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Section 1: 424B5 (424B5)

424B5
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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-219731

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of securities

to be registered

 

Proposed

maximum

aggregate
offering price

  Amount of
registration fee
(1)

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

  $400,000,000   $49,800(2)

 

 

(1) The registration fee related to shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of $400,000,000 to be registered hereby was calculated in accordance with Rules 457(o) and 457(r) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Payment of the registration fee for these securities at the time of filing of the registrant’s registration statement on Form S-3, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on August 4, 2017 (File No. 333-219731) (the “Registration Statement”), was initially deferred pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act.
(2) $17,385 of the registration fee was previously paid by us, but was unused, in connection with our prospectus supplement dated August 4, 2017 to the Registration Statement and which unused registration fee is being applied to the securities offered under this prospectus supplement.

The above information shall be deemed to update the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the Registration Statement.


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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated August 4, 2017)

 

LOGO

$400,000,000

Douglas Emmett, Inc.

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement dated August 4, 2017 (the “original equity distribution agreement”) with Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, or collectively, the Agents, relating to the shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share, offered by this prospectus supplement. We have previously sold $249,996,591 of shares of our common stock under the original equity distribution agreement. We subsequently entered into a supplement to the original equity distribution agreement (as supplemented, the “equity distribution agreement”) so that, notwithstanding our prior sales, in accordance with the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may offer and sell additional shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $400,000,000 from time to time through the Agents as our sales agents, or directly to the Agents acting as principal.

Sales of the shares, if any, made through the Agents, as our sales agents, as contemplated by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, may be made (1) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions on the New York Stock Exchange at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, in negotiated transactions or as otherwise agreed by us, the applicable Agent and the applicable investor, (2) to or through any market maker or (3) on or through any other national securities exchange or facility thereof, trading facility of a securities association or national securities exchange, alternative trading system, electronic communication network or other similar market venue. We will pay each of the Agents a commission that will not (except as provided below) exceed, but may be lower than, 2.0% of the gross sales price per share of our common stock sold through such Agent, as our sales agent, under the equity distribution agreement. We may also agree with the applicable Agent to sell shares other than through ordinary brokers’ transactions using sales efforts and methods that may constitute “distributions” within the meaning of Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and we and the applicable Agent will agree to compensation for the applicable Agent for such sales. See “Plan of Distribution.”

None of the Agents is required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock, but each will use its commercially reasonable efforts, as our agent and subject to the terms of the equity distribution agreement, to sell the shares offered, as instructed by us. The shares of our common stock offered and sold through the Agents, as our sales agents, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be offered and sold through only one Agent on any given day. The offering of common stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of $400,000,000 and (ii) the termination of the equity distribution agreement by us, by each of the Agents, or by its terms, as applicable.

Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may also sell shares of our common stock to any of the Agents, as principal, at a price per share to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to an Agent as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with that Agent and we will describe the terms of the offering of those shares in a separate prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “DEI.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on November 17, 2017 was $40.51 per share.

You should read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus as well as additional information described under “Available Information” on page 1 of the accompanying prospectus before investing in our common stock.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks that are described in documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Our common stock is subject to certain restrictions on ownership and transfer, which may assist us to preserve our qualification as a real estate investment trust for federal income tax purposes. See “Description of Stock—Transfer Restrictions and Ownership Limitations Applicable to our Equity Securities” beginning on page 8 of the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

 

Wells Fargo Securities   BofA Merrill Lynch   J.P. Morgan

November 20, 2017


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You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. We have not, and the Agents have not, authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the Agents are not, making an offer to sell the shares in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference, is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. When we or any of the Agents deliver this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or make a sale pursuant to this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, neither we nor such Agents are implying that the information is current as of the date of the delivery or sale.

The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. If you possess this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should find out about and observe these restrictions. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell the common stock and are not soliciting an offer to buy the common stock in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or where the person making the offer or sale is not qualified to do so or to any person to whom it is not permitted to make such offer or sale.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-3  

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-7  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-8  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-11  

Prospectus

 

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

     i  

RISK FACTORS

     1  

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     1  

SUMMARY

     3  

CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERENCE DIVIDEND REQUIREMENTS

     4  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     4  

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK

     4  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS OR OTHER RIGHTS

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK PURCHASE CONTRACTS

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     16  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     17  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP AND BOOK-ENTRY ISSUANCE

     22  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     26  

SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS

     50  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     50  

VALIDITY OF THE SECURITIES

     52  

EXPERTS

     52  


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This prospectus supplement is a supplement to the accompanying prospectus. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying prospectus, this prospectus supplement will apply and supersede the information in the accompanying prospectus. It is important for you to read and carefully consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You should also read and carefully consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in “Available Information” beginning on page i of the accompanying prospectus.

As used herein, the terms “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Douglas Emmett, Inc., individually or together with its subsidiaries.

In the documents incorporated and deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, we refer to information and statistics regarding, among other things, the industry, markets, submarkets and sectors in which we and our tenants operate. We obtained this information and these statistics from various third-party sources and our own internal estimates. We believe that these sources and estimates are reliable but have not independently verified them and cannot guarantee their accuracy or completeness.


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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary does not contain all the information important to you in deciding whether to invest in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated and deemed to be incorporated by reference herein and therein, including the financial statements and related notes, before making an investment decision.

Douglas Emmett, Inc.

Douglas Emmett, Inc. is a fully integrated, self-administered and self-managed Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). We are one of the largest owners and operators of high-quality office and multifamily properties in Los Angeles County, California and Honolulu, Hawaii. We focus on owning, acquiring, developing and managing a substantial share of top-tier office properties and premier multifamily communities in neighborhoods that possess significant supply constraints, high-end executive housing and key lifestyle amenities. We intend to increase our market share in our existing submarkets of Los Angeles County and Honolulu, and may selectively enter into other submarkets with similar characteristics where we believe we can gain significant market share.

Through our interest in our Douglas Emmett Properties, LP (our operating partnership) and its subsidiaries, our consolidated joint ventures (JVs), and our investments in our unconsolidated institutional real estate funds (Funds), we own or partially own, acquire, develop and manage real estate, consisting primarily of office and multifamily properties. At September 30, 2017, we owned a consolidated portfolio of (i) sixty-two office properties (including ancillary retail space) totaling approximately 16.4 million rentable square feet, which included ten office properties owned by our consolidated JVs, (ii) ten multifamily properties containing 3,320 apartment units, and (iii) the fee interests in two parcels of land subject to ground leases from which we earn ground rent income. Alongside our consolidated portfolio, we also manage and own equity interests in our unconsolidated Funds which, at September 30, 2017, owned eight additional office properties totaling approximately 1.8 million square feet of space. We manage these eight properties alongside our consolidated portfolio, and we therefore present our office portfolio statistics on a total portfolio basis, with a combined seventy Class A office properties totaling approximately 18.2 million square feet. Our properties are located in the Beverly Hills, Brentwood, Burbank, Century City, Olympic Corridor, Santa Monica, Sherman Oaks/Encino, Warner Center/Woodland Hills and Westwood submarkets of Los Angeles County, California, and in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Our principal executive offices are located at 808 Wilshire Boulevard, 2nd Floor, Santa Monica, California, 90401, and our telephone number is (310) 255-7700. We maintain a web site at www.douglasemmett.com. The information contained on or that may be obtained from our web site is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus. Our common stock is currently traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “DEI.”

 



 

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The Offering

 

Issuer

Douglas Emmett, Inc., a Maryland corporation

 

Common stock offered

Shares with an aggregate sales price of up to $400,000,000

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include the funding of acquisitions or the repayment of indebtedness. Pending application of the net proceeds for those purposes, we may temporarily invest such net proceeds in marketable securities. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement for additional information.

 

Restrictions on ownership and transfer:

Shares of our common stock are subject to certain restrictions on ownership and transfer intended to assist us to preserve our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. See “Description of Capital Stock—Transfer Restrictions and Ownership Limitations Applicable to our Equity Securities” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves risks. You should carefully consider the information under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement, page 2 of the accompanying prospectus, and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and the other information included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus before investing in our common stock.

 

New York Stock Exchange symbol

DEI

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Before purchasing our securities, you should carefully consider the risk factors we describe below and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2017, June 30, 2017 and September 30, 2017 and the documents we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement and which are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. See “Available Information” in the accompanying prospectus for an explanation of how to get a copy of these documents. Although we discuss key risks in those risk factor descriptions, additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business. Our subsequent filings with the SEC may contain amended and updated discussions of significant risks. We cannot predict future risks or estimate the extent to which they may affect our financial performance. The trading price of our securities could decline if any of these risks materialize, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock and this Offering

The market price and trading volume of our common stock may be volatile.

The market price of our common stock may be volatile. In addition, the trading volume in our common stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations. If the market price of our common stock declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your shares at or above the price at which they traded when you acquired them. We cannot assure you that the market price of our common stock will not fluctuate or decline significantly in the future.

Some of the factors that could negatively affect our share price or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our common stock include:

 

    actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results or dividends;

 

    reductions in the level of demand for commercial space and residential units, and changes in the relative popularity of properties;

 

    changes in our funds from operations or earnings estimates;

 

    publication of research reports about us or the real estate industry;

 

    changes in market valuations of similar companies;

 

    changes in the prices for our properties or properties which we wish to acquire;

 

    the impact of applicable laws and regulations, including tax, environmental, rent control and other matters;

 

    adverse market reaction to any additional debt we incur in the future;

 

    additions or departures of key management personnel;

 

    actions by institutional stockholders;

 

    speculation in the press or investment community;

 

    the realization of any of the other risk factors presented in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus; and

 

    general market and economic conditions.

The number of shares available for future sale could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

We expect that we will issue shares of common stock in this offering with a maximum gross offering price of $400,000,000. The issuance of new shares in this offering could have the effect of depressing the market price for shares of our common stock.

 

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In addition, we cannot predict whether future issuances of shares of our common stock or the availability of shares for resale in the open market will decrease the market price per share of our common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of shares of our common stock in the public market, or even the perception that such sales might occur, could adversely affect the market price of the shares of our common stock. Some of the matters that may adversely affect the market price of the shares of our common stock or the terms upon which we may be able to obtain additional capital through the sale of equity securities could include: the exchange of outstanding common units in our operating partnership for our common stock, the granting, exercise or the vesting of any options, restricted stock or long-term incentive units in our operating partnership granted to certain directors, executive officers and other employees under our stock incentive plan, the issuance of our common stock or units in our operating partnership in connection with property, portfolio or business acquisitions and other issuances of our common stock or units in our operating partnership.

In addition, future sales of shares of our common stock may be dilutive to our earnings or funds from operations per share. In addition, if we are unable to apply the net proceeds from this offering to make investments in properties that generate sufficient revenues to offset the dilutive impact of the issuance of shares of our common stock in this offering, there will be further dilution of our earnings per share and funds from operations per share.

Future offerings of preferred equity or debt securities which may be senior to our common stock for purposes of dividend distributions or upon liquidation, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by making offerings of preferred equity or debt securities, trust preferred securities, or by raising capital through joint ventures or institutional funds. Upon liquidation, holders of our shares of preferred stock or debt securities, and lenders with respect to other borrowings would, and participants in joint venture and institutional funds could, receive distributions of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders or reduce the market price of our common stock, or both. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting their stock holdings in us.

Market interest rates may have an effect on the value of our common stock.

One of the factors that will influence the price of our common stock will be the dividend yield on our common stock (as a percentage of the price of our common stock) relative to market interest rates. An increase in market interest rates may lead prospective purchasers of our common stock to expect a higher dividend yield and higher interest rates would likely increase our borrowing costs and potentially decrease funds available for distribution. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our common stock to go down.

Legislative or other actions affecting REITs could have a negative effect on our investors or us.

The rules dealing with federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Changes to the tax laws, with or without retroactive application, could adversely affect our investors or us. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect our investors or us. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could significantly and negatively affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the federal income tax consequences of an investment in us. Also, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT.

 

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as amended, or the Exchange Act. These statements may be made directly in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or they may be made in documents filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You can find many (but not all) of these statements by looking for words such as “approximates,” “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “would,” “may” or other similar expressions in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein.

We claim the protection of the safe harbor contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We caution investors that any forward-looking statements presented in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, or those which we may make orally or in writing from time to time, are based on our beliefs and assumptions, as well as information currently available to us. Such statements are based on assumptions and the actual outcome will be affected by known and unknown risks, trends, uncertainties and factors that are beyond our control or ability to predict. Although we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, they are not guarantees of future performance and some will inevitably prove to be incorrect. As a result, our actual future results can be expected to differ from our expectations, and those differences may be material. Accordingly, investors should use caution in relying on past forward-looking statements, which are based on known results and trends at the time they are made, to anticipate future results or trends.

Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include the following:

 

    adverse economic or real estate developments in Southern California and Honolulu, Hawaii;

 

    a general downturn in the economy, such as the global financial crisis that commenced in 2008;

 

    competition from other real estate investors in our markets;

 

    decreased rental rates or increased tenant incentive and vacancy rates;

 

    defaults on, early termination of, or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

    increased interest rates and operating costs;

 

    failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding debt;

 

    failure to generate sufficient cash flows to make payments on a ground lease for one of our properties;

 

    difficulties in raising capital;

 

    difficulties in identifying properties to acquire and failure to complete acquisitions successfully;

 

    failure to successfully operate acquired properties;

 

    real estate investments are generally illiquid and difficult to sell quickly;

 

    possible adverse changes in rent control laws and regulations;

 

    environmental uncertainties;

 

    risks related to natural disasters;

 

    lack or insufficient amount of insurance, or increases in the cost of maintaining existing insurance coverage;

 

    inability to successfully expand into new markets and submarkets;

 

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    risks associated with property development;

 

    risks associated with JVs;

 

    conflicts of interest with our officers and reliance on key personnel;

 

    changes in real estate zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates;

 

    adverse results of litigation or governmental proceedings;

 

    complying with laws, regulations and covenants that are applicable to our properties;

 

    difficulty in liquidating our short term investments;

 

    the consequences of any possible future terrorist attacks or wars;

 

    the consequences of any possible future cyber attacks or intrusions;

 

    adoption of new accounting pronouncements could adversely affect our operating results;

 

    weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting could result in restatements of our operating results;

 

    failure to maintain our REIT status under federal tax laws; and

 

    changes to tax laws that could adversely affect us.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and all subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to our forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the dates that such statements are made.

For more information on the uncertainty of forward-looking statements, see “Risk Factors” in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K and, to the extent applicable, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, which may include, among others, the funding of acquisitions or the repayment of indebtedness. Pending application of the net proceeds for those purposes, we may temporarily invest such net proceeds in marketable securities. Any borrowings under the revolving credit facility that are repaid with net proceeds from this offering may be reborrowed, subject to customary conditions.

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, affiliates of the Agents are lenders and, in certain cases, agents under our revolving credit facility and/or certain of our term loans including those of our unconsolidated funds. In addition, affiliates of some or all of the Agents may in the future be lenders and/or agents under new credit facilities and/or term loans or amendments or restatements of our existing revolving credit facility and/or term loans, in each case that we or our operating partnership may enter into from time to time, and the Agents and their respective affiliates may from time to time hold debt securities or other indebtedness of ours, our operating partnership or our other subsidiaries. As described in this prospectus supplement under “Use of Proceeds,” net proceeds of this offering may be used to repay indebtedness, which may include borrowings under our revolving credit facility and term loans. Because, as of the date of this prospectus supplement, affiliates of the Agents are lenders under our revolving credit facility and certain of our term loans, to the extent that net proceeds from this offering are applied to repay borrowings under our revolving credit facility and/or certain of term loans, such affiliates will receive proceeds of this offering through the repayment of those borrowings. Likewise, to the extent that net proceeds from this offering are applied to repay any other indebtedness of ours, our operating partnership of our other subsidiaries that may be held by any of the Agents or any of their respective affiliates, such Agents or affiliates, as the case may be, will receive proceeds of this offering through the repayment of that indebtedness.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement dated August 4, 2017 (the “original equity distribution agreement”) with Wells Fargo Securities LLC, Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, or collectively, the Agents, We have previously sold $249,996,591 of shares of our common stock under the original equity distribution agreement. We subsequently entered into a supplement to the original equity distribution agreement (as supplemented, the “equity distribution agreement”) so that, notwithstanding our prior sales, in accordance with the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may offer and sell additional shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $400,000,000 from time to time through the Agents as our sales agents, or directly to the Agents acting as principal.

The sales, if any, of common stock made under the equity distribution agreement through the Agents, as our sales agents, may be made (1) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions on the NYSE at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, in negotiated transactions or as otherwise agreed by us, the applicable agent and the applicable investor, (2) to or through any market maker or (3) on or through any other national securities exchange or facility thereof, trading facility of a securities association or national securities exchange, alternative trading system, electronic communication network or other similar market venue. As agents, none of the Agents will engage in any transactions that stabilize the price of our common stock. The offering of the shares by the Agents is subject to receipt and acceptance and subject to the Agents’ right to reject any order in whole or in part.

We will designate the maximum amount of shares of common stock to be sold through the Applicable Agent and the minimum pricing for the shares to be sold, each as agreed to by the Applicable Agent. Subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement, the Applicable Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the designated shares of common stock. We may instruct the Applicable Agent not to sell our common stock, or to amend our previous designation, to the extent that the sales designated by us in any such instruction have not been completed, and the Applicable Agent will use good faith efforts to implement such termination or amendment. We or the Agents, upon notice to the other party, may suspend the offering of our common stock under the equity distribution agreement. Our common stock offered and sold through the Agents, as our sales agents, pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will be offered and sold through only one of the Agents on any given day.

The Applicable Agent will provide written confirmation to us with respect to each order that we place as soon as promptly practicable following the close of trading on the New York Stock Exchange each day on which shares of our common stock are sold under the equity distribution agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold on that day, the various prices at which shares were sold, the number of shares sold at each of the various prices, the aggregate gross sales proceeds from the shares sold, the transaction fees applicable to the shares sold, the net proceeds to us for the shares sold and the compensation payable by us to the Applicable Agent in connection with the shares sold. We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through the Applicable Agents under the equity distribution agreement, the proceeds to us (before expenses) and the compensation paid by us to the Applicable Agent in connection with the sales of the common stock.

We will pay the Applicable Agent a commission that will not exceed, but may be lower than, 2% of the gross sales price per share of our common stock sold through it as our agent under the equity distribution agreement. We may also agree with the applicable Agent to sell shares other than through ordinary brokers’ transactions using sales efforts and methods that may constitute “distributions” within the meaning of Rule 100 of Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and we and the applicable Agent will agree to compensation for the applicable Agent for such sales. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions under the equity distribution agreement, will be approximately $175,000. The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of the common stock.

Under the terms of the equity distribution agreement, we may also sell shares of our common stock to any of the agents, as principal, at a price per share to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to an agent as

 

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principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with that agent and we will describe the terms of the offering of those shares in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.

Settlement for sales of our common stock will occur on the third business day (or such earlier date as is required by Rule 15c6-1(a) of the Exchange Act or industry practice for regular-way trading or on such other date as may be agreed upon by us and the applicable Agent) following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The Agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts to execute any order we submit to sell shares of our common stock with respect to which such Agent has agreed to act as sales agent. In connection with the sale of common stock on our behalf, any of the Agents may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to the Agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the several Agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

We may also agree with one or more of the Agents to enter into forward sale, delayed delivery or other hedging arrangements in connection with sales of shares of our common stock under the equity distribution agreement. In connection with any such arrangement, we and the applicable Agents will enter into appropriate agreements (such as forward purchase agreements) and we will amend or supplement this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to the extent required.

The offering of shares of our common stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of additional shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of $400,000,000 pursuant to this offering and (2) the termination of the equity distribution agreement by us or by each of the Agents, or by its terms, as applicable.

If an Agent or we has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied, that party will promptly notify the other party and sales of common stock under the equity distribution agreement will be suspended until that or other exemptive provisions have been satisfied in the judgment of the Agents and us.

Other Relationships

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, affiliates of the Agents are lenders and, in certain cases, agents under our revolving credit facility and/or certain of our term loans, including those of our unconsolidated funds. In addition, affiliates of some or all of the Agents may in the future be lenders and/or agents under new credit facilities and/or term loans or amendments or restatements of our existing revolving credit facility and/or term loans, in each case that we or our operating partnership may enter into from time to time, and the Agents and their respective affiliates may from time to time hold debt securities or other indebtedness of ours, our operating partnership or our other subsidiaries. As described in this prospectus supplement under “Use of Proceeds,” net proceeds of this offering may be used to repay indebtedness, which may include borrowings under our revolving credit facility and term loans. Because, as of the date of this prospectus supplement, affiliates of the Agents are lenders under our revolving credit facility and certain of our term loans, to the extent that net proceeds from this offering are applied to repay borrowings under our revolving credit facility and/or certain of our term loans, such affiliates will receive proceeds of this offering through the repayment of those borrowings. Likewise, to the extent that net proceeds from this offering are applied to repay any other indebtedness of ours, our operating partnership or our other subsidiaries that may be held by any of the Agents or any of their respective affiliates, such Agents or affiliates, as the case may be, will receive proceeds of this offering through the repayment of that indebtedness.

The Agents and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment

 

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management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. Certain of the Agents and their respective affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various financial advisory and investment banking services for the issuer, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses.

In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the Agents and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of the issuer. The Agents and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

In addition, affiliates of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated are tenants in certain our office properties with leases that collectively represent less than 1.0% of our annualized rent as of September 30, 2017.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, will pass upon certain matters relating to this offering for us, and Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP, Los Angeles, California, is acting as our counsel in this offering. Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California, is acting as our tax counsel in this offering. Certain legal matters will be passed upon for the Agents by Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California. Additional or replacement counsel, if any, used by us or the Agents in this offering will be named in a prospectus supplement or other filing incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement that specifically references this offering.

 

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LOGO

Douglas Emmett, Inc.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Warrants or Other Rights

Stock Purchase Contracts

Units

 

 

We may from time to time offer to sell the securities listed above. The preferred stock, warrants, rights and stock purchase contracts may be convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of our common or preferred stock or other securities of ours or debt or equity securities of one or more other entities. The shares of preferred stock may either be sold separately or represented by depositary shares. The shares of preferred stock may be convertible into shares of common stock and/or into shares of preferred stock of another series. Selling security holders may from time to time offer to sell common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants or other rights, stock purchase contracts or units of Douglas Emmett, Inc. under this prospectus.

We or any selling security holder may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents or directly to purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to these securities and the general manner in which they may be offered. The specific terms of any securities to be offered, the specific manner in which they may be offered and the identity of any selling security holder, will be described in a supplement to this prospectus. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of securities by the selling security holders.

You should consider the discussion regarding our risk factors included under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 1 of this prospectus before investing our securities.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “DEI”. Where applicable, a prospectus supplement will contain information on any listing on a securities exchange of securities covered by that prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Prospectus dated August 4, 2017.


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You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference in these documents. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the accompanying prospectus supplement. If anyone provides you with different, inconsistent or unauthorized information or representations, you must not rely on them. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement are an offer to sell only the securities offered by these documents, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is current only as of the date on the front of those documents.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

     i  

RISK FACTORS

     1  

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     1  

SUMMARY

     3  

CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERENCE DIVIDEND REQUIREMENTS

     4  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     4  

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK

     4  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS OR OTHER RIGHTS

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK PURCHASE CONTRACTS

     15  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     16  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     17  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP AND BOOK-ENTRY ISSUANCE

     22  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     26  

SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS

     50  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     50  

VALIDITY OF THE SECURITIES

     52  

EXPERTS

     52  


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AVAILABLE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement that we have filed under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). By using a shelf registration statement, Douglas Emmett, Inc. and/or selling security holders are registering an unspecified amount of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants or other rights, stock purchase contracts or units, and may sell such securities, at any time and from time to time, in one or more offerings.

Douglas Emmett is required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. You may read and copy any documents filed by us at the SEC’s public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference room. Our filings with the SEC are also available to the public through the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov.

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC relating to the securities covered by this prospectus. This prospectus is a part of the registration statement and does not contain all of the information in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to a contract or other document, please be aware that the reference is only a summary and that you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statements for a copy of the contract or other document. You may review a copy of the registration statements at the SEC’s public reference room in Washington, D.C., as well as through the SEC’s Internet site.

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document. Any information referred to in this way is considered part of this prospectus from the date we file that document. Any reports filed by us with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and before the date that the offering of the securities by means of this prospectus is terminated will automatically update and, where applicable, supersede any information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

We incorporate by reference into this prospectus the following documents or information filed with the SEC (other than, in each case, documents or information deemed to have been furnished and not filed in accordance with SEC rules):

 

(1) Annual Report of Douglas Emmett on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 filed with the SEC on February 17, 2017 (including information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for our 2017 annual meeting of stockholders filed with the SEC on April 17, 2017);

 

(2) Quarterly Report of Douglas Emmett on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2016 filed with the SEC on May 5, 2017, and the Quarterly Report of Douglas Emmett on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2017 filed with the SEC on August 4, 2017;

 

(3) Current Reports of Douglas Emmett on Form 8-K or Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on May 6, 2016, February 13, 2017 and June 2, 2017;

 

(4) The description of our shares of common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-33106), filed with the SEC on October 23, 2006; and

 

(5) All documents filed by us under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, after the date of this prospectus and before the termination of this offering.

We will provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon his or her written or oral request, a copy of any or all documents referred to above which have been or may be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, excluding exhibits to those documents unless they

 

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are specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. You can request those documents from our corporate secretary, 808 Wilshire Boulevard, 2nd Floor, Santa Monica, California, 90401, telephone (310) 255-7700. Alternatively, copies of these documents may be available on our website (www.douglasemmett.com). Any other documents available on our website are not incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

We have included discussions of cautionary factors describing risks relating to our business and an investment in our securities in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. See “Available Information” for an explanation of how to get a copy of this report. Additional risks related to our securities may also be described in a prospectus supplement. Before purchasing our securities, you should carefully consider the risk factors we describe in any prospectus supplement or in any report incorporated by reference into this prospectus or such prospectus supplement, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, or any Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus or such prospectus supplement after the date of this prospectus. Although we discuss key risks in those risk factor descriptions, additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business. Our subsequent filings with the SEC may contain amended and updated discussions of significant risks. We cannot predict future risks or estimate the extent to which they may affect our financial performance.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference in it, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act). These statements may be made directly in this document or they may be made part of this document by reference to other documents filed with the SEC, which is known as “incorporation by reference.” You can find many (but not all) of these statements by looking for words such as “approximates,” “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “would,” “may” or other similar expressions in this prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference.

We claim the protection of the safe harbor contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We caution investors that any forward-looking statements presented in this prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference, or those which we may make orally or in writing from time to time, are based on our beliefs and assumptions, as well as information currently available to us. Such statements are based on assumptions and the actual outcome will be affected by known and unknown risks, trends, uncertainties and factors that are beyond our control or ability to predict. Although we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, they are not guarantees of future performance and some will inevitably prove to be incorrect. As a result, our actual future results can be expected to differ from our expectations, and those differences may be material. Accordingly, investors should use caution in relying on past forward-looking statements, which are based on known results and trends at the time they are made, to anticipate future results or trends.

Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include the following:

 

    adverse economic or real estate developments in Southern California and Honolulu, Hawaii;

 

    a general downturn in the economy, such as the global financial crisis that commenced in 2008;

 

    competition from other real estate investors in our markets;

 

    decreased rental rates or increased tenant incentive and vacancy rates;

 

    defaults on, early termination of, or non-renewal of leases by tenants;

 

    increased interest rates and operating costs;

 

    failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding debt;

 

    failure to generate sufficient cash flows to make payments on a ground lease for one of our properties;

 

    difficulties in raising capital;

 

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    difficulties in identifying properties to acquire and failure to complete acquisitions successfully;

 

    failure to successfully operate acquired properties;

 

    real estate investments are generally illiquid and difficult to sell quickly;

 

    possible adverse changes in rent control laws and regulations;

 

    environmental uncertainties;

 

    risks related to natural disasters;

 

    lack or insufficient amount of insurance, or increases in the cost of maintaining existing insurance coverage;

 

    inability to successfully expand into new markets and submarkets;

 

    risks associated with property development;

 

    risks associated with JVs;

 

    conflicts of interest with our officers and reliance on key personnel;

 

    changes in real estate zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates;

 

    adverse results of litigation or governmental proceedings;

 

    complying with laws, regulations and covenants that are applicable to our properties;

 

    difficulty in liquidating our short term investments;

 

    the consequences of any possible future terrorist attacks or wars;

 

    the consequences of any possible future cyber attacks or intrusions;

 

    adoption of new accounting pronouncements could adversely affect our operating results;

 

    weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting could result in restatements of our operating results;

 

    failure to maintain our REIT status under federal tax laws; and

 

    changes to tax laws that could adversely affect us.

This prospectus and all subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to our forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the dates that such statements are made.

For more information on the uncertainty of forward-looking statements, see “Risk Factors” in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K and, to the extent applicable, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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SUMMARY

DOUGLAS EMMETT, INC.

Douglas Emmett, Inc. is a fully integrated, self-administered and self-managed Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). We are one of the largest owners and operators of high-quality office and multifamily properties in Los Angeles County, California and Honolulu, Hawaii. We focus on owning, acquiring, developing and managing a substantial share of top-tier office properties and premier multifamily communities in neighborhoods that possess significant supply constraints, high-end executive housing and key lifestyle amenities. We intend to increase our market share in our existing submarkets of Los Angeles County and Honolulu, and may selectively enter into other submarkets with similar characteristics where we believe we can gain significant market share.

Through our interest in our Douglas Emmett Properties, LP (our operating partnership) and its subsidiaries, our consolidated joint ventures (JVs), and our investments in our unconsolidated institutional real estate funds (Funds), we own or partially own, acquire, develop and manage real estate, consisting primarily of office and multifamily properties. At June 30, 2017, we owned a consolidated portfolio of (i) sixty-one office properties (including ancillary retail space) totaling approximately 16.2 million rentable square feet, which included nine office properties owned by our consolidated JVs, (ii) ten multifamily properties containing 3,320 apartment units, and (iii) the fee interests in two parcels of land subject to ground leases from which we earn ground rent income. Alongside our consolidated portfolio, we also manage and own equity interests in our unconsolidated Funds which, at June 30, 2017, owned eight additional office properties totaling approximately 1.8 million square feet of space. We manage these eight properties alongside our consolidated portfolio, and we therefore present our office portfolio statistics on a total portfolio basis, with a combined sixty-nine Class A office properties totaling approximately 18.1 million square feet. Our properties are located in the Beverly Hills, Brentwood, Burbank, Century City, Olympic Corridor, Santa Monica, Sherman Oaks/Encino, Warner Center/Woodland Hills and Westwood submarkets of Los Angeles County, California, and in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Our principal executive offices are located at 808 Wilshire Boulevard, 2nd Floor, Santa Monica, California, 90401, and our telephone number is (310) 255-7700. We maintain a web site at www.douglasemmett.com. The information contained on or that may be obtained from our web site is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus. Our common stock is currently traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “DEI.”

 



 

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CONSOLIDATED RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO COMBINED FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERENCE DIVIDEND REQUIREMENTS

We will disclose or incorporate by reference in the related prospectus supplement a ratio of combined fixed charges and preference dividends to earnings in connection with the registration of preference equity securities.

USE OF PROCEEDS

As will be more fully described in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities for general corporate purposes or other uses. These other uses may include, among others, the funding of acquisitions or the repayment of indebtedness. We will not receive any of the proceeds of the sale by selling security holders of the securities covered by this prospectus.

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK

The following summary of the material terms of our stock in this section does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter and Amended and Restated Bylaws (as amended and restated, the “bylaws”), copies of which we have previously filed with the SEC and which we incorporate by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Available Information.”

General. Our charter provides that we may issue up to 750,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, and 200,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares or the number of authorized shares of any class or series without common stockholder approval. As of June 30, 2017, 160,743,013 shares of our common stock, and no shares of our preferred stock, were issued and outstanding. Under Maryland law, our stockholders generally are not liable for our debts or obligations.

We believe that the power of our board of directors to increase the number of authorized shares of stock, authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock provides us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. Shares of additional classes or series of stock, as well as additional shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder consent is required by applicable law, the terms of any class or series of our stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interest.

Description of Common Stock. All shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus will be, upon issuance, duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends on such stock if, as and when authorized by our board of directors out of assets legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, after payment of or adequate provision for all known debts and liabilities of our company.

 

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Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of such shares will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election by our common stockholders and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.

Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption or appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, shares of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, consolidate, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless the action is approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides for approval of such matters by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, except that amendments to our charter (other than any amendment to the provisions of our charter regarding director removal, the approval of extraordinary transactions and the vote required to amend such provisions, which must be approved by the affirmative vote of at least two thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on such amendments) may be approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the amendment.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of classes of stock and to establish the number of shares in each class or series and to set the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each such class or series.

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

Description of Preferred Stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of any class or series. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each such class or series. Thus, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of a class or series of preferred stock with terms and conditions which could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interest. As of the date hereof, no shares of preferred stock are outstanding and we have no present plans to issue any preferred stock.

If we offer convertible preferred stock, such stock will be convertible into shares of our common stock or other securities. With respect to any convertible preferred stock (referred to herein as preferred stock) we may choose to offer, the specific designation and terms and conditions will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the preferred stock offered, including the following terms. Each time that we issue a new series of preferred stock, we will file with the SEC and the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland articles supplementary which will state the number of shares and the designation, preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and

 

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terms and conditions of redemption of that class or series of preferred stock. The articles supplementary for the class or series of preferred stock will contain the full legal text of the applicable matters described in this section and our prospectus supplement relating to the preferred stock. See “Available Information” above for information on how to obtain copies of the articles supplementary. The terms of the preferred stock in the articles supplementary will include some or all of the following:

 

    the designation of the class or series, which may be by distinguishing number, letter or title;

 

    the number of shares of the class or series, which number our board of directors may thereafter (except where otherwise provided in the preferred stock terms) increase or decrease (but not below the number of shares thereof then outstanding);

 

    the dividend rate, the dates on which the dividends will be payable, if any, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and other terms relating to the payment of dividends on the class or series;

 

    the redemption rights and redemption price or prices, if any, for shares of the class or series;

 

    whether the preferred stock is redeemable or subject to a sinking fund, and the terms and amount of such sinking fund provided for the purchase or redemption of shares of the class or series;

 

    the amounts payable on shares of the class or series, and the special or relative rights of such shares, in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company;

 

    whether the shares of the class or series are convertible into shares of any other class or series, or any other security, of our company or any other corporation, and, if so, the specification of such other class or series or such other security, the conversion price or prices or rate or rates, any adjustments thereof, the date or dates as of which such shares shall be convertible and all other terms and conditions upon which such conversion may be made;

 

    any listing of the class or series on any securities exchange;

 

    the relative ranking and preferences of the class or series as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation and dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company;

 

    restrictions on the authorization classification, reclassification or issuance of shares of the same class or series or of any other class or series of our stock;

 

    the voting rights, if any, of the holders of shares of the class or series; and

 

    any additional rights, preferences, qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the class or series of preferred stock.

The prospectus supplement relating to any class or series of preferred stock we issue will, to the extent appropriate, describe any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the ownership of such stock.

Description of Depositary Shares. We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares, which represent receipts for fractional interests in shares of preferred stock rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we offer depositary shares, depositary receipts for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fraction of a share of a particular class or series of preferred stock, will be issued as described below. The prospectus supplement relating to any series of depositary shares will state the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by each depositary share.

The description below of the material provisions of the deposit agreement and of the depositary shares and depositary receipts is only a summary and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the forms of deposit agreement and depositary receipts relating to each series of the depositary shares that have been or will be filed

 

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with the SEC at or before the time of the offering or sale of a series of depositary shares. The particular terms of depositary shares representing fractional interests in any particular class or series of preferred stock and, to the extent appropriate, any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences of the ownership of depositary shares, will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, which will supplement the information in this prospectus.

The shares of any class or series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares will be deposited under a deposit agreement between us and the depositary. Subject to the deposit agreement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, to all of the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share.

Dividends and Other Distributions. The depositary will distribute all cash dividends and other cash distributions received in respect of the preferred stock to the record holders of depositary shares relating to the preferred stock in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by the holders.

If we make a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary shares in an equitable manner, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution, in which case the depositary may sell the property and distribute the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.

Withdrawal of Shares of Underlying Preferred Stock. Upon surrender of depositary receipts at the corporate trust office of the depositary, unless the related depositary shares have previously been called for redemption, each depositary receipt holder will be entitled to delivery at the depositary’s corporate trust office, to or upon the holder’s order, of the number of whole or fractional shares of the class or series of preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipts. Holders of depositary receipts will be entitled to receive whole or fractional shares of the related class or series of preferred stock on the basis of the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by each depositary share as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, but holders of the shares of preferred stock will not be entitled to receive depositary shares representing shares of preferred stock after exchanging the depositary shares for shares of preferred stock. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares.

Redemption of Depositary Shares. If a class or series of preferred stock represented by depositary shares is subject to redemption, the depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of the class or series of preferred stock held by the depositary. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the applicable fraction of the redemption price per share payable with respect to the class or series of preferred stock. Whenever we redeem preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing the redeemed preferred stock. If fewer than all of the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot, proportionately or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.

Voting the Underlying Preferred Stock. Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock of any class or series represented by depository shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary shares relating to the class or series of preferred stock. Each record holder of these depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the amount of the preferred stock represented by the holder’s depositary shares. The record date for voting the depositary shares will be the

 

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same as the record date for voting the preferred stock. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the amount of the preferred stock represented by the depositary shares in accordance with the instructions, and we will take all reasonable action deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will abstain from voting the preferred stock to the extent it does not receive specific instructions from the holder of depositary shares representing those shares of preferred stock.

Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement. We and the depositary may amend the form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement at any time. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares will not be effective unless the holders of at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding approve the amendment. The deposit agreement will only terminate if (a) all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed or (b) there has been a final distribution in respect of the preferred stock in connection with any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company and that distribution has been distributed to the holders of the related depositary shares.

Charges of Depositary. We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and issuance of depositary receipts, all withdrawals of preferred stock by owners of depositary shares and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay other transfer and other taxes and governmental charges and any other charges expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their account.

Resignation and Removal of Depositary. The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the depositary. The resignation or removal will take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of the appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000.

Restrictions on Ownership. In order to assist us in preventing an inadvertent loss of REIT status, the deposit agreement, the declaration of trust and/or our charter will contain provisions restricting the ownership and transfer of depositary shares. These restrictions will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Reports; Liability of Depositary and Douglas Emmett. The depositary will forward all reports and communications from us that are delivered to it and that we are required or otherwise determine to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock.

Neither the depositary nor Douglas Emmett will be liable if it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. Our obligations and the obligations of the depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of their duties under the deposit agreement, and neither we nor they will be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. The depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, or information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary shares or other persons believed to be competent and on documents believed to be genuine.

Transfer Restrictions and Ownership Limitations Applicable to our Equity Securities. In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities such as private foundations) at any time during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

 

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Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 5.0% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of stock or more than 5.0% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock. We refer to these restrictions as the “ownership limits.” A person or entity that, but for the ownership limits and the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described below, would have beneficially or constructively owned shares of our stock and, if appropriate in the context, any person or entity that would have been the record owner of such shares, is referred to as a “purported transferee.”

The beneficial and constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually, beneficially or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned beneficially or constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 5.0% in value of our outstanding stock or less than 5.0% of the value or number of shares of our common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own beneficially or constructively in excess of 5.0% in value of our outstanding stock or 5.0% of the value or number of our outstanding common stock and thereby subject such stock to the applicable ownership limits.

Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, prospectively or retroactively, waive the ownership limits with respect to a particular stockholder and establish a different limit on ownership by the stockholder if it determines, based on certain representations and undertakings it must obtain from the stockholder, that:

 

    such ownership will not cause any individual’s beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock to cause us to be “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

    such stockholder does not and will not own, actually or constructively, an interest in a tenant of ours (or a tenant of any entity owned in whole or in part by us) that would cause us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.9% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in such tenant.

The stockholder seeking the waiver must also agree that any violation or attempted violation of these undertakings will result in stock being automatically transferred to a charitable trust as described below. As a condition of such waiver, our board of directors may also require an opinion of counsel or Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to preserving our REIT status.

In connection with a waiver of an ownership limit or at any other time, our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, decrease one or both of the ownership limits for one or more persons and entities; provided, however, that the decreased ownership limit will not be effective for any person or entity whose percentage ownership of our stock is in excess of such decreased ownership limit until such time as such person or entity’s percentage ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, but any further acquisition of our stock in excess of such percentage ownership of our stock will be in violation of the ownership limit. Additionally, the new ownership limit may not allow five or fewer stockholders to beneficially own more than 49.9% in value of our outstanding stock or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Our charter provisions further prohibit:

 

    any person from beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would result in us being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

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    any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate any of the foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership must give notice immediately to us or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, give at least 15 days prior notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT. The foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

Pursuant to our charter, if any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit as is established by our board of directors or would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares in excess of the ownership limit or causing us to be “closely held” or otherwise to fail to qualify as a REIT (rounded to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us. The purported transferee will have no rights in shares of our stock held by the trustee. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the purported transferee, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for distribution to the beneficiary of the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limit or our being “closely held” or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then our charter provides that the purported transfer of the shares will be void. If any transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution), then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares.

Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed to be offered for sale to us or our designee at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the purported transferee for the shares (or, if the purported transferee did not give value in connection with the transaction that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust, for example, in the case of a devise or gift, the last sale price reported on the NYSE on the trading day of the event that resulted in the transfer of such shares of our stock to the trust) and (ii) the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust pursuant to the clauses discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the purported transferee and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above. After that, the trustee must distribute to the purported transferee an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the purported transferee or owner for the shares (or, in the event of a devise or gift, the last sale price reported on the NYSE on the trading day of the event that resulted in the transfer of such shares of our stock to the trust) and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trust for the shares. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the purported transferee will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if prior to discovery by us that shares of our stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of stock are sold by a purported transferee, then such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and,

 

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to the extent that the purported transferee received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such purported transferee was entitled to receive, such excess amount must be paid to the trustee upon demand. The purported transferee has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.

The trustee shall be designated by us and must be unaffiliated with us and with any purported transferee. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares, and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee has the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

    to rescind as void any vote cast by a purported transferee prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

    to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

In addition, if our board of directors or any duly authorized committee determines in good faith that a proposed transfer would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors or such committee will take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem shares of common stock or preferred stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

Any owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or applicable Treasury Regulations) of the outstanding shares of our common stock must, on request, provide us with a completed questionnaire containing certain information regarding their ownership of such shares and must, on request, disclose to us such information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such stockholder’s beneficial ownership of shares of our stock on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, any person or entity that is a beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person or entity (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner must, on request, disclose to us in writing such information as we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT or to comply, or determine our compliance, with the requirements of any governmental or taxing authority.

All certificates representing shares of our stock bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS OR OTHER RIGHTS

Please note that in this section entitled “Description of Warrants or Other Rights,” references to “holders” mean those who own warrants or other rights registered in their own names, on the books that we or any applicable trustee or warrant or rights agent maintain for this purpose, and not those who own beneficial interests in warrants or rights registered in street name or in warrants or rights issued in book-entry form through one or more depositaries. Owners of beneficial interests in warrants or rights should also read the section entitled “Legal Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance.”

 

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This section outlines some of the provisions of each warrant or rights agreement pursuant to which warrants or rights may be issued, the warrants or rights, and any warrant or rights certificates. This information may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to any warrant agreement or rights agreement with respect to the warrants or rights of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of warrants or rights will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in the prospectus supplement, the terms of that series of warrants or rights may differ from the general description of terms presented below.

We may issue warrants or other rights. We may issue these securities in such amounts or in as many distinct series as we wish. This section summarizes the terms of these securities that apply generally. Most of the financial and other specific terms of any such series of securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Those terms may vary from the terms described here.

When we refer to a series of securities in this section, we mean all securities issued as part of the same series under any applicable agreement or other instrument. When we refer to the applicable prospectus supplement, we mean the prospectus supplement describing the specific terms of the security you purchase. The terms used in the applicable prospectus supplement generally will have the meanings described in this prospectus, unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Warrants. We may issue warrants, options or similar instruments for the purchase of our preferred stock, common stock, depositary shares or units. We refer to these collectively as “warrants.” Warrants may be issued independently or together with preferred stock, common stock, depositary shares or units, and may be attached to or separate from those securities.

Rights. We may also issue rights, on terms to be determined at the time of sale, for the purchase or sale of, or whose cash value or stream of cash payments is determined by reference to the occurrence or non-occurrence of any event or circumstance or performance, level or value of one or more of the following:

 

    securities of one or more issuers, including our common or preferred stock or other securities described in this prospectus or debt or equity securities of third parties;

 

    one or more currencies;

 

    one or more commodities;

 

    any other financial, economic or other measure or instrument; and

 

    one or more indices or baskets of the items described above.

We refer to each property described above as a “right property.”

We may satisfy our obligations, if any, and the holder of a right may satisfy its obligations, if any, with respect to any rights by delivering, among other things:

 

    the right property;

 

    the cash value of the right property; or

 

    the cash value of the rights determined by reference to the performance, level or value of the right.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe what we may deliver to satisfy our obligations, if any, and what the holder of a right may deliver to satisfy its obligations, if any, with respect to any rights.

Agreements. Each series of warrants or rights may be evidenced by certificates and may be issued under a separate agreement or other instrument to be entered into between us and a bank that we select as agent with respect to such series. The warrant or rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrant or

 

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rights agreement or any warrant or rights certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any warrant or rights holders. Copies of the forms of agreements and the forms of certificates representing the warrants or rights will be filed with the SEC near the date of filing of the applicable prospectus supplement with the SEC. Because the following is a summary of certain provisions of the forms of agreements and certificates, it does not contain all information that may be important to you. You should read all the provisions of the agreements and the certificates once they are available. Warrants or rights in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the securities represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a global security will do so through participants in the depositary’s system, and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. We describe book-entry securities under “Legal Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance.”

General Terms of Warrants or Rights. The prospectus supplement relating to a series of warrants or rights will identify the name and address of the warrant or rights agent, if any. The prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the series of warrants or rights in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including:

 

    the offering price;

 

    the currency for which the warrants or rights may be purchased;

 

    the designation and terms of any securities with which the warrants or rights are issued and in that event the number of warrants or rights issued with each security or each principal amount of security;

 

    the date, if any, on which the warrants or rights and any related securities will be separately transferable;

 

    whether the warrants or rights are to be sold separately or with other securities, as part of units or otherwise;

 

    any securities exchange or quotation system on which the warrants or rights or any securities deliverable upon exercise of such securities may be listed;

 

    whether the warrants or rights will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in global or non-global form or in any combination of these forms;

 

    the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

    material U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising these securities; and

 

    any other terms of the warrants or rights.

Warrant or rights certificates may be exchanged for new certificates of different denominations and may be presented for transfer of registration and, if exercisable for other securities or other property, may be exercised at the warrant or rights agent’s corporate trust office or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement. If the warrants or rights are not separately transferable from any securities with which they were issued, an exchange may take place only if the certificates representing the related securities are also exchanged. Prior to exercise of any warrant or right exercisable for other securities or other property, warrant or rights holders will not have any rights as holders of the underlying securities, including the right to receive any principal, premium, interest, dividends, or payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise any voting rights.

Exercise of Warrants or Rights. If any warrant or right is exercisable for other securities or other property, the following provisions will apply. Each such warrant or right may be exercised at any time up to any expiration date and time mentioned in the prospectus supplement relating to those warrants or rights as may otherwise be stated in the prospectus supplement. After the close of business on any applicable expiration date, unexercised warrants or rights will become void.

 

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Warrants or rights may be exercised by delivery of the certificate representing the securities to be exercised, or in the case of global securities, as described below under “Legal Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance,” by delivery of an exercise notice for those warrants or rights, together with certain information, and payment to any warrant or rights agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the prospectus supplement, of the required purchase amount, if any. Upon receipt of payment and the properly executed certificate or exercise notice at the office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, within the time period in the relevant agreement, issue and deliver the securities or other property purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants or rights represented by such certificates are exercised, a new certificate will be issued for the remaining amount of warrants or rights. The warrant or rights holder will be required to pay any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any transfer involved in the issuance of the underlying securities or property.

If mentioned in the prospectus supplement, securities may be surrendered as all or part of the exercise price for warrants or rights.

Preferred Stock, Depositary Shares and Common Stock Warrant Adjustment. In the case of warrants or rights to purchase preferred stock, common stock or depositary shares the exercise price payable and the number of shares of common stock purchasable upon warrant exercise may be adjusted in certain events. The terms and conditions on which adjustments may be made will be set forth in the warrant or rights certificate and the applicable prospectus supplement. Such description will include information about:

 

    the provisions for adjusting the exercise price of and/or the number of shares of preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock covered by such warrants or rights;

 

    the events requiring such adjustment;

 

    the events upon which we may, in lieu of making such adjustment, make proper provisions so that the warrant or rights holder, upon exercise, would be treated as if such holder had exercised such warrant or right prior to the occurrence of such events; and

 

    the provisions affecting exercise if certain events affecting the preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock occur.

The prospectus supplement will describe which, if any, of these provisions shall apply to a particular series of warrants or rights. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, no adjustment in the number of shares purchasable upon warrant or right exercise will be required until cumulative adjustments require an adjustment of at least 1% of such number and no fractional shares will be issued upon warrant or right exercise, but we will pay the cash value of any fractional shares otherwise issuable.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Any agreement with respect to warrants or rights will provide that we are generally permitted to merge or consolidate with another corporation or other entity. Any such agreement will also provide that we are permitted to sell our assets substantially as an entirety to another corporation or other entity. With regard to any series of securities, however, we may not take any of these actions unless all of the following conditions are met:

 

    if we are not the successor entity, the person formed by the consolidation or into or with which we merge or the person to which our properties and assets are conveyed, transferred or leased must be an entity organized and existing under the laws of the United States, any state or the District of Columbia and must expressly assume the performance of our covenants under any relevant agreement or other instrument; and

 

    we or that successor corporation must not, after giving effect to the transaction, be in default under that agreement.

Enforcement by Holders of Warrants or Rights. Any warrant or rights agent for any series of warrants or rights will act solely as our agent under the relevant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for any warrant or rights holder.

 

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A single bank or trust company may act as agent for more than one issue of securities. Any such agent will have no duty or responsibility in case we default in performing our obligations under the relevant agreement or warrant or right, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any legal proceedings or to make any demand upon us. Any warrant or rights holder may, without the agent’s consent or consent of any other securityholder, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise any warrant or right exercisable for any property.

Replacement of Certificates. We will replace any destroyed, lost, stolen or mutilated warrant or rights certificate upon delivery to us and any applicable agent of satisfactory evidence of the ownership of that certificate and of its destruction, loss, theft or mutilation, and (in the case of mutilation) surrender of that certificate to us or any applicable agent, unless we have, or the agent has, received notice that the certificate has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser. That warrant or rights holder will also be required to provide indemnity satisfactory to us and the relevant warrant or rights agent before a replacement certificate will be issued.

Title. We, any warrant or rights agents for any series of warrants or rights and any of their agents may treat the registered holder of any certificate as the absolute owner of the warrants or rights evidenced by that certificate for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to such warrants or rights so requested, despite any notice to the contrary.  See “Legal Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance.”

DESCRIPTION OF STOCK PURCHASE CONTRACTS

Please note that in this section entitled “Description of Stock Purchase Contracts,” references to “holders” mean those who own stock purchase contracts registered in their own names, on the books that we or our agent maintain for this purpose, and not those who own beneficial interests in stock purchase contracts registered in street name or in stock purchase contracts issued in book-entry form through one or more depositaries. Owners of beneficial interests in the stock purchase contracts should read the section below entitled “Legal Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance.”

This section outlines some of the provisions of the stock purchase contracts, the stock purchase contract agreement and the pledge agreement. This information is not complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the stock purchase contract agreement and pledge agreement with respect to the stock purchase contracts of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of stock purchase contracts will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in a prospectus supplement, the specific terms of any series of stock purchase contracts may differ from the general description of terms presented below.

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue stock purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from us and us to sell to the holders, a specified number of shares of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or other securities or property at a future date or dates. Alternatively, the stock purchase contracts may obligate us to purchase from holders, and obligate holders to sell to us, a specified or varying number of shares of common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or other security or property. The consideration per share of common stock or preferred stock or per depositary share or other security or property may be fixed at the time the stock purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by a specific reference to a formula set forth in the stock purchase contracts. The stock purchase contracts may provide for settlement by delivery by us or on our behalf of shares of the underlying security or property or, they may provide for settlement by reference or linkage to the value, performance or trading price of the underlying security or property.

The stock purchase contracts may be issued separately or as part of stock purchase units consisting of a stock purchase contract and debt securities, preferred stock or debt obligations of third parties, including U.S. Treasury securities, other stock purchase contracts or common stock, or other securities or property, securing the holders’ obligations to purchase or sell, as the case may be, the common stock or the preferred stock under the stock purchase contracts. The stock purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders

 

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of the stock purchase units or vice versa, and such payments may be unsecured or prefunded on some basis and may be paid on a current or on a deferred basis. The stock purchase contracts may require holders to secure their obligations thereunder in a specified manner and may provide for the prepayment of all or part of the consideration payable by holders in connection with the purchase of the underlying security or other property pursuant to the stock purchase contracts.

The securities related to the stock purchase contracts may be pledged to a collateral agent for our benefit pursuant to a pledge agreement to secure the obligations of holders of stock purchase contracts to purchase the underlying security or property under the related stock purchase contracts. The rights of holders of stock purchase contracts to the related pledged securities will be subject to our security interest therein created by the pledge agreement. No holder of stock purchase contracts will be permitted to withdraw the pledged securities related to such stock purchase contracts from the pledge arrangement except upon the termination or early settlement of the related stock purchase contracts or in the event other securities, cash or property is made subject to the pledge agreement in lieu of the pledged securities, if permitted by the pledge agreement, or as otherwise provided in the pledge agreement. Subject to such security interest and the terms of the stock purchase contract agreement and the pledge agreement, each holder of a stock purchase contract will retain full beneficial ownership of the related pledged securities.

Except as described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the collateral agent will, upon receipt of distributions on the pledged securities, distribute such payments to us or the stock purchase contract agent, as provided in the pledge agreement. The purchase agent will in turn distribute payments it receives as provided in the stock purchase contract agreement.

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

This section outlines some of the provisions of the units and the unit agreements. This information may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in a particular supplement, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below.

Please note that in this section entitled “Description of Units,” references to “holders” mean those who own units registered in their own names, on the books that we or our agent maintain for this purpose, and not those who own beneficial interests in units registered in street name or in units issued in book-entry form through one or more depositaries. Owners of beneficial interests in the units should read the section below entitled “Legal Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance.”

We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, stock purchase contracts, warrants, rights and other securities in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

 

    the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

    any provisions of the governing unit agreement;

 

    the price or prices at which such units will be issued;

 

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    information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

    the applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the units;

 

    any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

    any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Warrants or Other Rights,” “Description of Stock Purchase Contracts,” “Description of Stock—Common Stock” and “Description of Stock—Preferred Stock” will apply to the securities included in each unit, to the extent relevant.

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which we have previously filed with the SEC and which we incorporate by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Available Information.”

Our Board of Directors. Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established only by our board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number permitted under the MGCL or, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 15. Except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, any vacancy may be filled only by a vote of a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum. Any director elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the class in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies.

Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors. Holders of shares of our common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, subject to the right of holders of one or more classes or series of our stock to elect one or more directors, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock will be able to elect all of our directors.

Removal of Directors. Our charter provides that a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, precludes stockholders from removing directors except upon the existence of cause for removal and a substantial affirmative vote and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees before the next annual meeting of stockholders.

Business Combinations. Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (defined as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s shares or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the then-outstanding voting stock of the corporation), or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the corporation’s board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. Our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.

 

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Any such business combination entered into after the five-year prohibition must be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (a) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation and (b) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has elected to opt out of the business combination provisions of the MGCL; however, our board of directors may elect to opt in to such provisions at any time.

Control Share Acquisitions. The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to such shares except to the extent approved at a special meeting by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power in the election of directors: (i) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (ii) an officer of the corporation or (iii) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are issued and outstanding voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would cause the acquiror to be entitled to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (i) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (ii) one-third or more but less than a majority or (iii) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses), may compel a Maryland corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror or, if a any meeting of stockholders is held at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved, as of the date of such meeting. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our common stock. However, the board of directors can, at any time, elect to have these

 

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provisions of the MGCL apply to our company by amending our bylaws. There can be no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

Subtitle 8. Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any of (1) a classified board of directors, (2) a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director, (3) a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors, (4) a requirement that a vacancy on the board of directors be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred or (5) a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders. Pursuant to Subtitle 8, we have elected to provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director from the board of directors, vest in our board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and require, unless called by the chairman of our board of directors, our president, our chief executive officer or our board of directors, the request of holders of a majority of outstanding shares entitled to vote at the meeting to call a special meeting. Our board of directors is not currently classified. In the future, our board of directors may elect, without stockholder approval, to classify our board of directors by electing to be subject to the relevant provision of Subtitle 8.

Interested Director and Officer Transactions. Pursuant to the MGCL, a contract or other transaction between us and a director or between us and any other corporation or other entity in which any of our directors is a director or has a material financial interest is not void or voidable solely on the grounds of such common directorship or interest, the presence of such director at the meeting at which the contract or transaction is authorized, approved or ratified or the counting of the director’s vote in favor thereof, if:

 

    the fact of the common directorship or interest is disclosed to our board of directors or a committee of our board, and our board or the committee authorizes, approves or ratifies the transaction or contract by the affirmative vote of a majority of disinterested directors, even if the disinterested directors constitute less than a quorum;

 

    the fact of the common directorship or interest is disclosed to our stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the transaction or contract is authorized, approved or ratified by a majority of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote other than the votes of shares owned of record or beneficially by the interested director or corporation or other entity; or

 

    the transaction or contract is fair and reasonable to us.

Furthermore, under Delaware law (where our operating partnership is formed), the general partner has a fiduciary duty to our operating partnership and, consequently, such transactions also are subject to the duties of care and loyalty that our general partner owes to limited partners in our operating partnership (to the extent such duties have not been eliminated pursuant to the terms of the partnership agreement). We have adopted a policy which requires that all contracts and transactions between us, our operating partnership or any of our subsidiaries, on the one hand, and any of our directors or executive officers or any entity in which such director or executive officer is a director or has a material financial interest, on the other hand, must be approved by the affirmative vote of a majority of the disinterested directors on our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, even if less than a quorum. Where appropriate in the judgment of the disinterested directors, our board of directors or our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee may obtain a fairness opinion or engage independent counsel to represent the interests of the Company, although our board of directors or our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee will have no obligation to do so.

Amendment to Our Charter. Our charter (other than its provisions on removal of directors, the vote required to approve extraordinary transactions and the vote required to amend such provisions) generally may be

 

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amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. The provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors, the vote required to approve extraordinary transactions and the vote required to amend such provisions may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Extraordinary Transactions. We generally may not merge or consolidate with or into another company, sell all or substantially all of our assets (including our assets and our subsidiaries’ assets taken as a whole), engage in a statutory share exchange, convert into another form of entity or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business unless the transaction is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, many of our operating assets are held by the operating partnership and other subsidiaries of us, and these subsidiaries may be able to merge or sell all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

Dissolution of Our Company. The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business. Our bylaws provide that:

 

    with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders may be made only:

 

    pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

 

    by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

    by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in, and provided the information required by, our bylaws.

 

    with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of the meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders and nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only:

 

    by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

    provided that the special meeting has been called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in, and provided the information and other materials required by, our bylaws.

Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws. The provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interest. Likewise, if our company’s board of directors were to opt into the business combination provisions of the MGCL, the classified board provision of Subtitle 8 or if the provision in the bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were rescinded, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Ownership Limit. Our charter provides that, subject to the exceptions described above, no person or entity may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 5.0% in value of the aggregate of our outstanding shares of stock or more than 5.0% in value or

 

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number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock. We refer to these restrictions as the “ownership limits.” In addition, no person may beneficially or constructively own shares of our stock that would result in us being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the interest is held during the last half of any taxable year) or otherwise fail to qualify as a REIT and no person may transfer shares of our stock if as a result of such transfer, our stock would be beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons. For a fuller description of this restriction and the constructive ownership rules, see “Description of Stock—Transfer Restrictions and Ownership Limitations Applicable to our Equity Securities.”

Exclusive Forum. Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision which eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Our charter authorizes us, and our bylaws require us, to the maximum extent that Maryland law in effect from time to time permits, to indemnify any present or former director and officer or any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise as a director, officer, member, manager, partner or trustee, from and against any claim or liability to which that individual may become subject or which that individual may incur by reason of his or her service in any such capacity and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

    the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith; or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

    the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

    in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

 

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However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

    a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

    a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that we, as the special limited partner, and our officers and directors are indemnified to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. We have also entered into indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors that obligate us to indemnify them to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

LEGAL OWNERSHIP AND BOOK-ENTRY ISSUANCE

In this section, we describe special considerations that will apply to registered securities issued in global—i.e., book-entry—form. First we describe the difference between legal ownership and indirect ownership of registered securities. Then we describe special provisions that apply to global securities.

Who Is the Legal Owner of a Registered Security? Each share of common or preferred stock and each depositary share in registered form will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. We refer to those who have securities registered in their own names, on the books that we or any agent maintain for this purpose, as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names as indirect owners of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect owners are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect owners.

Book-Entry Owners. We expect to issue shares of preferred stock and depositary shares in book-entry form only. We may also issue common stock or other securities covered by this prospectus in book-entry form. This means those securities will be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Under each applicable agreement, only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities and we will make all payments on the securities, including deliveries of common or preferred stock in exchange for exchangeable debt securities, to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

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As a result, investors will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect owners, and not holders, of the securities.

Street Name Owners. In the future we may terminate a global security or issue securities initially in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in street name. Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities and we will make all payments on those securities, including deliveries of common or preferred stock in exchange for exchangeable securities, to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect owners, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders. Our obligations and the obligations, if any, of any other third parties employed by us or any agents, run only to the holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect owner of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for that payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect owners but does not do so. Similarly, if we want to obtain the approval of the holders for any purpose—e.g., to amend our charter—we would seek the approval only from the holders, and not the indirect owners, of the relevant securities. Whether and how the holders contact the indirect owners is up to the holders.

When we refer to “you” in this section of the prospectus, we mean those who invest in the securities being offered by this prospectus, whether they are the holders or only indirect owners of those securities. When we refer to “your securities” in this section of the prospectus, we mean the securities in which you will hold a direct or indirect interest.

Special Considerations for Indirect Owners. If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

    how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

    whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

    how it would handle a request for the holder’s consent, if ever required;

 

    whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

    how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

    if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

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What Is a Global Security? A global security is issued in book-entry form only. Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of one or more financial institutions or clearing systems, or their nominees, which we select. A financial institution or clearing system that we select for any security for this purpose is called the “depositary” for that security. A security will usually have only one depositary but it may have more.

Each series of these securities will have one or more of the following as the depositaries:

 

    The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, which is known as “DTC”;

 

    a financial institution holding the securities on behalf of Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear system, which is known as “Euroclear”;

 

    a financial institution holding the securities on behalf of Clearstream Banking, société anonyme, Luxembourg, which is known as “Clearstream”; and

 

    any other clearing system or financial institution named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The depositaries named above may also be participants in one another’s systems. Thus, for example, if DTC is the depositary for a global security, investors may hold beneficial interests in that security through Euroclear or Clearstream, as DTC participants. The depositary or depositaries for your securities will be named in your prospectus supplement; if none is named, the depositary will be DTC.

A global security may represent one or any other number of individual securities. Generally, all securities represented by the same global security will have the same terms. We may, however, issue a global security that represents multiple securities of the same kind that have different terms and are issued at different times. We call this kind of global security a master global security. Your prospectus supplement will indicate whether your securities are represented by a master global security.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary or its nominee, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Holder’s Option to Obtain a Non-Global Security; Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated”. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only indirect interests in a global security. Indirect interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect owner of an interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. We describe the situations in which this can occur below under “—Holder’s Option to Obtain a Non-Global Security; Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated”. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations for Global Securities. As an indirect owner, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the depositary and those of the investor’s financial institution or other intermediary through which it holds its interest (e.g., Euroclear or Clearstream, if DTC is the depositary), as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize this type of investor or any intermediary as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

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If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

    An investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her own name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

    An investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above under “—Who Is the Legal Owner of a Registered Security?”;

 

    An investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

    An investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

    The depositary’s policies will govern payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security, and those policies may change from time to time. Neither we nor our agents will have any responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s policies, actions or records of ownership interests in a global security. Neither we nor our agents supervise the depositary in any way;

 

    The depositary will require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

    Financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system and through which an investor holds its interest in the global securities, directly or indirectly, may also have their own policies affecting payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to the securities, and those policies may change from time to time. For example, if you hold an interest in a global security through Euroclear or Clearstream, when DTC is the depositary, Euroclear or Clearstream, as applicable, will require those who purchase and sell interests in that security through them to use immediately available funds and comply with other policies and procedures, including deadlines for giving instructions as to transactions that are to be effected on a particular day. There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the policies or actions or records of ownership interests of any of those intermediaries.

Holder’s Option to Obtain a Non-Global Security; Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated. If we issue any series of securities in book-entry form but we choose to give the beneficial owners of that series the right to obtain non-global securities, any beneficial owner entitled to obtain non-global securities may do so by following the applicable procedures of the depositary, any transfer agent or registrar for that series and that owner’s bank, broker or other financial institution through which that owner holds its beneficial interest in the securities. For example, in the case of a global security representing preferred stock or depositary shares, a beneficial owner will be entitled to obtain a non-global security representing its interest by making a written request to the transfer agent or other agent designated by us. If you are entitled to request a non-global certificate and wish to do so, you will need to allow sufficient lead time to enable us or our agent to prepare the requested certificate.

In addition, in a few special situations described below, a global security will be terminated and interests in it will be exchanged for certificates in non-global form representing the securities it represented. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold the securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in a global security transferred on termination to their own names, so that they will be holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above under “—Who Is the Legal Owner of a Registered Security?”

 

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The special situations for termination of a global security are as follows:

 

    if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for that global security or the depositary has ceased to be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act, and in either case we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days; or

 

    any other circumstances specified for this purpose in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If a global security is terminated, only the depositary, and not we, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions in whose names the securities represented by the global security will be registered and, therefore, who will be the holders of those securities.

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our election to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) and the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the ownership of the securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. For purposes of this discussion, references to “Douglas Emmett,” “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Douglas Emmett, Inc., and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

    the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”);

 

    current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”);

 

    the legislative history of the Code;

 

    administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”); and

 

    court decisions;

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Future legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may adversely affect the tax considerations contained in this discussion. Any such change could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

    the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

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    our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

    potential changes in applicable tax laws.

Taxation of Our Company

General. We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2006. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2006, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operation for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay income tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

    First, we will be required to pay tax at regular corporate rates on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.

 

    Second, we may be required to pay the “alternative minimum tax” on our items of tax preference under some circumstances.

 

    Third, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay tax at the highest corporate rate on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.

 

   

Fourth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than

 

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foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

    Fifth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

    Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

    Seventh, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

    Eighth, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

    Ninth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during a period that is generally five years beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay tax at the highest regular corporate tax rate on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

 

    Tenth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

    Eleventh, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “—Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

    Twelfth, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed net capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

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    Thirteenth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

(1) that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

(2) that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

(3) that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

(4) that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

(5) that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

(6) not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

(7) that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7) inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our outstanding capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Description of Stock—Transfer Restrictions and Ownership Limitations Applicable to our Equity Securities.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

 

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Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. We own and operate one or more properties through partnerships and limited liability companies, including our operating partnership. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership or a member in a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership or limited liability company retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership, including our operating partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships and limited liability companies is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”

We have control of our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership or limited liability company and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Asset Tests.”

Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. Our operating partnership owns interests in two companies that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. We believe that the office and multifamily properties we operate and continue to operate are not and will not be treated as lodging or health care facilities for this purpose. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. In addition, a taxable REIT subsidiary may be prevented from deducting interest on debt funded directly or indirectly by its parent REIT if

 

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certain tests regarding the taxable REIT subsidiary’s debt to equity ratio and interest expense are not satisfied. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “—Asset Tests.”

Ownership of Interests in Subsidiary REITs. We currently own an interest in several REITs. We own an interest in DEI X Partnership REIT, LP, or DEI X REIT, which has elected to be taxed as a corporation and as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with its initial taxable year ended December 31, 2010. We also own an interest in (i) DE Park Avenue REIT, Inc., or Park Avenue REIT, and (ii) DE Pacific REIT, Inc., or Pacific REIT, each of which has elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with its initial taxable year ended December 31, 2016. We previously owned an interest in another REIT, which has since been dissolved. We refer to DEI X REIT, Park Avenue REIT, Pacific REIT and, until its date of dissolution, the previously dissolved REIT as our Subsidiary REITs. Provided that each of our Subsidiary REITs has qualified as a REIT during our ownership of such Subsidiary REIT, our interests in each of such Subsidiary REITs will be treated as qualifying real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests and any dividend income or gains derived by us from such Subsidiary REITs will generally be treated as income that qualifies for purposes of the REIT gross income tests. To qualify as a REIT, each of our Subsidiary REITs must independently satisfy the various REIT qualification requirements described in this summary. If any Subsidiary REIT were to fail to qualify as a REIT, and certain relief provisions do not apply, it would be treated as a regular taxable corporation and its income would be subject to U.S. federal income tax. In addition, a failure of any Subsidiary REIT to qualify as a REIT would cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT, subject to certain cure provisions.

Income Tests. We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

    The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;

 

   

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended,

 

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and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;

 

    Rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

 

    We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

We generally do not intend, and, as the sole stockholder of the general partner of our operating partnership, we do not intend to permit our operating partnership, to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Income we receive that is attributable to the rental of parking spaces at the properties generally will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests if certain services provided with respect to the parking spaces are performed by independent contractors from whom we derive no revenue, either directly or indirectly, or by a taxable REIT subsidiary, and certain other conditions are met. We believe that the income we receive that is attributable to parking spaces meets these tests and, accordingly, constitutes rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests.

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income

 

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for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends or interest, our allocable share of such dividend or interest income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test (except to the extent the interest is paid on a loan that is adequately secured by real property).

We will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

    following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

    our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income.

We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

Prohibited Transaction Income. Any gain that we realize on the sale of property held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. As the sole stockholder of the general partner of our operating partnership, we intend to cause our operating partnership to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objectives. We do not intend, and do not intend to permit our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales.

Penalty Tax. Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real

 

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property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.

We do not believe we have been, and do not expect to be, subject to this penalty tax, although any rental or service arrangements we enter into from time to time may not satisfy the safe harbor provisions mentioned above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Asset Tests. At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer except, in the case of the 10% value test, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor or securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

Fourth, not more than 25% (20% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. We and our operating partnership own interests in companies that that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our securities in our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 25% (20% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these

 

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conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

In addition, we may acquire certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in pass-through entities that directly or indirectly own real property. Revenue Procedure 2003-65 (the “Revenue Procedure”) provides a safe harbor pursuant to which mezzanine loans meeting the requirements of the safe harbor will be treated by the IRS as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests. In addition, any interest derived from such mezzanine loans will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test (described above). Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. The mezzanine loans that we acquire may not meet all of the requirements of the safe harbor. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of such assets as real estate assets or the interest generated by these loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test (described above).

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any partnership, limited liability company or qualified REIT subsidiary) acquire securities in the applicable issuer or acquire other assets, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer will increase as a result of our capital contributions to our operating partnership or as limited partners exercise any redemption/exchange rights. Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30 day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30 day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we

 

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will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our operating partnership’s overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements. To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

    90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

    90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

    the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

For these purposes, our REIT taxable income is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within a period that is generally five years following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “—Taxation of Our Company—General.”

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential – i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” However, Subsidiary REITs we may own from time to time may not be publicly offered REITs. We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates. We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes us, as the sole owner of the general partner of our operating partnership, to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.

We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.

 

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Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

Like-Kind Exchanges. We may dispose of properties in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

Failure to Qualify

If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us, and we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies

General. All of our investments are held indirectly through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership holds certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that, unless they otherwise elect to be taxed as corporations that are either taxable REIT subsidiaries of ours or REITs, we believe are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded

 

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entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership or limited liability company, and are generally required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership or limited liability company. We will include in our income our share of these partnership and limited liability company items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of the assets of its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company.”

Entity Classification. Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership or limited liability company would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations.

If units in our operating partnership would otherwise be viewed as readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof, interests in our operating partnership may nonetheless be viewed as not readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof if the sum of the percentage interests in capital or profits of our operating partnership transferred during any taxable year of our operating partnership does not exceed 2% of the total interests in our operating partnership’s capital or profits, subject to certain exceptions. For purposes of this 2% trading restriction, our interests in our operating partnership are excluded from the determination of the percentage interests in capital or profits of our operating partnership. In addition, this 2% trading restriction does not apply to transfers by a limited partner in one or more transactions during any 30-day period representing in the aggregate more than 2% of the total interests in our operating partnership’s capital or profits. As the sole stockholder of the general partner of our operating partnership, we have the authority to cause the general partner to take any steps we determine necessary or appropriate to prevent any trading of interests in our operating partnership that would cause our operating partnership to become a publicly traded partnership, including any steps necessary to ensure compliance with this 2% trading restriction.

If our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company were to be treated as a publicly traded partnership, it would be taxable as a corporation unless it qualified for the statutory “90% qualifying income exception.” Under that exception, a publicly traded partnership is not subject to corporate-level tax if 90% or more of its gross income consists of dividends, interest, “rents from real property” (as that term is defined for purposes of the rules applicable to REITs, with certain modifications), gain from the sale or other disposition of real property, and certain other types of qualifying income. We believe our operating partnership has satisfied the 90% qualifying income exception in every taxable year, and expect it to continue to satisfy that exception in the future. However, if our operating partnership (or to the extent applicable any of our other partnerships or limited liability companies) did not qualify for this exception or was otherwise taxable as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment.

We believe the operating partnership and each of its other partnerships and limited liability companies (other than any partnership or limited liability company that has elected to be taxed as a corporation and is either

 

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a REIT or a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours) will be classified as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and we do not anticipate that the operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation.

Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction. A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) generally will determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners.

The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides for preferred distributions of cash and preferred allocations of income to the holders of any preferred units it may issue from time to time. Upon any issuance of shares of our preferred stock for cash or other consideration, we will contribute the net proceeds or other consideration from such issuance to our operating partnership in exchange for preferred units with similar terms. In general, all remaining items of income and loss will be allocated to the holders of common units in proportion to the number of common units held by each such unitholder.

If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss of our operating partnership and any subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.

Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties. Under Section 704(c) of the Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership (including a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) in exchange for an interest in the partnership, must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

Our operating partnership was formed by way of contributions of appreciated property (i.e., property having an adjusted tax basis less than its fair market value at the time of contribution). In addition, our operating partnership may, from time to time, acquire interests in property in exchange for interests in our operating partnership. In that case, the tax basis of these property interests generally will carry over to our operating partnership, notwithstanding their different book (i.e., fair market) values. The partnership agreement requires that income and loss allocations with respect to these properties be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships (including limited liability companies treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes) with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method we choose in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands of our operating partnership (i) could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and (ii) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in our operating

 

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partnership. An allocation described in clause (ii) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.

Partnership Audit Rules. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changes the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it is uncertain how these new rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest, including our operating partnership, being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. The changes created by these new rules are sweeping and in many respects dependent on the promulgation of future regulations or other guidance by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock.

Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited from Other Entities. From time to time, we or our operating partnership may acquire C corporations in transactions in which the tax basis of the corporations’ assets in our hands is determined by reference to the tax basis of the assets in the hands of the acquired corporations, or carry-over basis transactions. In the case of assets we acquire from a C corporation in a carry-over basis transaction, if we dispose of any such asset in a taxable transaction (including by deed in lieu of foreclosure) during a period that is generally five years beginning on the date of the carry-over basis transaction, as described above under “—Taxation of Our Company—General,” then we will be required to pay tax at the highest regular corporate tax rate on the gain recognized to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date of the carry-over basis transaction. The foregoing result with respect to the recognition of gain assumes that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Any taxes we pay as a result of such gain would reduce the amount available for distribution to our stockholders.

Our tax basis in the assets we acquire in a carry-over basis transaction may be lower than the assets’ fair market values at the time of such acquisition. This lower tax basis could cause us to have lower depreciation deductions and more gain on a subsequent sale of the assets, and to have a correspondingly larger required distribution of income or gain to our stockholders, than would be the case if we had directly purchased the assets in a taxable transaction. In addition, in such a carry-over basis transaction, we will succeed to any tax liabilities and earnings and profits of the acquired C corporation.

To qualify as a REIT, we must distribute any such earnings and profits by the close of the taxable year in which such transaction occurs. Any adjustments to the acquired corporation’s income for taxable years ending on or before the date of the transaction, including as a result of an examination of the corporation’s tax returns by the IRS, could affect the calculation of the corporation’s earnings and profits. If the IRS were to determine that we acquired earnings and profits from a corporation that we failed to distribute prior to the end of the taxable year in which the carry-over basis transaction occurred, we could avoid disqualification as a REIT by using “deficiency dividend” procedures. Under these procedures, we generally would be required to distribute any such earnings and profits to our stockholders as a dividend within 90 days of the determination and pay a statutory

 

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interest charge at a specified rate to the IRS. We believe that we have satisfied the distribution requirements described above in connection with any C corporations we have previously acquired.

In addition to the acquisitions described above, we may from time to time acquire other REITs through a merger or acquisition. If any such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, such REIT would be liable for (and we, as the surviving corporation in the merger or acquisition, would be obligated to pay) U.S. federal income tax on its taxable income at regular rates. Furthermore, after the merger or acquisition is effective, the asset and income tests will apply to all of our assets, including the assets we acquire from such REIT, and to all of our income, including the income derived from the assets we acquire from such REIT. As a result, the nature of the assets that we acquire from such REITs and the income we derive from those assets may have an effect on our tax status as a REIT.

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

    U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

    persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

    U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

    persons holding our capital stock as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

    banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions;

 

    REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

    brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

    “controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

    S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

    tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

    persons deemed to sell our capital stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

    persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

 

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For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

    an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

    a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

    an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

    a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

Distributions Generally. Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by the amount of the distribution, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash

 

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from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. holder that receives capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such capital stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

Capital Gain Dividends. Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

Retention of Net Capital Gains. We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:

 

    include its pro rata share of our undistributed net capital gains in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

    be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

    receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

    increase the adjusted tax basis of its capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

    in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations. Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, described in “—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

 

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Dispositions of Our Capital Stock. Except as described below under “Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us. A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

    is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder;

 

    results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us; or

 

    is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Proposed Treasury Regulations issued in 2009, if enacted in their current form, would affect the basis recovery rules described above. It is not clear whether these proposed regulations will be enacted in their current form or at all. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

Tax Rates. The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” generally is 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT

 

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level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” In addition, U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of shares of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, or qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) or (c)(20) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our capital stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions Generally. Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but

 

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will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

    a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

    the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such capital stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below.

However, recent legislation may cause such excess distributions to be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests. Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

(1) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

(2) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 35% (or 20% to the extent provided in applicable Treasury Regulations) of any distribution to non-U.S. holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions

 

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subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 35% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

Retention of Net Capital Gains. Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

Sale of Our Capital Stock. Except as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our capital stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our capital stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

 

  (1) such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the NYSE; and

 

  (2) such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.

In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified

 

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foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of the stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us. A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

U.S. Holders. A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such

 

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stock. Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

    the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

    the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

    the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

    the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

Non-U.S. Holders. Payments of dividends on our capital stock generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our capital stock paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Medicare Contribution Tax on Net Investment Income

Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock.

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or “FATCA”) on certain types of payments made to “non-U.S. financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on, or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our capital stock, in each case,

 

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paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (ii) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (iii) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (i) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock and will apply to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of such stock on or after January 1, 2019. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules, we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock.

Other Tax Consequences

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock.

SELLING SECURITY HOLDERS

Information about selling security holders of Douglas Emmett, Inc., where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment, or in filings we make with the SEC which are incorporated into this prospectus by reference.

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We, or selling security holders, may sell the securities to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them or may sell the securities to investors directly or through agents or dealers, directly to one or more purchasers or through a combination of any of these methods of sale, or in any manner, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. The securities that we distribute by any of these methods may be sold to the public, in one or more transactions, at a fixed price or prices that may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to prevailing market prices, or at negotiated prices. We will identify the specific plan of distribution, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers and their compensation, in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Our common stock or preferred stock may be issued upon conversion, exercise or exchange of our securities. We reserve the right to sell securities directly to investors on their own behalf in those jurisdictions where they are authorized to do so.

 

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If we sell securities to a dealer acting as principal, the dealer may resell such securities at varying prices to be determined by such dealer in its discretion at the time of resale without consulting with us and such resale prices may not be disclosed in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Underwriters may offer and sell the securities at a fixed price or prices that may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to prevailing market prices, or at negotiated prices. We also may, from time to time, authorize broker-dealers, acting as our agents, to offer and sell the securities upon the terms and conditions described in the related prospectus supplement. Underwriters or agents may receive compensation from us in the form of discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of the securities. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters, agents and/or commissions, which may be changed from time to time, from the purchasers.

Any underwritten offering may be on a best efforts or a firm commitment basis. We may also offer securities through subscription rights distributed to our stockholders on a pro rata basis, which may or may not be transferable. In any distribution of subscription rights to stockholders, if all of the underlying securities are not subscribed for, we may then sell the unsubscribed securities directly to third parties or may engage the services of one or more underwriters, dealers or agents, including standby underwriters, to sell the unsubscribed securities to third parties.

Any underwriting compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers, will be set forth in the related prospectus supplement. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the applicable securities laws. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification against and contribution toward certain civil liabilities, including any liabilities under the applicable securities laws. We will describe any indemnification agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement or a post-effective amendment.

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by institutions or other suitable purchasers to purchase the securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement, pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date or dates stated in the prospectus supplement. These purchasers may include, among others, commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions. Delayed delivery contracts will be subject to the condition that the purchase of the securities covered by the delayed delivery contracts will not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of any jurisdiction in the United States to which the purchaser is subject. The underwriters and agents will not have any responsibility with respect to the validity or performance of these contracts.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, any securities issued under this prospectus will be new issues of securities with no established trading market (other than the common stock, which is listed on the NYSE). If the company sell any shares of the common stock pursuant to a prospectus

 

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supplement, such shares will be listed on the NYSE, subject to official notice of issuance. We may elect to list any other securities issued hereunder on any exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. Any underwriters or agents to or through whom we sell securities for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities, but the underwriters or agents will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We do not know how liquid the trading market for any of our securities will be.

To facilitate the offering of any offered securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the price of such offered securities. These transactions may include over-allotment, syndicate covering transactions and stabilizing transactions. Over-allotment involves sales of securities in excess of the principal amount of securities to be purchased by the underwriters in an offering, which creates a short position for the underwriters. Covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover short positions. Stabilizing transactions consist of certain bids or purchases of securities made for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the securities while the offering is in progress. These transactions may also involve imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. Any of these activities may have the effect of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the securities being offered. They may also cause the price of the securities being offered to be higher than the price that otherwise would exist in the open market in the absence of these transactions. These transactions may be conducted in the over-the-counter market or otherwise. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

Certain of the underwriters, dealers or agents and their associates may engage in transactions with, and perform services for, us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business for which they may receive customary fees and expenses.

VALIDITY OF THE SECURITIES

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of any securities we issue under this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. In addition, the description of material federal income tax consequences contained in this prospectus under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” is based upon the opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Douglas Emmett, Inc. appearing in Douglas Emmett, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2016 including the schedule appearing therein, and the effectiveness of Douglas Emmett, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements are, and audited financial statements to be included in subsequently filed documents will be, incorporated herein in reliance upon the reports of Ernst & Young LLP pertaining to such financial statements (to the extent covered by consents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission) given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

The statement of revenues and certain expenses of the four-building portfolio located in Los Angeles, California (“Westwood Portfolio”) for the year ended December 31, 2015 appearing in Douglas Emmett, Inc.’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed on May 6, 2016 has been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent auditors, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such statement of revenues and certain expenses are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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$400,000,000

Douglas Emmett, Inc.

Common Stock

 

LOGO

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

November 20, 2017

 

 

Wells Fargo Securities

BofA Merrill Lynch

J.P. Morgan

 

 

 

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