4.4 million warrants outstanding as of the same date, changes in our stock price would affect (i) the number of shares issuable upon conversion of the 2020 Notes, (ii) the number of shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants subject to the warrant agreements, (iii) the number of additional shares deemed outstanding with respect to the 2020 Notes, after applying the treasury stock method, for purposes of calculating diluted earnings per share ("Total Treasury Stock Method Incremental Shares"), (iv) the number of shares of common stock deliverable to us upon settlement of the hedge agreements and (v) the number of shares issuable upon concurrent conversion of the 2020 Notes, exercise of the warrants and settlement of the convertible note hedge agreements:
Market Price Per Share
Shares Issuable Upon Conversion of 2020 Notes
Shares Issuable Upon Exercise of Warrants
Total Treasury Stock Method Incremental Shares
Shares Deliverable to InterDigital upon Settlement of the Hedge Agreements
Incremental Shares Issuable (a) 
 
(Shares in thousands)
$70
$80
432
432
(432)
$85
664
664
(664)
$90
871
96
967
(871)
96
$95
1,055
322
1,377
(1,055)
322
$100
1,222
525
1,747
(1,222)
525
$105
1,372
709
2,081
(1,372)
709
$110
1,509
876
2,385
(1,509)
876
$115
1,634
1,029
2,663
(1,634)
1,029
$120
1,748
1,169
2,917
(1,748)
1,169
                                   

(a) Represents incremental shares issuable upon concurrent conversion of convertible notes, exercise of warrants and settlement of the hedge agreements.
Contractual Obligations
On March 11, 2015, InterDigital entered into an indenture, by and between the Company and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as trustee, pursuant to which the 2020 Notes were issued. The 2020 Notes bear interest at a rate of 1.50% per year, payable in cash on March 1 and September 1 of each year, commencing September 1, 2015, and mature on March 1, 2020, unless earlier converted or repurchased.
For more information on the 2020 Notes, see Note 6, “Obligations,” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, of this Form 10-K.     
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2017 (in thousands):

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Payments Due by Period
 
Total
 
Less Than
1 year
 
1-3 Years
 
3-5 Years
 
Thereafter
2020 Notes
$
316,000

 
$

 
$
316,000

 
$

 
$

Contractual interest payments on the 2020 Notes
11,850

 
4,740

 
7,110

 

 

Operating lease obligations
20,554

 
4,403

 
6,903

 
4,507

 
4,741

Purchase obligations (a)
11,581

 
11,581

 

 

 

Total contractual obligations
$
359,985

 
$
20,724

 
$
330,013

 
$
4,507

 
$
4,741

                             
        
(a)
Purchase obligations consist of agreements to purchase goods and services that are legally binding on us, as well as accounts payable. Our consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2017 includes a $3.3 million noncurrent liability for uncertain tax positions. The future payments related to uncertain tax positions have not been presented in the table above due to the uncertainty of the amounts and timing of cash settlement with the taxing authorities.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined by Item 303(a)(4) of Regulation S-K.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
2017 Compared with 2016
Revenues
The following table compares 2017 revenues to 2016 revenues (in thousands):
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Decrease)/Increase
Per-unit royalty revenue
$
47,840

 
$
168,050

 
$
(120,210
)
 
(72
)%
Fixed-fee amortized royalty revenue
301,628

 
177,614

 
124,014

 
70
 %
Current patent royalties (a)
349,468

 
345,664

 
3,804

 
1
 %
Past patent royalties (b)
162,890

 
309,696

 
(146,806
)
 
(47
)%
Total patent licensing royalties
512,358

 
655,360

 
(143,002
)
 
(22
)%
Current technology solutions revenue (a)
20,580

 
10,494

 
10,086

 
96
 %
Total revenue
$
532,938

 
$
665,854

 
$
(132,916
)
 
(20
)%
                             
(a)     Recurring revenues consist of current patent royalties and current technology solutions revenue.
(b)      Past sales consist of past patent royalties and past technology solutions revenue. Past patent royalties in 2017 include the recognition of a prepayment balance remaining under a patent license agreement that expired in fourth quarter 2017. Pegatron's fourth quarter 2016 per-unit royalties were included in past patent royalties as a result of the new agreement signed with Apple during fourth quarter 2016.
The $132.9 million decrease in total revenue was primarily driven by the decrease in past patent royalties of $146.8 million. In 2016, past patent royalties were primarily driven by the patent license agreements with Huawei and Apple signed in third and fourth quarter 2016, respectively, while the 2017 past patent royalties were primarily attributable to the LG agreement, the recognition of a prepayment balance remaining under a patent license agreement that expired in fourth quarter 2017 and our second quarter 2017 settlement agreement with Microsoft Corporation. Current technology solutions revenue increased by $10.1 million primarily due to increased shipments by one of our technology solutions customers and the inclusion of revenue from Hillcrest Labs.
    In 2017 and 2016, 61% and 78% of our total revenues, respectively, were attributable to companies that individually accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues. In 2017 and 2016, the following licensees or customers accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues:

52



For the Year Ended December 31,
 
2017

2016
Apple (a)
21%
 
25%
Huawei (b)
14%
 
23%
BlackBerry (c)
13%

< 10%
Samsung
13%

10%
Pegatron
< 10%
 
20%
(a) 2016 revenues include $141.4 million of past patent royalties.
(b) 2017 and 2016 revenues include $8.4 million and $121.5 million, respectively, of past patent royalties.
(c) 2017 revenues include $70.7 million of past patent royalties.
Operating Expenses
The following table summarizes the change in operating expenses by category (in thousands):
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
Increase/(Decrease)
Patent administration and licensing
$
111,157

 
$
113,544

 
$
(2,387
)
 
(2
)%
Development
70,708

 
68,733

 
1,975

 
3
 %
Selling, general and administrative
49,578

 
46,271

 
3,307

 
7
 %
Total operating expenses
$
231,443

 
$
228,548

 
$
2,895

 
1
 %
Operating expenses increased 1% to $231.4 million in 2017 from $228.5 million in 2016. The $2.9 million increase in total operating expenses was primarily due to increases/(decreases) in the following items (in thousands):
 
Increase/(Decrease)
Commercial initiatives
$
12,139

Depreciation and amortization
4,300

Consulting services
4,278

Performance-based incentive compensation
(13,627
)
Patent maintenance and evaluation
(2,373
)
Intellectual property enforcement and non-patent litigation
(1,221
)
Other
(601
)
Total increase in operating expenses
$
2,895

The $12.1 million increase in costs associated with commercial initiatives and the $4.3 million increase in depreciation and amortization were primarily related to the acquisition of Hillcrest during fourth quarter 2016. The $4.3 million increase in consulting services primarily related to spending on corporate initiatives including the implementation of a new enterprise resource planning system and corporate development activities. The $13.6 million decrease in performance-based incentive compensation was primarily driven by higher accrual rates in 2016 associated with our short and long-term performance-based compensation plans. Patent maintenance and evaluation costs decreased $2.4 million as a result of initiatives to more efficiently prosecute and maintain our patent portfolio. The $1.2 million decrease in intellectual property enforcement and non-patent litigation primarily related to decreased costs associated with licensee arbitrations.
Patent administration and licensing expense:  The $2.4 million decrease in patent administration and licensing expense primarily resulted from the above-noted decreases in performance-based incentive compensation, patent maintenance and evaluation and intellectual property enforcement and non-patent litigation. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in depreciation and patent amortization expense as discussed above.

53


Development expense:  The $2.0 million increase in development expense primarily resulted from the above-noted increase in commercial initiatives expenses. This increase was partially offset by the decrease in performance-based incentive compensation as discussed above.
Selling, general and administrative expense:  The $3.3 million increase in selling, general and administrative expense primarily resulted from the above-noted increases in commercial initiatives and consulting services. These increases were partially offset by the decrease in performance-based incentive compensation as discussed above.
Other (Expense) Income
The following table compares 2017 other (expense) income to 2016 other (expense) income (in thousands):
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Decrease)/Increase
Interest expense
$
(17,845
)
 
$
(21,126
)
 
$
3,281

 
16
 %
Interest and investment income
8,488

 
3,748

 
4,740

 
126
 %
Other
239

 
2,343

 
(2,104
)
 
(90
)%
 
$
(9,118
)
 
$
(15,035
)
 
$
5,917

 
39
 %
In 2017, other expense was $9.1 million as compared to $15.0 million in 2016. The change in total other expense was primarily due higher interest and investment income attributable to higher average investment balances and returns during 2017 as compared to 2016, as well as lower interest expense as a result of the repayment of the 2016 Notes in first quarter 2016. The decrease in other income primarily related to the gain recognized related to the sale of our King of Prussia facility in 2016.
Income Taxes
In 2017, our effective tax rate was approximately 41.6% as compared to 27.7% in 2016, based on the statutory federal tax rate net of discrete federal and state taxes. The increase in the effective tax rate was primarily attributable to the revaluation of our net deferred tax assets at the new statutory tax rate of 21% due to the Tax Reform Act signed into law in December 2017. The revaluation resulted in a 2017 charge of approximately $42.6 million and contributed approximately 14.6% to the rate increase, which was partially offset by a contribution of approximately 4.0% due to our current year adoption of ASU 2016-09, "Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting", as well as by a contribution of 2.7% as a result of the release of unrecognized tax benefits related to the conclusion of the IRS audits for tax years 2011 through 2015. Our 2016 effective tax rate included net benefit received from domestic production activities deductions covering the periods 2011 through 2015, which reduced the 2016 effective tax rate by 5.6%.
2016 Compared with 2015
Revenues
The following table compares 2016 revenues to 2015 revenues (in thousands):
 
For the Year Ended
December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
Increase/ (Decrease)
Per-unit royalty revenue
$
168,050

 
$
234,836

 
$
(66,786
)
 
(28
)%
Fixed-fee amortized royalty revenue
177,614

 
131,837

 
45,777

 
35
 %
Current patent royalties (a)
345,664

 
366,673

 
(21,009
)
 
(6
)%
Past patent royalties (b)
309,696

 
65,814

 
243,882

 
371
 %
Total patent licensing royalties
655,360

 
432,487

 
222,873

 
52
 %
Patent sales

 

 

 
100
 %
Current technology solutions revenue (a)
10,494

 
6,096

 
4,398

 
72
 %
Past technology solutions revenue (b)

 
2,852

 
(2,852
)
 
(100
)%
Total revenue
$
665,854

 
$
441,435

 
$
224,419

 
51
 %

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(a)     Recurring revenues consist of current patent royalties and current technology solutions revenue.
(b)     Past sales consist of past patent royalties and past technology solutions revenue. Pegatron's fourth quarter 2016 per-unit royalties are included in past patent royalties as a result of the new agreement signed with Apple during fourth quarter 2016.
The $224.4 million increase in total revenue was primarily attributable to the signing of our new patent license agreements with Huawei and Apple in third quarter and fourth quarter 2016, respectively, which drove a $243.9 million increase in past patent royalties, which was partially offset by a $16.6 million decrease in recurring revenue. Per-unit royalty revenue decreased $66.8 million as compared to 2015 primarily due to decreased shipments by Pegatron and our other Taiwan-based licenses and the inclusion in past patent royalties of Pegatron's fourth quarter 2016 per-unit royalties as a result of the new agreement signed with Apple. The decrease in per-unit royalty revenue was partially offset by a $45.8 million increase in fixed-fee amortized royalty revenue primarily related to the Huawei and Apple agreements.

In 2016 and 2015, 78% and 61% of our total revenues, respectively, were attributable to companies that individually accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues. In 2016 and 2015, the following licensees or customers accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues:
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
Apple (a)
25%
 
—%
Huawei (b)
23%
 
—%
Pegatron (c)
20%
 
31%
Samsung
10%
 
16%
Sony (d)
< 10%
 
14%
                             
(a) 2016 revenues include $141.4 million of past patent royalties.
(b) 2016 revenues include $121.5 million of past patent royalties.
(c) With the entry into the Apple PLA in fourth quarter 2016, we no longer receive royalties under the 2008 Pegatron PLA for those products that Pegatron produces for Apple during the term of the Apple PLA. Pegatron's fourth quarter 2016 per-unit royalties were recorded within past patent royalties as a result of the Apple agreement.
(d) 2015 revenues include $21.9 million of past patent royalties.

Operating Expenses
The following table summarizes the change in operating expenses by category (in thousands):
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
Increase/(Decrease)
Patent administration and licensing
$
113,544

 
$
120,401

 
$
(6,857
)
 
(6
)%
Development
68,733

 
72,702

 
(3,969
)
 
(5
)%
Selling, general and administrative
46,271

 
39,783

 
6,488

 
16
 %
Total operating expenses
$
228,548

 
$
232,886

 
$
(4,338
)
 
(2
)%

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Operating expenses decreased 2% to $228.5 million in 2016 from $232.9 million in 2015. The $4.3 million decrease in total operating expenses was primarily due to (decreases)/increases in the following items (in thousands):
 
(Decrease) / Increase
Intellectual property enforcement
$
(16,140
)
Commercial initiatives
(5,717
)
Performance-based incentive compensation
9,275

Depreciation and amortization
4,806

Other
2,646

Personnel-related costs
792

Total decrease in operating expenses
$
(4,338
)
The $4.3 million decrease in operating expenses was primarily attributable to the $16.1 million decrease in intellectual property enforcement and non-patent litigation primarily related to decreased costs associated with the USITC actions. The $5.7 million decrease in commercial initiatives expenses was primarily attributable to reduced spending on the development of commercial solutions and on-going efforts to optimize our cost structure. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in performance-based incentive compensation of $9.3 million due to higher accrual rates associated with our short and long-term performance-based compensation plans, following new agreements signed during the year. The $4.8 million increase in depreciation and amortization was primarily attributable to the growth in our patent portfolio driven by both internal patent generation and patent acquisitions in recent years. Personnel-related costs increased $0.8 million primarily due to severance and related expenses associated with ongoing efforts to optimize our cost structure.
Patent administration and licensing expense:  The $6.9 million decrease in patent administration and licensing expense primarily resulted from the above-noted decrease in intellectual property enforcement and non-patent litigation. This decrease was partially offset by increases in patent amortization expense and performance-based incentive compensation as discussed above.
Development expense:  The $4.0 million decrease in development expense primarily resulted from the above-noted decrease in commercial initiatives expenses. This decrease was partially offset by increased performance-based incentive compensation as discussed above.
Selling, general and administrative expense:  The $6.5 million increase in selling, general and administrative expense primarily resulted from the above-noted increase in performance-based incentive compensation. This increase was partially offset by decreased spending related to corporate branding and strategy-related initiatives.
Other (Expense) Income
    The following table compares 2016 other (expense) income to 2015 other (expense) income (in thousands):
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
(Decrease)/Increase
Interest expense
$
(21,126
)
 
$
(30,417
)
 
$
9,291

 
31
 %
Other (a)
2,343

 
(975
)
 
3,318

 
340
 %
Interest and investment income
3,748

 
3,858

 
(110
)
 
(3
)%
 
$
(15,035
)
 
$
(27,534
)
 
$
12,499

 
45
 %
                            
(a) Includes other-than-temporary impairments.
In 2016, other expense was $15.0 million as compared to other expense of $27.5 million in 2015. The change in total other expense was primarily due to lower interest expense as a result of the repayment of the 2016 Notes in first quarter 2016 and the increase in other income primarily related to the gain recognized related to the sale of our King of Prussia facility in 2016.  
Income Taxes

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In 2016, our effective tax rate was approximately 27.7% as compared to 35.7% in 2015, based on the statutory federal tax rate net of discrete federal and state taxes. The decrease in the effective tax rate was primarily attributable to the 2016 net benefit received from domestic production activities deductions covering the current year and the periods 2011 through 2015. The inclusion of additional periods in 2016 reduced the 2016 effective tax rate by 5.6%.
STATEMENT PURSUANT TO THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995 - FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Such statements include certain information in “Part I, Item 1. Business” and “Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other information regarding our current beliefs, plans and expectations, including without limitation the matters set forth below. Words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “forecast,” “believe,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “if,” “may,” “might,” “future,” “target,” “goal,” “trend,” “seek to,” “will continue,” “predict,” “likely,” “in the event,” variations of any such words or similar expressions contained herein are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, without limitation, statements regarding:
(i) Our objective to continue to be a leading designer and developer of technology solutions and innovation for the mobile industry and to monetize those solutions and innovations through a combination of licensing, sales and other revenue opportunities;
(ii) Our plans for executing on our business strategy, including our plans to develop and source innovative technologies related to wireless, establish and grow our patent-based revenue, pursue commercial opportunities for our advanced platforms and solutions, and maintain a collaborative relationship with key industry players and worldwide standards bodies;
(iii) Our belief that our portfolio includes a number of patents and patent applications that are or may be essential or may become essential to cellular and other wireless standards, including 3G, 4G and the IEEE 802 suite of standards, as well as patents and patent applications that we believe may become essential to 5G standards that are under development;
(iv) Our belief that a number of our CDMA and OFDM/OFDMA inventions are, may be or may become essential to the implementation of CDMA and OFDM/OFDMA-based systems in use today;
(v) Our belief that companies making, importing, using or selling products compliant with the standards covered by our patent portfolio require a license under our patents and will require licenses under patents that may issue from our pending patent applications;
(vi) Our belief that our ongoing research efforts and associated patenting activities enable us to sell patent assets that are not vital to our core licensing programs, as well as to execute patent swaps that can strengthen our overall portfolio;
(vii) Our belief that our commercial initiatives are potential revenue opportunities;
(viii) The estimated growth of the IoT market, including the size of the connected device installed base and number of connected device shipments, over the next several years;
(ix) The types of licensing arrangements and various royalty structure models that we anticipate using under our future license agreements;
(x) The possible outcome of audits of our license agreements when underreporting or underpayment is revealed;
(xi) Our belief that our facilities are suitable and adequate for our present purposes and our needs in the near future;
(xii) Our expectations and estimations regarding the income tax effects, and the impact on the Company, of the Tax Reform Act, and our belief that we currently expect a significant portion of our income to qualify as FDII and thus be subject to the 13.125% tax rate;
(xiii) Our expectation that we will continue to pay a quarterly cash dividend on our common stock comparable to our quarterly $0.35 per share cash dividend in the future;
(xiv) Our belief that intellectual property enforcement costs will likely continue to be a significant expense for us in the future;
(xv) Our belief that we have the ability to obtain additional liquidity through debt and equity financings;

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(xvi) Our belief that our available sources of funds will be sufficient to finance our operations, capital requirements, debt obligations, existing stock repurchase program and dividend program for the next twelve months;
(xvii) Our expectations regarding the potential effects of new accounting standards on our financial statements or results of operations;
(xiii) Our expectations and estimations regarding the impact to our financial statements as a result of, and the adjustments we expect to make upon, the adoption of ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018;
(xix) Our expectation that the amortization of fixed-fee royalty payments will reduce our deferred revenue balance over the next twelve months; and
(xx) The expected timing, outcome and impact of our various litigation, arbitration and administrative matters.
Although the forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K reflect the good faith judgment of our management, such statements can only be based on facts and factors currently known by us. Consequently, forward-looking statements concerning our business, results of operations and financial condition are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties. We caution readers that actual results and outcomes could differ materially from those expressed in or anticipated by such forward-looking statements due to a variety of factors, including, without limitation, the following:
(i) unanticipated difficulties or delays related to the further development of our technologies;
(ii) the failure of the markets for our technologies to materialize to the extent or at the rate that we expect;
(iii) changes in our plans, strategy or initiatives;
(iv) the challenges related to entering into new and renewed patent license agreements and unanticipated delays, difficulties or acceleration in the negotiation and execution of patent license agreements;
(v) our ability to leverage our strategic relationships and secure new patent license and technology solutions agreements on acceptable terms;
(vi) the impact of current trends in the industry that could result in reductions in and/or caps on royalty rates under new patent license agreements;
(vii) changes in the market share and sales performance of our primary licensees, delays in product shipments of our licensees, delays in the timely receipt and final reviews of quarterly royalty reports from our licensees, delays in payments from our licensees and related matters;
(viii) the timing and/or outcome of our various litigation, arbitration, regulatory or administrative proceedings, including any awards or judgments relating to such proceedings, additional legal proceedings, changes in the schedules or costs associated with legal proceedings or adverse rulings in such legal proceedings;
(ix) the determination of royalty rates, or other terms, under our patent license agreements through arbitration or other third party adjudications, or the establishment by arbitrators or other third party adjudicators of patent royalty rates at levels lower than our agreed or historical rates;
(x) the impact of potential patent legislation, USPTO rule changes and international patent rule changes on our patent prosecution and licensing strategies;
(xi) the impact of rulings in legal proceedings, potential legislation affecting the jurisdiction and authority of the USITC and potential changes to the IPR policies of worldwide standards bodies on our investments in research and development and our strategies for patent prosecution, licensing and enforcement;
(xii) changes in our interpretations of, and assumptions and calculations with respect to the impact on the Company of, the Tax Reform Act, as well as further guidance that may be issued regarding the Tax Reform Act;
(xiii) the final outcome of our evaluation of ASC 606 and the resulting impact on our consolidated financial statements upon adoption in first quarter 2018;
(xiv) the timing and/or outcome of any state or federal tax examinations or audits, changes in tax laws and the resulting impact on our tax assets and liabilities;
(xv) the effects of any dispositions, acquisitions or other strategic transactions by the Company;
(xvi) decreased liquidity in the capital markets; and
(xvii) unanticipated increases in our cash needs or decreases in available cash.

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You should carefully consider these factors as well as the risks and uncertainties outlined in greater detail in Part I, Item 1A, in this Form 10-K before making any investment decision with respect to our common stock. These factors, individually or in the aggregate, may cause our actual results to differ materially from our expected and historical results. You should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors. In addition, you should not place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements contained herein, which are made only as of the date of this Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to revise or update publicly any forward-looking statement for any reason, except as otherwise required by law.
Item 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
Cash Equivalents and Investments
The primary objectives of our investment activities are to preserve principal and maintain liquidity while at the same time capturing a market rate of return. To achieve these objectives, we maintain our portfolio of cash and cash equivalents, and short-term and long-term investments in a variety of securities, including government obligations, corporate bonds and commercial paper.
Interest Rate Risk — We invest our cash in a number of diversified high quality investment-grade fixed and floating rate securities with a fair value of $1.2 billion at December 31, 2017. Our exposure to interest rate risks is not significant due to the short average maturity, quality and diversification of our holdings. We do not hold any derivative, derivative commodity instruments or other similar financial instruments in our investment portfolio. The risk associated with fluctuating interest rates is generally limited to our investment portfolio. We believe that a hypothetical 10% change in period-end interest rates would not have a significant impact on our results of operations or cash flows.
The following table provides information about our interest-bearing securities that are sensitive to changes in interest rates as of December 31, 2017. The table presents principal cash flows, weighted-average yield at cost and contractual maturity dates. Additionally, we have assumed that these securities are similar enough within the specified categories to aggregate these securities for presentation purposes.
Interest Rate Sensitivity
Principal Amount by Expected Maturity
Average Interest Rates
(in thousands)
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2020
 
Thereafter
 
Total
Money market and demand accounts
$
417,348

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
417,348

Short-term investments
$
344,953

 
$
327,972

 
$
67,722

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
740,647

Average Interest rate
0.8
%
 
1.5
%
 
1.8
%
 
%
 
%
 
%
 
1.0
%
Cash and cash equivalents and available-for-sale securities are recorded at fair value.
Bank Liquidity Risk — As of December 31, 2017, we had approximately $417.3 million in operating accounts that are held with domestic and international financial institutions. The majority of these balances are held with domestic financial institutions. While we monitor daily cash balances in our operating accounts and adjust the cash balances as appropriate, these cash balances could be lost or become inaccessible if the underlying financial institutions fail or if they are unable to meet the liquidity requirements of their depositors. Notwithstanding, we have not incurred any losses and have had full access to our operating accounts to date.
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk — We are exposed to limited risk from fluctuations in currencies, which might change over time as our business practices evolve, that could impact our operating results, liquidity and financial condition. We operate and invest globally. Adverse movements in currency exchange rates might negatively affect our business due to a number of situations. Currently, our international licensing agreements are typically made in U.S. dollars and are generally not subject to foreign currency exchange rate risk. We do not engage in foreign exchange hedging transactions at this time.
Between 2006 and 2017, we paid approximately $422.3 million in foreign taxes for which we have claimed foreign tax credits against our U.S. tax obligations. Of this amount, $275.2 million relates to taxes paid to foreign governments that have tax treaties with the U.S. It is possible that as a result of tax treaty procedures, the U.S. government may reach an agreement with the related foreign governments that will result in a partial refund of foreign taxes paid with a related reduction in our foreign tax credits. Due to both foreign currency fluctuations and differences in the interest rate charged by the

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U.S. government compared to the interest rates, if any, used by the foreign governments, any such agreement could result in interest expense and/or foreign currency gain or loss.
Investment Risk — We are exposed to market risk as it relates to changes in the market value of our short-term and long-term investments in addition to the liquidity and creditworthiness of the underlying issuers of our investments. We hold a diversified investment portfolio, which includes, fixed and floating-rate, investment-grade marketable securities, mortgage and asset-backed securities and U.S. government and other securities. The instruments included in our portfolio meet high credit quality standards, as specified in our investment policy guidelines. This policy also limits our amount of credit exposure to any one issue, issuer and type of instrument. Given that the guidelines of our investment policy prohibit us from investing in anything but highly rated instruments, our investments are not subject to significant fluctuations in fair value due to the volatility of the credit markets and prevailing interest rates for such securities. Our marketable securities, consisting of government obligations, corporate bonds and commercial paper, are classified as available-for-sale with a fair value of $740.6 million as of December 31, 2017.
Equity Risk — We are exposed to changes in the market-traded price of our common stock as it influences the calculation of earnings per share. In connection with the offering of the 2020 Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions with option counterparties. We also sold warrants to the option counterparties. These transactions have been accounted for as an adjustment to our shareholders' equity. The convertible note hedge transactions are expected to reduce the potential equity dilution upon conversion of the 2020 Notes. The warrants along with any shares issuable upon conversion of the 2020 Notes will have a dilutive effect on our earnings per share to the extent that the average market price of our common stock for a given reporting period exceeds the applicable strike price or conversion price of the warrants or convertible 2020 Notes, respectively.

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Item 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.

 
PAGE NUMBER
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:
 
SCHEDULES:
 
All other schedules are omitted because they are either not required or applicable or equivalent information has been included in the financial statements and notes thereto.


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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of InterDigital, Inc.:
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the consolidated financial statements, including the related notes and financial statement schedule, of InterDigital, Inc. and its subsidiaries as listed in the accompanying index (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
Basis for Opinions
The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
February 22, 2018
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2002.  

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INTERDIGITAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
DECEMBER 31,
2017
 
DECEMBER 31,
2016
ASSETS
 
 
 
CURRENT ASSETS:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
433,014

 
$
404,074

Short-term investments
724,981

 
548,687

Accounts receivable, less allowances of $456 and $0
216,293

 
228,464

Prepaid and other current assets
21,506

 
39,894

Total current assets
1,395,794

 
1,221,119

PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT, NET
10,673

 
12,626

PATENTS, NET
325,408

 
310,768

DEFERRED TAX ASSETS
84,582