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Section 1: 10-K (10-K)

10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

 

x

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2015

OR

 

¨

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                     to                    

Commission File Number: 0-24260

 

 

 

LOGO

AMEDISYS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   11-3131700

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

5959 S. Sherwood Forest Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(225) 292-2031 or (800) 467-2662

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share   The NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer  ¨

   Accelerated filer  x    Non-accelerated filer  ¨    Smaller reporting company  ¨
      (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the last sale price as quoted by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2015 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $679,670,884. For purposes of this determination shares beneficially owned by executive officers, directors and ten percent stockholders have been excluded, which does not constitute a determination that such persons are affiliates.

As of March 4, 2016, the registrant had 33,329,102 shares of Common Stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “2016 Proxy Statement”) to be filed pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of December 31, 2015 are incorporated herein by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

SPECIAL CAUTION CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     1   

PART I.

     

ITEM 1.

   BUSINESS      2   

ITEM 1A.

   RISK FACTORS      13   

ITEM 1B.

   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS      28   

ITEM 2.

   PROPERTIES      28   

ITEM 3.

   LEGAL PROCEEDINGS      29   

ITEM 4.

   MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES      29   

PART II.

     

ITEM 5.

   MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES      30   

ITEM 6.

   SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA      32   

ITEM 7.

   MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS      33   

ITEM 7A.

   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURE ABOUT MARKET RISK      53   

ITEM 8.

   FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA      53   
ITEM 9.    CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE      98   

ITEM 9A.

   CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES      98   
ITEM 9B.    OTHER INFORMATION      101   

PART III.

     
ITEM 10.    DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE      101   
ITEM 11.    EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION      101   
ITEM 12.    SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS      101   
ITEM 13.    CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE      101   
ITEM 14.    PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES      101   

PART IV.

     

ITEM 15.

   EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES      102   

SIGNATURES

     103   

EXHIBIT INDEX

     104   

EX-21.1 LIST OF SUBSIDIAIRES

  

EX-23.1 CONSENT OF KPMG LLP

  
EX-31.1 SECTION 302 CERTIFICATION OF PEO   
EX-31.2 SECTION 302 CERTIFICATION OF PFO   
EX-32.1 SECTION 906 CERTIFICATION OF PEO   
EX-32.2 SECTION 906 CERTIFICATION OF PFO   
EX-101 INTERACTIVE DATA FILE   


Table of Contents

SPECIAL CAUTION CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

When included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or in other documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) or in statements made by or on behalf of the Company, words like “believes,” “belief,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “projects,” “estimates,” “may,” “might,” “would,” “should” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements as defined by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements involve a variety of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described therein. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to the following: changes in Medicare and other medical payment levels, our ability to open care centers, acquire additional care centers and integrate and operate these care centers effectively, changes in or our failure to comply with existing federal and state laws or regulations or the inability to comply with new government regulations on a timely basis, competition in the home health industry, changes in the case mix of patients and payment methodologies, changes in estimates and judgments associated with critical accounting policies, our ability to maintain or establish new patient referral sources, our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, changes in payments and covered services due to the economic downturn and deficit spending by federal and state governments, future cost containment initiatives undertaken by third-party payors, our access to financing due to the volatility and disruption of the capital and credit markets, our ability to meet debt service requirements and comply with covenants in debt agreements, business disruptions due to natural disasters or acts of terrorism, our ability to integrate and manage our information systems, our ability to comply with requirements stipulated in our corporate integrity agreement and changes in law or developments with respect to any litigation relating to the Company, including various other matters, many of which are beyond our control.

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on any forward-looking statement as a prediction of future events. We expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking and we do not intend to release publicly any updates or changes in our expectations concerning the forward-looking statements or any changes in events, conditions or circumstances upon which any forward-looking statement may be based, except as required by law. For a discussion of some of the factors discussed above as well as additional factors, see Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and Part II, Item 7, “Critical Accounting Estimates” within “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

Unless otherwise provided, “Amedisys,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” refer to Amedisys, Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries and when we refer to 2015, 2014 and 2013, we mean the twelve month period then ended December 31, unless otherwise provided.

A copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 as filed with the SEC, including all exhibits, is available on our internet website at http://www.amedisys.com on the “Investors” page under the “SEC Filings” link.

 

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview

Amedisys, Inc. is a leading healthcare at home company, providing outstanding home health, hospice and personal care. We deliver the care that is best for our patients, whether that is home-based recovery and rehabilitation after an operation or injury, care that empowers patients to manage a chronic disease, or hospice care at the end of life.

We are among the largest, best established and most advanced providers of home health and hospice care in the United States, with 408 care centers in 34 states. Our 16,100 employees deliver the highest quality of care to the doorsteps of patients in need, making more than 7.5 million patient visits to 360,000 patients annually. Over 2,200 hospitals and 61,900 physicians nationwide have chosen us as a partner in post-acute care.

Amedisys is headquartered in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, with an executive office in Nashville, Tennessee. Our common stock is currently traded on NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol “AMED”. Founded and incorporated in Louisiana in 1982, Amedisys was reincorporated as a Delaware corporation prior to becoming a publicly traded company in August, 1994.

The company’s continuous quality improvement efforts show in outcomes and publicly reported quality measures. We’re standardizing our clinical care, streamlining how we operate and partnering as a post-acute care provider to an increasing number of hospitals and health systems across the country. Our mission is nothing less than putting the best clinicians in the home, with the tools needed to provide the best possible care and outcomes. Ultimately, we are in the business of delivering superior value to employees, referral sources, payors – and most of all – patients and their families.

We are privileged to take care of our patients wherever they call home – a private house, an apartment, a rehabilitation facility or an assisted living community. Our clinicians go behind the scenes to enter otherwise private spaces, caring for patients who feel safe and cared for and for others who are struggling with poverty and dysfunction. We see it all – we get the whole picture of our patients – which enables us to develop and administer the right care plan for each one in conjunctions with primary care physicians and other providers.

Our services are primarily paid for by Medicare due to the age demographics of our patient base (average age 81). Medicare represented approximately 80% to 84% of our net service revenue over the last three years. We remain focused on maintaining a profitable and strategically important managed care contract portfolio.

Our Home Health Segment:

Amedisys Home Health provides experienced, compassionate healthcare to help our patients recover from surgery or illness, live with chronic diseases, and prevent avoidable hospital readmissions. Our care team includes skilled nurses who are trained and certified to administer medications, care for wounds, monitor vital signs and provide a wide range of other nursing services; therapists specialized in physical, speech and occupational therapy; and aides who assist our patients with completing important personal tasks.

We take an empowering approach to helping our patients and their families understand their condition, how to manage it and how to live life to the fullest with a chronic disease or other health condition. Our professional and compassionate clinicians are trained to understand the whole patient – not just their medical diagnosis.

This commitment to clinical distinction is evident in our clinical performance measures such as Star Ratings. Amedisys has an average Quality Star Rating of 3.5 and an average Patient Survey Overall Star Rating of 4.4. Our goal is to have all of our care centers achieve a 4.0 Quality Star Rating, and we are implementing targeted action plans to continue to improve the quality of care we deliver for our patients across the country.

 

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Our Hospice Segment:

Hospice is a special form of care that is designed to provide comfort and support for those who are dealing with a terminal illness. It is a compassionate form of care that promotes dignity and affirms quality of life for the patient, family members and other loved ones.

Individuals with a terminal illness such as heart disease, pulmonary disease, Alzheimer’s, HIV/AIDS or cancer may be eligible for hospice care, if they have a life expectancy of six months or less.

At Amedisys Hospice, our focus is on building and retaining an exceptional team, delivering the highest quality care and service to our patients and their families, and establishing Amedisys as the preferred and preeminent hospice provider in each community we serve. In order to realize these goals, we invest in tailored training, development, and recognition programs for our employees, with specific focus on our clinicians and caregivers. This has led to our team’s consistent achievement at or above the national average in family satisfaction results and quality scores.

Another element of our approach is our outreach strategy to more fully reach the entire community of eligible patients. These outreach efforts have built our hospice patient population to more accurately represent the causes of death in the communities we serve, with a specific focus on heart disease, lung disease, and dementia in order to address the historical underrepresentation of non-cancer diagnoses.

By working to accept every patient with a life expectancy of six months or less who wants our compassionate care, we fulfill our hospice mission and strengthen our standing in the community.

Our Personal Care Segment:

On March 1, 2016, Amedisys acquired its first private-duty – an important step in executing our strategy of improving the continuity of care our patients receive as their clinical needs change.

We believe that private duty services are highly synergistic with our core skilled home health and hospice businesses, and that by acquiring these capabilities in one of our most successful regions we will realize these benefits quickly.

Responding to Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Environment:

Effective October 2012, Medicare began to impose a financial penalty on hospitals that have excessive rates of patient readmissions within 30 days after hospital discharge. We believe this regulation provides an opportunity for providers of post-acute care who can demonstrate the ability to maintain or reduce patient acute care hospital readmission rates. We are working to take advantage of this opportunity further improving the quality of care we provide and implementing disease management programs designed to be responsive to the needs of patients served by the hospitals we call upon.

The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”) has resulted in several programs being introduced by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) that offer the opportunity to participate in initiatives that align home health providers with hospitals, physicians, managed care payors and other referral sources to coordinate care and/or pilot alternative reimbursement structures. One such program is the CMS Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative (“BPCI”). We participated in a “Model 3 – 90-Day Post-Acute” BPCI bundle across two regions during 2014. This is an at-risk model in which CMS sets a bundle target price based on historical costs. On October 29, 2014, we notified CMS of our plan to withdraw from the two Model 3 bundles.

In addition to the BPCI program, PPACA introduced Accountable Care Organization (“ACO”) programs. An ACO is a group of doctors, hospitals and other health care providers who come together voluntarily to give

 

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coordinated high-quality care to Medicare patients. The goal of coordinated care is to ensure that patients, especially the chronically ill, get the right care at the right time, while avoiding unnecessary duplication of services and preventing medical errors. While these programs are presently not material to our business or our financial results, we are currently participating in several ACOs and monitoring their results.

AMS3/Homecare Homebase Implementation:

During 2015, we made the strategic decision to discontinue AMS3, our third generation, proprietary operating system, and transition to Homecare Homebase (“HCHB”), a leading home health and hospice platform. As of December 31, 2015, we have 84 care centers on HCHB (44 home health care centers and 40 hospice care centers). We will continue the rollout during 2016, with an anticipated completion date of November 1, 2016.

Acquisitions:

On July 24, 2015, we acquired one hospice care center in Tennessee for a total purchase price of $5.8 million.

On October 2, 2015, we acquired the regulatory assets of home health care center in Georgia for a total purchase price of $0.3 million.

On December 31, 2015, we acquired Infinity HomeCare (“Infinity”) for a total purchase price of $63 million. Infinity owned and operated 15 home health care centers servicing the state of Florida.

Financial Information:

Financial information for our home health and hospice segments can be found in our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our Employees

As of March 4, 2016, we employed approximately 16,100 employees, consisting of approximately 11,200 home health care employees, 2,600 hospice care employees, 1,500 personal care employees and 800 corporate and divisional support employees.

Payment for Our Services

Home Health Medicare

The Medicare home health benefit is available both for patients who need care following discharge from a hospital and patients who suffer from chronic conditions that require ongoing but intermittent care. As a condition of participation under Medicare, beneficiaries must be homebound (meaning that the beneficiary is unable to leave his/her home without a considerable and taxing effort), require intermittent skilled nursing, physical therapy or speech therapy services, and receive treatment under a plan of care established and periodically reviewed by a physician. Medicare rates are based on the severity of the patient’s condition, his or her service needs and other factors relating to the cost of providing services and supplies, bundled into 60-day episodes of care. An episode starts with the first day a billable visit is performed and ends 60 days later or upon discharge, if earlier. If a patient is still in treatment on the 60th day, a recertification assessment is undertaken to determine whether the patient needs additional care. If the patient’s physician determines that further care is necessary, another episode begins on the 61st day (regardless of whether a billable visit is rendered on that day) and ends 60 days later. The first day of a consecutive episode, therefore, is not necessarily the new episode’s first billable visit.

Annually, the Medicare program base episodic rates are set through federal legislation, as follows:

 

Period

   Base episode
payment
 

January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013

     2,138  

January 1, 2014 through December 31, 2014

     2,869  

January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015

     2,961  

January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2016

     2,965  

 

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Payments can be adjusted for: (a) an outlier payment if our patient’s care was unusually costly (capped at 10% of total reimbursement per provider number); (b) a low utilization payment adjustment (“LUPA”) if the number of visits during the episode was fewer than five; (c) a partial payment if our patient transferred to another provider or we received a patient from another provider before an episode was complete; (d) a payment adjustment based upon the level of therapy services required (with various incremental adjustments made for additional visits, with larger payment increases associated with the sixth, fourteenth and twentieth visit thresholds); (e) a payment adjustment if we are unable to perform periodic therapy assessments; (f) the number of episodes of care provided to a patient, regardless of whether the same home health provider provided care for the entire series of episodes; (g) changes in the base episode payments established by the Medicare program; (h) adjustments to the base episode payments for case mix and geographic wages; and (i) recoveries of overpayments. Medicare can also make various adjustments to payments received if we are unable to produce appropriate billing documentation or acceptable authorizations. In addition, we make adjustments to Medicare revenue if we find that we are unable to obtain appropriate billing documentation, authorizations or face to face documentation.

Home Health Non-Medicare

Payments from Medicaid and private insurance carriers are episodic-based rates (60-day episode of care) or per-visit rates depending upon the terms and conditions established with such payors. Episodic-based rates paid by our non-Medicare payors are paid in a similar manner and subject to the same adjustments as discussed above for Medicare; however, these rates can vary based upon negotiated terms.

Hospice Medicare

The Medicare hospice benefit is also available to Medicare-eligible patients with terminal illnesses, certified by a physician, where life expectancy is six months or less. Medicare rates are based on standard prospective rates for delivering care over a base 90-day or 60-day period (90-day episodes of care for the first two episodes and 60-day episodes of care for any subsequent episodes). Payments are based on daily rates for each day a beneficiary is enrolled in the hospice benefit. Rates are set based on specific levels of care, are adjusted by a wage index to reflect health care labor costs across the country and are established annually through federal legislation. We make adjustments to Medicare revenue when we find we are unable to obtain appropriate billing documentation, authorizations or face to face documentation and other reasons unrelated to credit risk. The levels of care are routine care, general inpatient care, continuous home care and respite care. Beginning January 1, 2016, CMS has provided for two separate payment rates for routine care: payments for the first 60 days of care and care beyond 60 days. In addition to the two routine rates, beginning January 1, 2016, Medicare is also reimbursing for a service intensity add-on (“SIA”). The SIA is based on visits made in the last seven days of life by a registered nurse (“RN”) or medical social worker (“MSW”) for patients in a routine level of care.

We bill Medicare for hospice services on a monthly basis and our payments are subject to two fixed annual caps, which are assessed on a provider number basis. Generally, each hospice care center has its own provider number. However, where we have created branch care centers to help our parent care centers serve a geographic location, the parent and branch may have the same provider number. The annual caps per patient, known as hospice caps, are calculated and published by the Medicare fiscal intermediary on an annual basis and cover the twelve month period from November 1 through October 31. The caps can be subject to annual and retroactive adjustments, which can cause providers to be required to reimburse the Medicare program if such caps are exceeded.

The two caps are detailed below:

 

   

Inpatient Cap. When we provide hospice care on an inpatient basis, the payments that we are entitled to receive at the higher inpatient reimbursement rate are subject to a cap. This cap limits the number of days that are paid at the inpatient care rate (both respite and general) under a provider number to 20% of the total number of days of hospice care (both inpatient and in-home) that is furnished to all Medicare patients served by the provider. The daily Medicare payment rate for any inpatient days of service that exceed the cap is at the routine home care rate, and the provider is required to reimburse Medicare for any amounts it receives in excess of the cap; and

 

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Overall Payment Cap. This cap is calculated by the Medicare fiscal intermediary at the end of each hospice cap period to determine the maximum allowable payments per provider number. We estimate our potential cap exposure using information available for both inpatient day limits as well as per beneficiary cap amounts. The total cap amount for each provider is calculated by multiplying the number of beneficiaries electing hospice care during the period by a statutory amount that is indexed for inflation.

Our ability to stay within these limitations depends on a number of factors, each determined on a provider number basis, including the average length of stay and mix in level of care.

Hospice Non-Medicare

Non-Medicare payors pay at rates different from established Medicare rates for hospice services, which are based on separate, negotiated agreements. We bill and are paid by these non-Medicare payors based on such negotiated agreements.

Controls over Our Business System Infrastructure

We establish and maintain processes and controls over coding, clinical operations, billing, patient recertifications and compliance to help monitor and promote compliance with Medicare requirements.

 

   

Coding – Specified diagnosis codes are assigned to each of our patients based on their particular health condition and ailment (such as diabetes, coronary artery disease or congestive heart failure). Because coding regulations are complex and are subject to frequent change, we maintain controls surrounding our coding process. In order to reduce associated risk of coding failures, we provide coding training and annual update training to clinical assessment managers; provide coding training during orientation for new employees; provide monthly specialized coding education; obtain outside expert coding instruction; utilize coding software in our POC system; and have automated coding edits based on pre-defined compliance metrics in our POC system.

 

   

Clinical Operations – Regulatory requirements allow patients to be admitted to home health care if they are considered homebound and require certain clinical services. These clinical services include: educating the patient about their disease; assessment and observation of disease status; delivery of clinical skills such as wound care; administration of injections or intravenous fluids; and management and evaluation of a patient’s plan of care. In order to help monitor and promote compliance with regulatory requirements, we complete audits of patient charts; administer survey guideline education; hold recurrent homecare regulatory education; utilize outside expert regulatory services; and have a toll-free hotline to offer additional assistance.

 

   

Billing – We maintain controls over our billing processes to help promote accurate and complete billing. In order to promote the accuracy and completeness of our billing, we have annual billing compliance testing; use formalized billing attestations; limit access to billing systems; hold weekly operational meetings; use automated daily billing operational indicators; and take prompt corrective action with employees who knowingly fail to follow our billing policies and procedures in accordance with a well-publicized “Zero Tolerance Policy”.

 

   

Patient Recertification – In order to be recertified for an additional episode of care, a patient must continue to meet qualifying criteria and have a continuing medical need. This could be caused by changes in the patient’s condition requiring changes to the patient’s medical regimen or modified care protocols within the episode of care. The patient’s progress towards goals is evaluated prior to recertification. As with the initial episode of care, a recertification requires orders from the patient’s physician. Before any employee recommends recertification to a physician, we conduct a care center level, multidisciplinary care team conference. We also monitor centralized automated compliance recertification metrics to identify, monitor, and, where we deem appropriate, audit care centers that have relatively high recertification levels.

 

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Compliance – The quality and reputation of our personnel and operations are critical to our success. We develop, implement and maintain ethics, compliance and quality improvement programs as a component of the centralized corporate services provided to our home health and hospice care centers. Our ethics and compliance program includes a Code of Ethical Business Conduct for our employees, officers, directors and affiliates and a process for reporting regulatory or ethical concerns to our Chief Compliance Officer through a confidential hotline, which is augmented by exit interviews of departing employees and monthly interviews with randomly-selected, current employees. We promote a culture of compliance within our company through persistent messages from our senior leadership to our employees stressing the importance of strict compliance with legal requirements and company policies and procedures. We also employ a comprehensive compliance training program that includes mandatory compliance training and testing for all new employees upon hire and annually for all staff thereafter. In addition to our compliance training, we also conduct numerous proactive, compliance audits focusing on key risk areas, which are conducted by clinical auditors who work for our Compliance Department.

Our Regulatory Environment

We are highly regulated by federal, state and local authorities. Regulations and policies frequently change, and we monitor changes through trade and governmental publications and associations. Our home health and hospice subsidiaries are certified by CMS and therefore are eligible to receive payment for services through the Medicare system.

We are also subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations dealing with issues such as occupational safety, employment, medical leave, insurance, civil rights, discrimination, building codes, environmental issues and adverse event reporting and recordkeeping. Federal, state and local governments are expanding the number of regulatory requirements on businesses.

We have set forth below a discussion of the regulations that we believe most significantly affect our home health and hospice businesses.

Licensure, Certificates of Need (CON) and Permits of Approval (POA)

Home health and hospice care centers operate under licenses granted by the health authorities of their respective states. Additionally, certain states, including a number in which we operate, carefully restrict new entrants into the market based on demographic and/or competitive changes. In such states, expansion by existing providers or entry into the market by new providers is permitted only where a given amount of unmet need exists, resulting either from population increases or a reduction in competing providers. These states ration the entry of new providers or services and the expansion of existing providers or services in their markets through a CON process, which is periodically evaluated. Currently, state health authorities in 17 states and the District of Columbia require a CON or, in the State of Arkansas, a POA, in order to establish and operate a home health care center, and state health authorities in 11 states and the District of Columbia require a CON to operate a hospice care center.

We operate home health care centers in the following CON states: Alabama, Arkansas (POA), Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. We provide hospice related services in the following CON states: Alabama, Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee and West Virginia.

In every state where required, our locations possess a license and/or CON or POA issued by the state health authority that determines the local service areas for the home health or hospice care center. In general, the process for opening a home health or hospice care center begins by a provider submitting an application for licensure and certification to the state and federal regulatory bodies, which is followed by a testing period of

 

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transmitting data from the applicant to CMS. Once this process is complete, the care center receives a provider agreement and corresponding number and can begin billing for services that it provides unless a CON or POA is required. For those states that require a CON or POA, the provider must also complete a separate application process before billing can commence and receive required approvals for capital expenditures exceeding amounts above prescribed thresholds.

State CON and POA laws generally provide that, prior to the addition of new capacity, the construction of new facilities or the introduction of new services, a designated state health planning agency must determine that a need exists for those beds, facilities or services. The process is intended to promote comprehensive health care planning, assist in providing high-quality health care at the lowest possible cost and avoid unnecessary duplication by ensuring that only those health care facilities and operations that are needed will be built and opened.

Medicare Participation

Our care centers must comply with regulations promulgated by the United States Department of Health and Human Services in order to participate in the Medicare program and receive Medicare payments. Among other things, these regulations, known as “conditions of participation,” relate to the type of facility, its personnel and its standards of medical care, as well as its compliance with state and local laws and regulations. CMS has adopted alternative sanction enforcement options which allow CMS (i) effective as of July 1, 2013, to impose temporary management, direct plans of correction, or direct training, and (ii) effective as of July 1, 2014, to impose payment suspensions and civil monetary penalties in each case on providers out of compliance with the conditions of participation. CMS issued a proposed rule on October 9, 2014, revising the current home health conditions of participation. We provided public comments on the proposed changes, but we cannot predict the content or effective date of any final rule revising the home health conditions of participation. As of the date of this filing, the proposed rule has not been finalized.

CMS has engaged a number of third party firms, including Recovery Audit Contractors (“RACs”), Program Safeguard Contractors (“PSCs”), Zone Program Integrity Contractors (“ZPICs”) and Medicaid Integrity Contributors (“MICs”), to conduct extensive reviews of claims data and state and Federal Government health care program laws and regulations applicable to healthcare providers. These audits evaluate the appropriateness of billings submitted for payment. In addition to identifying overpayments, audit contractors can refer suspected violations of law to government enforcement authorities.

Federal and State Anti-Fraud and Anti-Kickback Laws

As a provider under the Medicare and Medicaid systems, we are subject to various anti-fraud and abuse laws, including the Federal health care programs’ anti-kickback statute and, where applicable, its state law counterparts. Subject to certain exceptions, these laws prohibit any offer, payment, solicitation or receipt of any form of remuneration to induce or reward the referral of business payable under a government health care program or in return for the purchase, lease, order, arranging for, or recommendation of items or services covered under a government health care program. Affected government health care programs include any health care plans or programs that are funded by the United States government (other than certain federal employee health insurance benefits/programs), including certain state health care programs that receive federal funds, such as Medicaid. A related law forbids the offer or transfer of anything of value, including certain waivers of co-payment obligations and deductible amounts, to a beneficiary of Medicare or Medicaid that is likely to influence the beneficiary’s selection of health care providers, again subject to certain exceptions. Violations of the anti-fraud and abuse laws can result in the imposition of substantial civil and criminal penalties and, potentially, exclusion from furnishing services under any government health care program. In addition, the states in which we operate generally have laws that prohibit certain direct or indirect payments or fee-splitting arrangements between health care providers where they are designed to obtain the referral of patients from a particular provider.

 

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Stark Laws

Congress adopted legislation in 1989, known as the “Stark Law,” that generally prohibited a physician from ordering clinical laboratory services for a Medicare beneficiary where the entity providing that service has a financial relationship (including direct or indirect ownership or compensation relationships) with the physician (or a member of his/her immediate family), and further prohibits such entity from billing for or receiving payment for such services, unless a specified exception is available. The Stark Law was amended through additional legislation, known as “Stark II,” which became effective January 1, 1993. That legislation extended the Stark Law prohibitions beyond clinical laboratory services to a more extensive list of statutorily defined “designated health services,” which includes, among other things, home health services, durable medical equipment and outpatient prescription drugs. Violations of the Stark Law result in payment denials and may also trigger civil monetary penalties and program exclusion. Several of the states in which we conduct business have also enacted statutes similar in scope and purpose to the federal fraud and abuse laws and the Stark Laws. These state laws may mirror the Federal Stark Laws or may be different in scope. The available guidance and enforcement activity associated with such state laws varies considerably.

Federal and State Privacy and Security Laws

The Administrative Simplification provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended (“HIPAA”), directed that the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) promulgate regulations prescribing standard requirements for electronic health care transactions and establishing protections for the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information, known as “protected health information.” The HIPAA transactions regulations establish form, format and data content requirements for most electronic health care transactions, such as health care claims that are submitted electronically. The HIPAA privacy regulations establish comprehensive requirements relating to the use and disclosure of protected health information. The HIPAA security regulations establish minimum standards for the protection of protected health information that is stored or transmitted electronically. Violations of the privacy and security regulations are punishable by civil and criminal penalties.

The American Recovery and Economic Reinvestment Act of 2009 (“ARRA”), signed into law by President Obama on February 17, 2009, contained significant changes to the privacy and security provisions of HIPAA, including major changes to the enforcement provisions. Among other things, ARRA significantly increased the amount of civil monetary penalties that can be imposed for violations of HIPAA. ARRA also authorized state attorneys general to bring civil enforcement actions under HIPAA. These enhanced penalties and enforcement provisions went into effect immediately upon enactment of ARRA. ARRA also required that HHS promulgate regulations requiring that certain notifications be made to individuals, to HHS and potentially to the media in the event of breaches of the privacy of protected health information. These breach notification regulations went into effect on September 23, 2009, and HHS began to enforce violations on February 22, 2010. Violations of the breach notification provisions of HIPAA can trigger the increased civil monetary penalties described above.

ARRA’s numerous other changes to HIPAA have delayed effective dates and require the issuance of implementing regulations by HHS. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (“HITECH”) Act was enacted in conjunction with ARRA. On January 25, 2013, HHS issued final modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, and Enforcement Rules mandated by the HITECH Act, which had been previously issued as a proposed rule on July 14, 2010. Among other things, these modifications make business associates of covered entities directly liable for compliance with certain HIPAA requirements, strengthen the limitations on the use and disclosure of protected health information without individual authorizations, and adopt the additional HITECH Act enhancements, including enforcement of noncompliance with HIPAA due to willful neglect. The changes to HIPAA enacted as part of ARRA reflect a Congressional intent that HIPAA’s privacy and security provisions be more strictly enforced. It is likely that these changes will stimulate increased enforcement activity and enhance the potential that health care providers will be subject to financial penalties for violations of HIPAA.

 

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In addition to the federal HIPAA regulations, most states also have laws that protect the confidentiality of health information. Also, in response to concerns about identity theft, many states have adopted so-called “security breach” notification laws that may impose requirements regarding the safeguarding of personal information, such as social security numbers and bank and credit card account numbers, and that impose an obligation to notify persons when their personal information has or may have been accessed by an unauthorized person. Some state security breach notification laws may also impose physical and electronic security requirements. Violation of state security breach notification laws can trigger significant monetary penalties.

The False Claims Act

The Federal False Claims Act gives the Federal Government an additional way to police false bills or requests for payment for health care services. Under the False Claims Act, the government may fine any person who knowingly submits, or participates in submitting, claims for payment to the Federal Government which are false or fraudulent, or which contain false or misleading information. Any person who knowingly makes or uses a false record or statement to avoid paying the Federal Government, or knowingly conceals or avoids an obligation to pay money to the Federal Government, may also be subject to fines under the False Claims Act. Under the False Claims Act, the term “person” means an individual, company, or corporation. The Federal Government has widely used the False Claims Act to prosecute Medicare and other governmental program fraud in areas such as violations of the Federal anti-kickback statute or the Stark Laws, coding errors, billing for services not provided, and submitting false cost reports. The False Claims Act has also been used to prosecute people or entities that bill services at a higher reimbursement rate than is allowed and that bill for care that is not medically necessary. In addition to government enforcement, the False Claims Act authorizes private citizens to bring qui tam or “whistleblower” lawsuits, greatly extending the practical reach of the False Claims Act. The penalty for violation of the False Claims Act is a minimum of $5,500 for each fraudulent claim plus three times the amount of damages caused to the government as a result of each fraudulent claim.

The Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 (“FERA”) amended the False Claims Act with the intent of enhancing the powers of government enforcement authorities and whistleblowers to bring False Claims Act cases. In particular, FERA attempts to clarify that liability may be established not only for false claims submitted directly to the government, but also for claims submitted to government contractors and grantees. FERA also seeks to clarify that liability exists for attempts to avoid repayment of overpayments, including improper retention of federal funds. FERA also included amendments to False Claims Act procedures, expanding the government’s ability to use the Civil Investigative Demand process to investigate defendants, and permitting government complaints in intervention to relate back to the filing of the whistleblower’s original complaint. FERA is likely to increase both the volume and liability exposure of False Claims Act cases brought against health care providers.

On February 12, 2016, CMS finalized the so-called “60-day rule,” which is the obligation of providers to report and return Medicare overpayments within 60 days of identifying the same. A provider who retains overpayments beyond 60 days may be liable under the False Claims Act. “Identification” is identified as when a person “has, or should have through the exercise of reasonable diligence,” identified and quantified the amount of an overpayment. Providers must report and return overpayments even if they did not cause the overpayment.

In addition to the False Claims Act, the Federal Government may use several criminal statutes to prosecute the submission of false or fraudulent claims for payment to the Federal Government. Many states have similar false claims statutes that impose liability for the types of acts prohibited by the False Claims Act. As part of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (the “DRA”), Congress provided states an incentive to adopt state false claims acts consistent with the Federal False Claims Act. Additionally, the DRA required providers who receive $5 million or more annually from Medicaid to include information on Federal and state false claims acts, whistleblower protections and the providers’ own policies on detecting and preventing fraud in their written employee policies.

 

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Civil Monetary Penalties

The United States Department of Health and Human Services may impose civil monetary penalties upon any person or entity who presents, or causes to be presented, certain ineligible claims for medical items or services. The amount of penalties varies, depending on the offense, from $2,000 to $50,000 per violation. In addition, persons who have been excluded from the Medicare or Medicaid program and still retain ownership in a participating entity, or who contract with excluded persons, may be penalized. Penalties also are applicable in certain other cases, including violations of the Federal anti-kickback statute, payments to limit certain patient services and improper execution of statements of medical necessity.

FDA Regulation

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) regulates medical device user facilities, which include home health care providers. FDA regulations require user facilities to report patient deaths and serious injuries to FDA and/or the manufacturer of a device used by the facility if the device may have caused or contributed to the death or serious injury of any patient. FDA regulations also require user facilities to maintain files related to adverse events and to establish and implement appropriate procedures to ensure compliance with the above reporting and recordkeeping requirements. User facilities are subject to FDA inspection, and noncompliance with applicable requirements may result in warning letters or sanctions including civil monetary penalties, injunction, product seizure, criminal fines and/or imprisonment.

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

In March 2010, comprehensive health care reform legislation was signed into law in the United States through the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (collectively, “PPACA”). Even as of December 31, 2015, it is difficult to predict the full impact of PPACA due to the law’s complexity and phased in effective dates, as well as our inability to foresee how CMS and other participants in the health care industry will respond to the choices available to them under the law. PPACA calls for a number of changes to be made over time that will likely have a significant impact upon the health care delivery system. For example, PPACA mandates decreases in home health reimbursement rates, including a four-year phased rebasing of the home health payment system that began in 2014 and will continue through 2017. These reimbursement changes are described in detail in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations: Overview – Economic and Industry Factors.” PPACA has established a number of new requirements impacting our business operations, and promises to give rise to other changes that could significantly impact our businesses in the future. For example, PPACA also mandates the creation of a home health value-based purchasing program, the development of quality measures, and the testing of alternative payment and delivery models, including ACOs and the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative. See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors: Risks Related to Laws and Government Regulations” for a more complete discussion of PPACA and the risks it presents to our businesses.

Our Competitors

There are few barriers to entry in the home health and hospice jurisdictions that do not require certificates of need or permits of approval. Our primary competition in these jurisdictions comes from local privately and publicly-owned and hospital-owned health care providers. We compete based on the availability of personnel, the quality of services, expertise of visiting staff, and, in certain instances, on the price of our services. In addition, we compete with a number of non-profit organizations that finance acquisitions and capital expenditures on a tax-exempt basis or receive charitable contributions that are unavailable to us.

Available Information

Our company website address is www.amedisys.com. We use our website as a channel of distribution for important company information. Important information, including press releases, analyst presentations and

 

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financial information regarding our company, is routinely posted on and accessible on the Investor Relations subpage of our website, which is accessible by clicking on the tab labeled “Investors” on our website home page. We also use our website to expedite public access to time-critical information regarding our company in advance of or in lieu of distributing a press release or a filing with the SEC disclosing the same information. Therefore, investors should look to the “Investors” subpage of our website for important and time-critical information. Visitors to our website can also register to receive automatic e-mail and other notifications alerting them when new information is made available on the “Investors” subpage of our website. In addition, we make available on the Investors subpage of our website (under the link “SEC Filings”), free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, ownership reports on Forms 3, 4 and 5 and any amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish such reports with the SEC. Further, copies of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, our Code of Ethical Business Conduct, our Corporate Governance Guidelines and the charters for the Audit, Compensation, Nominating and Corporate Governance and Quality of Care Committees of our Board are also available on the Investors subpage of our website (under the link “Corporate Governance”). Reference to our website does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on the website and should not be considered part of this document.

Additionally, the public may read and copy any of the materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at (800) SEC-0330. Our electronically filed reports can also be obtained on the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov.

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The risks described below, and risks described elsewhere in this Form 10-K, could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and the actual outcome of matters as to which forward-looking statements are made in this Form 10-K. The risk factors described below and elsewhere in this Form 10-K are not the only risks faced by Amedisys. Our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may also be materially adversely affected by factors that are not currently known to us, by factors that we currently consider immaterial or by factors that are not specific to us, such as general economic conditions.

If any of the following risks are actually realized, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline.

You should refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements under “Special Caution Concerning Forward-Looking Statements.” All forward-looking statements made by us are qualified by the risk factors described below.

Risks Related to Reimbursement

Because a high percentage of our revenue is derived from Medicare, reductions in Medicare rates, rate increases that do not cover cost increases and/or significant changes to the Medicare payment methodology or eligibility requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our net service revenue is primarily derived from Medicare, which accounted for 80%, 82% and 84% of our revenue during 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Payments received from Medicare are subject to changes made through federal legislation. When such changes are implemented, we must also modify our internal billing processes and procedures accordingly, which can require significant time and expense. These changes, as further detailed in Part I, Item 1, “Business: Payment for Our Services,” can include changes to base episode payments and adjustments for home health services, changes to cap limits and per diem rates for hospice services and changes to Medicare eligibility and documentation requirements or changes designed to restrict utilization. Any such changes, including retroactive adjustments, adopted in the future by CMS could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

There are continuing efforts to reform governmental health care programs that could result in major changes in the health care delivery and reimbursement system on a national and state level, including changes directly impacting the reimbursement systems for our home health and hospice care centers. Though we cannot predict what, if any, reform proposals will be adopted, health care reform and legislation may have a material adverse effect on our business and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows through decreasing payments made for our services.

We could be affected adversely by the continuing efforts of governmental payors to contain health care costs. We cannot assure you that reimbursement payments under governmental payor programs, including Medicare supplemental insurance policies, will remain at levels comparable to present levels or will be sufficient to cover the costs allocable to patients eligible for reimbursement pursuant to these programs. Any such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our hospice operations are subject to two annual Medicare caps. If such caps were to be exceeded by any of our hospice providers, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

With respect to our hospice operations, overall payments made by Medicare to each provider number (generally corresponding to a hospice care center) are subject to an inpatient cap amount and an overall payment cap, which

 

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are calculated and published by the Medicare fiscal intermediary on an annual basis covering the period from November 1 through October 31. If payments received by any one of our hospice provider numbers exceeds either of these caps, we may be required to reimburse the Medicare program for payments received in excess of the caps, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Any economic downturn, deepening of an economic downturn, continued deficit spending by the Federal Government or state budget pressures may result in a reduction in payments and covered services.

Adverse developments in the United States could lead to a reduction in Federal Government expenditures, including governmentally funded programs in which we participate, such as Medicare and Medicaid. In addition, if at any time the Federal Government is not able to meet its debt payments unless the federal debt ceiling is raised, and legislation increasing the debt ceiling is not enacted, the Federal Government may stop or delay making payments on its obligations, including funding for government programs in which we participate, such as Medicare and Medicaid. Failure of the government to make payments under these programs could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Further, any failure by the United States Congress to complete the federal budget process and fund government operations may result in a Federal Government shutdown, potentially causing us to incur substantial costs without reimbursement under the Medicare program, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. As an example, the failure of the 2011 Joint Select Committee to meet its Deficit Reduction goal resulted in an automatic reduction in Medicare home and hospice payments of 2% beginning April 1, 2013.

Historically, state budget pressures have resulted in reductions in state spending. Given that Medicaid outlays are a significant component of state budgets, we can expect continuing cost containment pressures on Medicaid outlays for our services.

In addition, sustained unfavorable economic conditions may affect the number of patients enrolled in managed care programs and the profitability of managed care companies, which could result in reduced payment rates and could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Future cost containment initiatives undertaken by private third party payors may limit our future revenue and profitability.

Our non-Medicare revenue and profitability are affected by continuing efforts of third party payors to maintain or reduce costs of health care by lowering payment rates, narrowing the scope of covered services, increasing case management review of services and negotiating pricing. There can be no assurance that third party payors will make timely payments for our services, and there is no assurance that we will continue to maintain our current payor or revenue mix. We are continuing our efforts to develop our non-Medicare sources of revenue and any changes in payment levels from current or future third party payors could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Risks Related to Laws and Government Regulations

We are operating under a Corporate Integrity Agreement. Violations of this agreement could result in substantial penalties or exclusion from participation in the Medicare program.

On April 23, 2014, with no admissions of liability on our part, we entered into a settlement agreement with the U.S. Department of Justice relating to certain of our clinical and business operations. Concurrently with our entry into this agreement, we entered into a Corporate Integrity Agreement (“CIA”) with the Office of Inspector General-HHS (“OIG”). The CIA, which has a term of five years, formalizes various aspects of our already existing ethics and compliance programs and contains other requirements designed to help ensure our ongoing

 

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compliance with federal health care program requirements. Among other things, the CIA requires us to maintain our existing compliance program, executive compliance committee and compliance committee of the Board of Directors; provide certain compliance training; continue screening new and current employees to ensure they are eligible to participate in federal health care programs; engage an independent review organization (“IRO”) to perform certain auditing and reviews and prepare certain reports regarding our compliance with federal health care programs, our billing submissions to federal health care programs and our compliance and risk mitigation programs; and provide certain reports and management certifications to the OIG. Additionally, the CIA specifically requires that we report substantial overpayments that we discover we have received from the federal health care programs, as well as probable violations of federal health care laws. Upon breach of the CIA, we could become liable for payment of certain stipulated penalties, or could be excluded from participation in federal health care programs. Although we believe that we are currently in compliance with the CIA, any violations of the agreement could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Pending civil litigation could have a material adverse effect on the Company.

We and certain of our current and former directors, senior executives and other employees are defendants in a federal securities class action. We are also a defendant in several wage and hour law putative collective and class action lawsuits. See Part II, Item 8, Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies for a more detailed description of these proceedings. These actions remain in preliminary stages and it is not yet possible to assess their probable outcome or our potential liability, if any. We cannot provide any assurances that the legal and other costs associated with the defense of these actions, the amount of time required to be spent by management on these matters and the ultimate outcome of these actions will not have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our insurance may not cover all of the costs associated with defending the pending federal securities class action, and any potential liability costs associated with this matter, and we maintain no insurance that covers any portion of the pending wage and hour putative collective and class action lawsuits.

With respect to the pending securities class action, we may be obligated to indemnify (and advance legal expenses to) both current and former officers, employees and directors in connection with this matter. We maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance that we believe should cover a portion of the legal costs and potential liability costs associated with this matter. However, such insurance coverage does not extend to all of these expenditures, and the insurance limits may be insufficient even with respect to expenditures that would otherwise be covered. Furthermore, our insurance carriers may seek to deny coverage in this matter, in which case we may have to fund the indemnification amounts owed to such directors and officers ourselves. We do not maintain any insurance that will cover any part of the wage and hour putative collective and class action lawsuits in which we are defendants. If our insurance coverage is denied or is not adequate, it may have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We are subject to extensive government regulation. Any changes to the laws and regulations governing our business, or to the interpretation and enforcement of those laws or regulations, could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our industry is subject to extensive federal and state laws and regulations. See Part I, Item 1, “Our Regulatory Environment” for additional information on such laws and regulations. Federal and state laws and regulations impact how we conduct our business, the services we offer and our interactions with patients, our employees and the public and impose certain requirements on us such as:

 

   

licensure and certification;

 

   

adequacy and quality of health care services;

 

   

qualifications of health care and support personnel;

 

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quality and safety of medical equipment;

 

   

confidentiality, maintenance and security issues associated with medical records and claims processing;

 

   

relationships with physicians and other referral sources;

 

   

operating policies and procedures;

 

   

policies and procedures regarding employee relations;

 

   

addition of facilities and services;

 

   

billing for services;

 

   

requirements for utilization of services;

 

   

documentation required for billing and patient care; and

 

   

reporting and maintaining records regarding adverse events.

These laws and regulations, and their interpretations, are subject to change. Changes in existing laws and regulations, or their interpretations, or the enactment of new laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows by:

 

   

increasing our administrative and other costs;

 

   

increasing or decreasing mandated services;

 

   

causing us to abandon business opportunities we might have otherwise pursued;

 

   

decreasing utilization of services;

 

   

forcing us to restructure our relationships with referral sources and providers; or

 

   

requiring us to implement additional or different programs and systems.

Additionally, we are subject to various routine and non-routine reviews, audits and investigations by the Medicare and Medicaid programs and other federal and state governmental agencies, which have various rights and remedies against us if they establish that we have overcharged the programs or failed to comply with program requirements. Violation of the laws governing our operations, or changes in interpretations of those laws, could result in the imposition of fines, civil or criminal penalties, and the termination of our rights to participate in federal and state-sponsored programs and/or the suspension or revocation of our licenses. If we become subject to material fines, or if other sanctions or other corrective actions are imposed on us, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

We face periodic and routine reviews, audits and investigations under our contracts with federal and state government agencies and private payors, and these audits could have adverse findings that may negatively impact our business.

As a result of our participation in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, we are subject to various governmental reviews, audits and investigations to verify our compliance with these programs and applicable laws and regulations. We also are subject to audits under various government programs, including the RAC, ZPIC, PSC and MIC programs as well as in accordance with the requirements of our CIA, in which third party firms engaged by CMS or by the Company conduct extensive reviews of claims data and medical and other records to identify potential improper payments under the Medicare program. Private pay sources also reserve the right to conduct audits. If billing errors are identified in the sample of reviewed claims, the billing error can be extrapolated to all claims filed which could result in a larger overpayment than originally identified in the sample of reviewed claims. Our costs to respond to and defend reviews, audits and investigations may be significant and could have a

 

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material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Moreover, an adverse review, audit or investigation could result in:

 

   

required refunding or retroactive adjustment of amounts we have been paid pursuant to the federal or state programs or from private payors;

 

   

state or federal agencies imposing fines, penalties and other sanctions on us;

 

   

loss of our right to participate in the Medicare program, state programs, or one or more private payor networks; or

 

   

damage to our business and reputation in various markets.

These results could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

If a care center fails to comply with the conditions of participation in the Medicare program, that care center could be subjected to sanctions or terminated from the Medicare program.

Each of our care centers must comply with required conditions of participation in the Medicare program. If we fail to meet the conditions of participation at a care center, we may receive a notice of deficiency from the applicable state surveyor. If that care center then fails to institute an acceptable plan of correction to remediate the deficiency within the correction period provided by the state surveyor, that care center could be terminated from the Medicare program or subjected to alternative sanctions. CMS outlined its alternative sanction enforcement options for home health care centers through a regulation published in 2012; under the regulation, CMS may impose temporary management, direct a plan of correction, direct training or impose payment suspensions and civil monetary penalties, in each case, upon providers who fail to comply with the conditions of participation. Termination of one or more of our care centers from the Medicare program for failure to satisfy the program’s conditions of participation, or the imposition of alternative sanctions, could disrupt operations, require significant attention by management, or have a material adverse effect on our business and reputation and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. CMS issued a proposed rule on October 9, 2014, revising the Medicare conditions of participation for home health care centers across the industry, with an unknown effective date. We provided public comments on the proposed changes, but do not know at this time what effect the finalized revisions will have on our operations, and there can be no assurances that the revisions will not have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We are subject to federal and state laws that govern our financial relationships with physicians and other health care providers, including potential or current referral sources.

We are required to comply with federal and state laws, generally referred to as “anti-kickback laws,” that prohibit certain direct and indirect payments or other financial arrangements between health care providers that are designed to encourage the referral of patients to a particular provider for medical services. In addition to these anti-kickback laws, the Federal Government has enacted specific legislation, commonly known as the “Stark Law,” that prohibits certain financial relationships, specifically including ownership interests and compensation arrangements, between physicians (and the immediate family members of physicians) and providers of designated health services, such as home health care centers, to whom the physicians refer patients. Some of these same financial relationships are also subject to additional regulation by states. Although we believe we have structured our relationships with physicians and other potential referral sources to comply with these laws where applicable, we cannot assure you that courts or regulatory agencies will not interpret state and federal anti-kickback laws and/or the Stark Law and similar state laws regulating relationships between health care providers and physicians in ways that will adversely implicate our practices or that isolated instances of noncompliance will not occur. Violations of federal or state Stark or anti-kickback laws could lead to criminal or civil fines or other sanctions, including denials of government program reimbursement or even exclusion from participation in governmental health care programs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

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We may face significant uncertainty in the industry due to government health care reform.

The health care industry in the United States is subject to fundamental changes due to ongoing health care reform efforts and related political, economic and regulatory influences. In March 2010, comprehensive health care reform legislation was signed into law in the United States through the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (collectively, “PPACA”). However, it is difficult to predict the full impact of PPACA due to the law’s complexity and phased-in effective dates, as well as our inability to foresee how CMS and other participants in the health care industry will respond to the choices available to them under the law.

PPACA makes a number of changes to Medicare payment rates and also calls for a rebasing of the home health payment system that began in 2014 and will continue through 2017. These reimbursement changes are described in detail in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations: Overview – Economic and Industry Factors.”

For example, as a result of the PPACA, CMS added two regulations that became effective April 1, 2011: (1) a face-to-face encounter requirement for home health and hospice services and (2) changes to the home health therapy assessment schedule, which requires additional patient evaluations and certifications. These and other regulations implementing the provisions of the PPACA may similarly increase our costs, decrease our revenues, expose us to expanded liability or require us to revise the ways in which we conduct our business.

PPACA also calls for a number of other changes to be made over time that will likely have a significant impact upon the health care delivery system. For example, PPACA mandates creation of a home health value-based purchasing program, the development of quality measures, and decreases in home health reimbursement rates, including rebasing, as further described in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations: Overview – Economic and Industry Factors.” In addition, PPACA requires the Secretary of Health and Human Services to test different models for delivery of care, some of which will involve home health services. It also requires the Secretary to establish a national pilot program for integrated care for patients with certain conditions, bundling payment for acute hospital care, physician services, outpatient hospital services (including emergency department services) and post-acute care services, which would include home health. PPACA created the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (“CMMI”), which has launched the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative designed to encourage doctors, hospitals and other health care providers, including home health providers, to work together to better coordinate care for patients both when they are in the hospital and after they are discharged. In October 2011 CMS published final Medicare Shared Savings Program regulations, which use accountable care organizations (“ACOs”) to facilitate coordination and cooperation among providers to improve the quality of care for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries and reduce unnecessary costs. PPACA further directs the Secretary to conduct a study to evaluate cost and quality of care among efficient home health care centers and specifically focusing on access to care and treating Medicare beneficiaries with varying severity levels of illness, and provide a report to Congress no later than March 1, 2014, which report was issued in 2014 after the March 1 deadline. At this time, it is not possible to predict with any certainty how these initiatives will be implemented and what impact they may have on our business.

In addition, various health care reform proposals similar to the federal reforms described above have also emerged at the state level, including in several states which we operate. Moreover, in January 2011, the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission voted to recommend to Congress that it make additional changes to the home health payment system, noting that such recommendations may include further payment reductions and/or a beneficiary copayment obligation. We cannot predict with certainty what health care initiatives, if any, will be implemented at the state level, or what the ultimate effect of federal health care reform or any future legislation or regulation may have on us or on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Finally, in addition to impacting our Medicare businesses, PPACA may also significantly affect our non-Medicare businesses. PPACA makes many changes to the underwriting and marketing practices of private

 

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payors. The resulting economic pressures could prompt these payors to seek to lower their rates of reimbursement for the services we provide. At this time, it is not possible to estimate what impact PPACA may have on our non-Medicare businesses.

Risks Related to our Growth Strategies

Our growth strategy depends on our ability to acquire additional care centers and integrate and operate these care centers effectively. If our growth strategy is unsuccessful or we are not able to successfully integrate newly acquired care centers into our existing operations, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

We may not be able to fully integrate the operations of our acquired businesses with our current business structure in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Acquisitions involve significant risks and uncertainties, including difficulties in recouping partial episode payments and other types of misdirected payments for services from the previous owners; difficulties integrating acquired personnel and business practices into our business; the potential loss of key employees, referral sources or patients of acquired care centers; the delay in payments associated with change in ownership, control and the internal process of the Medicare fiscal intermediary; and the assumption of liabilities and exposure to unforeseen liabilities of acquired care centers. Further, the financial benefits we expect to realize from many of our acquisitions are largely dependent upon our ability to improve clinical performance, overcome regulatory deficiencies, improve the reputation of the acquired business in the community and control costs. The failure to accomplish any of these objectives or to effectively integrate any of these businesses could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

State efforts to regulate the establishment or expansion of health care providers could impair our ability to expand our operations.

Some states require health care providers (including skilled nursing facilities, hospice care centers, home health care centers and assisted living facilities) to obtain prior approval, known as a CON or POA, in order to commence operations. See Part I, Item 1, “Our Regulatory Environment” for additional information on CONs and POAs. If we are not able to obtain such approvals, our ability to expand our operations could be impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Federal regulation may impair our ability to consummate acquisitions or open new care centers.

Changes in federal laws or regulations may materially adversely impact our ability to acquire care centers or open new start-up care centers. For example, PPACA authorized CMS to impose temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare providers, if deemed necessary to combat fraud, waste or abuse under government programs. The moratoria on new enrollments may be applied to categories of providers or to specific geographic regions. For example, in 2014, CMS adopted a temporary moratorium on new provider locations in certain regions of Texas, Michigan, Florida and Illinois. If a moratorium is imposed on the enrollment of new home health or hospice providers in a geographic area we desire to service, it could have a material impact on our ability to open new care centers. Additionally, in 2010, CMS implemented and amended a regulation known as the “36 Month Rule” that is applicable to home health care center acquisitions. Subject to certain exceptions, the 36 Month Rule prohibits buyers of certain home health care centers – those that either enrolled in Medicare or underwent a change in majority ownership fewer than 36 months prior to the acquisition – from assuming the Medicare billing privileges of the acquired care center. These changes in federal laws and regulations, and similar future changes, may further increase competition for acquisition targets and could have a material detrimental impact on our acquisition strategy.

 

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Risks Related to our Operations

Because we are limited in our ability to control rates received for our services, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected if we are not able to maintain or reduce our costs to provide such services.

As Medicare is our primary payor and rates are established through federal legislation, we have to manage our costs of providing care to achieve a desired level of profitability. Additionally, non-Medicare rates are difficult for us to negotiate as such payors are under pressure to reduce their own costs. As a result, we manage our costs in order to achieve a desired level of profitability including, but not limited to, centralization of various processes, the use of technology and management of the number of employees utilized. If we are not able to continue to streamline our processes and reduce our costs, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Our industry is highly competitive, with few barriers to entry in certain states.

There are few barriers to entry in home health markets that do not require a CON or POA. Our primary competition comes from local privately-owned and hospital-owned health care providers. We compete based on the availability of personnel; the quality of services, expertise of visiting staff; and in certain instances, on the price of our services. Increased competition in the future may limit our ability to maintain or increase our market share.

Further, the introduction of new and enhanced service offerings by others, in combination with industry consolidation and the development of strategic relationships by our competitors, could cause a decline in revenue or loss of market acceptance of our services or make our services less attractive. Additionally, we compete with a number of non-profit organizations that can finance acquisitions and capital expenditures on a tax-exempt basis or receive charitable contributions that are unavailable to us.

Managed care organizations and other third party payors continue to consolidate, which enhances their ability to influence the delivery of health care services. Consequently, the health care needs of patients in the United States are increasingly served by a smaller number of managed care organizations. These organizations generally enter into service agreements with a limited number of providers. Our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected if these organizations terminate us as a provider and/or engage our competitors as a preferred or exclusive provider. In addition, should private payors, including managed care payors, seek to negotiate additional discounted fee structures or the assumption by health care providers of all or a portion of the financial risk through prepaid capitation arrangements, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

If we are unable to react competitively to new developments, our operating results may suffer. Further, if states remove existing CONs or POAs, we would face increased competition in these states. For example, in 2013, the Governor of South Carolina vetoed funding for that state’s CON program, effectively shutting down the program. Following a judicial challenge, the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled in April 2014 that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control was statutorily obligated to administer the CON program, regardless of the Governor’s veto. Following this ruling, legislation has been introduced in the South Carolina House of Representatives for the purpose of limiting the application of that state’s CON program. We do not know at this time what the outcome of this matter will be in South Carolina, and whether this will have any impact upon our operations. Similarly, there can be no assurances that other states will not seek to eliminate or limit their existing CON or POA programs in a similar manner, leading to increased competition in these states, Further, we cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

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If we are unable to maintain relationships with existing patient referral sources, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Our success depends on referrals from physicians, hospitals and other sources in the communities we serve and on our ability to maintain good relationships with existing referral sources. Our referral sources are not contractually obligated to refer patients to us and may refer their patients to other providers. Our growth and profitability depends, in part, on our ability to establish and maintain close working relationships with these patient referral sources and to increase awareness and acceptance of the benefits of home health and hospice care by our referral sources and their patients. Our loss of, or failure to maintain, existing relationships or our failure to develop new referral relationships could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

If we are unable to provide consistently high quality of care, our business will be adversely impacted.

Providing quality patient care is the cornerstone of our business. We believe that hospitals, physicians and other referral sources refer patients to us in large part because of our reputation for delivering quality care. Clinical quality is becoming increasingly important within our industry. Effective October 2012, Medicare began to impose a financial penalty upon hospitals that have excessive rates of patient readmissions within 30 days from hospital discharge. We believe this new regulation provides a competitive advantage to home health providers who can differentiate themselves based upon quality, particularly by achieving low patient acute care hospitalization readmission rates and by implementing disease management programs designed to be responsive to the needs of patients served by referring hospitals. We are focused intently upon improving our patient outcomes, particularly our patient acute care hospitalization readmission rates. If we should fail to attain our goals regarding acute care hospitalization readmission rates and other quality metrics, we expect our ability to generate referrals would be adversely impacted, which could have a material adverse effect upon our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our business depends on our information systems. Our inability to effectively integrate, manage and keep our information systems secure and operational could disrupt our operations.

Our business depends on effective, secure and operational information systems which include software that was developed in-house and systems provided by external contractors and other service providers. We have developed and use a proprietary Windows™-based clinical software system with our POC system to collect assessment data, schedule and log patient visits, communicate with patients’ physicians regarding their plan of care and monitor treatments and outcomes in accordance with established medical standards. Our clinical software system integrates several of the key processes critical to our business: billing and collections functionality; accounting; human resources; payroll; and employee benefits programs provided by third parties. During 2015, we made the strategic decision to discontinue our proprietary operating system and transition to a leading home health and hospice platform. While we anticipate the completion of the rollout of this new platform to all of our care centers during 2016, we continue to operate on both systems as of the date of this filing. Problems with, or the failure of, our technology and systems or any system upgrades or programming changes associated with such technology and systems, including any problems we may experience with the implementation of the new clinical software system, could have a material adverse effect on data capture, medical documentation, billing, collections, assessment of internal controls and management and reporting capabilities. Any such problems or failures and the costs incurred in correcting any such problems or failures, could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Further, to the extent our external information technology contractors or other service providers become insolvent or fail to support the software or systems we have licensed from them, our operations could be materially adversely affected.

Our care centers also depend upon our information systems for accounting, billing, collections, risk management, quality assurance, human resources, payroll and other information. If we experience a reduction in the

 

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performance, reliability, or availability of our information systems, our operations and ability to produce timely and accurate reports could be materially adversely affected.

Our information systems and applications require continual maintenance, upgrading and enhancement to meet our operational needs. Our acquisition activity requires transitions and integration of various information systems. We regularly upgrade and expand our information systems’ capabilities. If we experience difficulties with the transition and integration of information systems or are unable to implement, maintain, or expand our systems properly, we could suffer from, among other things, operational disruptions, regulatory problems and increases in administrative expenses.

We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to protect against the threat of security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by breaches, including unauthorized access to patient data and personally identifiable information stored in our information systems, and the introduction of computer viruses to our systems. Our security measures may be inadequate to prevent security breaches and our business operations could be materially adversely affected by federal and state fines and penalties, cancellation of contracts and loss of patients if security breaches are not prevented.

We have installed privacy protection systems and devices on our network and POC laptops in an attempt to prevent unauthorized access to information in our database. However, our technology may fail to adequately secure the confidential health information and personally identifiable information we maintain in our databases. In such circumstances, we may be held liable to our patients and regulators, which could result in fines, litigation or adverse publicity that could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Even if we are not held liable, any resulting negative publicity could harm our business and distract the attention of management.

Further, our information systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure, break-ins and similar events. A failure to restore our information systems after the occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Because of the confidential health information we store and transmit, loss of electronically stored information for any reason could expose us to a risk of regulatory action and litigation and possible liability and loss.

We believe we have all the necessary licenses from third parties to use technology and software that we do not own. A third party could, however, allege that we are infringing its rights, which may deter our ability to obtain licenses on commercially reasonable terms from the third party, if at all, or cause the third party to commence litigation against us. In addition, we may find it necessary to initiate litigation to protect our trade secrets, to enforce our intellectual property rights and to determine the scope and validity of any proprietary rights of others. Any such litigation, or the failure to obtain any necessary licenses or other rights, could materially and adversely affect our business.

Possible changes in the case mix of patients, as well as payor mix and payment methodologies, could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our revenue is determined by a number of factors, including our mix of patients and the rates of payment among payors. Changes in the case mix of our patients, payment methodologies or the payor mix among Medicare, Medicaid and private payors could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

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Our failure to negotiate favorable managed care contracts, or our loss of existing favorable managed care contracts, could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

One of our strategies is to diversify our payor sources by increasing the business we do with managed care companies, and we strive to put in place favorable contracts with managed care payors. However, we may not be successful in these efforts. Additionally, there is a risk that the favorable managed care contracts that we put in place may be terminated, and managed care contracts typically permit the payor to terminate the contract without cause, on very short notice, typically 60 days, which can provide payors leverage to reduce volume or obtain favorable pricing. Our failure to negotiate and put in place favorable managed care contracts, or our failure to maintain in place favorable managed care contracts, could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

A write off of a significant amount of intangible assets or long-lived assets could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

A significant and sustained decline in our stock price and market capitalization, a significant decline in our expected future cash flows, a significant adverse change in the business climate, or slower growth rates could result in the need to perform an impairment analysis under Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) Topic 350 “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other” in future periods in addition to our annual impairment test. If we were to conclude that a write down of goodwill is necessary, then we would record the appropriate charge, which could result in material charges that are adverse to our consolidated financial condition and results of operations. See Part II, Item 8, Note 5 – Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.

Because we have grown in part through acquisitions, goodwill and other acquired intangible assets represent a substantial portion of our assets. Goodwill was approximately $261.7 million as of December 31, 2015 and if we make additional acquisitions, it is likely that we will record additional intangible assets in our consolidated financial statements. We also have long-lived assets consisting of property and equipment and other identifiable intangible assets of $86.7 million as of December 31, 2015, which we review both on a periodic basis for indefinite lived intangible assets as well as when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If a determination that a significant impairment in value of our unamortized intangible assets or long-lived assets occurs, such determination could require us to write off a substantial portion of our assets. A write off of these assets could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

A shortage of qualified registered nursing staff and other clinicians, such as therapists and nurse practitioners, could materially impact our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel and could increase operating costs.

We compete for qualified personnel with other healthcare providers. Our ability to attract and retain clinicians depends on several factors, including our ability to provide these personnel with attractive assignments and competitive salaries and benefits. We cannot be assured we will succeed in any of these areas. In addition, there are shortages of qualified health care personnel in some of our markets. As a result, we may face higher costs of attracting clinicians and providing them with attractive benefit packages than we originally anticipated which could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, if we expand our operations into geographic areas where health care providers historically have been unionized, or if any of our care center employees become unionized, being subject to a collective bargaining agreement may have a negative impact on our ability to timely and successfully recruit qualified personnel and may increase our operating costs. Generally, if we are unable to attract and retain clinicians, the quality of our services may decline and we could lose patients and referral sources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

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Our insurance liability coverage may not be sufficient for our business needs.

As a result of operating in the home health industry, our business entails an inherent risk of claims, losses and potential lawsuits alleging incidents involving our employees that are likely to occur in a patient’s home. We maintain professional liability insurance to provide coverage to us and our subsidiaries against these risks. However, we cannot assure you claims will not be made in the future in excess of the limits of our insurance, nor can we assure you that any such claims, if successful and in excess of such limits, will not have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Our insurance coverage also includes fire, property damage and general liability with varying limits. We cannot assure you that the insurance we maintain will satisfy claims made against us or that insurance coverage will continue to be available to us at commercially reasonable rates, in adequate amounts or on satisfactory terms. Any claims made against us, regardless of their merit or eventual outcome, could damage our reputation and business.

We may be subject to substantial malpractice or other similar claims.

The services we offer involve an inherent risk of professional liability and related substantial damage awards. As of March 4, 2016, we had approximately 16,100 employees (11,200 home health, 2,600 hospice, 1,500 personal care and 800 corporate employees). In addition, we employ direct care workers on a contractual basis to support our existing workforce. Due to the nature of our business, we, through our employees and caregivers who provide services on our behalf, may be the subject of medical malpractice claims. A court could find these individuals should be considered our agents, and, as a result, we could be held liable for their acts or omissions. We cannot predict the effect that any claims of this nature, regardless of their ultimate outcome, could have on our business or reputation or on our ability to attract and retain patients and employees. While we maintain malpractice liability coverage that we believe is appropriate given the nature and breadth of our operations, any claims against us in excess of insurance limits, or multiple claims requiring us to pay deductibles could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

If we are unable to maintain our corporate reputation, our business may suffer.

Our success depends on our ability to maintain our corporate reputation, including our reputation for providing quality patient care and for compliance with Medicare requirements and the other laws to which we are subject. Adverse publicity surrounding any aspect of our business, including the death or disability of any of our patients due to our failure to provide proper care, or due to any failure on our part to comply with Medicare requirements or other laws to which we are subject, could negatively affect our Company’s overall reputation and the willingness of referral sources to refer patients to us.

We depend on the services of our executive officers and other key employees.

We depend greatly on the efforts of our executive officers and other key employees to manage our operations. The loss or departure of any one of these executives or other key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our operations could be impacted by natural disasters.

The occurrence of natural disasters in the markets in which we operate could not only impact the day-to-day operations of our care centers, but could also disrupt our relationships with patients, employees and referral sources located in the affected areas and, in the case of our corporate office, our ability to provide administrative support services, including billing and collection services. In addition, any episode of care that is not completed due to the impact of a natural disaster will generally result in lower revenue for the episode. For example, our corporate office and a number of our care centers are located in the southeastern United States and the Gulf Coast Region, increasing our exposure to hurricanes. Future hurricanes or other natural disasters may have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

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Risks Related to Liquidity

Delays in payment may cause liquidity problems.

Our business is characterized by delays from the time we provide services to the time we receive payment for these services. If we have difficulty in obtaining documentation, such as physician orders, experience information system problems or experience other issues that arise with Medicare or other payors, we may encounter additional delays in our payment cycle.

In addition, timing delays in billings and collections may cause working capital shortages. Working capital management, including prompt and diligent billing and collection, is an important factor in achieving our financial results and maintaining liquidity. It is possible that documentation support, system problems, Medicare or other provider issues or industry trends may extend our collection period, which may materially adversely affect our working capital, and our working capital management procedures may not successfully mitigate this risk.

Additionally, our hospice operations may experience payment delays. We have experienced payment delays when attempting to collect funds from state Medicaid programs in certain instances. Delays in receiving payments from these programs may also materially adversely affect our working capital.

The volatility and disruption of the capital and credit markets and adverse changes in the United States and global economies could impact our ability to access both available and affordable financing, and without such financing, we may be unable to achieve our objectives for strategic acquisitions and internal growth.

While we intend to finance strategic acquisitions and internal growth with cash flows from operations and borrowings under our revolving credit facility, we may require sources of capital in addition to those presently available to us. Uncertainty in the capital and credit markets may impact our ability to access capital on terms acceptable to us (i.e. at attractive/affordable rates) or at all, and this may result in our inability to achieve present objectives for strategic acquisitions and internal growth. Further, in the event we need additional funds, and we are unable to raise the necessary funds on acceptable terms, our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Our indebtedness could impact our financial condition and impair our ability to fulfill other obligations.

As of December 31, 2015, we had total outstanding indebtedness of approximately $100.0 million, comprised mainly of indebtedness incurred in connection with our April 23, 2014 settlement agreement with the U.S. Department of Justice relating to certain of our clinical and business operations. Our level of indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows and impair our ability to fulfill other obligations in several ways, including:

 

   

it could require us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, which could reduce the availability of cash flow to fund acquisitions, start-ups, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;

 

   

it could limit our ability to borrow money or sell stock for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements and other purposes;

 

   

it could limit our flexibility in planning for, and reacting to, changes in our industry or business;

 

   

it could make us more vulnerable to unfavorable economic or business conditions; and

 

   

it could limit our ability to make acquisitions or take advantage of other business opportunities.

In the event we incur additional indebtedness, the risks described above could increase.

 

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The agreements governing our indebtedness contain various covenants that limit our discretion in the operation of our business and our failure to satisfy requirements in these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The agreements governing our indebtedness (the “Debt Agreements”) contain certain obligations, including restrictive covenants that require us to comply with or maintain certain financial covenants and ratios and restrict our ability to:

 

   

incur additional debt;

 

   

redeem or repurchase stock, pay dividends or make other distributions;

 

   

make certain investments;

 

   

create liens;

 

   

enter into transactions with affiliates;

 

   

make acquisitions;

 

   

enter into joint ventures;

 

   

merge or consolidate;

 

   

invest in foreign subsidiaries;

 

   

amend acquisition documents;

 

   

enter into certain swap agreements;

 

   

make certain restricted payments;

 

   

transfer, sell or leaseback assets; and

 

   

make fundamental changes in our corporate existence and principal business.

In addition, events beyond our control could affect our ability to comply with the Debt Agreements. Any failure by us to comply with or maintain all applicable financial covenants and ratios and to comply with all other applicable covenants could result in an event of default with respect to the Debt Agreements. If we are unable to obtain a waiver from our lenders in the event of any non-compliance, our lenders could accelerate the maturity of any outstanding indebtedness and terminate the commitments to make further extensions of credit (including our ability to borrow under our revolving credit facility). Any failure to comply with these covenants could have a material adverse effect on our business and consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

The price of our common stock may be volatile.

The price at which our common stock trades may be volatile. The stock market from time to time experiences significant price and volume fluctuations that impact the market prices of securities, particularly those of health care companies. The market price of our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

   

our operating and financial performance;

 

   

variances in our quarterly financial results compared to research analyst expectations;

 

   

the depth and liquidity of the market for our common stock;

 

   

future sales of common stock by the Company or large stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur;

 

   

investor, analyst and media perception of our business and our prospects;

 

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developments relating to litigation or governmental investigations;

 

   

changes or proposed changes in health care laws or regulations or enforcement of these laws and regulations, or announcements relating to these matters;

 

   

departure of key personnel;

 

   

changes in the Medicare, Medicaid and private insurance payment rates for home health and hospice;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments; or

 

   

general economic and stock market conditions.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) in particular, has experienced price and volume fluctuations that we believe have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of health care provider companies. These broad market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. Securities class-action cases have often been brought against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of their securities.

The activities of short sellers could reduce the price or prevent increases in the price of our common stock. “Short sale” is defined as the sale of stock by an investor that the investor does not own. Typically, investors who sell short believe the price of the stock will fall, and anticipate selling shares at a higher price than the purchase price at which they will buy the stock. As of December 31, 2015, investors held a short position of approximately 1.2 million shares of our common stock which represented 3.7% of our outstanding common stock. The anticipated downward pressure on our stock price due to actual or anticipated sales of our stock by some institutions or individuals who engage in short sales of our common stock could cause our stock price to decline.

Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock or the availability of those shares for future sale, could materially impact our stock price and limit our ability to raise capital.

The following table presents information about our outstanding common and preferred stock and our outstanding securities exercisable for or convertible into shares of common stock:

 

     As of December 31,
2015
 

Common stock outstanding

     33,607,282  

Preferred stock outstanding

     —    

Common stock available under 2008 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan

     1,274,934  

Stock options outstanding

     838,494  

Stock options exercisable

     62,500  

Non-vested stock outstanding

     500,888  

Non-vested stock units outstanding

     498,929  

If we were to sell substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market or if there was a public perception that substantial sales could occur, the market price of our common stock could decline. These sales or the perception of substantial future sales may also make it difficult for us to sell common stock in the future to raise capital.

Our Board of Directors may use anti-takeover provisions or issue stock to discourage a change of control.

Our certificate of incorporation currently authorizes us to issue up to 60,000,000 shares of common stock and 5,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock. Our Board of Directors may cause us to issue additional stock to discourage an attempt to obtain control of our company. For example, shares of stock could be sold to

 

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purchasers who might support our Board of Directors in a control contest or to dilute the voting or other rights of a person seeking to obtain control. In addition, our Board of Directors could cause us to issue preferred stock entitling holders to vote separately on any proposed transaction, convert preferred stock into common stock, demand redemption at a specified price in connection with a change in control, or exercise other rights designed to impede a takeover.

The issuance of additional shares may, among other things, dilute the earnings and equity per share of our common stock and the voting rights of common stockholders.

We have implemented other anti-takeover provisions or provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect, including advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. These provisions, and others that our Board of Directors may adopt hereafter, may discourage offers to acquire us and may permit our Board of Directors to choose not to entertain offers to purchase us, even if such offers include a substantial premium to the market price of our stock. Therefore, our stockholders may be deprived of opportunities to profit from a sale of control.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 

ITEM 2.  PROPERTIES

Our executive office is located in Nashville, Tennessee in a leased property consisting of approximately 15,825 square feet; our corporate headquarters is located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana in a leased property consisting of approximately 110,000 square feet. We believe we have adequate space to accommodate our corporate staff located in these locations for the foreseeable future.

In addition to our executive office and corporate headquarters, we also lease facilities for our home health and hospice care centers. Generally, these leases have an initial term of five years with a three year early termination option, but range from one to seven years. Most of these leases also contain an option to extend the lease period. The following table shows the location of our 329 Medicare-certified home health care centers and 79 hospice care centers at December 31, 2015:

 

State

   Home Health      Hospice     

State

   Home Health      Hospice  

Alabama

     30        7     

New Jersey

     2        1  

Arkansas

     5        —       

New York

     4        —    

Arizona

     3        —       

New Hampshire

     2        2  

California

     4        —       

North Carolina

     8        6  

Connecticut

     4        1     

Ohio

     —          1  

Delaware

     2        —       

Oklahoma

     6        —    

Florida

     28        —       

Oregon

     4        1  

Georgia

     62        6     

Pennsylvania

     7        6  

Illinois

     3        —       

Rhode Island

     1        2  

Indiana

     5        1     

South Carolina

     19        7  

Kansas

     1        1     

Tennessee

     43        11  

Kentucky

     17        —       

Texas

     —          1  

Louisiana

     11        4     

Virginia

     14        1  

Massachusetts

     5        8     

West Virginia

     11        6  

Maine

     2        4     

Wisconsin

     1        —    

Maryland

     8        2     

Washington, D.C.

     1        —    
           

 

 

    

 

 

 

Mississippi

     10        —       

        Total

     329        79  
           

 

 

    

 

 

 

Missouri

     6        —             

 

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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

See Part II, Item 8, Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies for information concerning our legal proceedings.

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information and Holders

Our common stock trades on the NASDAQ under the trading symbol “AMED.” The following table presents the range of high and low sales prices for our common stock for the periods indicated as reported on NASDAQ:

 

     Price Range of
Common Stock
 
     High      Low  

Year Ended December 31, 2015:

     

First Quarter

   $ 31.27      $ 25.83  

Second Quarter

     43.61        24.81  

Third Quarter

     48.34        36.11  

Fourth Quarter

     45.00        34.72  

Year Ended December 31, 2014:

     

First Quarter

   $ 17.61      $ 13.85  

Second Quarter

     18.20        12.86  

Third Quarter

     22.58        15.31  

Fourth Quarter

     30.48        19.03  

As of March 4, 2016, there were approximately 521 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividend Policy

We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock or any other of our securities and do not expect to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. Future decisions concerning the payment of dividends will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, capital expenditure plans and debt service requirements, as well as such other factors as our Board of Directors, in its sole discretion, may consider relevant. In addition, our outstanding indebtedness restricts, and we anticipate any additional future indebtedness may restrict, our ability to pay cash dividends.

Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table provides the information with respect to purchases made by us of shares of our common stock during each of the months during the three-month period ended December 31, 2015:

 

Period

  (a)
Total Number
of  Share (or Units)
Purchased
    (b)
Average Price
Paid  per Share (or Unit)
    (c)
Total Number  of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs
    (d)
Maximum Number  (or
Approximate Dollar
Value) of Shares (or
Units) That May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
 

October 1, 2015 to October 31, 2015

    —       $ —         —       $ —    

November 1, 2015 to November 30, 2015

    2,474       39.58       —         —    

December 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015

    6,360       40.61       116,859       70,418,957  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
    8,834 (1)    $ 40.32       116,859     $ 70,418,957  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
(1) Includes shares of common stock surrendered to us by certain employees to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of stock previously awarded to such employees under our 2008 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan.

 

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Stock Performance Graph

The Performance Graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, for the five-year period ended December 31, 2015, with the cumulative total return on the NASDAQ composite index and an industry peer group over the same period (assuming the investment of $100 in our common stock, the NASDAQ composite index and the industry peer group) on December 31, 2010 and the reinvestment of dividends. The peer group we selected is comprised of: LHC Group, Inc. (“LHCG”) and Almost Family, Inc. (“AFAM”). The cumulative total stockholder return on the following graph is historical and is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance. No cash dividends have been paid on our common stock.

 

LOGO

 

     12/31/2010      12/31/2011      12/31/2012      12/31/2013      12/31/2014      12/31/2015  

Amedisys, Inc.

   $ 100.00      $ 32.57      $ 33.75      $ 43.67      $ 87.61      $ 117.37  

NASDAQ Composite

   $ 100.00      $ 100.53      $ 116.92      $ 166.19      $ 188.78      $ 199.95  

Peer Group

   $ 100.00      $ 42.92      $ 65.93      $ 84.73      $ 95.67      $ 134.79  

This stock performance information is “furnished” and shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or subject to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, and shall not be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, whether made before or after the date of this report and irrespective of any general incorporation by reference language in any such filing, except to the extent we specifically incorporate the information by reference.

 

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The selected consolidated financial data presented below is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements for the five-year period ended December 31, 2015, based on our continuing operations. The financial data for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” and the information included in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” herein.

 

    2015 (1)     2014 (2)     2013 (3)     2012 (4)     2011 (5)  
    (Amounts in thousands, except per share data)  

Income Statement Data:

         

Net service revenue

  $ 1,280,541     $ 1,204,554     $ 1,249,344     $ 1,440,836     $ 1,418,464  

Operating (loss) income from continuing operations

  $ (9,166   $ 24,047     $ (154,971   $ (108,855   $ (469,190

Net (loss) income from continuing operations attributable to Amedisys, Inc.

  $ (3,021   $ 12,992     $ (93,105   $ (80,262   $ (374,430

Net (loss) income from continuing operations attributable to Amedisys, Inc. per basic share

  $ (0.09   $ 0.40     $ (2.98   $ (2.68   $ (13.05

Net (loss) income from continuing operations attributable to Amedisys, Inc. per diluted share

  $ (0.09   $ 0.40     $ (2.98   $ (2.68   $ (13.05

 

(1)

During 2015, we recorded non-cash charges to write off the software costs incurred related to the development of AMS3 Home Health and Hospice in the amount of $75.2 million ($45.5 million, net of tax) and to reduce the carrying value of our corporate headquarters in the amount of $2.1 million ($1.2 million, net of tax).

(2)

During 2014, we recorded charges for relators’ fees and exit and restructuring activity in the amount of $13.9 million ($8.5 million, net of tax) and recognized non-cash other intangibles impairment charges of $3.1 million ($2.0 million, net of tax).

(3)

During 2013, we recorded a charge for the accrual for the U.S. Department of Justice settlement, which amounted to $150.0 million ($93.9 million, net of tax) and recognized non-cash goodwill and other intangibles impairment charges of $9.5 million ($5.8 million, net of tax).

(4)

During 2012, we recorded a $162.1 million ($110.2 million, net of tax and non-controlling interests) charge for the impairment of goodwill and other intangibles and incurred certain costs associated with our exit activities in the amount of $2.7 million ($1.6 million, net of tax).

(5)

During 2011, we recorded a $579.9 million ($438.4 million, net of tax) charge for the impairment of goodwill and other intangibles and incurred certain costs associated with our exit activities in the amount of $6.6 million ($4.0 million, net of tax).

 

     2015      2014      2013      2012      2011  
     (Amounts in thousands)  

Balance Sheet Data:

              

Total assets

   $ 685,085      $ 669,742      $ 726,406      $ 730,595      $ 858,285  

Total debt, including current portion

   $ 100,000      $ 116,372      $ 46,904      $ 102,711      $ 145,439  

Total Amedisys, Inc. stockholders’ equity

   $ 409,568      $ 397,167      $ 372,201      $ 452,340      $ 518,868  

Cash dividends declared per common share

   $ —        $ —        $ —        $ —        $ —    

 

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis provides information we believe is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our results of operations and financial condition for 2015, 2014 and 2013. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements included in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” and Part I, Item 1, “Business” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following analysis contains forward-looking statements about our future revenues, operating results and expectations. See “Special Caution Concerning Forward-Looking Statements” for a discussion of the risks, assumptions and uncertainties affecting these statements as well as Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”

Overview

We are a provider of high-quality, low-cost home health services to the chronic, co-morbid, aging American population, with approximately 80%, 82% and 84% of our revenue derived from Medicare for 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Our operations involve servicing patients through our two reportable business segments: home health and hospice. Our home health segment delivers a wide range of services in the homes of individuals who may be recovering from an illness, injury or surgery. Our hospice segment provides care that is designed to provide comfort and support for those who are facing a terminal illness. As of December 31, 2015, we owned and operated 329 Medicare-certified home health care centers and 79 Medicare-certified hospice care centers in 34 states within the United States and the District of Columbia, including 15 home health care centers acquired from Infinity HomeCare on December 31, 2015, which are not included in our operating results.

2015 Developments

 

   

Discontinued AMS3, our third generation, proprietary operating system and transitioned to Homecare Homebase (“HCHB”), a leading platform for home health and hospice companies.

 

   

Entered into new Credit Agreement that provides for senior secured facilities in an initial aggregate principal amount of up to $300 million and terminated each of our Prior Credit Agreement and Second Lien Credit Agreement.

 

   

Operationalized the transition to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (“ICD-10”)

 

   

Closed the acquisition of Infinity HomeCare on December 31, 2015 (Infinity HomeCare is not included in our operating results).

2016 Outlook

 

   

Continue the rollout of HCHB with anticipated completion date in the second half of 2016.

 

   

Renew focus on potential acquisitions.

 

   

1.4% reduction in Medicare reimbursement payments for home health industry.

 

   

1.1% increase in Medicare reimbursement payments for hospice industry.

 

   

Transition to new hospice payment methodology

Financial Performance

The year ended December 31, 2015 continued our significant operational improvement that began during 2014. Our improvement began with the closure and/or consolidation of care centers that had a material, negative impact on our operating results. The reduction in the number of operating care centers enabled us to restructure our

 

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regional and corporate support functions. Additionally, we have seen improvement in the remaining care centers in both of our operating segments with a return to home health same store Medicare admissions growth and a significant increase in hospice admissions and average daily census.

Our home health care centers have experienced same store Medicare revenue and admissions growth. The home health segment has seen a significant increase in non-Medicare revenue, an increase in revenue per episode while maintaining a relatively flat cost per visit and reductions in operating expenses which have helped deliver a $29 million improvement in our operating results over the year ended December 31, 2014 (see “Results of Operations”).

Our hospice segment has shown consistent growth in admissions and average daily census combined with strong cost controls, all of which have helped deliver a $13 million improvement in our operating results over the year ended December 31, 2014 (see “Results of Operations”).

Owned and Operated Care Centers

 

     Home Health      Hospice  

At December 31, 2012

     435        97  

Acquisitions/Startups

     2        1  

Closed/Consolidated

     (70      (6
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

At December 31, 2013

     367        92  

Closed/Consolidated/Sold

     (51      (12
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

At December 31, 2014

     316        80  

Acquisitions (1)

     15        1  

Closed/Consolidated/Sold

     (2      (2
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

At December 31, 2015

     329        79  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

The 15 home health care centers acquired from Infinity HomeCare on December 31, 2015 are not included in our operating results.

When we refer to “same store business,” we mean home health and hospice care centers that we have operated for at least the last twelve months; when we refer to “acquisitions,” we mean home health and hospice care centers that we acquired within the last twelve months; and when we refer to “start-ups,” we mean home health or hospice care centers opened by us in the last twelve months. Once a care center has been in operation for a twelve month period, the results for that particular care center are included as part of our same store business from that date forward. Non-Medicare revenue, admissions, recertifications or completed episodes, includes home health revenue, admissions, recertifications or completed episodes of care for those payors that pay on an episodic or per visit basis, which includes Medicare Advantage programs and private payors.

Economic and Industry Factors

Home health and hospice services are a highly fragmented, highly competitive industry. The degree of competiveness varies depending upon whether our care centers operate in states that require a certificate of need (CON) or permit of approval (POA). In such states, expansion by existing providers or entry into the market by new providers is permitted only where determination is made by state health authorities that a given amount of unmet need exists. Currently, 67% and 40% of our home health and hospice care centers, respectively operate in CON/POA states.

As the Federal government continues to debate a reduction in expenditures and a reform of the Medicare system, our industry continues to face reimbursement pressures. Specifically, the industry has been impacted by a 2% sequestration payment reduction beginning April 1, 2013. In addition to the sequestration cut, the Centers for

 

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Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) instituted a rebasing cut of approximately $81 (2.7%) per year for 2014 – 2017; however, we do expect some offset from a market basket updated in each of these years. The following payment adjustments are effective for the years indicated based on CMS’s final rules relative to Medicare reimbursement:

 

     Home Health(1)     Hospice  
       2016         2015         2014         2016(2)         2015         2014    

Market Basket Update

     2.3      2.6      2.3      2.4      2.9      2.5 

Rebasing

     (2.4     (2.8     (2.7     —          —          —     

ICD-9 Coding Change

     —          —          (0.6     —          —          —     

50/50 Blend of Wage Index

     —          —          —          0.2        —          —     

Nominal Case Mix Adjustment

     (0.9     —          —          —          —          —     

PPACA Adjustment

     —          —          —          (0.3     (0.3     (0.3

Budget Neutrality Adjustment Factor

     —          0.4        —          (0.7     (0.7     (0.7

Productivity Adjustment

     (0.4     (0.5     —          (0.5     (0.5     (0.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
     (1.4 )%      (0.3 )%      (1.0 )%      1.1      1.4      1.0 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
(1)

Our impact could differ depending on differences in the wage index and coding changes.

(2)

Effective for services provided from October 1, 2015 to September 30, 2016.

As part of the 2016 final rule issued in October 2015, CMS finalized their proposal to implement a Home Health Value-Based Purchasing model in nine states that seeks to test whether incentives for better care can improve outcomes in the delivery of home health services. Financial impacts from this change, either positive or negative, would begin January 1, 2018, applied to that calendar year based on 2015 performance data. Currently, care centers operating in the states included in the proposed model account for approximately 26% of our home health Medicare revenue.

Governmental Inquiries and Investigations and Other Litigation

September 2010 Civil Investigative Demand Issued by the U.S. Department of Justice

On September 27, 2010, we received a Civil Investigative Demand (“CID”) issued by the U.S. Department of Justice pursuant to the federal False Claims Act. The CID required the delivery of a wide range of documents and information relating to the Company’s clinical and business operations, including reimbursement and billing claims submitted to Medicare for home health services, and related compliance activities. The CID generally covered the period from January 1, 2003. On April 26, 2011, we received a second CID related to the CID issued in September 2010, which generally covered the same time period as the previous CID and required the production of additional documents. Such CIDs are often associated with previously filed qui tam actions, or lawsuits filed under seal under the False Claims Act (“FCA”), 31 U.S.C. § 3729 et seq. Qui tam actions are brought by private plaintiffs suing on behalf of the federal government for alleged FCA violations. Subsequently, the Company and certain current and former employees received additional CIDs for additional documents and/or testimony.

In May 2012, we made a disclosure to CMS under the agency’s Stark Law Self-Referral Disclosure Protocol relating to certain services agreements between a subsidiary of ours and a large physician group (the “Stark Law Self-Referral Matter”). During some period of time since December 2007, the arrangements appear not to have complied in certain respects with an applicable exemption to the Stark Law referral prohibition. Medicare revenue earned as a result of referrals from the physician group from May 2008 to May 2012, the relevant four year “lookback” period under the Stark Law Self-Referral Disclosure Protocol, was approximately $4 million. On January 11, 2013, one of our subsidiaries received a CID from the United States Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Georgia seeking certain information relating to that subsidiary’s relationship with this physician group

 

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On April 23, 2014, with no admission of liability on our part, we entered into a settlement agreement to resolve both the U.S. Department of Justice investigation and the Stark Law Self-Referral Matter. Pursuant to the settlement agreement, on May 2, 2014, we paid the United States an initial payment in the amount of $116.5 million representing the first installment of $115 million plus interest thereon due under the settlement agreement, and on October 23, 2014, we paid the United States an additional payment in the amount of $35.8 million, representing the second and final installment of $35 million plus interest thereon due under the settlement agreement.

The settlement agreement also resolves allegations made against us by various qui tam relators, who are required to dismiss their claims with prejudice. We accrued and paid various relators’ attorneys’ fees and expenses in the aggregate sum of approximately $3.9 million during 2014.

In connection with the settlement agreement, on April 23, 2014, we entered into a corporate integrity agreement (“CIA”) with the Office of Inspector General-HHS (“OIG”). The CIA formalizes various aspects of our already existing ethics and compliance programs and contains other requirements designed to help ensure our ongoing compliance with federal health care program requirements. Among other things, the CIA requires us to maintain our existing compliance program, executive compliance committee and compliance committee of the Board of Directors; provide certain compliance training; continue screening new and current employees to ensure they are eligible to participate in federal health care programs; engage an independent review organization to perform certain auditing and reviews and prepare certain reports regarding our compliance with federal health care programs, our billing submissions to federal health care programs and our compliance and risk mitigation programs; and provide certain reports and management certifications to the OIG. Additionally, the CIA specifically requires that we report substantial overpayments that we discover we have received from federal health care programs, as well as probable violations of federal health care laws. Upon breach of the CIA, we could become liable for payment of certain stipulated penalties, or could be excluded from participation in federal health care programs. The CIA has a term of five years. We expect the CIA to impact operating expenses by approximately $1 to $2 million annually.

May 2015 Subpoena Duces Tecum Issued by the U.S. Department of Justice

On May 21, 2015, we received a Subpoena Duces Tecum (“Subpoena”) issued by the U.S. Department of Justice. The Subpoena requests the delivery of information regarding 53 identified hospice patients to the United States Attorney’s Office for the District of Massachusetts. It also requests the delivery of documents relating to our hospice clinical and business operations and related compliance activities.

November 2015 Civil Investigative Demand Issued by the U.S. Department of Justice

On November 3, 2015, we received a CID issued by the U.S. Department of Justice pursuant to the federal False Claims Act relating to claims submitted to Medicare and/or Medicaid for hospice services provided through designated facilities in the Morgantown, West Virginia area.

See Item 8, Note 10 – Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our April 2014 CIA, the May 2015 Subpoena issued by the U.S. Department of Justice, the November 2015 CID issued by the U.S. Department of Justice and for a discussion of and updates regarding class action litigation we are involved in. No assurances can be given as to the timing or outcome of these items.

 

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Table of Contents

Results of Operations

Consolidated

The following table summarizes our results from continuing operations (amounts in millions):

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,  
     2015     2014     2013  

Net service revenue

   $ 1,280.5     $ 1,204.5     $ 1,249.3  

Gross margin, excluding depreciation and amortization

     554.6       513.4       531.3  

% of revenue

     43.3     42.6     42.5

Other operating expenses

     486.5       486.3       526.8  

% of revenue

     38.0     40.4     42.2

U.S. Department of Justice settlement

     —         —         150.0  

Asset impairment charge

     77.3       3.1       9.5  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss) income

     (9.2     24.0       (155.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income (expense), net

     8.9       (3.1     1.5  

Income tax (expense) benefit

     (2.0     (7.7     58.8  

Effective income tax rate

     650.6     36.6     (38.3 %) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income from continuing operations

     (2.3     13.3       (94.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss from discontinued operations

     —         (0.2     (3.1

Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

     (0.7     (0.3     1.6  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income attributable to Amedisys, Inc.

   $ (3.0   $ 12.8     $ (96.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2014

Our 2015 results were impacted by a $75 million non-cash charge to write off the software costs incurred related to the development of AMS3 Home Health and Hospice and a $2 million non-cash charge to reduce the carrying value of our corporate headquarters.

During the first quarter of 2014, we committed to a plan to consolidate 21 operating home health care centers and four operating hospice care centers with care centers servicing the same markets and close 23 home health care centers and six hospice care centers. As a result of this exit activity, we reduced our regional leadership structure and corporate support functions. Separate from the restructuring costs, we also recorded severance costs associated with the departure of our former Chief Executive Officer, a charge for relator fees associated with our U.S. Department of Justice settlement during the first quarter of 2014 and a non-cash other intangibles impairment charge during the fourth quarter of 2014. The following details the costs associated with these activities (amounts in millions):

 

     For the Year Ended December 31, 2014  
     Home Health      Hospice      Corporate      Total  

Severance(a)

   $ 2.0      $ 0.1      $ —        $ 2.1  

Restructuring severance

     2.1        0.6        3.0        5.7  

Lease terminations

     1.9        0.2        —          2.1  

Other intangibles impairment

     1.6        1.5        —          3.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Exit and restructuring activities cost

     7.6        2.4        3.0        13.0  

U.S. Department of Justice Settlement/Relator Fees

     —          —          3.9        3.9  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 7.6      $ 2.4      $ 6.9      $ 16.9  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(a)

Includes $0.8 million and $0.1 million for severance included in cost of service for home health and hospice, respectively.

 

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Our operating results have been impacted by the sale, closure and consolidation of numerous care centers as mentioned above. Accordingly, our results for the year ended December 31, 2015 are not fully comparable to the year ended December 31, 2014.

Our operating income, excluding the $77 million asset impairment charges in 2015 and the $17 million in costs incurred in 2014 noted above, increased $27 million as our home health operating income increased $29 million, our hospice operating income increased $13 million and our corporate operating expense increased $15 million. The primary drivers of our improvement in performance were the closure/consolidation of care centers that had a negative operating contribution, an increase in our revenue per episode, an increase in non-Medicare revenue, growth in hospice census and a reduction in operating expenses. The increase in corporate operating expenses is primarily due to the $6 million Wage and Hour Litigation settlement accrual and HCHB maintenance and hosting and implementation costs of $8 million. The increase in HCHB maintenance and hosting is offset by a $4 million decrease in depreciation and amortization as we move from our proprietary software to HCHB.

Total other income (expense), net decreased $1 million from prior year after considering the impact of the following items (amounts in millions):

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
         2015              2014      

Legal settlements

   $ 7.4      $ 1.1  

Equity in earnings from equity method investment

     6.7        —    

Life insurance proceeds

     1.0        —    

Debt refinance costs

     (3.2      (0.5

Gain (loss) on disposal of property and equipment or sale of care centers

     0.2        0.7  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 12.1      $ 1.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

The difference in income tax expense in 2015 and 2014 is driven primarily by the decrease in income before income taxes. Additionally, the effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2015 does not provide a meaningful comparison to other periods. The effective tax rate for the year is influenced by the relationship of the amount of “effective tax rate drivers” (i.e. non-deductible expenses, non-taxable income, tax credits, valuation allowance, uncertain tax positions, etc.) to (loss) income before income taxes. A significant asset impairment was recorded during the three-month period ended March 31, 2015, resulting in a scenario where the company’s (loss) income before income taxes for 2015 was near zero. Consequently, for 2015, the relationship between the “effective tax rate drivers” and (loss) income before income taxes is distorted.

Year Ended December 31, 2014 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2013

Our operating results have been impacted by the sale, closure and consolidation of 54 care centers mentioned above as well as the closure of an additional 9 care centers since December 31, 2013. Additionally, 76 care centers were exited during 2013. Accordingly, our results for the year ended December 31, 2014 are not fully comparable to the year ended December 31, 2013.

Our 2013 results were impacted by an accrual of $150 million and recognition of a deferred tax benefit of $56 million for the settlement to resolve both the U.S. Department of Justice investigation and the Stark Law Self-Referral Matter. In addition, we recorded asset impairment charges of $9 million related to other intangibles during 2013.

Our operating income, excluding the $17 million in costs incurred in 2014 noted above and the U.S. Department of Justice settlement and the asset impairment charge in 2013, increased $36 million as our home health operating income increased $27 million, our hospice operating income increased $5 million and corporate

 

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expenses decreased $4 million. Additionally, the first quarter of 2013 was not impacted by sequestration as it was not in effect until April 1, 2013. The estimated impact of sequestration was $21 million for 2014 compared to $18 million in 2013.

Income tax expense for 2014 and 2013 includes a favorable adjustment of $2 million related to various tax credits for state employment and training and state and federal research development.

Home Health Division

The following table summarizes our home health segment results from continuing operations:

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,  
     2015     2014     2013  

Financial Information (in millions):

      

Medicare

   $ 761.4     $ 751.5     $ 803.8  

Non-Medicare

     243.7       205.4       183.9  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net service revenue

     1,005.1       956.9       987.7  

Cost of service

     584.2       559.4       578.9  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross margin

     420.9       397.5       408.8  

Other operating expenses

     280.6       294.4       333.8  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income

   $ 140.3     $ 103.1     $ 75.0  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Key Statistical Data:

      

Medicare:

      

Same Store Volume (1):

      

Revenue

     3     1     (10 %) 

Admissions

     3     0     0

Recertifications

     (1 %)      1     (18 %) 

Total (2):

      

Admissions

     178,226       177,243       190,507  

Recertifications

     99,762       102,263       107,908  

Completed episodes

     269,227       272,864       292,984  

Visits

     4,797,734       4,794,609       5,177,976  

Average revenue per episode (3)

   $ 2,825     $ 2,768     $ 2,758  

Visits per completed episode (4)

     17.5       17.3       17.5  

Non-Medicare:

      

Same Store Volume (1):

      

Revenue

     21     19     (20 %) 

Admissions

     18     17     (13 %) 

Recertifications

     14     13     (24 %) 

Total (2):

      

Admissions

     96,934       83,940       76,669  

Recertifications

     35,870       32,074       30,304  

Visits

     1,954,543       1,651,745       1,531,781  

Total (2):

      

Cost per Visit

   $ 86.52     $ 86.77     $ 86.27  

Visits

     6,752,277       6,446,354       6,709,757  

 

(1)

Same store Medicare and Non-Medicare revenue, admissions or recertifications growth is the percent increase (decrease) in our Medicare and Non-Medicare revenue, admissions or recertifications for the period as a percent of the Medicare and Non-Medicare revenue, admissions or recertifications of the prior period.

(2)

Based on continuing operations for all periods presented.

 

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(3)

Average Medicare revenue per completed episode is the average Medicare revenue earned for each Medicare completed episode of care which includes the impact of sequestration.

(4)

Medicare visits per completed episode are the home health Medicare visits on completed episodes divided by the home health Medicare episodes completed during the period.

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2014

Overall, our operating income excluding the $8 million in exit activity costs in 2014, increased $29 million on a $22 million increase in gross margin and a $7 million decline in other operating expenses. 2014 results included revenue of $16 million and operating losses of $5 million for those care centers that were closed, consolidated or sold.

Net Service Revenue

Our Medicare revenue increase of approximately $10 million consisted of a $16 million increase due to higher revenue per episode offset by $6 million due to lower volumes. The decrease in volumes is primarily due to the sale, closure and consolidation of 51 care centers since December 31, 2013, as we experienced a 3% increase in same store admissions in 2015. Net service revenue includes a reduction of $1 million for the estimated impact of the 2016 rate change. The impact for 2016 is estimated to be approximately $14 million.

Our non-Medicare revenue increased $38 million as we have focused on contracted payors with significant concentrations in our markets and those that add incremental margin to our operations.

As mentioned above, we have closed numerous care centers since December 31, 2013. Accordingly, our results are not fully comparable to prior year. The following table summarizes our net service revenue for our operating care centers and those care centers that were closed, consolidated or sold.

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2015      2014      2013  

Revenue (in millions):

        

Operating care centers

   $ 1,005.1      $ 941.2      $ 895.6  

Closed/Consolidated/Sold care centers

     —          15.7        92.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net service revenue

     1,005.1        956.9        987.7  

Cost of Service, Excluding Depreciation and Amortization

Our cost of service, excluding the $1 million in exit activity costs in 2014, increased $26 million primarily as a result of a 5% increase in visits. Our cost per visit remained relatively flat.

Other Operating Expenses

Other operating expenses, excluding the $7 million in exit activity costs in 2014, decreased $7 million due to decreases in other care center related expenses as a result of our closure and consolidation strategy and the reduction in divisional leadership; the majority of the reductions were in salaries and benefits and rent expense, offset by $5 million increase in legal expense related to the self-disclosure matter. In addition, our provision for doubtful accounts decreased $3 million and our depreciation and amortization expense decreased $4 million compared to 2014.

Year Ended December 31, 2014 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2013

Overall, our operating income, excluding the $8 million in exit activity costs in 2014 and the $8 million asset impairment charge in 2013, increased $27 million on an $11 million decline in gross margin offset by a $38 million decline in other operating expenses.

 

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Net Service Revenue

Our Medicare revenue decline of approximately $52 million consisted of $53 million due to lower volumes and $2 million due to sequestration offset by a $3 million increase related to revenue per episode. The decrease in volumes is primarily due to the sale, closure and consolidation of 51 care centers since December 31, 2013, as we experienced an increase in same store revenue and recertifications.

Our non-Medicare revenue increased $21 million which is primarily due to increases in volumes and an increase in our revenue per visit. We are experiencing significant growth in our non-Medicare business as we have focused on contract payors with significant concentrations in our markets.

Cost of Service, Excluding Depreciation and Amortization

Our cost of service, excluding the $1 million in exit activity costs in 2014, decreased $20 million primarily as a result of our decrease in Medicare volumes which was offset by an 8% increase in non-Medicare visits as our cost per visit remained relatively flat.

Other Operating Expenses

Other operating expenses, excluding the $7 million in exit activity costs in 2014 and the $8 million asset impairment charge in 2013, decreased $38 million due to a $43 million decrease in other care center related expenses as a result of our closure and consolidation strategy and the reduction in divisional leadership; the majority of the reductions were in salaries and benefits, rent expense and travel costs offset by a $5 million increase in our provision for doubtful accounts due to the increase in non-Medicare revenue.

Hospice Division

The following table summarizes our hospice segment results from continuing operations:

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2015      2014     2013  

Financial Information (in millions):

       

Medicare

   $ 258.5      $ 232.6     $ 246.4  

Non-Medicare

     16.9        15.0       15.2  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net service revenue

     275.4        247.6       261.6  

Cost of service

     141.7        131.7       139.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross margin

     133.7        115.9       122.5  

Other operating expenses

     66.0        63.4       73.5  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating income

   $ 67.7      $ 52.5     $ 49.0  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Key Statistical Data:

       

Same Store Volume (1):

       

Medicare revenue

     13      (2 %)      (9 %) 

Non-Medicare revenue

     18      6     (3 %) 

Hospice admits

     16      (3 %)      (3 %) 

Average daily census

     12      (4 %)      (8 %) 

Total (2):

       

Hospice admits

     19,205        17,081       18,335  

Average daily census

     5,105        4,632       4,987  

Revenue per day

   $ 147.78      $ 146.51     $ 143.77  

Cost of service per day

   $ 76.06      $ 77.93     $ 76.45  

Discharge average length of stay

     92        100       100  

 

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(1)

Same store Medicare and Non-Medicare revenue, Hospice admits or average daily census volume is the percent increase (decrease) in our Medicare and Non-Medicare revenue, Hospice admits or average daily census for the period as a percent of the Medicare and Non-Medicare revenue, Hospice admits or average daily census of the prior period.

(2)

Based on continuing operations for all periods presented.

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2014

Overall, our operating income, excluding the $2 million in exit activity costs in 2014, increased $13 million on an $18 million increase in gross margin offset by a $5 million increase in other operating expenses.

Net Service Revenue

Our hospice revenue increased $28 million, primarily as the result of an increase in our average daily census as a result of a 16% increase in hospice admissions. We benefitted from a 1.4% hospice rate increase effective October 1, 2014. The base rate for hospice services provided from October 1, 2015 to September 30, 2016 will increase 1.1% as a result of the final rule issued by CMS in August 2015.

As mentioned above, we have closed numerous care centers since December 31, 2013. Accordingly, our results are not fully comparable to prior year. The following table summarizes our net service revenue for our operating care centers and those care centers that were closed, consolidated or sold.

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2015      2014      2013  

Revenue (in millions):

        

Operating care centers

   $ 275.4      $ 243.4      $ 243.7  

Closed/Consolidated/Sold care centers

     —          4.2        17.9  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net service revenue

     275.4        247.6        261.6  

Cost of Service, Excluding Depreciation and Amortization

Our hospice cost of service increased $10 million as the result of a 10% increase in average daily census offset by a decrease in cost of service per day. We experienced significant improvement in pharmacy and DME cost per day during 2015.

Other Operating Expenses

Other operating expenses, excluding the $2 million in exit activity costs in 2014, increased $5 million due to increases in other care center related expenses, primarily salaries and benefits expense and travel costs.

Year Ended December 31, 2014 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2013

Overall, our operating income, excluding the $2 million in exit activity costs in 2014 and the $1 million impairment charge in 2013, increased $5 million on a $14 million decline in revenue, an $8 million decline in cost of service and an $11 million decline in other operating expenses.

Net Service Revenue

Our hospice revenue decreased $14 million, primarily as the result of a decrease in our average daily census. The decrease in average daily census is primarily due to the sale, closure and consolidation of 12 care centers since

 

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December 31, 2013. The decrease in revenue was offset by a $2 million decrease in our hospice cap expense as our decline in average daily census and a decrease in admissions has resulted in a decrease in our overall cap expense. We benefitted from a 1.0% hospice rate increase effective October 1, 2013, and beginning October 1, 2014, the fiscal year 2015 hospice base rate increased approximately 1.4%.

Cost of Service, Excluding Depreciation and Amortization

Our hospice cost of service decreased $8 million, or 5%, as the result of a 7% decrease in average daily census offset by an increase in cost of service per day. Our cost of service per day has been negatively impacted by an increase in pharmacy costs as a result of new CMS guidance which became effective on May 1, 2014.

Other Operating Expenses

Other operating expenses, excluding the $2 million in exit activity costs in 2014 and the $1 million impairment charge in 2013, decreased $11 million due to a $7 million decrease in other care center related expenses due to our care center closure and consolidation strategy and a $4 million decrease in our provision for doubtful accounts.

Corporate

The following table summarizes our corporate results from continuing operations:

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2015      2014      2013  

Financial Information (in millions):

        

Other operating expenses

   $ 126.5      $ 114.4      $ 104.5  

Depreciation and amortization

     13.4        17.2        24.5  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total before impairment and U.S. Department of Justice settlement (1)

   $ 139.9      $ 131.6      $ 129.0  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

Total of $217.2 million on a GAAP basis for the year ended December 31, 2015 (including $77.3 million asset impairment charge). Total of $279.0 million on a GAAP basis for the year ended December 31, 2013 (including $150.0 U.S. Department of Justice settlement).

Corporate expenses consist of cost relating to our executive management and administrative support functions, primarily information services, accounting, finance, billing and collections, legal, compliance, risk management, procurement, marketing, clinical administration, training, human resources and administration.

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2014

Excluding the $77 million asset impairment charge in 2015 and the $7 million in exit and restructuring activities costs and relator fees associated with our U.S. Department of Justice settlement agreement during 2014, corporate other operating expenses increased $15 million which is inclusive of the $6 million Wage and Hour Litigation settlement accrual, $4 million in HCHB maintenance and hosting costs, $4 million related to HCHB implementation and $2 million in severance costs.

Year Ended December 31, 2014 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2013

Excluding the 2014 exit and restructuring activities costs and relator fees associated with our U.S. Department of Justice settlement agreement and the U.S. Department of Justice settlement in 2013, corporate expenses

 

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decreased $4 million primarily due to a decrease in depreciation and amortization. Our corporate salaries and wages experienced an increase due to the addition of resources for the roll-out of AMS3, our enhanced point of care system.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated (amounts in millions):

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
     2015      2014      2013  

Cash provided by (used in) operating activities

   $ 107.8      $ (65.5    $ 102.3  

Cash used in investing activities

     (67.4      (14.3      (46.5

Cash (used in) provided by financing activities

     (20.9      70.5        (53.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

     19.5        (9.3      2.8  

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

     8.0        17.3        14.5  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

   $ 27.5      $ 8.0      $ 17.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Cash provided by operating activities increased $173.3 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to an increase in our operating performance as compared to 2014 and the payment of $150.0 million in 2014 under our settlement agreement with the U.S. Department of Justice. For additional information regarding our operating performance, see “Results of Operations”. The recognition of the asset impairment charge of $77.3 million, which resulted in the net loss for 2015 is a non-cash item and therefore has no impact on our cash flow from operations. Cash used in operating activities increased $167.8 million during 2014 compared to 2013 primarily due to the payment of the U.S. Department of Justice Settlement. Adjusting for the $152.3 million settlement and interest payment, we generated $86.8 million in cash from operating activities during 2014.

Cash used in investing activities increased $53.1 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to our acquisition activity ($69.1 million) and an increase in capital expenditures ($9.4 million), offset by proceeds from the sale of property and equipment ($20.0 million) and investments ($5.0 million). Cash used in investing activities decreased $32.2 million during 2014 compared to 2013 primarily due to a decrease in capital expenditures of $29.7 million, primarily related to AMS3 development, and a $3.7 million decrease in the purchase of investments.

Cash used in financing activities increased $91.4 million during 2015 compared to 2014 primarily due to an increase in our principal payments of long-term obligations, net of borrowings. We decreased our outstanding long-term obligations, net of borrowings by $16.4 million from December 31, 2014. Cash provided by financing activities increased $123.5 million during 2014 compared to 2013 primarily due to an increase in our borrowings on our revolving line of credit and our Second Lien Loan. We increased our outstanding long-term obligations, net of repayments by $71.1 million from December 31, 2013, primarily to fund the U.S. Department of Justice settlement payment.

Liquidity

Typically, our principal source of liquidity is the collection of our patient accounts receivable, primarily through the Medicare program. In addition to our collection of patient accounts receivable, from time to time, we can and do obtain additional sources of liquidity by the incurrence of additional indebtedness.

During 2015, we spent $9.3 million in routine capital expenditures compared to $7.0 million and $6.5 million during 2014 and 2013, respectively. Routine capital expenditures primarily include equipment and computer

 

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software and hardware. In addition, we spent $12.1 million in non-routine capital expenditures related to software licenses and interfaces compared to $5.0 million and $35.2 million during 2014 and 2013, respectively, related to enhancements to our point of care software. Our routine and non-routine capital expenditures for 2016 are expected to be approximately $9.1 million and $13.3 million, respectively.

On April 23, 2014, we entered into a settlement agreement to resolve both the U.S. Department of Justice investigation and the Stark Law Self-Referral Matter. Pursuant to the settlement agreement, on May 2, 2014, we paid the United States an initial payment in the amount of $116.5 million, representing the first installment of $115 million plus interest thereon due under the settlement agreement, and on October 23, 2014, we paid the United States an additional payment in the amount of $35.8 million, representing the second and final installment of $35 million plus interest thereon due under the settlement agreement.

On August 28, 2015, we entered into a Credit Agreement that provides for senior secured facilities in an initial aggregate principal amount of up to $300 million comprised of (a) a term loan facility in an initial aggregate principal amount of $100 million and (b) a revolving credit facility in an initial aggregate principal amount of up to $200 million. The net proceeds of the term loan and existing cash on hand were used to pay off (i) our existing term loan under our prior Credit Agreement dated as of October 22, 2012, as amended with a principal balance of $27 million and (ii) our existing term loan under our prior Second Lien Credit Agreement dated July 28, 2014, with a principal balance of $70 million.

As of December 31, 2015, we had $27.5 million in cash and cash equivalents and $179.0 million in availability under our $200.0 million Revolving Credit Facility. Based on our operating forecasts and our new debt service requirements, we believe we will have sufficient liquidity to fund our operations, capital requirements and debt service requirements.

Outstanding Patient Accounts Receivable

Our patient accounts receivable, net increased $25.7 million from December 31, 2014 to December 31, 2015. Our cash collection as a percentage of revenue was 100% and 103% for December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Our days revenue outstanding, net at December 31, 2015 was 31.9 days which is an increase of 2.5 days from December 31, 2014. Our days revenue outstanding, net at December 31, 2015 does not include Infinity HomeCare.

Our patient accounts receivable includes unbilled receivables and are aged based upon our initial service date. We monitor unbilled receivables on a care center by care center basis to ensure that all efforts are made to bill claims within timely filing deadlines. Our unbilled patient accounts receivable can be impacted by acquisition activity, probe edits or regulatory changes which result in additional information or procedures needed prior to billing. The timely filing deadline for Medicare is one year from the date the episode was completed and varies by state for Medicaid-reimbursable services and among insurance companies and other private payors.

Our provision for estimated revenue adjustments (which is deducted from our service revenue to determine net service revenue) and provision for doubtful accounts were as follows for the periods indicated (amounts in millions). We fully reserve for both our Medicare and other patient accounts receivable that are aged over 365 days.

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
         2015             2014      

Provision for estimated revenue adjustments (1)

   $ 6.1     $ 5.1  

Provision for doubtful accounts (2)

     14.1       16.4  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

   $ 20.2     $ 21.5  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

As a percent of revenue

     1.6     1.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Includes $0.1 million from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2014.

 

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(2)

Includes $0.1 million from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2014.

The following schedules detail our patient accounts receivable, net of estimated revenue adjustments, by payor class, aged based upon initial date of service (amounts in millions, except days revenue outstanding, net):

 

     0-90      91-180      181-365     Over 365      Total  

At December 31, 2015:

             

Medicare patient accounts receivable, net (1)

   $ 73.5      $ 7.0      $ (0.4   $ —        $ 80.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other patient accounts receivable:

             

Medicaid

     12.4        1.7        0.9       —          15.0  

Private

     31.2        8.1        5.1       2.0        46.4  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 43.6      $ 9.8      $ 6.0     $ 2.0      $ 61.4  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

Allowance for doubtful accounts (2)

                (16.5
             

 

 

 

Non-Medicare patient accounts receivable, net

              $ 44.9  
             

 

 

 

Total patient accounts receivable, net

              $ 125.0  
             

 

 

 

Days revenue outstanding, net (3)

                31.9  
             

 

 

 

 

     0-90      91-180      181-365      Over 365      Total  

At December 31, 2014:

              

Medicare patient accounts receivable, net (1)

   $ 62.1      $ 6.3      $ —        $ —        $ 68.4  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other patient accounts receivable:

              

Medicaid

     9.1        1.4        0.7        0.4        11.6  

Private

     23.4        5.4        2.5        2.3        33.6  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 32.5      $ 6.8      $ 3.2      $ 2.7      $ 45.2  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Allowance for doubtful accounts (2)

                 (14.3
              

 

 

 

Non-Medicare patient accounts receivable, net

               $ 30.9  
              

 

 

 

Total patient accounts receivable, net

               $ 99.3  
              

 

 

 

Days revenue outstanding, net (3)

                 29.4  
              

 

 

 

 

(1)

The following table summarizes the activity and ending balances in our estimated revenue adjustments (amounts in millions), which is recorded to reduce our Medicare outstanding patient accounts receivable to their estimated net realizable value, as we do not estimate an allowance for doubtful accounts for our Medicare claims.

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
         2015              2014      

Balance at beginning of period

   $ 3.1      $ 3.9  

Provision for estimated revenue adjustments (a)

     6.1        5.1  

Write offs

     (5.2      (5.9
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Balance at end of period

   $ 4.0      $ 3.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(a)

Includes $0.1 million from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2014.

Our estimated revenue adjustments were 4.8% and 4.3% of our outstanding Medicare patient accounts receivable at December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively.

 

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(2)

The following table summarizes the activity and ending balances in our allowance for doubtful accounts (amounts in millions), which is recorded to reduce only our Medicaid and private payer outstanding patient accounts receivable to their estimated net realizable value.

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
 
         2015              2014      

Balance at beginning of period

   $ 14.3      $ 14.2  

Provision for doubtful accounts (a)

     14.1        16.4  

Write offs

     (11.9      (16.3
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Balance at end of period

   $ 16.5      $ 14.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(a)

Includes $0.1 million from discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2014.

Our allowance for doubtful accounts was 26.9% and 31.6% of our outstanding Medicaid and private patient accounts receivable at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

 

(3)

Our calculation of days revenue outstanding, net is derived by dividing our ending net patient accounts receivable (i.e., net of estimated revenue adjustments and allowance for doubtful accounts ) at December 31, 2015 and 2014 by our average daily net patient revenue for the three-month periods ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Indebtedness

Credit Agreement

On August 28, 2015, we entered into a Credit Agreement that provides for senior secured facilities in an initial aggregate principal amount of up to $300 million.

The Credit Facilities are comprised of (a) a term loan facility in an initial aggregate principal amount of $100 million (the “Term Loan”); and (b) a revolving credit facility in an initial aggregate principal amount of up to $200 million (the “Revolving Credit Facility”). The Revolving Credit Facility provides for and includes within its $200 million limit a $25 million swingline facility and commitments for up to $50 million in letters of credit. Upon lender approval, we may increase the aggregate loan amount under the Credit Facilities by a maximum amount of $150 million.

The net proceeds of the Term Loan and existing cash on hand were used to pay off (i) our existing term loan under our Prior Credit Agreement, dated as of October 22, 2012, as amended (the “Prior Credit Agreement”) with a principal balance of $27 million and (ii) our existing term loan under our prior Second Lien Credit Agreement dated July 28, 2014 (the “Second Lien Credit Agreement”), with a principal balance of $70 million. The final maturity of the Term Loan is August 28, 2020. The Term Loan will amortize beginning on March 31, 2016 in 18 quarterly installments (eight quarterly installments of $1.25 million followed by eight quarterly installments of $2.5 million, followed by two quarterly installments of $3.1 million, subject to adjustment for prepayments), with the remaining balance due upon maturity.

The Revolving Credit Facility may be used to provide ongoing working capital and for general corporate purposes of the Company and its subsidiaries, including permitted acquisitions, as defined in the Credit Agreement. The final maturity of the Revolving Credit Facility is August 28, 2020 and will be payable in full at that time.

The interest rate in connection with the Credit Facilities shall be selected from the following by us: (i) the Base Rate plus the Applicable Rate or (ii) the Eurodollar Rate plus the Applicable Rate. The “Base Rate” means a fluctuating rate per annum equal to the highest of (a) the federal funds rate plus 0.50% per annum, (b) the prime

 

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rate of interest established by the Administrative Agent, and (c) the Eurodollar Rate for an interest period of one month plus 1% per annum. The “Eurodollar Rate” means the rate at which Eurodollar deposits in the London interbank market for an interest period of one, two, three or six months (as selected by us) are quoted. The “Applicable Rate” is based on the consolidated leverage ratio and is presented in the table below. As of December 31, 2015, the Applicable Rate is 1.00% per annum for Base Rate Loans and 2.00% per annum for Eurodollar Rate Loans. We are also subject to a commitment fee and letter of credit fee under the terms of the Credit Facilities, as presented in the table below.

 

Consolidated Leverage Ratio

   Margin for
ABR Loans
    Margin for
Eurodollar Loans
    Commitment
Fee
    Letter of
Credit Fee
 

³ 2.75 to 1.0

     2.00     3.00     0.40     3.00

< 2.75 to 1.0 but ³ 1.75 to 1.0

     1.50     2.50     0.35     2.50

< 1.75 to 1.0 but ³ 0.75 to 1.0

     1.00     2.00     0.30     2.00

< 0.75 to 1.0

     0.50     1.50     0.25     1.50

Our weighted average interest rate for our $100.0 million Term Loan, under our Credit Agreement, was 2.7% for the period August 28, 2015 to December 31, 2015.

As of December 31, 2015, our availability under our $200.0 million Revolving Credit Facility was $179.0 million as we had $21.0 million outstanding in letters of credit.

The Credit Agreement requires maintenance of two financial covenants: (i) a consolidated leverage ratio of funded indebtedness to EBITDA, as defined in the Credit Agreement, and (ii) a consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio of EBITDA plus rent expense (less cash taxes less capital expenditures) to scheduled debt repayments plus interest expense plus rent expense, all as defined in the Credit Agreement. Each of these covenants is calculated over rolling four-quarter periods and also is subject to certain exceptions and baskets. As of December 31, 2015, our consolidated leverage ratio was 0.9 and our consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio was 3.7 and we are in compliance with the Credit Agreement. The Credit Agreement also contains customary covenants, including, but not limited to, restrictions on: incurrence of liens; incurrence of additional debt; sales of assets and other fundamental corporate changes; investments; and declarations of dividends. These covenants contain customary exclusions and baskets.

The Credit Facilities are guaranteed by substantially all of our wholly-owned direct and indirect subsidiaries. The Credit Agreement requires at all times that we (i) provide guaranties from wholly-owned subsidiaries that in the aggregate represent not less than 95% of our consolidated net revenues and adjusted EBITDA from all wholly-owned subsidiaries and (ii) provide guarantees from subsidiaries that in the aggregate represent not less than 70% of consolidated adjusted EBITDA, subject to certain exceptions.

In connection with entering into the Credit Agreement, we entered into (i) a Security Agreement with the Administrative Agent dated August 28, 2015 and (ii) a Pledge Agreement with the Administrative Agent dated as of August 28, 2015 for the purpose of securing the payment of our obligations under the Credit Agreement. Pursuant to the Security Agreement and the Pledge Agreement, as of the effective date of the Credit Agreement, our obligations under the Credit Agreement are secured by (i) the grant of a first lien security interest in the non-real estate assets of substantially all of our direct and indirect, wholly-owned subsidiaries (subject to exceptions) and (ii) the pledge of the equity interests in (a) substantially all of our direct and indirect, wholly-owned corporate, limited liability company and limited partnership subsidiaries and (b) those joint ventures which constitute subsidiaries under the Credit Agreement (subject, in the case of the Pledge Agreement, to exceptions).

In connection with the entry into the Credit Agreement, on August 28, 2015, each of the Prior Credit Agreement and the Second Lien Credit Agreement were terminated. The Company paid a call premium of $700,000 associated with the termination of the Second Lien Credit Agreement and the voluntary prepayment of the amounts owed thereunder as of August 28, 2015, and expensed $2.5 million in deferred debt issuance costs

 

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during the three-month period ended September 30, 2015. Also in connection with our entry into the Credit Agreement, we recorded $2.4 million in deferred debt issuance costs as other assets in our consolidated balance sheet.

Stock Repurchase Program

On September 9, 2015, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program, under which we may repurchase up to $75 million of our outstanding common stock on or before September 6, 2016.

Under the terms of the program, we may repurchase shares from time to time in open market transactions, block purchases or in private transactions in accordance with applicable federal securities laws and other legal requirements. We may enter into Rule 10b5-1 plans to effect some or all of the repurchases. The timing and the amount of the repurchases, if any, will be determined by management based on a number of factors, including but not limited to share price, trading volume and general market conditions, as well as on working capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors.

During 2015, pursuant to this program, we repurchased 116,859 shares of our common stock at a weighted average price of $39.20 per share and a total cost of approximately $4.6 million. The repurchased shares are classified as treasury shares.

Contractual Obligations and Medicare Liabilities

Our future contractual obligations and Medicare liabilities at December 31, 2015 were as follows (amounts in millions):

 

     Payments Due by Period  
     Total      Less than
1 Year
     1-3
Years
     4-5
Years
     After
5 Years
 

Long-term obligations

   $ 100.0      $ 5.0      $ 15.0      $ 80.0      $ —    

Interest on long-term obligations (1)

     9.6        2.4        4.3        2.9        —    

Operating leases

     67.9        23.5        27.2        11.7        5.5  

Capital commitments

     3.1        3.1        —          —          —    

Purchase obligations

     30.5        9.3        17.2        4.0        —    

Uncertain tax positions

     4.7        0.6        4.1        —          —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 
   $ 215.8      $ 43.9      $ 67.8      $ 98.6      $ 5.5  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

Interest on debt with variable rates was calculated using the current rate of that particular debt instrument at December 31, 2015.

Critical Accounting Estimates

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to revenue recognition, collectability of accounts receivable, reserves related to insurance and litigation, goodwill, intangible assets, income taxes and contingencies. We base these estimates on our historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results experienced may vary materially and adversely from our estimates. To the extent there are material differences between our estimates and the actual results, our future results of operations may be affected.

 

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We believe the following critical accounting policies represent our most significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue Recognition

We earn net service revenue through our home health and hospice care centers by providing a variety of services almost exclusively in the homes of our patients. This net service revenue is earned and billed either on an episode of care basis, on a per visit basis or on a daily basis depending upon the payment terms and conditions established with each payor for services provided. We refer to home health revenue earned and billed on a 60-day episode of care as episodic-based revenue.

When we record our service revenue, we record it net of estimated revenue adjustments and contractual adjustments to reflect amounts we estimate to be realizable for services provided, as discussed below. We believe, based on information currently available to us and based on our judgment, that changes to one or more factors that impact the accounting estimates (such as our estimates related to revenue adjustments, contractual adjustments and episodes in progress) we make in determining net service revenue, which changes are likely to occur from period to period, will not materially impact our reported consolidated financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or our future financial results.

Home Health Revenue Recognition

Medicare Revenue

Net service revenue is recorded under the Medicare prospective payment system (“PPS”) based on a 60-day episode payment rate that is subject to adjustment based on certain variables. We make adjustments to Medicare revenue on completed episodes to reflect differences between estimated and actual payment amounts, and our discovered inability to obtain appropriate billing documentation or authorizations and other reasons unrelated to credit risk. We estimate the impact of such adjustments based on our historical experience, which primarily includes a historical collection rate of over 99% on Medicare claims, and record this estimate during the period in which services are rendered as an estimated revenue adjustment and a corresponding reduction to patient accounts receivable. In addition, management evaluates the potential for revenue adjustments and, when appropriate, provides allowances based upon the best available information.

In addition to revenue recognized on completed episodes, we also recognize a portion of revenue associated with episodes in progress. Episodes in progress are 60-day episodes of care that begin during the reporting period, but were not completed as of the end of the period. We estimate this revenue on a monthly basis based upon historical trends. The primary factors underlying this estimate are the number of episodes in progress at the end of the reporting period, expected Medicare revenue per episode and our estimate of the average percentage complete based on visits performed.

Non-Medicare Revenue

Episodic-based Revenue. We recognize revenue in a similar manner as we recognize Medicare revenue for episodic-based rates that are paid by other insurance carriers, including Medicare Advantage programs; however, these rates can vary based upon the negotiated terms.

Non-episodic Based Revenue. Gross revenue is recorded on an accrual basis based upon the date of service at amounts equal to our established or estimated per-visit rates, as applicable. Contractual adjustments are recorded for the difference between our standard rates and the contracted rates to be realized from patients, third parties and others for services provided and are deducted from gross revenue to determine net service revenue and are also recorded as a reduction to our outstanding patient accounts receivable. In addition, we receive a minimal amount of our net service revenue from patients who are either self-insured or are obligated for an insurance co-payment.

 

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Hospice Revenue Recognition

Hospice Medicare Revenue

Gross revenue is recorded on an accrual basis based upon the date of service at amounts equal to the estimated payment rates. The estimated payment rates are daily or hourly rates for each of the four levels of care we deliver. We make adjustments to Medicare revenue for our discovered inability to obtain appropriate billing documentation or authorizations and other reasons unrelated to credit risk. We estimate the impact of these adjustments based on our historical experience, which primarily includes our historical collection rate on Medicare claims, and record it during the period services are rendered as an estimated revenue adjustment and as a reduction to our outstanding patient accounts receivable.

Additionally, as Medicare hospice revenue is subject to an inpatient cap limit and an overall payment cap for each provider number, we monitor these caps and estimate amounts due back to Medicare if a cap has been exceeded. We record these adjustments as a reduction to revenue and an increase in other accrued liabilities. Beginning for the cap year ending October 31, 2014, providers are required to self-report and pay their estimated cap liability by March 31st of the following year. As of December 31, 2015, we have settled our Medicare hospice reimbursements for all fiscal years through October 31, 2012 and we have recorded $1.4 million for estimated amounts due back to Medicare in other accrued liabilities for the Federal cap years ended October 31, 2013 through October 31, 2016. As of December 31, 2014, we had recorded $2.8 million for estimated amounts due back to Medicare in other accrued liabilities for the Federal cap years ended October 31, 2013 through October 31, 2015.

Hospice Non-Medicare Revenue

We record gross revenue on an accrual basis based upon the date of service at amounts equal to our established rates or estimated per visit rates, as applicable. Contractual adjustments are recorded for the difference between our established rates and the amounts estimated to be realizable from patients, third parties and others for services provided and are deducted from gross revenue to determine our net service revenue and patient accounts receivable.

Patient Accounts Receivable – Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Our patient accounts receivable are uncollateralized and consist of amounts due from Medicare, Medicaid, other third-party payors and patients. We fully reserve for accounts which are aged at 365 days or greater. We write off accounts on a monthly basis once we have exhausted our collection efforts and deem an account to be uncollectible. We do not record an allowance for doubtful accounts for our Medicare patient accounts receivable, which are recorded at their net realizable value after recording estimated revenue adjustments as discussed above.

We believe there is a certain level of credit risk associated with non-Medicare payors. To provide for our non-Medicare patient accounts receivable that could become uncollectible in the future, we establish an allowance for doubtful accounts to reduce the carrying amount to its estimated net realizable value. We estimate an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon our assessment of historical and expected net collections, business and economic conditions, trends in payment and an evaluation of collectability based upon the date that the service was provided. Based upon our best judgment, we believe the allowance for doubtful accounts adequately provides for accounts that will not be collected due to credit risk.

Insurance

We are obligated for certain costs associated with our insurance programs, including employee health, workers’ compensation and professional liability. While we maintain various insurance programs to cover these risks, we are self-insured for a substantial portion of our potential claims. We recognize our obligations associated with these costs in the period in which a claim is incurred, including with respect to both reported claims and claims

 

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incurred but not reported, up to specified deductible limits. These costs have generally been estimated based on historical data of our claims experience. Such estimates, and the resulting reserves, are reviewed and updated by us on a quarterly basis.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Goodwill represents the amount of the purchase price in excess of the fair values assigned to the underlying identifiable net assets of acquired businesses. Goodwill is not amortized, but is subject to an annual impairment test. Tests are performed more frequently if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount. These events or circumstances include but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in the business environment; regulatory environment or legal factors; or a substantial decline in market capitalization of our stock. To determine whether goodwill is impaired, we perform a two-step impairment test. In the first step of the test, the fair values of the reporting units are compared to their aggregate carrying values, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit is greater than its carrying amount, goodwill is not considered impaired and no further testing is required. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, we would proceed to step two of the test. In step two of the test, the implied fair value of the goodwill of the reporting unit is determined by a hypothetical allocation of the fair value calculated in step one to all of the assets and liabilities of that reporting unit (including any recognized and unrecognized intangible assets) as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination and the fair value was reflective of the price paid to acquire the reporting unit. The implied fair value of goodwill is the excess, if any, of the calculated fair value after hypothetical allocation to the reporting unit’s assets and liabilities. If the implied fair value of the goodwill is greater than the carrying amount of the goodwill at the analysis date, goodwill is not impaired and the analysis is complete. If the implied fair value of the goodwill is less than the carrying value of goodwill at the analysis date, goodwill is deemed impaired by the amount of that variance.

We calculate the estimated fair value of our reporting units using discounted cash flows as well as a market approach that compares our reporting units’ earnings and revenue multiples to those of comparable public companies. To determine fair value we must make assumptions about a wide variety of internal and external factors. Significant assumptions used in the impairment analysis include financial projections of free cash flow (including significant assumptions about operations, in particular expected organic growth rates, future Medicare reimbursement rates, capital requirements and income taxes), long-term growth rates for determining terminal value, and discount rates. Our estimates of discounted cash flows may differ from actual cash flows due to, among other things, economic conditions, changes to our business model or changes in operating performance. These factors increase the risk of differences between projected and actual performance that could impact future estimates of fair value of all reporting units. Significant differences between these estimates and actual cash flows could result in additional impairment in future periods.

Each of our operating segments described in the notes to our financial statements is considered to represent an individual reporting unit for goodwill impairment testing purposes. We consider each of our home health care centers to constitute an individual business for which discrete financial information is available. However, since these care centers have substantially similar operating and economic characteristics and resource allocation and significant investment decisions concerning these businesses are centralized and the benefits broadly distributed, we have aggregated these care centers and deemed them to constitute a single reporting unit. We have applied this same aggregation principle to our hospice care centers and have also deemed them to be a single reporting unit.

During 2015, we did not record any goodwill impairment charges and none of the goodwill associated with our various reporting units were considered at risk of impairment as of October 31, 2015. Since the date of our last annual goodwill impairment test, there have been no material developments, events, changes in operating performance or other circumstances that would cause management to believe it is more likely than not that the fair value of any of our reporting units would be less than its carrying amount.

 

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Intangible assets consist of Certificates of Need, licenses, acquired names, non-compete agreements and reacquired franchise rights. We amortize non-compete agreements, acquired names that we do not intend to use in the future and reacquired franchise rights on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, which is generally three years for non-compete agreements and up to five years for reacquired franchise rights and acquired names.

Income Taxes

We use the asset and liability approach for measuring deferred tax assets and liabilities based on temporary differences existing at each balance sheet date using currently enacted tax rates. Our deferred tax calculation requires us to make certain estimates about future operations. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when we believe it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect of a change in tax rate is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment date. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014 our net deferred tax assets were $125.2 million and $122.4 million, respectively.

Management regularly assesses the ability to realize deferred tax assets recorded in the Company’s entities based upon the weight of available evidence, including such factors as the recent earnings history and expected future taxable income. In the event future taxable income is below management’s estimates or is generated in tax jurisdictions different than projected, we could be required to increase the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets. This would result in an increase in our effective tax rate.

ITEM  7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to market risk from fluctuations in interest rates. Our Revolving Credit Facility and Term Loan carry a floating interest rate which is tied to the Eurodollar rate (i.e. LIBOR) and the Prime Rate and therefore, our consolidated statements of operations and our consolidated statements of cash flows will be exposed to changes in interest rates. As of December 31, 2015, the total amount of outstanding debt subject to interest rate fluctuations was $100.0 million. A 1.0% interest rate change would cause interest expense to change by approximately $1.0 million annually.

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

The Board of Directors and Stockholders

Amedisys, Inc.:

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Amedisys, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive (loss) income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2015. These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Amedisys, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2015, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), Amedisys Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), and our report dated March 9, 2016, expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

/s/ KPMG LLP        

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

March 9, 2016

 

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AMEDISYS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(Amounts in thousands, except share data)

 

     As of December 31,  
     2015     2014  
ASSETS     

Current assets:

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 27,502     $ 8,032  

Patient accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $16,526, and $14,317

     125,010       99,325  

Prepaid expenses

     8,110       8,493  

Other current assets

     14,641       19,708  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current assets

     175,263       135,558  

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $141,793 and $146,438

     42,695       137,455  

Goodwill

     261,663       205,587  

Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization of $25,386 and $25,374

     44,047       33,193  

Deferred income taxes

     125,245       124,788  

Other assets, net

     36,172       33,161  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total assets

   $ 685,085     $ 669,742  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY     

Current liabilities:

    

Accounts payable

   $ 25,682     $ 16,056  

Payroll and employee benefits

     72,546       75,553  

Accrued expenses

     71,965       56,329  

Current portion of long-term obligations

     5,000       12,000  

Current portion of deferred income taxes

     —         2,385  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

     175,193       162,323  

Long-term obligations, less current portion

     95,000       104,372  

Other long-term obligations

     4,456       5,285  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     274,649       271,980  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Commitments and Contingencies – Note 10

    

Equity:

    

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized; none issued or outstanding

     —         —    

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 60,000,000 shares authorized; 34,786,966, and 34,569,526 shares issued; and 33,607,282 and 33,594,572 shares outstanding

     35       35  

Additional paid-in capital

     504,290       481,762  

Treasury stock at cost 1,179,684, and 974,954 shares of common stock

     (26,966     (19,860

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     15       15  

Retained earnings

     (67,806     (64,785
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Amedisys, Inc. stockholders’ equity

     409,568       397,167  

Noncontrolling interests

     868       595  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total equity

     410,436       397,762  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities and equity

   $ 685,085     $ 669,742  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

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AMEDISYS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(Amounts in thousands, except per share data)

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,  
     2015     2014     2013  

Net service revenue

   $ 1,280,541     $ 1,204,554     $ 1,249,344  

Cost of service, excluding depreciation and amortization

     725,915       691,061       717,996  

General and administrative expenses:

      

Salaries and benefits

     279,425       292,497       302,564  

Non-cash compensation

     11,824       5,597       6,519  

Other

     161,186       143,644       164,991  

Provision for doubtful accounts

     14,053       16,294       15,882  

Depreciation and amortization

     20,036       28,307       36,871  

U.S. Department of Justice settlement

     —         —         150,000  

Asset impairment charge

     77,268       3,107       9,492  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating expenses

     1,289,707       1,180,507       1,404,315  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Operating (loss) income

     (9,166     24,047       (154,971

Other income (expense):

      

Interest income

     71       94       54  

Interest expense

     (10,783     (8,217     (4,412

Equity in earnings from equity method investments

     9,823       2,991       1,520  

Miscellaneous, net

     9,747       2,061       4,334  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income (expense), net

     8,858       (3,071     1,496  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income before income taxes

     (308     20,976       (153,475

Income tax (expense) benefit

     (2,004     (7,671     58,773  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income from continuing operations

     (2,312     13,305       (94,702

Discontinued operations, net of tax

     —         (216     (3,073
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income

     (2,312     13,089       (97,775

Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

     (709     (313     1,597  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income attributable to Amedisys, Inc.

   $ (3,021   $ 12,776     $ (96,178
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Basic earnings per common share:

      

(Loss) income from continuing operations attributable to Amedisys, Inc. common stockholders

   $ (0.09   $ 0.40     $ (2.98

Discontinued operations, net of tax

     —         (0.01     (0.10
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income attributable to Amedisys, Inc. common stockholders

   $ (0.09   $ 0.39     $ (3.08
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average shares outstanding

     33,018       32,301       31,247  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted earnings per common share:

      

(Loss) income from continuing operations attributable to Amedisys, Inc. common stockholders

   $ (0.09   $ 0.40     $ (2.98

Discontinued operations, net of tax

     —         (0.01     (0.10
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income attributable to Amedisys, Inc. common stockholders

   $ (0.09   $ 0.39     $ (3.08
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average shares outstanding

     33,018       32,823       31,247  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Amounts attributable to Amedisys, Inc. common stockholders:

      

(Loss) income from continuing operations

   $ (3,021   $ 12,992     $ (93,105

Discontinued operations, net of tax

     —         (216     (3,073
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income

   $ (3,021   $ 12,776     $ (96,178
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

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AMEDISYS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE (LOSS) INCOME

(Amounts in thousands)

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,  
         2015             2014             2013      

Net (loss) income

   $ (2,312   $ 13,089     $ (97,775

Other comprehensive income (loss)

     —         —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive (loss) income

     (2,312     13,089       (97,775

Comprehensive (income) loss attributable to non-controlling interests

     (709     (313     1,597  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Comprehensive (loss) income attributable to Amedisys, Inc.

   $ (3,021   $ 12,776     $ (96,178
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

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AMEDISYS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

(Amounts in thousands, except common stock shares)

 

    Total     Common Stock     Additional
Paid-in
Capital
    Treasury
Stock
    Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive

Loss (Income)
    Retained
Earnings
    Noncontrolling
Interests
 
      Shares     Amount            

Balance, December 31, 2012

  $ 454,233       31,876,508       32       450,792       (17,116     15       18,617       1,893  

Issuance of stock – employee stock purchase plan

    3,181       303,989       —         3,181       —         —         —         —    

Issuance of stock – 401(k) plan

    8,581       702,391       1       8,580       —         —         —         —    

Exercise of stock options

    261       37,558       —         261       —         —         —         —    

Issuance/(cancellation) of non-vested stock

    —         493,524       —         —         —         —         —         —    

Non-cash compensation

    6,519       —         —         6,519       —         —         —         —    

Tax deficit from stock options exercised and restricted stock vesting

    (2,152     —         —         (2,152     —         —         —         —    

Surrendered shares

    (1,060     —         —         —         (1,060     —         —         —    

Acquired noncontrolling interests

    145       —         —         —         —         —         —         145  

Noncontrolling interest distribution

    (163     —         —         —         —         —         —         (163

Assets contributed to equity investment

    709       —         —         709       —         —         —         —    

Net loss

    (97,775     —         —         —         —         —         (96,178     (1,597
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance, December 31, 2013

    372,479       33,413,970       33       467,890       (18,176     15       (77,561     278  

Issuance of stock – employee stock purchase plan

    2,433       176,796       —         2,433       —         —         —         —    

Issuance of stock – 401(k) plan

    7,062       430,919       1       7,061       —         —         —         —    

Exercise of stock options

    564       28,229       —         564       —         —         —         —    

Issuance/(cancellation) of non-vested stock

    —         519,612       1       (1     —         —         —         —    

Non-cash compensation

    5,597       —         —         5,597       —         —         —         —    

Tax deficit from stock options exercised and restricted stock vesting

    (579     —         —         (579     —         —         —         —    

Surrendered shares

    (1,684     —         —         —         (1,684     —         —         —    

Sale of noncontrolling interest

    (1,549     —         —         (493     —         —         —         (1,056

Decrease in noncontrolling interest

    350       —         —         (710     —         —         —         1,060  

Net income

    13,089       —         —         —         —         —         12,776       313  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance, December 31, 2014

    397,762       34,569,526       35       481,762       (19,860     15       (64,785     595  

Issuance of stock – employee stock purchase plan

    2,204       79,323       —         2,204       —         —         —         —    

Issuance of stock – 401(k) plan

    6,032       184,412       —         6,032       —         —         —         —    

Exercise of stock options

    399       15,380       —         399       —         —         —         —    

Issuance/(cancellation) of non-vested stock

    —         (61,675     —         —         —         —         —         —    

Non-cash compensation

    11,824       —         —         11,824       —         —         —         —    

Tax benefit from stock options exercised and restricted stock vesting

    2,073       —         —         2,073       —         —         —         —    

Tax deficit from stock options exercised and restricted stock vesting

    (4     —         —         (4     —         —         —         —    

Surrendered shares

    (2,525     —         —         —         (2,525     —         —         —    

Shares repurchased

    (4,581     —         —         —         (4,581     —         —         —    

Noncontrolling interest distribution

    (436     —         —         —         —         —         —         (436

Net loss

    (2,312     —         —         —         —         —         (3,021     709  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance, December 31, 2015

  $ 410,436       34,786,966     $ 35     $ 504,290     $ (26,966   $ 15     $ (67,806   $ 868  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

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AMEDISYS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(Amounts in thousands)

 

     For the Years Ended December 31,  
         2015             2014             2013      

Cash Flows from Operating Activities:

      

Net (loss) income

   $ (2,312   $ 13,089     $ (97,775

Adjustments to reconcile net (loss) income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:

      

Depreciation and amortization

     20,036       28,347       37,383  

Provision for doubtful accounts

     14,053       16,369       16,461  

Non-cash compensation

     11,824       5,597       6,519  

401(k) employer match

     6,089       6,216       7,998  

Loss on disposal of property and equipment

     775       4,592       2,742  

Gain on sale of care centers

     (184     (2,967     (1,752

Deferred income taxes

     (677     22,561       (57,095

Write off of deferred debt issuance costs/debt discount

     2,512       488       121  

Equity in earnings from equity method investments

     (9,823     (2,991     (1,520

Amortization of deferred debt issuance costs/debt discount

     959       797       699  

Return on equity investment

     5,610       2,025       1,650  

Asset impairment charge

     77,268       3,107       9,492  

Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of impact of acquisitions:

      

Patient accounts receivable

     (36,493     (5,290     41,578  

Other current assets

     6,455       (6,269     (501

Other assets

     (3,523     1,694       (1,596

Accounts payable

     7,639       (3,168     (9,876

U.S. Department of Justice settlement

     —         (150,000     150,000  

Accrued expenses

     8,406       3,495       (6,104

Other long-term obligations

     (829     (3,226     3,839  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

     107,785       (65,534     102,263  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash Flows from Investing Activities:

      

Proceeds from sale of deferred compensation plan assets

     1,229       11       128  

Proceeds from the sale of property and equipment

     20,000       3       1,809  

Purchases of deferred compensation plan assets

     (19     (132     (111

Purchases of property and equipment

     (21,429     (12,008     (41,736

Purchase of investments

     (3,485     (6,407     (10,067

Proceeds from sale of investment

     5,000       —         —    

Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired

     (69,130     —         (1,627

Proceeds from disposition of care centers

     413       4,233       5,146  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash used in investing activities

     (67,421     (14,300     (46,458
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash Flows from Financing Activities:

      

Proceeds from issuance of stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants

     399       564       261  

Proceeds from issuance of stock to employee stock purchase plan

     2,204       2,433       3,181  

Tax benefit from stock options exercised and restricted stock vesting

     2,073       —         57  

Non-controlling interest distribution

     (436     —         (163

Proceeds from revolving line of credit

     63,400       241,800       25,500  

Repayments of revolving line of credit

     (78,400     (226,800     (25,500

Proceeds from issuance of long-term obligations

     100,000       68,250       —    

Debt issuance costs

     (2,553     (1,780     (576

Principal payments of long-term obligations

     (103,000     (13,904     (55,807

Purchase of company stock

     (4,581     —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

     (20,894     70,563       (53,047
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

     19,470       (9,271     2,758  

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

     8,032       17,303       14,545  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

   $ 27,502     $ 8,032     $ 17,303  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Supplemental Disclosures of Cash Flow Information:

      

Cash paid for interest

   $ 6,175     $ 7,602     $ 3,990  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds received

   $ (12,185   $ (1,766   $ 3,385  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Supplemental Disclosures of Non-Cash Financing and Investing Activities:

      

(Sale) acquisition of non-controlling interests

   $ —       $ (1,549   $ 145  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

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AMEDISYS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

December 31, 2015

1. NATURE OF OPERATIONS, CONSOLIDATION AND PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Amedisys, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries (“Amedisys,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) are a multi-state provider of home health and hospice services with approximately 80%, 82% and 84% of our revenue derived from Medicare for 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. As of December 31, 2015, we owned and operated 329 Medicare-certified home health care centers and 79 Medicare-certified hospice care centers in 34 states within the United States and the District of Columbia.

Use of Estimates

Our accounting and reporting policies conform with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”). In preparing the consolidated financial statements, we are required to make estimates and assumptions that impact the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could materially differ from those estimates.

Reclassifications and Comparability

Certain reclassifications have been made to prior periods’ financial statements in order to conform to the current period’s presentation. Our exit activity during the last three years may affect the comparability of our operating results. In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, the results of operations for the care centers closed, sold or classified as held for sale during 2013 are presented in discontinued operations in our consolidated financial statements. See Note 4 – Discontinued Operations and Assets Held for Sale for additional information regarding our discontinued operations.

Principles of Consolidation

These consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Amedisys, Inc., and our wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in our accompanying consolidated financial statements, and business combinations accounted for as purchases have been included in our consolidated financial statements from their respective dates of acquisition. In addition to our wholly owned subsidiaries, we also have certain equity investments that are accounted for as set forth below.

Equity Investments

We consolidate investments when the entity is a variable interest entity and we are the primary beneficiary or if we have controlling interests in the entity, which is generally ownership in excess of 50%. During 2013, we recorded a $1.3 million goodwill impairment charge related to an investment that was consolidated. Third party equity interests in our consolidated joint ventures are reflected as noncontrolling interests in our consolidated financial statements.

We account for investments in entities in which we have the ability to exercise significant influence under the equity method if we hold 50% or less of the voting stock and the entity is not a variable interest entity in which we are the primary beneficiary. The book value of investments that we accounted for under the equity method of accounting was $25.7 million as of December 31, 2015 and $18.8 million as of December 31, 2014. During 2015, our investment in the Heritage Healthcare Innovation Fund, LP (“Heritage”), one of our equity method investees with a carrying value of $19.9 million as of December 31, 2015, became a significant subsidiary. Summarized financial information of Heritage as of and for the twelve-month period ended September 30, 2015, is as follows: current assets of $3.5 million, total assets of $170.4 million, current and total liabilities of less than $0.1 million, total investment income of $72.5 million, total expenses of $3.5 million and net increase in partners’ capital from operations of $69.0 million. We record our share of the investment on a one quarter lag.

 

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AMEDISYS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)

December 31, 2015

 

We account for investments in entities in which we have less than a 20% ownership interest under the cost method of accounting if we do not have the ability to exercise significant influence over the investee. The aggregate carrying amount of our cost method investment which was sold during 2015 was $5.0 million as of December 31, 2014.

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Revenue Recognition

We earn net service revenue through our home health and hospice care centers by providing a variety of services almost exclusively in the homes of our patients. This net service revenue is earned and billed either on an episode of care basis, on a per visit basis or on a daily basis depending upon the payment terms and conditions established with each payor for services provided. We refer to home health revenue earned and billed on a 60-day episode of care as episodic-based revenue.

When we record our service revenue, we record it net of estimated revenue adjustments and contractual adjustments to reflect amounts we estimate to be realizable for services provided, as discussed below. We believe, based on information currently available to us and based on our judgment, that changes to one or more factors that impact the accounting estimates (such as our estimates related to revenue adjustments, contractual adjustments and episodes in progress) we make in determining net service revenue, which changes are likely to occur from period to period, will not materially impact our reported consolidated financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or our future financial results.

Home Health Revenue Recognition

Medicare Revenue

Net service revenue is recorded under the Medicare prospective payment system (“PPS”) based on a 60-day episode payment rate that is subject to adjustment based on certain variables including, but not limited to: (a) an outlier payment if our patient’s care was unusually costly (capped at 10% of total reimbursement per provider number); (b) a low utilization payment adjustment (“LUPA”) if the number of visits was fewer than five; (c) a partial payment if our patient transferred to another provider or we received a patient from another provider before completing the episode; (d) a payment adjustment based upon the level of therapy services required (with various incremental adjustments made for additional visits, with larger payment increases associated with the sixth, fourteenth and twentieth visit thresholds); (e) adjustments to payments if we are unable to perform periodic therapy assessments; (f) the number of episodes of care provided to a patient, regardless of whether the same home health provider provided care for the entire series of episodes; (g) changes in the base episode payments established by the Medicare Program; (h) adjustments to the base episode payments for case mix and geographic wages; and (i) recoveries of overpayments. In addition, we make adjustments to Medicare revenue if we find that we are unable to produce appropriate documentation of a face to face encounter between the patient and physician.

We make adjustments to Medicare revenue to reflect differences between estimated and actual payment amounts, our discovered inability to obtain appropriate billing documentation or authorizations and other reasons unrelated to credit risk. We estimate the impact of such adjustments based on our historical experience, which primarily includes a historical collection rate of over 99% on Medicare claims, and record this estimate during the period in which services are rendered as an estimated revenue adjustment and a corresponding reduction to patient accounts receivable. Therefore, we believe that our reported net service revenue and patient accounts receivable will be the net amounts to be realized from Medicare for services rendered.

 

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AMEDISYS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS—(Continued)

December 31, 2015

 

In addition to revenue recognized on completed episodes, we also recognize a portion of revenue associated with episodes in progress. Episodes in progress are 60-day episodes of care that begin during the reporting period, but were not completed as of the end of the period. We estimate this revenue on a monthly basis based upon historical trends. The primary factors underlying this estimate are the number of episodes in progress at the end of the reporting period, expected Medicare revenue per episode and our estimate of the average percentage complete based on visits performed. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the difference between the cash received from Medicare for a request for anticipated payment (“RAP”) on episodes in progress and the associated estimated revenue was immaterial and, therefore, the resulting credits were recorded as a reduction to our outstanding patient accounts receivable in our consolidated balance sheets for such periods.

Non-Medicare Revenue

Episodic-based Revenue. We recognize revenue in a similar manner as we recognize Medicare revenue for episodic-based rates that are paid by other insurance carriers, including Medicare Advantage programs; however, these rates can vary based upon the negotiated terms.

Non-episodic based Revenue. Gross revenue is recorded on an accrual basis based upon the date of service at amounts equal to our established or estimated per-visit rates, as applicable. Contractual adjustments are recorded for the difference between our standard rates and the contracted rates to be realized from patients, third parties and others for services provided and are deducted from gross revenue to determine net service revenue and are also recorded as a reduction to our outstanding patient accounts receivable. In addition, we receive a minimal amount of our net service revenue from patients who are either self-insured or are obligated for an insurance co-payment.

Hospice Revenue Recognition

Hospice Medicare Revenue

Gross revenue is recorded on an accrual basis based upon the date of service at amounts equal to the estimated payment rates. The estimated payment rates are daily or hourly rates for each of the four levels of care we deliver. The four levels of care are routine care, general inpatient care, continuous home care and respite care. Routine care accounts for 99%, 98%, and 99% of our total net Medicare hospice service revenue for 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. We make adjustments to Medicare revenue for an inability to obtain appropriate billing documentation or acceptable authorizations and other reasons unrelated to credit risk. We estimate the impact of these adjustments based on our historical experience, which primarily includes our historical collection rate on Medicare claims, and record it during the period services are rendered as an estimated revenue adjustment and as a reduction to our outstanding patient accounts receivable.

Additionally, as Medicare hospice revenue is subject to an inpatient cap limit and an overall payment cap for each provider number, we monitor these caps and estimate amounts due back to Medicare if we estimate a cap has been exceeded. We record these adjustments as a reduction to revenue and an increase in other accrued liabilities. Beginning for the cap year ending October 31, 2014, providers are required to self-report and pay their estimated cap liability by March 31st of the following year. As of December 31, 2015, we have settled our Medicare hospice reimbursements for all fiscal years through October 31, 2012 and we have recorded $1.4 million for estimated amounts due back to Medicare in other accrued liabilities for the Federal cap years ended October 31, 2013 through October 31, 2016. As of December 31, 2014, we had r